CIS009-2, Mechatronics Control Systems David Goodwin 15

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CIS009-2, Mechatronics
Control Systems
David Goodwin
Department of Computer Science and Technology
University of Bedfordshire
15th November 2012
Outline
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
1 Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
2 System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
3 Matlab & Octave
4 Resources
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
3
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
Control systems
Control system principles
Block Diagrams
Mechatronics
ˆ Electronic systems and circuits are often represented by block
David Goodwin
Control systems
diagrams.
4
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
ˆ Shorthand pictorial representation of the cause-and-effect
relationship between the input and output in a real system.
ˆ Characterise functional relationships between components.
ˆ Not necessary to understand the functional details of a block
to manipulate a block diagram.
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Disturbances
r
e
−
Controller
u
System
ym
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Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
Measurements
y
Block Digram Basics
Transfer function
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
5
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
ˆ The basic building block of a control system block diagram.
ˆ The transfer function block represents a portion of the system
- plant, sensor, controller, or pre-filter.
Y (s)
X(s)
ˆ G(s) must be a Linear Time-Invariant System (output does
not depend explicitly on time).
ˆ G(s) is property of the system independent of the input to
that system.
ˆ G(s) =
Block Digram Basics
Summing junction
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
6
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
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Computer Science and
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University of
Bedfordshire
31
ˆ A summing junction is represented by a circle.
ˆ The input signals are signed (can be + or -) and the sign with
which they are added to the output is displayed on the signal
line leading to the junction.
ˆ C = A + (−B)
ˆ A is a signed input, B is a signed input, and C is the output.
Block Digram Basics
Cascade blocks
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
7
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
ˆ The 2 blocks in series (also known as cascade blocks) can be
combined (multiplication) into a single block as long as there
is nothing between them.
ˆ The way these two blocks were combined is only valid for
SISO (single input single output) systems.
Block Digram Basics
Parallel blocks
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
8
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
ˆ The 2 blocks in parallel can be combined (added) into a
single block as long as there is nothing between them.
Open-loop control
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
9
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
r
Controller
u
y
Plant
Open-loop control
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
r
Control systems
Open-loop control
K
u
y
G
10
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
ˆ Then the resulting Loop Transfer Function can be found by
inspection:
y
= GK
r
ˆ The Open-Loop Transfer Function is GK which appears to be
backwards given that the blocks appeared as KG when the
system is read left to right.
ˆ Open-loop transfer function =
ˆ For SISO systems the order is arbitrary. However, for MIMO
systems this backwards order must be maintained.
ˆ This is because the system is represented with matrices and
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31
in Linear Algebra (matrix math) the order of execution is vital
- there is no Commutative property for matrix multiplication.
Closed-loop control
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
11
Example
Disturbances
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
r
e
−
Controller
u
ud
ym
Sensor
Department of
Computer Science and
Technology
University of
Bedfordshire
31
y
Plant
Closed-loop control
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Disturbances
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
12
Example
System Responses
r
e
−
K
u
ud
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
ym
Resources
H
ˆ The Closed Loop Transfer Function is
ˆ y = GKe = GK(r − ym )
ˆ where ym = Hy
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y
G
Closed-loop control
Mechatronics
Disturbances
David Goodwin
Control systems
r
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
13
e
−
K
u
y
ud
G
Example
System Responses
ym
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
H
Resources
y =GK(r − Hy)
=GKr − GKHy
y + GKHy =GKr
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(1 + GKH)y =GKr
y
GK
Closed-loop Tansfer Function = =
r (1 + GKH)
Closed-loop control
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
14
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Closed-loop Tansfer Function =
y
GK
=
r
(1 + GKH)
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
ˆ The numerator is the forward (open-loop) gain from r to y.
ˆ The denominator is one plus the gain in going around the
feedback loop, the so-called loop gain.
ˆ If |GK| 1, and if |H| ≈ 1, then y is approximately equal to
r and the output closely tracks the reference input.
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An example of Closed-loop systems control
Disk drive read system
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
15
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
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31
An example of Closed-loop systems control
Disk drive read system
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
ˆ A hard disk uses round, flat disks called platters, coated on
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
16
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
both sides with a special media material designed to store
information in the form of magnetic patterns.
ˆ The platters rotate at high speed, driven by a special spindle
motor connected to the spindle.
ˆ Special electromagnetic read/write devices called heads are
mounted onto sliders and used to either record information
onto the disk or read information from it.
ˆ The sliders are mounted onto arms, all of which are
mechanically connected into a single assembly and positioned
over the surface of the disk by a device called an actuator.
ˆ A logic board controls the activity of the other components
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and communicates with the rest of the computer.
An example of Closed-loop systems control
Disk drive read system
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
ˆ We can model the system as a closed-loop control system
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
17
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Desired head
position e
−
Actual head
position
Actuator
& read arm
Control
device
Sensor
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31
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
18
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
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University of
Bedfordshire
31
System Responses
System Responses
Controllers
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
ˆ To satisfy our design criteria we might need to apply feedback
Control systems
Open-loop control
to our open loop system.
Closed-loop control
ˆ Engineers use basically four techniques to achieve this. These
Example
System Responses
19
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
techniques are::
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
PID
Root-locus
Frequency response
State space
ˆ Controllers are not magic. It should not be assumed that
every system can be controlled or that desired performance
can be achieved for any given system if only the correct
controller were employed. Proper system design is always
required.
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PID controller
A generic controller
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
ˆ A Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID controller)
Control systems
Open-loop control
is a generic controller widely used in industrial control
systems.
Closed-loop control
Example
ˆ The PID control equation involves three separate parameters;
System Responses
PID controller
20
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
Proportional term - responds instaneously to the current
error (providing instaneous response)
Integral term - responds to the accumulation of errors
(providing a slow response that drives the
steady-state error towards 0)
Derivative term - responds to the rate at which the error is
changing (providing some anticipatory
response)
ˆ Their respective weighting determines the controls response.
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University of
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31
PID controller
A generic controller
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
P
Control systems
kp e(t)
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
e(t)
System Responses
PID controller
21
I
ki
R
e(t)dt
Step Response
+ +
+
Matlab & Octave
Resources
D
kd e(t)
dt
ˆ PID control combines proportional control, integral control,
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and derivative control in parallel.
Z
e(t)
K = kp e(t) + ki e(t)dt + kd
dt
PID controller
Schematic with Op Amps
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
22
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
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Step Response
A test for system stability
Mechatronics
ˆ Step response is the time behaviour of the outputs of a
David Goodwin
general system when its inputs change from zero to one in a
very short time.
Control systems
Open-loop control
ˆ knowing how the system responds to a sudden input is
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
23
Matlab & Octave
Resources
important because large and possibly fast deviations from the
long term steady state may have extreme effects on the
component itself.
ˆ The overall system cannot act until the component’s output
settles down to some vicinity of its final state, delaying the
overall system response.
ˆ Knowing the step response of a dynamical system gives
information on the stability of such a system, and on its ability
to reach one stationary state when starting from another.
ˆ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNZPRsrwumQ shows a
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good example of a step response (around 35 second into the
video when the robot is kicked from the side).
Step Response
A test for system stability
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
ˆ The step response can be described by the following
Control systems
quantities related to its time behavior:
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
24
Matlab & Octave
Resources
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Overshoot - refers to an output exceeding its final,
steady-state value
Rise time - time taken by a signal to change from a
specified low value to a specified high value
Settling time - the time required for the response curve to
reach and stay within a range of certain
percentage (usually 5% or 2% - characterised
by the ringing, see below ) of the final value.
Ringing - unwanted oscillation of a signal, closely
related to overshoot, generally occurring
following overshoot. This is characterised by
the steady-state error (S-S error)
Effects on controller parameters
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
ˆ The effects of each of controller parameters, Kp , Kd , and Ki
Closed-loop control
Example
on a closed-loop system are summarized in the table below.
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
25
Matlab & Octave
Resources
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31
K
RESPONSE
RISE
TIME
OVERSHOOT
SETTLING
TIME
S-S
ERROR
Kp
Ki
Kd
Decrease
Decrease
Small Change
Increase
Increase
Decrease
Small Change
Increase
Decrease
Decrease
Eliminate
No Change
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
Matlab & Octave
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
26
Resources
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Computer Science and
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MATLAB
with Control System Toolbox
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
ˆ Numerical computation, visualization, and programming.
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
ˆ Analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and
Example
applications.
System Responses
ˆ The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
27
Resources
to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster
than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages,
such as C/C++ or Java.
ˆ Control System Toolbox provides industry-standard
algorithms and tools for systematically analyzing, designing,
and tuning linear control systems.
ˆ Transfer function, state-space, pole-zero-gain, or
frequency-response model.
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GNU Octave
compatible with MATLAB
Mechatronics
ˆ GNU Octave is a high-level language for numerical
David Goodwin
computations.
Control systems
ˆ Language is mostly compatible with MATLAB.
ˆ As part of the GNU Project, it is free software under the
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).
System Responses
PID controller
ˆ The Octave language is an interpreted programming
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
28
Resources
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
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31
ˆ
language. It is a structured programming language (similar to
C) and supports many common C standard library functions,
and also certain UNIX system calls and functions.
Octave programs consist of a list of function calls or a script.
The syntax is matrix-based and provides various functions for
matrix operations. It supports various data structures and
allows object-oriented programming.
Syntax is very similar to MATLAB, and careful programming
of a script will allow it to run on both Octave and MATLAB.
Can be used together with QtOctave to gave a MATLAB-like
IDE.
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
Resources
System Responses
PID controller
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
29
Department of
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University of
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31
Resources
Useful literature
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
Control systems
ˆ R. Manchini (2002) - Op Amps for everyone:
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slod006b/slod006b.pdf
Example
ˆ ControlTheoryPro.com (2012) - http://wikis.
System Responses
PID controller
controltheorypro.com/index.php?title=Main_Page
Step Response
ˆ Op Amp PID controller scematics - http://www.
Matlab & Octave
Resources
30
ecircuitcenter.com/Circuits/op_pid/op_pid.htm
ˆ MATLAB community
http://www.mathworks.co.uk/matlabcentral/ including
forums, file exchange, and full documentation on syntax
(http://www.mathworks.co.uk/help/matlab/)
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GNU Octave
Setup instructions for windows
Mechatronics
David Goodwin
ˆ Download Octave from
Control systems
http://octave.en.softonic.com/download and run the
exe, then follow the instructions from the wizard.
Open-loop control
Closed-loop control
Example
ˆ Download qtoctave, I got mine from
System Responses
PID controller
http://www.outsch.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/
qtoctave-0.10.1-win32.zip
Step Response
Matlab & Octave
Resources
31
ˆ Open qtocatve, select config; general configuration from the
drop down menu at the top of the window, then select the
octave menu
ˆ In the octave path click select, then navigate to where you
installed octave then select the octave.exe in the bin folder
ˆ Create a working directory, where ocatve will search for your
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.m files to run (this is important)

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