APPENDIX III Essential Fish Habitat descriptions for the Mariana

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Essential Fish Habitat Descriptions for Western Pacific
Archipelagic and Remote Island Areas Fishery Ecosystem Plan
Management Unit Species
(Crustacean, Bottomfish, Precious Coral, Coral Reef Ecosystem)
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
1164 Bishop Street, Suite 1400
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
December 1, 2005
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Essential Fish Habitat Descriptions for Western Pacific Archipelagic and Remote
Island Areas Fishery Ecosystem Plan Management Unit Species
(Crustacean, Bottomfish, Precious Coral and Coral Reef Ecosystem Species)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.1.1 Surgeonfish (Acanthuridae) ..................................................................................... 137
4.1.2 Triggerfish (Balistidae) ............................................................................................ 138
4.1.3 Big Eye Scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) and Mackerel Scad (Decapterus
macarellus) ....................................................................................................................... 140
4.1.4 Gray Reef Shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos; Carcharhinidae) ......................... 140
4.1.5 Soldierfish/Squirrelfish (Holocentridae) .................................................................. 141
4.1.6 Flag-tails (Kuhliidae) ............................................................................................... 142
4.1.7 Rudderfishes (Kyphosidae) ...................................................................................... 142
4.1.8 Wrasses (Labridae) .................................................................................................. 143
4.1.9 Napoleon Wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) ................................................................. 145
4.1.11 Mullets (Mugilidae) ............................................................................................... 147
4.1.12 Moray Eels (Muraenidae) ...................................................................................... 148
4.1.13 Octopuses (Octopodidae) ....................................................................................... 149
4.1.14 Threadfins (Polynemidae) ...................................................................................... 150
4.1.15 Bigeyes (Priacanthidae) ......................................................................................... 151
4.1.16 Parrotfishes (Scaridae) ........................................................................................... 152
4.1.17 Bumphead Parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) ................................................ 153
4.1.18 Rabbitfish (Siganidae) ........................................................................................... 153
4.1.19 Barracudas (Sphyraenidae) .................................................................................... 155
4.1.20 Turban Shells/Green Snail (Turbinidae) ................................................................ 155
4.1.21 Aquarium Taxa/Species Habitat ............................................................................ 156
4.1.21.1 Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) ......................................................................... 157
4.1.21.2 Moorish Idol (Zanclus cornutus; Zancildae) .................................................. 158
4.1.21.3 Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae) ......................................................................... 158
4.1.21.4 Dragon Moray (Enchelycore pardalis; Muraenidae) ...................................... 158
4.1.21.5 Hawkfishes (Cirrhitidae) ................................................................................. 159
4.1.21.6 Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) .................................................................... 160
4.1.21.7 Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)........................................................................ 160
4.1.21.8 Turkeyfishes (Scorpaenidae) .......................................................................... 161
4.1.21.9 Feather-duster Worms (Sabellidae) ................................................................ 162
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 162
4.2.1 EFH for Management Unit Species B Fish ............................................................... 168
4.2.1.1 Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes) ........................................................................... 168
4.2.1.2 Carcharhinidae, Sphyrnidae, Triaenodon obesus (sharks) ............................... 177
4.2.1.3 Dasyatididae, Myliobatidae, Mobulidae (rays) ................................................. 182
4.2.1.4 Chlopsidae, Congridae, Moringuidae, Ophichthidae (eels) .............................. 184
4.2.1.5 Engraulidae (anchovies).................................................................................... 188
4.2.1.6 Clupeidae (herrings).......................................................................................... 191
4.2.1.7 Antennariidae (frogfishes) ................................................................................ 193
4.2.1.8 Anomalopidae (flashlightfish) .......................................................................... 196
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4.2.1.9 Holocentridae (soldierfishes/squirrelfishes) ..................................................... 198
4.2.1.10 Aulostomidae (trumpetfishes) ......................................................................... 201
4.2.1.11 Fistularidae (cornetfish) .................................................................................. 203
4.2.1.12 Syngnathidae (pipefishes/seahorses) .............................................................. 205
4.2.1.13 Caracanthidae (coral crouchers) ..................................................................... 207
4.2.1.14 Tetrarogidae (waspfish) .................................................................................. 209
4.2.1.15 Scorpaenidae (scorpionfishes) ........................................................................ 211
4.2.1.16 Serranidae (groupers) ...................................................................................... 214
4.2.1.17 Grammistidae (soapfish) ................................................................................. 219
4.2.1.18 Plesiopidae (prettyfins) ................................................................................... 221
4.2.1.19 Pseudochromidae (dottybacks) ....................................................................... 223
4.2.1.20 Acanthoclinidae (spiny basslets)..................................................................... 225
4.2.1.21 Cirrhitidae (hawkfish) ..................................................................................... 227
4.2.1.22 Apogonidae (cardinalfishes) ........................................................................... 229
4.2.1.23 Priacanthidae (bigeyes) ................................................................................... 232
4.2.1.24 Malacanthidae (tilefishes) ............................................................................... 234
4.2.1.25 Echineididae (remoras) ................................................................................... 236
4.2.1.26 Carangidae (jacks, papio, ulua) ...................................................................... 238
4.2.1.27 Decapterus/Selar (scads, opelu, akule) ........................................................... 242
4.2.1.28 Caesionidae (fusiliers) .................................................................................... 244
4.2.1.29 Haemulidae (sweetlips) ................................................................................... 246
4.2.1.30 Lethrinidae (emperors).................................................................................... 249
4.2.1.31 Lutjanidae (snappers) ...................................................................................... 251
4.2.1.32 Mullidae (goatfishes) ...................................................................................... 254
4.2.1.33 Kyphosidae (rudderfishes) .............................................................................. 257
4.2.1.34 Monodactylidae (monos) ................................................................................ 259
4.2.1.35 Ephippidae (batfishes, spadefishes) ................................................................ 261
4.2.1.36 Chaetodontidae (butterflyfishes) ..................................................................... 263
4.2.1.37 Pomacanthidae (angelfishes) .......................................................................... 266
4.2.1.38 Genicanthus personatus (masked angelfish) .................................................. 269
4.2.1.39 Pomacentridae (damselfishes) ........................................................................ 272
4.2.1.40 Labridae (wrasses) .......................................................................................... 275
4.2.1.41 Cheilinus undulatus (humphead wrasse) ........................................................ 283
4.2.1.42 Scaridae (parrotfishes) .................................................................................... 286
4.2.1.43 Bolbometopon muricatum (bumphead parrotfish) .......................................... 290
4.2.1.44 Polynemidae (threadfins) ................................................................................ 292
4.2.1.45 Sphyraenidae (barracudas) .............................................................................. 295
4.2.1.46 Pinguipedidae (sandperches) .......................................................................... 298
4.2.1.47 Blenniidae (blennies) ...................................................................................... 300
4.2.1.48 Gobiidae (gobies) ............................................................................................ 303
4.2.1.49 Zebrasoma flavescens (yellow tang) ............................................................... 307
4.2.1.50 Zanclidae (Moorish idol) ................................................................................ 309
4.2.1.51 Siganidae (rabbitfishes) .................................................................................. 311
4.2.1.52 Gymnosarda unicolor (dogtooth tuna)............................................................ 314
4.2.1.53 Bothidae/Soleidae/Pleuronectidae (flounder and soles) ................................. 317
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4.2.1.54 Balistidae/Monocanthidae (triggerfishes/filefishes) ....................................... 320
4.2.1.55 Ostraciidae (trunkfish) .................................................................................... 323
4.2.1.56 Tetradontidae/Diodontidae (puffers/porcupinefishes) .................................... 326
4.2.2 EFH for Management Unit Species B Invertebrates ................................................. 329
4.2.2.1 Cephalopods ...................................................................................................... 329
4.2.2.2 Tunicates ........................................................................................................... 332
4.2.2.3 Bryozoans ......................................................................................................... 337
4.2.2.4 Crustaceans ....................................................................................................... 342
4.2.2.5 Bibliography .................................................................................................... 361
4.2.3 EFH for Management Unit Species B Sessile Benthos............................................. 367
4.2.3.1 Algae ................................................................................................................. 369
4.2.3.2 Porifera (sponges) ............................................................................................. 425
4.2.3.3 Millepora sp. (Linnaeus, 1758) (stinging or fire coral) .................................... 437
4.2.3.4 Stylasteridae (Gray, 1847) (Stylasterines; lace corals) ..................................... 439
4.2.3.5 Solanderidae (Gray) (hydroid fans) .................................................................. 441
4.2.3.6 Scleractinia (stony corals) ................................................................................. 443
4.2.3.7 Fungiidae (Dana, 1846) (mushroom corals) ..................................................... 455
4.2.3.8 Ahermatypic Corals (Azooxanthellate) ............................................................ 484
4.2.3.9 Actiniaria (anemones) ....................................................................................... 487
4.2.3.11 Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); Order Alcyonacea; Suborder Alcyoniina
(soft corals) ................................................................................................................... 499
4.2.3.12 Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); Order Alcyonacea; Suborder Scleraxonia;
Holoaxonia (gorgonian corals, sea fans and sea whips) ............................................... 504
4.2.3.13 Heliopora coerulea (DeBlainville, 1830) (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia) (blue
coral) ............................................................................................................................. 507
4.2.3.14 Tubipora Musica (Linnaeus, 1758) (organ-pipe coral or star polyps) ............ 510
1. CRUSTACEAN SPECIES
This section is divided up between spiny lobster, slipper lobster, and Kona crab in Hawaii
and spiny lobster in the other islands of the Western Pacific Region. This is because the
only significant fisheries for crustaceans, primarily spiny lobsters and slipper lobsters, are
found in Hawaii. Moreover, these fisheries use traps, which are not used extensively for
crustaceans outside of Hawaii, and which are used in Hawaii to target other crustaceans
such as Kona crab and white crabs. Moreover, while other spiny lobsters are widespread
in the Pacific Islands and the US Western Pacific Region, the target of the lobster fishery
in Hawaii, Panulirus marginatus, is found only in Hawaii, Johnson Island and Wake
Island. Further, a major component of the Hawaii lobster fishery is the slipper lobster
Scyllarides squammosus. Slipper lobsters, which are not targeted to any extent by other
fisheries in the Western Pacific, may be taken opportunistically by divers.
Throughout the other Pacific Islands, including American Samoa, Mariana Islands and the
Pacific Remote Islands, the most common spiny lobster found on rocky and coral reefs,
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apart from Hawaii, is Panulirus penicillatus, while other species such as P. versicolor,
P.ornatus and P.longipes have also been observed, but are much less common.
1.1 Hawaii
1.1.1 Habitat
Adult spiny lobsters are typically found on rocky substrate in well protected areas, in
crevices and under rocks (Pitcher 1993, FAO 1991). Spiny lobsters found in Hawaii
include both Panulirus marginatus and P. penicillatus. However, most fishing for lobsters
in Hawaii is targeted at P. marginatus and the slipper lobster Scyllarides squammosus,
and these species are the focus of this review. An extensive review of the EFH for P.
penicillatus is included in the FEPs for Mariana Islands, American Samoa and the PRIAs.
Unlike many other species of Panulirus, the juveniles and adults of P. marginatus are not
found in separate habitat apart from one another (MacDonald and Stimson 1980, Pitcher
1993, Parrish and Polovina 1994). Juvenile P. marginatus recruit directly to adult habitat;
they do not utilize separate shallow water nursery habitat apart from the adults as do many
Palinurid lobsters (MacDonald and Stimson 1980, Parrish and Polovina 1994). Juvenile
and adult P. marginatus do utilize shelter differently from one another (MacDonald and
Stimson 1980). Similarly, juvenile and adult P. pencillatus also share the same habitat
(Pitcher 1993).
In the NWHI, P. marginatus is found seaward of the reefs and within the lagoons and
atolls of the islands (WPRFMC 1983). Uchida (1986) reports that P. penicillatus rarely
occurs in the commercial catches of the NWHI lobster fishery. In the NWHI, P.
pencillatus is found inhabiting shallow waters (<18 m) (Uchida and Tagami 1984).
In the NWHI, the relative proportion of slipper lobsters to spiny lobsters varies between
banks; several banks produce relatively higher catch rates of slipper lobster than total
spiny lobster (Uchida 1986; *Clarke et al. 1987, WPRFMC 1986). The slipper lobster is
taken in deeper waters than the spiny lobster (Clarke et al., 1987, WPRFMC 1986).
Uchida (1986) reports that the highest catch rates for slipper lobster in the NWHI occur
between the depths of 20B55 m.
Pitcher (1993) observes that, in the southwestern Pacific, spiny lobsters are typically
found in association with coral reefs. Coral reefs provide shelter as well as a diverse and
abundant supply of food items, he notes. Pitcher also states that in this region, P.
pencillatus inhabits the rocky shelters in the windward surf zones of oceanic reefs, an
observation also noted by Kanciruk (1980). Other species of Panulirus show more general
patterns of habitat utilization, Pitcher continues. At night, P. penicillatus moves on to reef
flat to forage, Pitcher continues. Spiny lobsters are nocturnal predators (FAO 1991).
1.1.2 Morphology
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Spiny lobsters are non-clawed, decapod crustaceans with slender walking legs of roughly
equal size (Uchida 1986, FAO 1991). Spiny lobster have a large spiny carapace with two
horns and antennae projecting forward of their eyes and a large abdomen terminating in a
flexible tailfan (FAO 1991).
Uchida (1986) provides a detailed description of the morphology of the slipper lobsterv
Scyllarides squammosus and S. haanii. He notes that the two species are very similar in
appearance and are easily confused (Uchida 1986). The appearance of the slipper lobster
is notably different than that of the spiny lobster.
1.1.3 Reproduction
Spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) are dioecious (Uchida 1986). Generally, the different
species of the genus Panulirus have the same reproductive behavior and life cycle (Pitcher
1993). The male spiny lobster deposits a spermatophore or sperm packet on the female=s
abdomen (WPRFMC 1983, Uchida 1986). In Panulirus sp., the fertilization of the eggs
occurs externally (Uchida 1986a). The female lobster scratches and breaks the mass,
releasing the spermatozoa (WPRFMC 1983). Simultaneously, ova are released for the
female=s oviduct and are then fertilized and attach to the setae of the female=s pleopod
(WPRFMC 1983, Pitcher 1993). At this point the female lobster is ovigerous, or [email protected]
(WPRFMC 1983). The fertilized eggs hatch into phyllosoma larvae after 30B40 days
(MacDonald 1986, Uchida 1986). Spiny lobsters are very fecund (WPRFMC 1983). The
release of the phyllosoma larvae appears to be timed to coincide with the full moon and
dawn in some species (Pitcher 1993). In Scyllarides sp. fertilization is internal (Uchida
1986b).
1.1.4 Larval Stage
Very little is known about the planktonic phase of the phyllosoma larvae of Panulirus
marginatus (Uchida et al. 1980). After hatching, the [email protected] larvae (or phyllosoma)
enter a planktonic phase (WPRFMC 1983). The duration of this planktonic phase varies
depending on the species and geographic region (WPRFMC 1983). The planktonic larval
stage may last from 6 months to 1 year from the time of the hatching of the eggs
(WPRFMC 1983, MacDonald 1986). There are 11 dissimilar morphological stages of
development that the phyllosoma larvae pass through before they transform into the
postlarval puelurus phase (Johnson 1986, MacDonald 1986).
The pelagic phyllosoma stage of development is followed by the puerulus stage. The
puelurus stage lasts 6 months or less (WPRFMC 1983). Spiny lobster pueruli are freeswimming and actively return to shallow, nearshore waters in preparation for settlement
(WPRFMC 1983, MacDonald 1986). Johnston (1973) reports that the phyllosoma phase
of some species of the genera Scyllarides is somewhat shorter. MacDonald and Stimson
(1980) found pelagic, puerulus larvae settlement to occur at approximately 1 cm in length.
MacDonald (1986) found puerulus settlement occurred primarily at the new moon and
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first quarter lunar phase in Hawaii. The settlement of puerulus is higher in the central
portion of the Hawaiian Island chain than what, and it is higher in the NWHI than around
the MHI (MacDonald 1986).
There is a lack of published data pertaining to the preferred depth distribution of
phyllosoma larvae in Hawaii. However, the depth distribution of phyllosoma larvae of
other species of Panulirus common in the Indo-Pacific region has been documented.
Phillips and Sastry (1980) reports that the newly hatched larvae of the western rock
lobster (P. cygnus) is typically found within 60 m of the surface. Later stages of the
phyllosoma larvae are found at depths between 80B120 m. P. cygnus undergoes a diurnal
vertical migration, ascending to the surface at night, descending to lower depths during the
day, the authors add. The authors also note that research has shown that early phyllosoma
larvae display a photopositive reaction to dim light, In the Gulf of Mexico, the depth to
which Panulirus larvae descend is restricted by the depth of the thermocline, Phillips and
Sastry note.
MacDonald (1986) state that after settlement the pueluri molt and transform into postpueruli, a transitional phase between the pelagic phyllosama phase and the juvenile stage.
Yoshimura and Yamakawa (1988) note that very little is known about the habitat
requirements of Palinurid pueruli after settlement occurs. However, Pitcher (1993) states
that the post-pueruli of Panulirus penicillatus has been observed inhabiting the same
Ahigh-energy reef-front [email protected] as adults of the species. Studying the benthic ecology and
habitat utilization of newly settled pueruli and juveniles of the Japanese spiny lobster (P.
japonicus), Yoshimura and Yamakawa (1988) conclude that microhabitats, such as small
holes in rocks and boulders and algae, provide important habitat for the newly settled
pueruli and juvenile lobsters. The Japanese spiny lobster is found inhabiting shallow
waters at depths of 1B15 m on rocky bottom (FAO 1991).
The oceanographic and physiographic features that result in the retention of lobster larvae
within the Hawaiian archipelago are not understood (WPRFMC 1983). Johnston (1968)
suggests that fine-scale oceanographic features, such as eddies and currents, serve to
retain phyllosoma larvae within the Hawaiian Island chain. In the NWHI, puerulus
settlement appears to be linked to the north and southward shifts of the North Pacific
Central Water (NPCW) type (MacDonald 1986). The relatively long pelagic larval phase
for palinurids results in very wide dispersal of spiny lobster larvae; palinurid larvae are
transported up to 2,000 miles by prevailing ocean currents (Johnston 1973, MacDonald
1986).
1.1.5 Life Histories and Habitat Descriptions for Crustacean Species
1.1.5.1 Habitat Description for Hawaiian Spiny Lobster (Panulirus marginatus and
Scyllarides squammosus)
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Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
The Hawaiian spiny lobster, within the Council=s jurisdiction are managed under the FMP
for the Crustaceans of the Western Pacific Region
General Description and Life History
The Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panuliris marginatus) is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands
and Johnston Atoll (Brock 1973, FAO 1991). The relative abundance of P. marginatus at
Johnston Atoll is very low (Brock 1973). The spiny lobster is distributed throughout the
entire NWHI, from Kure Atoll to Nihoa (Uchida 1986a). P. marginatus is the principal
species landed in the NWHI spiny lobster fishery (WPRFMC.1983).The reported depth
distribution of this species in the NWHI is 5B100 fm (WPRFMC 1983). While this species
is found down to depths of 100 fm it usually inhabits shallower waters (FAO 1991).
Uchida and Tagami (1984) report that P. marginatus is most abundant in waters of 90 m
or less. Moffitt (1998, pers. comm.) states that spiny lobster are found in greatest
abundance between the depths of 10B50 fm. At Maro Reef, in the NWHI, large adult
spiny lobsters have been captured at depths as shallow as 10 feet (Moffitt 1998, pers
comm.).
Uchida and Tagami (1984) note that within the NWHI, there is a dramatic shift between
depth and relative abundance. They report that in the vicinity of the northern most islands
and banks relative abundance of spiny lobsters was highest at depths of 19B54 m and that
at the lower end of the chain the highest abundance of spiny lobsters were observed
between 55B73 m. North of Maro Reef the highest relative abundance of spiny lobsters is
found at shallower depths, they continue. They suggest that this variability may be due to
differences in the temperature regime in the NWHI.
P. marginatus is typically found on rocky substrate in well-protected areas such as
crevices and under rocks (FAO 1991). During the day, spiny lobsters are found in dens or
crevices in the company of one or more other lobsters (WPRFMC 1983). MacDonald and
Stimson (1980), studying the population biology of spiny lobsters at Kure Atoll in the
NWHI, found that 57% of the dens examined were inhabited by solitary lobsters. The
remaining 43% were occupied by more than one lobster, with adult and juvenile lobsters
of both sexes often found sharing the same dens. However, the authors note, adult and
juvenile spiny lobsters exhibit distinctly different den occupancy patterns, with juveniles
(less than 6 cm in carapace length) typically in multiple occupancy dens with other
lobsters. Adult and juvenile spiny lobsters are not segregated by geographic area or habitat
type at Kure Atoll, MacDonald and Stimson observe. They found that juvenile spiny
lobsters do not utilize separate nursery habitats apart from the adult lobsters. The larval
spiny lobster puerulus recruits directly to the adult habitat (Parrish and Polovina 1994).
This is in contrast to the juveniles of other species of spiny lobsters that tend to reside in
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shallow water and migrate to deeper, offshore waters as they mature (MacDonald and
Stimson 1980).
There are limited data available concerning growth rates, reproductive potentials and
natural mortality rates at the various life history stages (WPRFMC 1983). The relationship
between egg production, larval settlement, and stock recruitment are poorly understood
(WPRFMC 1983).
Egg and larval distribution
The Hawaiian spiny lobster (P. marginatus) is dioecious (Uchida 1986a). The male spiny
lobster deposits a spermatophore or sperm packet on the female=s abdomen (WPRFMC
1983, Uchida 1986a). In P. marginatus, fertilization of the eggs occurs externally (Uchida
1986a). The female lobster scratches and breaks the mass, releasing the spermatozoa
(WPRFMC 1983). Simultaneously, ova are released for the female=s oviduct, where they
are then fertilized and attach to the setae of the female=s pleopod (WPRFMC 1983). At
this point the female lobster is ovigerous, or [email protected] (WPRFMC 1983). The fertilized
eggs hatch into phyllosoma larvae after 30B40 days (MacDonald 1986, Uchida 1986a).
The spawning season for P. marginatus varies throughout the Hawaiian Island chain
(Uchida 1986a). In the northwestern end of the NWHI spawning occurs primarily during
the early summer months (Uchida et al. 1980, Uchida, 1986a). MacDonald and Stimson
(1980) found ovigerous females at Kure Atoll between the months of May to September.
Uchida et al (1980) found the peak abundance of ovigerous female lobsters at Nihoa,
French Frigate Shoals between late summer and early winter. It is believed that
reproduction is nearly continuous in the warmer waters south of Maro Reef in the NWHI
(WPRFMC 1983). Around the island of Oahu spawning occurs year-round (Uchida
1986a). In the MHI, peak spawning activity occurs between the months of May and
August with a minimal amount of activity from November to January (Uchida 1986a).
Egg-bearing females are found year-round in the MHI (WPRFMC 1983).
Spiny lobsters are very fecund (WPRFMC 1983). Honda (1980) found that fecundity
increased with size. Most female spiny lobsters reach sexually maturity at 2 years of age
(WPRFMC 1983). Estimating size at maturity for male and female spiny lobsters at
Necker Island and Oahu, Prescott (19 *) concludes the Necker Island females reach sexual
maturity at 60.7 mm, males at 59.2 mm, while Oahu females reach sexual maturity at 58.6
mm, males at 63.6 mm. At Necker Island the smallest mated lobster observed was 48.3
mm; it is not conclusive that the ovaries of females are mature at this size (Uchida and
Tagami 1984). Growth rates for male spiny lobsters at Necker Island have been calculated
as follows: 3.7 cm CL at 1 year, 5.7 cm at 2 years, 7.3 cm at 3 years, 8.5 cm at 4 years, 9.4
cm at 5 years and 10.1 cm in 6 years (Uchida 1986a). Due to insufficient data the growth
of females has not been calculated (Uchida 1986a).
Larvae
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After hatching, the larvae (or phyllosoma) enter a planktonic phase (WPRFMC 1983).
The duration of this planktonic phase varies depending on the species and geographic
region (WPRFMC 1983).Very little is known about the planktonic phase of the
phyllosoma larvae of P. marginatus (Uchida et al.1980). The planktonic larval stage may
last from 6 months to 1 year from the time of the hatching of the eggs (WPRFMC 1983,
MacDonald 1986). There are 11 dissimilar stages of development that the phyllosoma
larvae pass through before they transform into the postlarval puelurus phase (Johnson
1968, MacDonald 1986).
The pelagic phyllosoma stage of development is followed by the puerulus stage. Spiny
lobster pueruli are free-swimming and actively migrate into shallow, near-shore waters in
preparation for settlement (WPRFMC 1983, MacDonald 1986). The puelurus stage lasts 6
months or less (WPRFMC 1983). MacDonald and Stimson (1980) found pelagic, puerulus
larvae settlement to occur at approximately 1 cm in length. After settlement the pueluri
molt and transform into postpueruli, a transitional phase between the pelagic phyllosama
phase and the juvenile stage (MacDonald 1986).
It is believed, that because of the endemic nature of P. marginatus in the Hawaiian
archipelago, the resident population is the source of larval recruits (Uchida et al. 1983).
Shaklee (1962) found no genetic variation within the various spiny lobster populations at
the different islands and banks in the NWHI chain. These data suggest that a single stock
of spiny lobster exists in the NWHI (WPRFMC 1983). Recruitment of puerulus lobster
larvae occurred at Kure Atoll beginning in the spring and lasting to October; no
recruitment occurred from October to March (MacDonald and Stimson 1980). The
distribution of lobster larvae in the waters surrounding the banks and islands of the NWHI
is patchy (Parrish and Polovina 1994). Settlement of palinurid larvae tends to be higher in
the middle of the Hawaiian Island chain and higher in the NWHI than in the MHI
(MacDonald, 1986).
There is evidence that the recruitment of puelerus lobster larvae is tied to the lunar phase
with maximum recruitment occurring during the new moon and first quarter phases
(MacDonald and Stimson 1980).
Juvenile distribution
Parrish and Polovina (1994) found that banks with summits deeper than 30 m had
consistently lower catches of spiny lobster; six of eight banks surveyed with summits at
depths greater then 30 m did not provide commercial quantities of spiny lobster. They
suggest a depth threshold may prevent the successful settlement and/or survival of pueruli
of the spiny lobster in commercial quantities at these banks.
Parrish and Polovina (1994) studied the production rates of three banks in the NWHI; two
commercially productive banks, Maro Reef and Necker Island, and one commercially
unproductive bank, Lisianski. In this study the percent coverage of the different substrate
types were measured and classified into four habitat types. The intermediate relief habitat
A-10
(5B30 cm) was found to support the highest abundance of juvenile lobsters. Based on the
results of their analysis, Parrish and Polovina conclude that the intermediate relief habitat
provides optimal habitat for juvenile spiny lobster.This intermediate relief habitat rarely
exceeded 10 cm in height and was comprised of macroalgaes including Dictopterus sp.,
Sargassum sp. and Padina sp. Parrish and Polovina determined that a much greater
proportion of intermediate substrate exists at the two productive banks studied, Maro Reef
and Necker Island, than at the unproductive bank, Lisianski Island. They conclude that the
amount of suitable habitat may be a factor limiting the total abundance of adult lobster
production. The intermediate relief habitat provides suitable habitat for the settlement,
survival and growth of P. marginatus pueruli and post pueruli. It does not provide enough
structural relief to support a community of predatory reef fish, Parrish and Polovina note.
Furthermore, they add, the lack of structural relief provides little shelter or protection for
fish that forage on juvenile lobster from large piscovores such as sharks and jacks.
Parrish and Polovina (1994) describe the substrate of Necker Island and Maro Reef as
predominantly comprised of intermediate relief algal communities. However, prolonged
changes in water temperature could greatly modify the algal abundance, they note. The
effects of such changes might include increased predation, reduced recruitment and
reduced availability of food, they conclude.
Annual exploratory trapping surveys at Maro Reef in the NWHI have been conducted by
NMFS since 1994. Haight (1998) explains that the survey was designed to identify
juvenile spiny lobster habitat and determine abundance. Preliminary results of this survey
indicate that the northwestern portion of Maro Reef supports higher concentrations of
juvenile P. marginatus than are found at other sample stations within the reef. The
northwest portion of the reef extends outward from the lagoon and as a result is exposed
to greater wave action and currents than other areas of Maro Reef, Haight observes. The
benthic habitat at the northwestern site (site 1) is distinctly different from that of other
sites sampled within Maro Reef, he continues. Of particular note was the predominance of
live coral colonies of Acropora and Pocillopora corals, he observes. However, colonies of
Acropora sp. coral were not found at any of the stations sampled within the reef and are
rarely found outside the reef (F. Parrish, unpub. data. in Haight 1998). Three other
sitesCcomprised of coral heads interspersed with barren sand patches and coral
rubbleCwere sampled during the survey, and the majority of spiny lobsters found at them
were adults (Haight 1998). The specific ecological and physical mechanisms that are
responsible for higher abundance of juvenile spiny lobster at the northwestern portion of
Maro Reef need further study.
MacDonald and Stimson (1980) found juvenile spiny lobsters to exhibit a restricted home
range, while adult spiny lobsters displayed a much wider home. Uchida and Tagami
(1984) observed that 90 percent of recaptured adult spiny lobsters showed movement of 5
nmi or less, while MacDonald and Stimson (1980) found spiny lobsters had a dispersal
rate that rarely exceeded several hundred m.
Adult distribution
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Spiny lobsters are distributed throughout the NWHI, from Nihoa to Kure Atoll
(WPRFMC 1983). The distribution of adult spiny lobsters is uneven throughout the
NWHI chain. Research conducted prior to advent of commercial exploitation of spiny
lobsters found the greatest abundance of lobsters at Necker and Maro Reef in the NWHI
(Uchida et al. 1980, WPRFMC 1983). Surprisingly, the benthic habitat of Maro Reef
differs markedly from bottom conditions found at Necker Island (Uchida et al 1980,
WPRFMC 1983). The substrate at Necker Island is largely composed of coral interspersed
with sandy areas and sandstone outcroppings. The bottom at Maro Reef is primarily
composed of coral rubble and sand, lacking the type of habitat features normally thought
to be lobster habitat (WPRFMC 1983).
Uchida et al (1980) found significant differences in the average sizes among spiny lobsters
populations at the various banks and islands they sampled. MacDonald and Stimson
(1980) found there to be a seasonal variation in the size distribution of the spiny lobster
population at Kure Atoll in the NWHI. Small lobsters were more abundant in the months
of June to September while larger lobsters were found to be more abundant in January.
These researchers found males to be more abundant than females throughout the year.
Male spiny lobsters were also found to comprise the majority of individuals in the largersized class.
Spiny lobsters are nocturnal predators (FAO 1991). Spiny lobsters are regarded as
omnivorous, opportunistic scavengers (Pitcher 1993). Food items reported from the diets
of Panulirus sp. include echinoderms, crustaceans, molluscs (primarily gastropods) algae
and seagrass (Pitcher 1993). The habitat description for P. marginatus is summarized in
Table 1.
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Table 1. Habitat Description for Hawaiian Spiny Lobster (Panulirus marginatus)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
30B40 days.
Planktonic Phyllosoma stage (6B12
months), free-swimming pueruli stage
(up to 6 months).
Not known
Not known
Diet
N/A
No information available
No information available
Diet of Panulirus sp. includes
echinoderms, crustaceans, molluscs
(primarily gastropods) algae and
seagrass
Distribution
Release of phyllosoma larvae
appears to be timed to
coincide with the full moon
and dawn (Pitcher 1993). In
NWHI spawning takes place
during summer months, in
MHI spawning takes place
year round.
In Hawaii, puerulus settlement occurrs
primarily at the new moon and first
quarter lunar phase (MacDonald 1986)
Juvenile P. marginatus recruit directly to
adult habitat; they do not utilize separate
shallow water nursery habitat apart from
the adults as do many Palinurid lobsters.
Location
female spiny lobster broods
the eggs until they hatch
Puerulus larvae seem to have a low rate
of settlement success and survival if
summit of bank is deeper than 30 m.
Banks with summits deeper than 30 m
support lower abundance of juvenile
lobsters. The NW portion of Maro supports
higher concentrations of juvenile lobsters.
NWHI, MHI, Johnston Atoll
Water Column
N/A
Pelagic - Palinurid larvae are transported
great distances by the prevailing water
currents, up to 2,000 miles
Benthic
Benthic
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
Areas of intermediate relief habitat (5B30
cm) seems to provide optimal habitat for
juveniles
Adults are typically found on rocky
substrates in well protected areas, in
crevices and under rocks.
Oceanic Features
female spiny lobster may
move to areas of strong
currents to release newly
hatched larvae into the
oceanic environment.
In the NWHI, settlement appears to be
linked to the north and southward shifts
of the North Pacific Central Water
(NPCW) type.
No information available
No information available
A-13
Bibliography
Cooke WJ, MacDonald CD. 1981. The puerulus and post-puerulus of the Hawaiian spiny
lobster, Panulirus marginatus. Proc Bioll Soc Wash 94(4):1226B32.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 1991. Marine lobsters of the world. Rome:
FAO. # p. FAO fisheries synopsis nr 125, volume 13
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 1995. Fishery statistics, catches and landings.
FAO yearbook, volume 80. Rome: FAO. # p.
Haight WR. 1998. Maro Reef juvenile spiny lobster survey, 1993B1997. Honolulu: NMFS
Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu Laboratory. # p. Administrative report
nr H-98-01.
Johnston MW. 1968. Palinurid phyllosoma larvae from the Hawaiian archipelago
(Palinuridea). Crustaceana Supplemental II:59B79.
Johnston MW. 1974. On the dispersal of lobster larvae into the eastern Pacific barrier
(Decapoda, Palinuridea). Fish Bull 72(3):639B47.
Kanciruk P. 1980. Ecology of juvenile and adult Palinuridae (spiny lobsters). In: Cobb JS,
Phillips BF, editors. The biology and management of lobsters. Vol. 2, Ecology and
management. Sydney, Australia: Academic Pr. p 11B57.
MacDonald CD. 1986. Recruitment of the puerulus of the spiny lobster Panulirus
marginatu, in Hawaii.Can J Fish Aquatic Sci 43:2118B125.
Parrish FA, Polovina JJ. 1994. Habitat threshold and bottlenecks in production of the
spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Bull Mar
Sci 54(1):151-B61.
Phillips BF, Sastry AN. 1980. Larval ecology. In: Cobb JS, Phillips BF, editors. The
biology and management of lobsters. Volume 2, Ecology and management. Sydney:
Academic Pr. p 11B57.
Pitcher RC. 1993. Spiny lobster. In: Wright A, Hill L, editors. Nearshore marine resources
of the South Pacific. Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency. p 539B607.
Polovina JJ. 1993. The lobster and shrimp fisheries in Hawaii. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):28B33.
Uchida RN.1986(a). Palinuridae. In: Fishery Atlas of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands,
(R.N. Uchida and J.H. Uchiyama, eds.), pp. 70-71. NOAA Technical Report. NMFS
38. p 66B7
A-14
Uchida RN. 1986(b). Scyllaridae. In: Fishery Atlas of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands,
(R.N. Uchida and J.H. Uchiyama, eds.), pp. 70-71. NOAA Technical Report. NMFS
38. p 68B9.
Uchida RN. Raninidae. In: Fishery Atlas of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, (R.N.
Uchida and J.H. Uchiyama, eds.), pp. 70-71. NOAA Technical Report. NMFS 38. p
70B1.
Uchida, RN, Uchiyama JH, Humphreys RL Jr, Tagami DT. 1980. Biology, distribution,
and estimates of apparent abundance of spiny lobster, Panulirus marginatus (Quoy
and Gaimard), in waters of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Part I, Distribution in
relation to depth and geographical areas and estimates of apparent abundance. In:
Grigg RW, Pfund RT, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Resource
Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 121B30. report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Uchida RN, Tagami DT. 1984. Biology, distribution and population structure and
preexploitation abundance of spiny lobster, Panulirus marginatus (Quoy and Gaimard
1825), in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors.
Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Resource Investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; date; location. Honolulu: University of Hawaii.p
157B98. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01. 1.
Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. 1986. Fishery atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands. Washington: NOAA. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1986. Honolulu:
WPRFMC.
Yoshimura T, Yamakawa H. 1988. Microhabitat and behavior of settled pueruli and
juveniles of Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus at Kominato, Japan. J Crust
Biol 8(4):524B31.
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1.1.5.2 Habitat Description for Kona Crab (Ranina ranina)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI),
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
(NMI), Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Howland and Baker
Islands and Wake Islands.
Very little is known about the life history of Ranina ranina. The kona crab is found in the
northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from Kure Atoll to Nihoa at depths of 24 to 115
m (Uchida, 1986; Edmonson, 1946). R. ranina is also found in the main Hawaiian Islands
(MHI).
It is believed that female kona crabs obtain sexual maturity somewhere between 54.3 and
63 mm CL. Uchida (1986) reports that 60% of male kona crabs 60 mm were sexually
mature.
Kona crabs are dioecious and display sexual dimorphism. The males tend to grow to a
larger size (Uchida, 1986). The sex ratio of males to females has been found to be skewed
in favor of males (Fielding and Haley, 1976; Onizuka, 1972).
This species spawns at least twice during the spawning season (Uchida, 1986). The female
kona crab usually spawns a second time approximately nine days after the first bacth of
eggs hatch. Fertilization of the eggs occurs externally. The fertilized eggs adhere to the
females numerous seatae (Uchida, 1986). In the MHI, ovigerous females have been found
to occur only from May to September (Uchida, 1986; Fielding and Haley, 1976). There
are insufficient data available to define the exact spawning season in the NWHI (Uchida,
1986).
A small, directed fishery for kona crabs exists in the MHI. There is no directed fishery for
kona crabs in the NWHI however it is taken incidentally in the spiny lobster fishery. The
principal gear used in the fishery is the kona crab net. R. ranaina is also taken in lobster
traps. In the MHI from 1961 to 1979 the average total landings for kona crab averaged
13,519 kg.
Egg and larval distribution
Kona crab eggs are spherical and orange. They hatch at approximately 29 days after
fertilization (Uchida, 1986). About 5 days prior to hatching the eggs change from an
orange to brown color at the onset of the eyed stage (Uchida, 1986).
Larvae
Little is known about the plankton larval stage of kona crabs. The first molt occurs at 7-8
after hatching, the second molt about seven days later (Uchida, 1986).
Juvenile distribution
A-16
There is no information available concerning the distribution or habitat utilization patterns
of juvenile kona crabs.
Adult distribution
Adult kona crabs are found inhabiting sandy bottom habitat at depths between 24 to 115
m. Kona crabs are opportunistic carnivores that feed throughout the day. It buries itself in
the sand where it lies in waits for prey or food particles (Uchida, 1986).
The Council has designated EFH for the juvenile and adult life stages of Ranina ranina as
the shoreline to a depth of 100 m. EFH for this species larval stage is designated as the
water column from the shoreline to the outer limit of the EEZ down to 150 m. The habitat
description for Kona crab is summarized in Table 2.
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Table 2. Habitat Description for Kona Crab (Ranina ranina)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Approximately 29 days after
fertilization
Not known
No inforamtion available
Diet
N/A
Little is known about the
duration of the plankton larval
stage of kona crabs. The first
molt occurs at 7-8 after
hatching, the second molt about
seven days later.
Not known
Not known
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Fertilization of the eggs occurs
externally. The fertilized eggs
adhere to the females numerous
seatae.
demersal
N/A
N/A
Little is known about the
plankton larval stage of kona
crabs
There is no information
available concerning the
distribution or habitat utilization
patterns of juvenile kona crabs
Demersal
N/A
N/A
Kona crabs are opportunistic
carnivores that feed throughout
the day. It buries itself in the
sand where it lies in waits for
prey or food particles
Adult kona crabs are found
inhabiting sandy bottom habitat
at depths between 24 to 115 m.
Water Column
Bottom Type
Oceanic Features
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pelagic?
N/A
Larvae are subject to advection
by prevailing currents.
demersal
sandy bottom
N/A
Bibliography
Edmonson, C.H. 1946. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Bishop Museum special
publication 22, 381 pp.
Fielding, A., and S.R. Haley. 1976. Sex Ratio, size at reproductive maturity, and
reproduction of the Hawaiian kona crab, Ranina ranina (Linnaeus)(Brachyura,
Gymnopleura, Raninidae). Pacific Science 30:131-145.
Onizuka, E.W. 1972. Management and development investigations of the kona crab,
Ranina ranina (Linnaeus). Final Report. DLNR, Division of Fish and Game,
Hawaii. 28 pp.
Uchida, Richard N. 1986. Raninidae. In Fishery Atlas of the Northwest Hawaiian
Islands, (R.N. Uchida and J.H. Uchiyama, eds.), pp. 70-71. NOAA Technical
Report. NMFS 38.
A-19
1.1.5.3 Habitat description for Panulirus penicillatus, P. versicolor, P.ornatus and
P.longipes in the Western Pacific Region
Management Plan and Area:
American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana Islands, Johnston Atoll,
Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island, Howland and Baker Islands
and Wake Islands. The spiny lobsters, within the Council’s jurisdiction are managed under
the FMP for the Crustaceans of the Western Pacific Region. Some information is also
provided on the slipper lobsters of the genus Parribacus, which was also observed in
recent surveys in Americasn Samoa.
General Description and Life History
Scyllarids and palinurids are commonly considered to be opportunistic omnivorous i.e.
they are able to feed on a wide range of food (Phillips et al., 1980). Chambers and Nunes
(1975) indicated that the diet of P. penicillatus in American Samoa was “primarily, if not
solely, algae”. However, other studies showed that this species also feeds on Annelids
Polychaetes, Mollusks (Gastropods and Bivalve), Crustaceans, and Echinoderms (George,
1972; Prescott in Pitcher, 1993). Whereas only a few studies have dealt with the slipper
lobster diet, they showed similar patterns to that for spiny lobsters (Lau, 1987; Spanier,
1987). These organisms are are able to select their food according to availability and
density. Thus, individuals of the same species but which are living in different areas can
have different diets implying important differences in growth rates (Morgan, 1980;
McKoy & Esterman, 1981; Edgar, 1990).
Lobsters, as other Crustaceans, increase in size by molting, while the growth of tissues
(and thus the weight) is continuous. The growth rate decreases with age, and the intermolt duration increases. During the molt, most of the calcified components are replaced.
P. penicillatus is sexually dimorphic for size, with males reaching larger sizes than
females. The largest males can weight 3 kg (6.5 Lb) for 16 cm (6 ¼ in) of Cephalothoracic
(or Carapace) Length (CL: measured from the basis of the supraorbital spines to the end of
the cephalothorax) (Richer de Forges & Laboute, 1995).
Reproduction
For crustaceans, the reproductive season is determined by photoperiod and luminosity
(Lipcius & Cobb, 1994). As a result, lobsters from temperate and sub-tropical waters have
only one spawning period (Chubb, 1994; Kittaka & MacDiarmid, 1994) whereas
numerous tropical species are able to spawn nearly year-round, and some individuals are
able to spawn several times in the same year (Berry, 1971; Moore & MacFarlane, 1984;
Juinio, 1987). In Hawaii, 40 % of the P. penicillatus females are berried (with eggs under
the abdomen) (McDonald, 1971, 1979) at any time, and some females spawn 2 or 3 times
a year (Juinio, 1987; Plaut, 1993).
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Fertilization is external (Lyons, 1970; Morgan, 1980); the male deposits a spermatophore,
via paired penile projections at the base of the fifth walking legs, onto the female sternum.
This spermatophoric mass becomes black and is butterfly-shaped for spiny lobsters and
covers the two first pairs of pleopods in Parribacus spp. The female is then called ‘tarred’.
After a few days, the female spawns several thousands of oocytes from the paired
gonopores situated at the base of the third walking legs, into a ‘chamber’ formed by
curving the abdomen under the sternum. The female scrapes the spermatophore with
special chelae (claws or pincher) on the dactyl (last segment) of the fifth walking legs, to
release the sperm which fertilizes the oocytes during the transit (Berry, 1970; Lipcius &
Herrnkind, 1987; Pitcher, 1993). The fertilized eggs adhere to the ovigerous setae of the
internal part of the biramous pleopods (Berry, 1970) (see Appendix I). In the literature, the
smallest P. penicillatus berried females measured from 4.08 cm of CL (1.6 inches) in
Philippines (Juinio, 1987) to 6.20 cm (2.45 inches) in the Marshall Islands (Ebert & Ford,
1986). No information on any Parribacus spp. reproduction is available in the literature.
Eggs
Following courtship, several hundred thousand eggs are extruded from the paired
gonopores at the base of the third walking legs into a chamber formed by curving the
abdomenover the sternum. The eggs are carried under the tail of females for about a
month before the phyllosoma larvae are released.
Larvae
After 1 to 9 weeks of incubation [20 to 35 days for P. penicillatus (Juinio, 1987; Plaut,
1993)], larvae are released in the field (George, 1958; Chittleborough, 1974, 1976; Nair et
al., 1981; Pitcher, 1993). Among spiny lobsters, hatching always occurs in an area
allowing the larvae to quickly drift offshore (Phillips & Sastry, 1980; Coutures, 2000b),
which implies that sometimes there is migration from coastal to oceanic areas (Moore &
MacFarlane, 1984; MacFarlane & Moore, 1986; Coutures, 2000b).
The larvae of Palinuroidea (spiny lobster or Palinuridae, slipper lobster or Scyllaridae, and
Synaxidae or coral lobsters) is called phyllosoma (from Greek “phyllo” leaf, and “soma”
body), a flat, transparent, leaf-like larva, which corresponds to the Crustacean zoea stage.
The outstanding feature in the life history of the Palinuroidea is the exceptional duration
of their larval phase, which varies among spiny lobsters from 6 to 12 months according to
the species (Phillips & Sastry, 1980; Booth & Phillips, 1994) and even 24 months for
Jasus edwardsii (Lesser, 1978), a species occurring in New Zealand and South Australia,
and from 1 to 9 months for slipper lobsters (Sims, 1965; Robertson, 1968a,b, 1969a,b;
Takahashi & Saisho, 1978; Ito & Lucas, 1990; Marinovic et al., 1994; Mikami &
Greenwood, 1997). During the larval phase, phyllosomata can travel great distances, e.g.
Johnson (1974) caught one Panulirus penicillatus phyllosoma in the Pacific Ocean 3,700
km from the Galapagos Archipelago, which was the closest hatching site. Mechanisms
allowing phyllosomata to come back to the coast have been shown only for a few species,
A-21
especially for Panulirus cygnus in the southwest of Australia (see Pearce & Phillips, 1980;
Phillips et al., 1991; Pearce et al., 1992). However, for species with a wide geographic
distribution such as P. penicillatus and P. parribacus, the larval dispersion implies that
recruits can come from adults living at great distances (Lyons, 1980, 1981; Menzies &
Kerrigan, 1980). Oceanic currents and gyres seem important in the transport, and the
dispersion, and thus, in the “oceanic routes” used by phyllosomata (Yeung & McGowan,
1991; Booth & Phillips, 1994).
During their larval development, phyllosomata increase in size and general shape through
numerous molts. For the species studied, systematicians have described 7 to 12 larval
stages which characterize the growth by appearance of anatomic features (e.g.: Stage I, 3
pairs of pereiopods, stage II: bud of the fourth one), and characteristic measurements
(Phillips & Sastry, 1980).
The different larval stages of P. penicillatus have been described by Johnson (1968) and
Michel (1969, 1971). The duration of the larval species has been estimated to be 7 - 8
months for this species (Johnson, 1971).
For P. caledonicus, stage I is the only stage to have been described so far with certainty
(Coutures, 2001b). It must be noted that in the Pacific, Parribacus species form a complex
including a widely distributed species – P. antarcticus – and 5 allopatric species (without
overlap of their adult distributions). Larvae of this complex are very similar (Coutures,
2001b), and sometimes impossible to separate (Prasad & Tampi, 1960; Michel, 1971;
Berry, 1974). Furthermore, some giant larvae – from 6.5 to 8 cm (2.55 to 3.14 inches) of
total length, without pereiopods - have been caught in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic
Oceans, that would correspond to the late-stage of P. antarcticus (Johnson, 1951;
Robertson, 1968c).
When phyllosomata have reached the last larval stage, have enough body reserves, and
may be after stimulation from a coastal signal (Booth, 1986; Phillips & McWilliam,
1986a; Booth & Phillips, 1994; McWilliam & Phillips, 1997), they metamorphose into
post-larvae called nisto for slipper lobsters and puerulus for spiny lobsters (Lyons, 1970).
Juvenile distribution
Puerulus and nistos differ from juveniles by the absence of calcification and lack of
pigmentation, except for the eyes and a few streaks and points on the antennas (Phillips &
Sastry, 1980) (Figure 6). The carapace is smoother, pleopods bear long setae (Phillips &
Penrose, 1985), the body is longer, antennas are longer (only for spiny lobsters), and
sometimes they terminate in a spatula (Serfling & Ford, 1975; Briones-Fourzan) (Fig. 5).
According to numerous authors (Serfling & Ford, 1975 ; Sweat, 1968; Witham et al.,
1968; Phillips, 1972; Phillips & Olsen, 1975; Serfling & Ford, 1975; Phillips et al, 1978;
Lyons, 1980; Calinski & Lyons, 1983; McDonald, 1986; Hayakawa et al., 1990; Coutures,
2000a, 2001a; Coutures & Chauvet, 2002), the behavior of pueruli and nistos would be to
actively swim to benthic coastal habitats (with the aid of their pleopods) before settling
A-22
onto the benthos. For example, the puerulus of Panulirus cygnus can swim from 20 to 60
km (12.5 to 37.5 miles) (Phillips & Penrose, 1985), in 5 to 15 days (Lemmens, 1994).
The post-larvae begins to be colored as soon as it settles on the bottom. The first molt
occurs 8 to 10 days after settlement (Phillips & Sastry, 1980). Although it is not the case
for all species, Panulirus penicillatus and Parribacus caledonicus settle in the same
habitat as the adults (McDonald, 1971; Nunes & Chambers, 1975; Pitcher, 1992, 1993;
Coutures, 2000a; Coutures et al., 2002), i.e. just in front of the breakers.
The puerulus of Panulirus penicillatus has been described by Michel (1971): it measures
about 1 cm (0.4 inch) of CL. The nisto of Parribacus caledonicus has not been described
yet but it is likely to be similar to congeners which reach sizes varying from 5 to 5.82 cm
(2-2.3 inches) (Rathbun, 1903; Coutures et al., 2002).
Small juvenile P. pencillatus of this species have not been observed but it is assumed that
they occupy the same habitat as the adults on the windward exposures of fringing rock or
coarl reefs. P. versicolor juveniles inhabit inshore areas as well as the more typical adult
reef. Post larvae are often seen under floating moorings and rafts. It is not known whether
these lobster move to the reef successfully or whether they die.
Adult distribution
Virtually all shallow water habitats in the tropical western Pacific are occupied by one or
more species of spiny lobster. Each species has a preferred habitat, however, there is a
Great deal of overlap and it is not uncommon to find 2-4 species cohabiting on a single
reef in locations such as the south coast of Papua new Guinea. Certain species are more
specific in their habitat requirements than others. The greatest constrats is perhaps
between P. ornatus and P.penicillatus. P ornatus has been found from a depth of 100
fathoms on the outer slope of the Great Barrier Reef to areas with extremely high
sediment load and reduced salinity near the mouth of the Fly River in Papua New Guinea.
P. penicillatus is found across nearly a 60 degree range in latitude, from rocky shores to
coral reefs, but with the common feature of clear oceanic waters and high energy wave
action typical of windward exposures. This habitat is remarkably similar in terms of
salinity, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity and the variability of these factors despite
latitudinal changes.
The preferred habitat of P. pencillatus as discussed above is the windward exposures of
fringing rock or coarl reefs. It shelters in deep recesses during the day at depths to ten
meters and frequently much shallower than that. At night it forages over the reef face,
crest and flats, thus exploiting a much larger habitat than where it shelters during the day.
It is also common on leeward barrier reefs and in reef passages when there is sufficient
water movement. The larvae likely settle in the adult habitat, settling in deep caves and
crevices used by the adults to shelter in the day.
P. longipes is generally found in the lower energy zones behind the reef crest and at the
lower boundary of the the distribution of P. peniciullatus, i.e. away from areas of intense
A-23
wave action. P. versicolor dominates in still lower energy areas, frequently among live
acroprora and other reef building coral. It is less cryptic than either P. penicillatus or P.
longipes and can frequently be seen during the day in coral bommies or under plate corals.
P. versicolor appears to be more tolerant of terrestrial influences than either P. longipes or
P. penicillatus and can be found on reefs exposed ro high turbidity and reduced salinity.
P. ornatus is the most common in areas with a strong terrestrial influence. It is frequently
found on lagoon bottoms and deep channels emanating from mangrove communities. In
Papua New Guinea it makes a 500 km breeding migration, passing through a variety of
habitats in its life cycle, but elsewhere in its distribution large scale migrations have not
been noted, and it is likely more resident in one habitat. Some larval settlement is known
to take place in its reef habitat.
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2. PRECIOUS CORALS SPECIES
2.1 General Distribution of Precious Corals
Besides the references noted, the Council=s 1979 environmental impact statement and
FMP for the precious corals fisheries in the western Pacific region as well as Amendments
1 and 2 to the FMP and their accompanying environmental assessments were sources for
the following sections. The precious corals included in the Precious Corals FMP are
shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Precious corals covered under the Precious Corals FMP.
Species
Common name
Corallium secundum
Pink coral
Corallium regale
Red coral
Corallium laauense(sp)
Red coral
Gerardia sp.
Gold coral
Narella sp.
Gold coral
Calyptrophora sp.
Gold coral
Callogorgia gilberti
Gold coral
Lepidisis olapa
Bamboo coral
Acanella sp.
Bamboo coral
Antipathes dichotoma
Black coral
Antipathes grandis
Black coral
Antipathes ulex
Black coral
Precious corals are known to exist in American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii and the Northern
Mariana Islands, as well as other US possessions in the Pacific. However, very little is
known about their distribution and abundance. A summary of the known distribution and
abundance of precious corals in the western Pacific region follows.
American Samoa
There is little information available for the deepwater species of precious corals in
American Samoa. Much of the information available comes from the personal accounts of
fishermen . All known commercial quantities of Corallium sp. occur north of 19oN (Grigg
1984). In the South Pacific there are no known commercial beds of pink coral (Carleton
and Philipson 1987). Survey work begun in 1975 by the Committee for Co-ordination of
Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in South Pacific Offshore Areas (CCOP/SOPAC)
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has identified three areas of Corralium off Western Samoa: off eastern Upolu, off
Falealupo and at Tupuola Bank (Carleton and Philipson 1987). Pink coral has been
reported off Cape Taputapu, but no information concerning the quality or quantity of these
corals or the depths where they occur is available. Unidentified precious corals have also
been reported in the past off Fanuatapu at depths of around 90 m. Precious corals are
known to occur at an uncharted seamount, about three-fourths of a mile off the northwest
tip of Falealupo Bank at depths of around 300 m.
Commercial quantities of one or more species of black coral are known to exist at depths
of 40 m and deeper. However, these are found in the territorial waters of American Samoa
and, therefore, are not subject to the Council=s authority.
Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas
There are no known commercial quantities of precious corals in the Northern Mariana
Islands archipelago (Grigg and Eldredge 1975). In the past, Japanese fishermen claimed to
have taken some Corralium north of Pagen Island and off Rota and Saipan.
Hawaii
In the Hawaiian Islands, there are six known beds of pink, gold and bamboo corals (Grigg
1974) (Table 4).
 In the MHI, precious coral beds have been found only in the deep inter-island
channels and off promontories such as Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii.
 Also in the MHI, the Makapuu bed is located off Makapuu, Oahu, at depths of
between 350 and 450 m. Discovered in 1966, it the only precious coral bed that
has been accurately surveyed in the Hawaiian chain. Its total area is about 4.5
km2. Its substrate consists largely of hard limestone (Grigg 1988). Careful
examination during numerous dives with a submersible has determined that
about 20% of the total area of the Makapuu bed is comprised of irregular
lenses of thin sand, sediments and barren patches (WPRFMC 1979). These
sediment deposits are found primarily in low lying areas and depressions
(Grigg 1988). Thus, the total area used for extrapolating coral density is 3.6
km2, or 80% of 4.5 km2 (WPRFMC 1979). The preliminary results of a recent
resurvey of the Makupuu bed show that the bed may actually be as much as
15% larger then previously thought (Grigg 1998, pers. comm.).
 Also in the MHI is a bed off Kaena Point, Oahu.
 In the NWHI, a very small bed of deepwater precious corals have been found
on WesPac bed, between Nihoa and Necker Islands and east of French Frigate
Shoals. This bed is not large enough to sustain commercial harvests. However,
large areas of potential habitat exist in the NWHI on seamounts and banks near
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400 m depth. Based on the abundance of potential habitat it is thought that
stocks of precious corals may be more abundant in the northwestern end of the
island chain.
 A small precious coral bed has also been discovered at Brooks Banks, located near
Cross Seamount southwest of the island of Hawaii. This bed is no large enough to
sustain commercial harvests
 Precious corals have also been discovered at the 180 Fathom Bank, north of Kue
Island, in EEZ waters surrounding Palmyra Island, a US possession in the western
Pacific. The extent of this bed is not known. While little is known about the
distribution and abundance of precious corals in the western Pacific region, it is
almost certain that undiscovered beds of precious corals exist in the EEZ waters of
the region covered by the Council.
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Table 4. Location of known precious coral beds. Source: WPRFMC 1979
Description
Lat. N
Long. W.
Area in km2
Off Keahole Point, Hawaii
19o46.0'
156o06.0'
0.24
Off Makapuu, Oahu
21o18.0'
157o35.5'
4.2
Off Kaena Point, Oahu
21o35.4'
158o22.9'
0.24
WesPac Bed, between Nihoa
and Necker Islands
23o18'
162o35'
0.8
Brooks Banks
24o06.0'
166o48'
1.6
180 Fathom Bank, north of
Kue Island
28o50.2'
178o53.4'
0.8
2.2 Systematics of the Deepwater Coral Species
Precious corals have a global distribution (Grigg 1993). The richest beds are found on
seamounts in the western North Pacific Ocean and the western Mediterranean Sea.
Precious corals are found principally in three orders of the class Anthozoa: Gorgonacea,
Antipatharia, and Zoanthiae (Grigg 1984). In the western Pacific region, pink coral
(Corallium secundum), gold coral (Gerardia sp. and Parazoanthus sp.), black coral
(Antipathes sp.) and bamboo coral (Lepidistis olapa) are the primary species/genera of
commercial importance. Of these, the most valuable precious corals are species of the
genus Corallium, the pink and red corals (Grigg 1984). Pink coral (Corallium secundum)
and Midway deep-sea coral (Corallium sp. nov) are two of the principal species of
commercial importance in the Hawaiian and Emperor Seamount chain=s (Grigg 1984). C.
secundum, is found in the Hawaiian archipelago from Milwaukee Banks in the Emperor
Seamounts (36oN) to the Island of Hawaii (18oN); Corallium sp nov. is found between
28oB36oN, from Midway to the Emperor Seamounts (Grigg 1984).
In addition to the pink corals, the bamboo corals, Lepidistis olapa and Acanella sp., are
commercially important precious corals in the western Pacific region (Grigg 1984). Pink
coral and bamboo coral are found in the order Gorgonacea in the subclass Octocorallia of
the class Anthozoa, in the Phylum Coelenterata (Grigg, 1984). The final two major groups
of commercially important precious corals, gold coral and black coral, are found in
separate orders, Zoanthidea and Antipatharia, in the subclass Hexacorallia in the class
Anthozoa and the phylum Coelenterata. The gold coral, Gerardia sp., is endemic to the
Hawaiian and Emperor Seamount chain (Grigg 1984). It inhabits depths ranging from
300B400 m (Grigg 1974, 1984). In Hawaii, gold coral, Gerardii sp., grows in association
with Acanella as a parasitic overgrowth (Brown 1976, Grigg 1984). Gold coral is,
therefore, only found growing in areas that were previously inhabited by colonies of
Acanella (Grigg 1993).
A-34
Grigg (1984) classifies black corals in the order Antipatharia. Grigg says there are 200
known species of black coral that occur in the oceans of the world, and of this total, only
about 10 species are of commercial importance, almost all of which are found in the genus
Antipathes.
Many species of gorgonian corals are known to occur within the habitat of pink, gold and
bamboo corals in the Hawaiian Islands. At least 37 species of precious corals in the order
Gorgonacea have been identified from the Makapuu bed (Grigg and Bayer 1976). In
addition, 14 species of black coral (order Antipatharia) have been reported to occur in
Hawaiian waters (Grigg and Opresko 1977, Oishi 1990).
2.3 Biology and Life History
Precious corals may be divided into two groups of species, the deepwater species and the
shallow water species, based on the depths that they inhabit. In the EEZ waters of the
western Pacific region, precious corals are found in two principal depth zones: 350B450 m
and 1,000B1,500 m (Table 5). In the Hawaiian Islands, these two zones comprise 1,700
nm2 and 5,900 nm2 of potential habitat, respectively, and range from 18o N to 35o S.
The deepwater precious coral species include pink coral (Corallium secundum), gold coral
(Gerardia sp., and Parazoanthus sp.) and bamboo coral (Lepidistis olapa). As previously
discussed, the most valuable precious corals are in the genus Corallium (Grigg 1984).
There are seven varieties of pink and red precious corals in the western Pacific region, six
of which are recognized as distinct species of Corallium (Grigg 1981). As mentioned, the
two species of Corallium of commercial importance in the EEZ around the Hawaiian
Islands are C. secundum (pink coral) and Corallium sp. Nov. (Midway deep-sea). The
Midway deep-sea coral (Corallium sp. Nov), a previously undescribed species of
Corallium, was discovered in 1980B1981 by Japanese vessels fishing for precious corals
on the Emperor Seamounts northwest of Midway Island. The discovery of this rich,
unexploited deepwater precious coral species resource underscores the potential of the
coral fishery in the NWHI.
The second group of species is found in shallow water between 30 and 100 m (Grigg
1993). The shallow water fishery is comprised of three species of black coral, Antipathes
dichotoma, A. grandis and A. ulex, which have historically been harvested in Hawaii
(Oishi 1990). In Hawaii, A. dichotoma accounts for around 90% of the commercial
harvest of black coral (Oishi 1990). A. grandis accounts for 9% and A. ulex 1% of the
total black corals harvested. In Hawaii, roughly 85% of all black coral harvested are taken
from within state waters. Black corals are managed jointly by the State of Hawaii and the
Coucnil. Within state waters (0B3 nmi), black corals are managed by the State of Hawaii
(Grigg 1993).
A-35
Table 5. Depth zonation of all species of precious coral in the Western Pacific. (Source: Grigg 1993)
Species and Common Name
Depth Range (m)
Corallium secundum Angle skin coral
350B475
Corallium sp nov. Midway deepsea coral
1,000B1,500
Gerardia sp. Hawaiian gold coral
300B400
Lepidisis olapa bamboo coral
350B400
Antipathes dichotoma, black coral
30B100
Antipathes grandis, pine black coral
45B100
Antipathes ulex, fern black coral
40B100
Antipathes anguina, wire black coral
20B60
While different species of precious corals inhabit distinct depth zones, their habitat
requirements are strikingly similar. Grigg (1984) notes that these corals are non-reef
building and inhabit depth zones below the euphotic zone. In an earlier study, Grigg
(1974) determined that precious corals are found in deep water on solid substrate in
areas that are swept relatively clean by moderate to strong bottom currents (>25
cm/sec). Strong currents help prevent the accumulation of sediments, which would
smother young coral colonies and prevent settlement of new larvae. Grigg (1984)
notes that, in Hawaii, large stands of Corralium are only found in areas where
sediments almost never accumulate. He also notes that 1971B75, surveys of all
potential sites for precious corals in the MHI conducted using a manned submersible
show that most shelf areas in the MHI near 400 m are periodically covered with a thin
layer of silt and sand. Grigg (1988) concludes that the concurrence of oceanographic
features (strong currents, hard substrate, low sediments) necessary to create suitable
precious coral habitat are rare in the MHI.
The habitat sustaining precious corals is generally in pristine condition. There are no
known areas that have sustained damage due to resource exploitation, notwithstanding
the alleged heavy foreign fishing for corals in the Hancock Seamounts area. Although
unlikely, if future development projects are planned in the proximity of precious coral
beds, care should be taken to prevent damage to the beds. Projects of particular
concern would be those that suspend sediments or modify water-movement patterns.
There is a correlation between the location and abundance of Corallium beds and the
Kuroshio Current in the western Pacific region (Grigg 1984). This relationship further
illustrates the importance of suitable current regimes in determining suitable precious
coral habitat. Currents also play an important ecological role in transporting food to
and carrying wastes away from corals.
A-36
There has been very little research conducted concerning the food habits of precious
corals. Precious corals are filter feeders (Grigg 1984, 1993). The sparse research available
suggests that particulate organic matter and microzooplankton are important in the diets of
pink and bamboo coral (Grigg 1970). Many species of pink coral (Corallium), gold coral
(Gerardia) and black coral (Antipathes) form fan shaped colonies (Grigg 1984, 1993).
This type of morphological adaption maximizes the total area of water that is filtered by
the polyps (Grigg 1984, 1993). Bamboo coral (Lepidisis olapa), unlike other species of
precious corals, is unbranched (Grigg 1984). Long coils that trail in the prevailing currents
maximize the total amount of seawater that is filtered by the polyps (Grigg 1984). While
clearly, the presence of strong currents is a vital factor determining habitat suitability for
precious coral colonies, their role to date is not fully understood.
Precious corals are known to grow on a variety of bottom substrate types. Precious coral
yields, however, tend to be higher in areas of shell sandstone, limestone and basaltic or
metamorphic rock with a limestone veneer.
Light is one of the most important determining factors of the upper depth limit of many
species of precious corals (Grigg 1984).The larvae of two species of black coral,
Antipathes grandis and A. dichotoma, are negatively phototaxic.
Grigg (1984) states that temperature does not appear to be a significant factor in
delimiting suitable habitat for precious corals. In the Pacific Ocean, species of Corallium
are found in temperature ranges of 8o to 20oC, he observes. Temperature may determine
the lower depth limits of some species of precious coral, including two species of black
corals in the MHI, he suggests. In the MHI, the lower depth range of two species of black
corals (Antipathes dichotoma and A. grandis) coincides with the top of the thermocline
(about 100 m), Grigg observes.
In pink coral (Corallium secundum), the sexes are separate (Grigg 1993). Based on the
best available data, it is believed that C. secundum becomes sexually mature at a height of
approximately 12 cm (13 years) (Grigg 1976). Pink coral reproduce annually, with
spawning occurring during the summer, during the months of June and July. Coral polyps
produce eggs and sperm. Fertilization of the oocytes is completed externally in the water
column (Grigg 1976, 1993). The resulting larvae, called planulae, drift with the prevailing
currents until finding a suitable site for settlement.
Pink, bamboo and gold corals all have planktonic larval stages and sessile adult stages.
Larvae settle on solid substrate where they form colonial branching colonies. Grigg (1993)
notes that the length of the larval stage of all deepwater species of precious corals is not
known. Clean swept areas exposed to strong currents provide important sites for
settlement of the larvae, Grigg adds. The larvae of several species of black coral
(Antipathes) are negatively photoactic, he notes. They are most abundant in dimly lit
areas, such as beneath overhangs in waters deeper than 30 m, he observes. In an earlier
study, Grigg (1976) found that A[w]ithin their depth ranges, both species are highly
aggregated and are most frequently found under vertical dropoffs. Such features are
A-37
commonly associated with terraces and undercut notches relict of ancient sea level still
stands. Such features are common off Kauai and Maui in the MHI. Both species are
particularly abundant off of Maui and Kauai, suggesting that their abundance is related to
suitable [email protected] Off of Oahu, many submarine terraces that otherwise would be suitable
habitat for black corals are covered with sediments, Grigg (1976) adds.
Grigg (1993) observes that precious corals have low recruitment and mortality. They are
slow growing and long lived, believed to reach the age of 75 years and older, he notes.
Common causes of mortality include smothering by sediments and toppling of colonies
due to erosion of the substrate, he concludes. (Another cause is worms boring into the
colony, weakening it and causing it to collapse.)
A variety of invertebrates and fish are known to utilize the same habitat as precious corals.
These species of fish include onaga (Etelis coruscans), kahala (Seriola dumerallii) and the
shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer). These species do not seem to depend on the coral for
shelter or food.
Densities of pink, gold and bamboo coral have been determined for an unexploited section
of the Makapuu bed (Grigg, 1976). As noted in the FMP for precious corals, the average
density of pink coral in the Makapuu bed is 0.022 colonies/m2. This figure was
extrapolated to the entire bed (3.6 million m2), giving an estimated standing crop of
79,200 colonies. At the 95% confidence limit, the standing crop is 47,500 to 111,700
colonies. The standing crop of colonies was converted to biomass (3NiWi), resulting in an
estimate of 43,500 kg of pink coral in the Makapuu bed.
In addition to coral densities, Grigg (1976) determined the age-frequency distribution of
pink coral colonies in Makapuu bed. He applied annual growth rates to the size frequency
to calculate the age structure of pink coral at Makapuu Bed (Table 6).
Table 6. Age-Frequency Distribution of Corallium secundum (Source: Grigg 1973)
Age Group (years)
Number of Colonies
0B10
44
10B20
73
20B30
22
30B40
12
40B50
7
50B60
0
Estimates of density were also made for bamboo (Lepidisis olapa) and gold coral
(Gerardia sp.) for Makapuu bed. The distributions of both these species are patchy. As
noted in the FMP, the area where they occur comprises only half of that occupied by pink
A-38
coral (1.8 km2). Estimates of the unexploited abundance of bamboo and gold coral were
18,000 and 5,400 colonies, respectively. Estimates of density for the unexploited bamboo
coral and gold coral in the Makapuu bed are 0.01 colonies/m2 and 0.003 colonies/m2.
Using a rough estimate for the mean weights of gold and bamboo coral colonies (2.2 kg
and 0.6 kg), a standing crop of about 11,880 kg of gold coral and 10,800 kg for bamboo
for Makapuu bed was obtained.
Growth rates for several species of precious corals found in the western Pacific region
have been calculated.
Grigg (1976) determines that the height of pink coral (C. secundum) colonies increases
about 0.9 cm/yr up to about 30 years of age. As noted in the FMP for precious corals, the
height of the largest colonies of Corallium secundum at Makapuu bed rarely exceed 60
cm. Colonies of gold coral are known to grow up to 250 cm tall while bamboo corals may
reach 300 cm. The natural mortality rate of pink coral at Makapuu bed is believed to be
0.066, equivalent to an annual survival rate of about 93%.
Bibliography
Grigg RW, Bayer FM. 1976. Present knowledge of the systematics and zoogeography
of the Order Gorgonacea in Hawaii. Pac Sci 30(2):167B75.
Grigg RW, Opreska D. 1977. Order Antipatharia: black corals. In: editor(s). Reef and
shore fauna of Hawaii. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Pr. p 242B61. Special
publication nr 64(1).
Grigg RW. 1974. Growth rings: annual periodicity in two gorgonian corals. Ecology
55:876B81.
Grigg RW. 1976. Fishery management of precious and stony corals in Hawaii.
Honolulu: Univ Hawaii Pr. 48 p. Report nr SEAGRANT-TR-77-03...
Grigg RW.1982. Status of the precious coral industry in 1982. Final report to the
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. Honolulu: WPRFMC.
Grigg RW. 1988. Recruitment limitations of deep benthic hard-bottom octocoral
populations in the Hawaiian Islands. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 45:121B6.
Grigg RW.1993. Precious coral fisheries of Hawaii and the US Pacific Islands. Mar
Fish Rev 55(2):50B60.
Oishi FG.1990. Black coral harvesting and marketing activities in HawaiiC1990.
Honolulu: DAR, Dept of Land and Natural Resources.
A-39
3. BOTTOMFISH SPECIES
3.1 Bottomfish Habitat
Unlike the US mainland with its continental shelf ecosystems, the Pacific islands are
primarily volcanic peaks with steep drop-offs and limited shelf ecosystems (Ralston 1979).
Bottomfish are found concentrated on the steep slopes of deepwater banks of these islands. In
the Hawaiian deep-sea handline fishery, 13 species of snappers and jacks and one species of
grouper are commonly caught at depths of 60 to 350 m (Ralston and Polovina 1982). As
noted in Amendment 2 of the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Bottomfish and
Seamount Groundfish Fisheries, these depths have insufficient sunlight to support an
abundance of coral or algae (calcareous or otherwise); however, some corals, particularly
black coral (Antipathes spp.), have been observed at depths of 15 to 50 fathoms, which
correspond to shallow bottomfish habitat.
The habitat of six of the most important Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) bottomfish
tend to overlap, as indicated by the depth range at which they can be hooked. Even with this
overlap, certain species are still more common at specific depths. As noted in Amendment 2
of the bottomfish FMP, adult bottomfish in the NWHI are found at depths of from 40 to 145
fathoms (Table 7).
Table 7. Habitat depth range for dominant Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish.
Species
Hooking Depth Range
Average
(Fa)
Opakapaka
Onaga
Hapu=upu=u
Butaguchi
Ehu
Uku
30-110
100-150
50-150
40-100
110-180
20-60
70
125
100
70
145
40
In a five-year study of the bottomfish fishery resource of the Northern Mariana Islands
and Guam, Polovina et al. (1985) found bottomfish species to be stratified by depth with
three broad distributions located throughout the archipelago. Between 164 and 183 m,
black trevally (Caranx lugubris), yelloweye opakapaka (Pristipomoides flavipinnis), pink
opakapaka (P. filamentosus) and lehi (Aphareus rutilans) are common; between 183 to
201 m, yellowtail kalekale (P. auricilla), kahala (Seriola dumerili) and gindai (P. zonatus)
are most abundant; and at depths of greater than 201 m, Pristipomoides sieboldii (pink
kalekale), onaga (Etelis coruscans), ehu (E. carbunculus) and Epinephelus sp were the
most abundant (Table 8).
A-40
Table 8. Depth distribution of bottomfish species
Scientific Name
Mean Depth
From 164 to 183 m
M
Fathoms
N
Caranx lugubris (black lugubris)
166
91
270
Pristipomoides flavipinnis (yelloweye opakapaka)
170
93
499
Pristipomoides filamentosus (pink opakapaka)
170
93
191
Aphareus rutilans (lehi)
174
95
81
Pristipomoides auricilla (yellowtail kalekale)
188
102
1,166
Seriola dumerili (kahala)
196
107
47
Pristipomoides zonatus (gindai)
199
109
3,890
Epinephelus sp
214
117
38
Pristipomoides sieboldii (pink kalekale)
214
117
200
Etelis coruscans (onaga)
218
119
200
Etelis carbunculus (ehu)
225
123
950
From 183 to 201 m
>201 m
However, depth alone does not assure satisfactory habitat. As noted in Amendment 2 of
the bottomfish FMP, variations in catch rates along the same depth contour indicate that
the quantity and quality of benthic habitat are also both important. The underwater habitat
of bottomfish consists of a mosaic of sandy and rocky areas. In the NWHI the benthic
topography varies dramatically from abrupt drop-offs associated with pinnacles and banks
to gently sloping atolls.
Within their natural habitat, bottomfish populations are not evenly distributed but are
found dispersed in a non-random, patchy fashion. As noted in the bottomfish FMP, adult
bottomfish in the NWHI are found in habitats characterized by a hard substrate of high
structural complexity. Areas of increased bottom complexityCsuch as pinnacles, drop-offs
and other high relief, rocky substrateCare prime fishing grounds (Ralston 1979). In his
study of the Penguin Bank in the Hawaiian Islands, Haight (1989) observed aggregations
of up to 100 opakapaka (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and lehi (Aphareus rutilans) 2B10
m above high-relief coral bench substrate and in the vicinity of underwater headlands and
promontories. Areas of high relief form localized zones of turbulent vertical water
movement, which may increase the availability of prey (Haight et al. 1993).
The distribution of some species of deepwater snappers also appears to be closely related
to current flow. Ralston et al (1986) found that the up-current side vs. the down-current
A-41
side of Johnston Atoll supported higher densities of opakapaka. It is hypothesized that
water flow may enhance food supplies in certain areas (Haight 1989; Parrish et al. 1997).
While bottomfish species are attracted to similar habitat, there appears to be negligible
multi-species interaction (Ralston and Polovina 1982). Polovina (1987) found a weak
predator-prey relationship among the species of the NWHI bottomfish complex. As noted
in Amendment 2, the establishment of territorial strongholds by individual species may
account for the low multi-species interaction. Amendment 2 also notes that variations are
known to occur in the way different bottomfish utilize habitat.e.g., opakapaka are believed
to migrate into shallower depths during the night hours; onaga are caught in considerably
deeper water than other species of snappers and in association with abrupt relief zones,
such as outcroppings, pinnacles and drop-offs; and groupers generally are much more
sedentary than snappers and are more dependent on hard substrates. Haight (1989) found
that niche overlap between species of deep-slope snappers on Penguin Bank, in terms of
forage habitat and forage period, was reduced by the individual species=s different depth
and dietary preferences.
3.2 Bottomfish Yield
Bottomfish production off western Pacific islands is inherently limited because only a
narrow portion of the ocean bottom satisfies the depth requirements of most bottomfish
species. Since bottomfish are typically found concentrated in the steep drop-off zones
around the 100-fathom isobath, the length of the 100-fathom isobath is commonly used as
an index of bottomfish habitat (Polovina, 1985).
Bottomfish yield estimates in the western Pacific bottomfish fishery are usually estimated
on the basis of yield per nautical mile of the 100-fathom contour that surrounds an island
or bank (Polovina, 1985). Beginning in 1980, the National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS) conducted a five-year resource assessment of the fishery resources of the
Mariana archipelago. This resource assessment was designed to quantify the sustainable
yield and distribution of the fishery resources, including bottomfish, of Guam and the
Northern Mariana Islands. A systematic fishing survey of the bottomfish resources at
depths of 125B275 m of 22 islands and banks in the Mariana archipelago was conducted
(Polovina et al. 1985). In this study Eteline snappers, particularly Pristipomoides zonatus,
P. auricilla, and Etelis carbunculus, dominated the catch (Dalzell and Preston 1992). In
addition, bathymetric surveys were conducted at 11 banks and islands where the
bathymetric data were insufficient to conduct fishery resource assessment work (Polovina
et al. 1985).
As part of this resource assessment, a depletion experiment was carried out at Pathfinder
Reef, a seamount west of the main islands. The results of this experiment were used to
estimate the unexploited biomass at 288 tons for the archipelago. The estimated yield of
403 lb of bottomfish per year per nautical mile of 100-fathom isobath appears to be
representative of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) that can be expected from
bottomfish resources of tropical islands in the Pacific, as noted in Amendment 1 of the
A-42
bottomfish FMP. Applying this figure to the estimated length of the bottomfish habitat in
American Samoa and Guam, an estimate of MSY of bottomfish can be derived for each
area. As noted in Amendment 1 of the bottomfish FMP, American Samoa, with
approximately 196 nautical miles of 100-fathom isobath, can expect a MSY of 79,000 lb
per year, and Guam, with approximately 138 nautical miles of 100-fathom isobath, can
expect an MSY of 56,000 lbs per year (Tables 9 and 10).
Table 9. Index of bottomfish habitat. (Source: Amendment 1 of bottomfish FMP).
Island Area
Approximate Length of 100fathom Isobath, nm (km)
American Samoa
Guam
Main Hawaiian Islands
196 (313)
138 (255)
997 (1,846)
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
1,231 (2,280)
Table 10. Extent of Approximate Bottomfish Habitat and Yield for American Samoa and Guam.
Island Area
Approximate Length of 100Approximate Maximum Sustainable
fathom Isobath (nm)
Yield (MSY) of Bottomfish (lbs)
American Samoa and Offshore
Banks
196
78,988
138
55,614
Guam and Offshore Banks
Based on remote operational vehicle (ROV) and manned submersible observations,
maximum densities of deepwater snappers on Penguin Bank were calculated to be 1.06
fish/m2 to 1.37 fish/m2 (Haight 1989).
3.3 Biological Information
As noted in Amendment 3 of the bottomfish FMP, bottomfish resources of the western
Pacific region can be divided into three broad classes relative to their vertical distribution
on the islands= shelves and slopes: the reef fish complex, occupying shallow reefs, bays and
lagoons; the bottomfish complex, inhabiting the outer shelf and deep slopes; and the
groundfish complex, associated with seamount summits. The bottomfish complex includes
at least 65 species of four families: snapper (Lutjanidae), groupers (Serranidae), jacks
(Carangidae) and emperor fish (Lethrinidae). These species are primarily caught by hookand-line fishing gear. About 20 of these species are landed in substantial quantities.
Species composition and relative abundance of bottomfish management unit species
(BMUS) in the western Pacific have regional variations. For example, Uchiyama and
Tagami (1984) observed considerable variation throughout the NWHI; the most notable
trend was a predominance of opakapaka at French Frigate Shoals, Brooks Banks and
A-43
Necker Island and of ehu (Etelis carbunculus) west of Lisianski Island. The principal
species of NWHI bottomfish and seamount groundfish are shown in Table 11.
As noted in Amendment 2 of the FMP, although 15 bottomfish species are included in the
management unit, four species account for 95% of the 1986 landings of NWHI bottomfish
(Table 12).
In a five-year study of the bottomfish fishery resource of the Northern Mariana Islands and
Guam, Polovina et al. (1985) found gindai (Pristipomoides zonatus) accounted for 51.2
percent of the total catch, while gindai, ehu and yellowtail kalekale (P. auricilla) accounted
for 79.1 percent of the total bottomfish catch.
Table 11. Bottomfish Management Unit Species (BMUS)
Scientific Name
Common Name
American Samoa
Bottomfish
Aphareus rutilans
Aprion virescens
Caranx ignobilis
C. lugubris
Epinephelus fasciatus
E. quernus
Etelis carbunculus
E. coruscans
red snapper/silvermouth
gray snapper/jobfish
giant trevally/jack
black trevally/jack
blacktip gouper
sea bass
red snapper
red snapper
Lethrinus amboinensis
ambon emperor
L. rubrioperculatus
Lutjanus kasmira
Pristipomoides auricilla
P. filamentosus
P. flavipinnis
P. seiboldi
P. zonatus
Pseudocaranx dentex
Seriola dumerili
Variola louti
Seamount Groundfish:
Beryx splendens
Hyperoglyphe japonica
Pseudopentaceros
richardsoni
redgill emperor
blueline snapper
yellowtail snapper
pink snapper
yelloweye snapper
pink snapper
snapper
thicklip trevally
amberjack
lunartail grouper
Guam/ NMI
Hawaii
palu-gutusiliva
asoama
sapoanae
tafauli
fausi
maraap tatoong
tosan
tarakito
trankiton attilong
gadao matai
lehi
uku
white ulua/pauu
black ulua
palu-malau
palu-loa
guihan boninas
onaga
hapuupuu
ehu
onaga
mafuti/lililok
filoa-paoomumu
savane
palu-iusama
palu-enaena
palu-sina
palu-sega
papa
alfonsin
ratfish/butterfish
mafuti tatdong
sas/funai
guihan boninas
guihan boninas
guihan boninas
guihan boninas
guihan boninas/gindai
terakito
guihan tatdong
bueli
taape
yellowtail kalekale
opakapaka
yelloweye opakapaka
kalekale
gindai
butaguchi/pig ulua
kahala
kinmedai (Japanese)
medai (Japapanese)
kusakari tsubodai
(Japapanese)
armorhead
A-44
Table 12. Principal species of NWHI bottomfish and their percentages of the 1986 NWHI bottomfish
lands (Source: FMP for Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries)
Local Name
Common English Name
Opakapaka
Onaga
Hapuupuu
Butaguchi
Ehu
Uku
pink snapper
longtail snapper
seabass
thick-lipped trevally
squirrelfish snapper
gray snapper
A-45
Percent of 1986 Landings of NWHI
Bottomfish
36.9
13.3
25.9
19.6
3.7
1.0
3.4 Life History
Despite the importance of bottomfish and seamount groundfish species in the western
Pacific, the life histories of most of the species are not well known.
3.4.1 Eggs and larval stages
There have been very few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larval stages of snappers
(lutjanids) and groupers (epinepheline serranids), and, currently, very few larvae can be
identified to species. Leis (1987) provides a detailed review of the early life history of
tropical groupers (Serranidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae), which includes the following
information: Grouper and snapper larvae tend to be more abundant over the continental
shelf than in oceanic waters. An exception is the larvae of the subfamily eteline lutjanid,
which are generally more abundant in slope and oceanic waters than over the continental
shelf. During the day, grouper and snapper larvae tend to avoid surface waters. At night
they are more evenly distributed vertically in the surface water column. During the winter
months larvae of most species are much less abundant. Very little is known about the food
habits of serranid and lutjanid larvae. What is known is based on limited laboratory data.
More research is needed on all aspects of the early life history of snappers and groupers,
including feeding, growth and survival; ecology of early life history stages around oceanic
islands; year-to-year variation in spatial and temporal patterns; and return of young stages
to adult habitat from the pelagic larval habitat.
3.4.2 Juvenile
During 1988, the NOAA Fisheries= Honolulu Laboratory initiated an investigation to
identify the habitat requirements of juvenile snappers in the Hawaiian Islands. The
preliminary investigations have demonstrated the presence of juveniles of both
recreational and commercially important snappers (Pristipomoides filamentosus, Aprion
virescens, Aphareus rutilans) in a habitat relatively close to the fishing grounds for adults
but not where the adults congregate. Although the boundaries of the habitat and the
characteristics that make it attractive to juveniles remain to be defined, initial results
indicate juveniles occupy a flat, open bottom of primarily soft substrate in depths ranging
from 40 to 73 m. There is strong evidence that juvenile snappers utilize habitat that is
quite different then the adults (Parrish, 1989; Haight, 1989; Moffitt and Parrish, 1996;
Parrish et al., 1997). Parrish (1989) identified an aggregation of juvenile A. virescens and
P. filamentosus Ain 30 to 80 m of water over soft, flat bottom [email protected] The occurrence
of juvenile snappers in relatively shallow water and featureless bottom habitat indicates
the need to reconsider the importance of an area of ocean bottom previously thought to be
of minimal importance as fishery habitat.
3.4.3 Adults
The habitat utilization patterns of adult bottomfish are described in detail in section 1.1
and the following species profiles.
A-46
3.4.4 Forage and prey (feeding habits and principal prey)
Very few food habit studies of groupers and snappers have documented the depth at which
feeding occurs. Without data on feeding depths it is difficult to identify the specific depth
range that constitutes a species feeding habitat. Food habit studies of deepwater snappers
are especially difficult because gut contents are frequently lost due to regurgitation when
specimens are bought to the surface from great depths. Parrish (1987) provides a detailed
review of the trophic biology of snapers and groupers, which includes the following
information:
The reported depth range of many species of snappers and groupers is very great and often
changes with age. A small number of snapper species and a considerably larger list of
groupers appear to be restricted to feeding almost entirely in waters a few tens of m deep.
By contrast, a good many snappers and a very few groupers appear to feed almost entirely
in deep water down to depths of 400B500 m. Of the remaining fishes for which some
information is available, many species of both families seem to cover a range of
intermediate depths. Several occur very shallow as well as fairly deep, while others appear
limited to an intermediate range. In both families there are a few species that occur
shallow enough, commonly enough, to distinguish them from the deepwater group,: but
they are also commonly caught considerably deeper than the intermediate group
(150B200m) (Table 13).
Table 13. Likely depth ranges for major feeding of snapper and grouper management unit species.
Source: (Parrish 1987).
Shallow (To a few
Intermediate
Mixed
Deep
tens of m)
(Shallow to over
(Intermediate to
(Mostly over 100 m to 500 m).
100m)
deep)
1
Aprion virescens (uku)
Lutjanus kasmira
(blueline snapper)
Etelis carbunculus (ehu)
Etelis coruscans (onaga)
Pristipomoides auricilla (yellowtail kalekale)
Pristipomoides filamentosus (opakapaka)
Pristipomoides flavipinnis (yelloweye
opakapaka)
Pristipomoides sieboldii (kalekale)
Pristipomoides zonatus (gindai)
Epinephelus quernus (hapuupuu)
Based on the review of the available literature, Parrish (1987) concluded that snappers
engage in widespread, nocturnal foraging; groupers feed at all times of day, but
particularly near dusk and dawn; and most species of groupers take most of their prey at
or very close to the bottom. The food habits of very young juvenile snapper and grouper
are often different from those of adults.
Both groupers and snappers are omnivorous, opportunistic carnivores. Their diets include
a wide range of food items dominated by fish, crabs, shrimp and other benthic
crustaceans, especially stomatopods and lobsters. Cephalopods are another common diet
A-47
component, especially for snappers, which also eat large plankton, including particularly
pelagic urochordates and gastropods. Planktonic forms of prey are surprisingly important
for snappers, both in bulk consumed and frequency of occurrence, especially for many
deepwater species. Major planktonic food items include pelagic urochordates
(Pyrosomida, Salpidae, and Dolioda) and pelagic gastropods (pteropods and heteropods)
In most, but not all cases, these planktonic food items occur in species believed to forage
somewhat above the bottom. While surprisingly common in the diets of snappers,
planktonic animals have not been reported in the diets of groupers. As a whole, the diet of
snappers is considerably broader than that of groupers and includes a wider range of noncrustacean benthic organisms.
3.4.5 Reproductive biology
Grimes (1987) provides a detailed review of the reproductive biology of the Lutjanidae. In
the lutjanids, spawning take place at night, and is apparently timed to coincide with spring
tides at new and full moons. ACourtship behavior culminates in an upward spiral swim,
with gametes released at the apex,@ Grimes observers. AMany features of the reproductive
biology of lutjanids (e.g., spawning site preference, spawning seasonality, lunar
periodicity and spawning behavior) appear to be a strategy to introduce gametes into an
environment where predation is relatively less intense,@Grimes adds. However, the
strategy must also assure that young juveniles are returned to suitable, but patchy habitat
for settlement. Aprion virescens feeds high in the water column, i.e., in shallow water, as
well as at greater depths near the bottom.
Bibliography
Anderson WD Jr. 1987. Systematics of the fishes of the family Lutjanidae (Perciformes:
Percidei), the snappers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 1B31.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Inshore Fisheries Research
Project technical document nr 2. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.
Druzhinin AD. 1970. The range and biology of snappers (family Lutjanidae). J Icth
10:717B36.
Everson AR. 1986. Ehu. In: Uchida RN,. Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwest Hawaiian Islands. p 106B7. NOAA. Techinical report nr NMFS 38.
Grimes CB. 1987. Reproductive biology of Lutjanidae: a review. In: Polovina JJ,Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 239B94.
A-48
Haight WR. 1989. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater
snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii [MS thesis]. Honoulu: University
of Hawaii.
Haight WR, Kobayashi D, Kawamoto KE. 1993. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):20B7.
Humphreys RL Jr. 1986. Opakapaka. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery
atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Techinical report nr NMFS 38.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Moffitt RB, Parrish FA. 1996. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus. Pac Sci 50(4):371B81.
Parrish FA. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish Bull
87(4):1001B5.
Parrish FA, DeMartini EE, Ellis DM. 1997. Nursery habitat in relation to production of
juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Fish
Bull 95:137B48.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev. 47(4):19B25.
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull.
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Polovina JJ. 1982. A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea
handline fishery in Hawaii. Fish Bull. 80(3):435B48.
A-49
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution, and abundance of
bottomfishes in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY,
editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 229B247. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84B01 volume 1.
A-50
3.5 Life Histories and Habitat Descriptions for Bottomfish Species
3.5.1 Habitat description for Aphareus rutilans (red snapper, silvermouth)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Aphareus rutilans is a member of the family Lutjanidae and the subfamily Etelinae and is
one of two species of snappers found in the genus Aphareus. The English common name
of this species is red snapper or silvermouth. In American Samoa it is known as palugutusiliva; in Hawaii, lehi; in Guam and Northern Mariana Islands, maraap tatoong.
Allen (1985) describes the geographical distribution of A. rutilans as widespread
throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. It is found from East Africa in the west to the
Hawaiian Islands in the east and from southern Japan southward to Australia. It inhabits
hard rocky bottoms and coral reefs at depths of 6 m to at least 100 m and is typically
found singularly or in small groups, well above the bottom.
According to Allen, the medium-sized snapper is reported to reach a maximum length of
about 80 cm. The reported life span of snappers ranges between 4 and 21 years, with
larger species generally tending to have longer life spans of between 15 to 20 years.
Lutjanids reach sexual maturity when they=ve reached between approximately 43% and
51% of their maximum total length.
The lutjanids are dioecious (separate sexes) and display little or no sexual dimorphism in
color patterns or physical structure (Allen 1985). At Vanuatu, spawning reportedly occurs
during spring and summer but with a peak activity occurring during November and
December. Lutjanids are batch spawners, with females spawning several times over the
course of spawning season.
A. rutilans is an important commercial species in the island areas of the Indo-Pacific
region and is one of the principal target species in the Hawaiian deep-slope handline
fishery, Allen notes. It is caught primarily by handlines or bottom longlines, he adds.
Egg and Larval Distribution
There are relatively few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larvae of species of lutjanids.
According to Leis (1987), lutjanids eggs typically are less than 0.85mm in size and hatch
in 17B36 h depending on water temperature.
A-51
Little is known about this species larval life history stage. Newly hatched lutjanid eggs are
typical of other pelagic larvae. They have a large yolk sac, no mouth, unpigmented eyes
and limited swimming capabilities. The duration of the pelagic phase of lutjanids has been
estimated to range from 25 to 47 days (Leis 1987). Snapper larvae are subject to advection
by ocean currents (Munro 1987). It is thought that the pelagic phase of eteline lutjanids,
such as A. rutilans, is longer than that of Lutjanus spp., and size may be a more important
factor than age in determining when larval settlement occurs in lutjanids (Leis 1987).
Juvenile
There is virtually no information available concerning the life history and habitat
requirements of the juveniles of this species. Parrish (1989) found that the diet of juvenile
Pristipomoides filamentosus (red snapper or opakapaka), an eteline snapper, consists
primarily of small crustaceans. Other prey items include juvenile fish, cephalopods,
gelatinous plankton and fish scales.
Adult
Deepwater snappers, such as A. rutilans, are found on the steep slopes and deepwater
banks of Pacific islands. Adults aggregate near areas of high bottom relief (Parrish 1987).
Mixed groups of 50B100 individual snappers are known to aggregate above high relief
structures.
The diets of deepwater snappers, such as A. rutilans are poorly understood. Parrish (1987)
list of prey items include pelagic tunicates, fish, shrimp, cephalopods, gastropods,
planktonic urochordates and crabs. He reports that snappers feed mostly at night and
forage over a wide area, but notes that the depths at which snappers feed are not well
documented. Most of the fishing effort for deepwater snappers, such as A. rutilans occurs
in the steep drop-off zone that surrounds the islands and banks of the Hawaiian
archipelago (Ralston and Polovina 1982).
Essential Fish Habitat: Deep-water bottomfish complex (100-400 m). The EFH for A.
rutilans is shown in Table 14.
A-52
Table 14.Habitat description for Aphareus rutilans (red snapper, silvermouth)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
17B36 h depending on water
temperature.
N/A
25 to 47 days (Leis 1987).
UK
4 and 21 years
Unknown (UK)
UK
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Water Column
UK
UK
Pelagic
Pelagic
Demersal
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
UK
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
ocean currents
Subject to advection by
ocean currents
N/A
pelagic tunicates, fish,
shrimp, cephalopods,
gastropods, planktonic
urochordates and crabs.
widespread throughout the
tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean.
Found on the steep slopes
and deepwater banks of
Pacific islands.
Inhabits hard rocky bottoms
Adults aggregate near areas
of high bottom relief
N/A
Duration
Diet
A-53
Bibliography
Allen GR. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Volume 6, Snappers of the world. FAO. 208 p.
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory: contribution nr 17.
Anderson WD Jr. 1987. Systematics of the fishes of the family Lutjanidae (Perciformes:
Percidei), the snappers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, eds. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 1B31.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commision. Inshore fisheries research project Technical Document nr 2.
Haight WR. 1989. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater
snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii [MS thesis]. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii.
Haight,WR, Kobayashi D, Kawamoto KE. 1993. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):20B7.
Humphreys RL Jr. 1986. Opakapaka. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas
of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Techinical report nr NMFS 38.
Grimes CB. 1987. Reproductive biology of Lutjanidae: a review. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, eds. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder,
CO: Westview Pr. p 239B94.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Mees CC. 1993. Population biology and stock assessment of Pristipomoides filamentosus
on the Mahe Plateau, Seychelles. J Fish Biol 43:695B708.
Moffitt RB. 1993. Deepwater demersal fish. In: Andrew W, Hill L, editors. Nearshore
marine resources of the South Pacific, 73B95, FFA, Honiara. Suva: Institute of Pacific
Studies; Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency; Canada: International Centre for Ocean
Development.
Moffitt RB, Parrish FA. 1996. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus. Pac Sci 50(4):371B81.
A-54
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 639B59.
Okamoto H, Kanenaka B. 1983. Preliminary report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1977B1982. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue
KY, editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 123B143. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
Parrish F. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish Bull
87(4):1001B5.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston A, Polovina JJ.. 1982. A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea
handline fishery in Hawaii. Fish Bull 80(3):435B48.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution, and abundance of
bottomfishes in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY,
editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 229B247. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
A-55
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-56
3.5.2 Aprions virescens (Gray snapper, jobfish, uku)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands..
Aprion virescens is an eteline snapper in the family Lutjanidae. English common names
for this species include jobfish and gray snapper. The Hawaiian name for the species is
uku.
A. virescens is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region from Hawaii to East
Africa (Druzhinin 1970, Tinker 1978).
It comprises a major portion of the total bottomfish caught in Hawaii, second only to the
Pristipomoide filamentosus (red snapper, or opakapaka) in total landings. According to the
1996 Annual Report Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries of the Western
Pacific Region, reported landings in 1996 for A. virescens was approximately 49,000 lb
from the MHI and an additional estimated 28,000 lb from the NWHI, or roughly 11% of
the total reported BMUS landings in the Hawaiian Islands that year (WPRFMC 1997).
Kramer (1986) reports that A. virescens is caught only at Nihoa Island, Brooks Banks, St.
Rogatien Bank and Midway Islands in the NWHI. However, in a survey of the nearshore
fishery resources of the NWHI, uku were also observed at Necker Island, French Frigate
Shoals and Pearl and Hermes Atolls (Okamoto and Kanenaka 1983).
In American Samoa, A. virescens is the fourth most important species in terms of total
weight landed (11%) based on estimated total 1996 bottomfish landings published in the
1996 Annual Report Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries of the Western
Pacific Region. In Guam, it was the third most abundant species caught in a 1995 creel
survey of the bottomfish resources of Guam. According to the 1996 annual report, A.
virescens made up approximately 10% of the total reported BMUS landings in Guam in
1996. The species is much less abundant in the Northern Mariana Islands. In a fishery
assessment of the deepwater bottomfish in the Mariana archipelago, it comprised less than
one tenth of 1 percent of the total catch (Polovina 1987).
Ralston and Polovina (1982) report that most of the fishing effort for deepwater
bottomfish species occurs in the steep drop-off zone that surrounds the islands and banks
of the Hawaiian archipelago. They also state that a rough estimate of the total amount of
bottomfish habitat can be calculated by measuring the 100-fathom isobath that surrounds
an island or bank. They estimate that 1,025 nmi of 100-fathom isobath surrounds the MHI.
Dalzell and Preston (1992) estimate that American Samoa has 143.3 nm of 100-fm
isobath, and the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam collectively have 485 nmi of 100fathom isobath.
It has been shown that the distribution of deepwater snappers is non-random, with large
aggregations form near areas of prominent relief features such as headlands and
A-57
promontories (Ralston et al. 1986). Haight (1989) reports that if high relief, hard substrate
is used as the criterion of habitat suitability for deepwater snappers only a 14% of the total
area of Penguin Bank would be potential habitat. Based on the results of a depletion
experiment carried out at pathfinder reef in the Northern Mariana Islands, an estimation
for exploited biomass of 2.0 ton/nautical of 100-fathom isobath was calculated (Polovina
et al. 1985, Polovina and Ralston 1986).
Eggs and Larval Distribution
There are relatively few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larvae of species of lutjanids.
According to Leis (1987) lutjanids spawn small, pelagic, spherical, eggs that are typically
less than 0.85 mm in size and that hatch in 17B36 hours depending on species and water
temperature.
Very little is known about this species=s larval life history stage. The relatively low
abundance of lutjanid larvae in plankton samples makes ecological studies of them
difficult. Hoss et al. (1986, in Sale 1991) found that lutjanid larvae were most abundant
above 40 m in Caribbean Sea. Leis (1987) describes newly hatched lutjanid eggs as
typical of other pelagic larvae; they have a large yolk sac, no mouth, unpigmented eyes
and limited swimming capabilities. The duration of the pelagic phase of lutjanid has been
estimated to range from 25 to 47 days, Leis states. He also notes that the pelagic phase of
eteline lutjanid, such as, is longer than that of Lutjanus spp and that size may be more
important than age in determining when larval settlement occurs.
Juvenile
There is very little information available concerning the distribution and habitat
requirements of the juvenile stage of this species. Parrish (1989) observed a dense
aggregation of juvenile A. virescens, Pristipomoides filamentosus (pink snapper, or
opakapaka) and Aphareus rutilans (red snapper, sivermouth, or lehi) offshore of Kaneohe
Bay on the island of Oahu in an area of very low relief, at depths of 65B100 m. The
predominant species collected at this site was P. filamentosus, of which the greatest
abundance was located in an area comprised of soft, fine clay-silt sediments. In contrast,
five juvenile uku were caught at depths of 40 m where the bottom substrate was
comprised of hard, flat coarse sand, covered with Halimeda algae.
The flat, featureless habitat apparently favored by juvenile snappers is very different from
the high relief areas preferred by adults of the family. It is thought that the habitat
preferred by the juvenile may provide the advantage of reduced predation pressure and
lessened interspecific competition. It is believed that areas of uniform sediment type are
an important substrate feature for juvenile snapper (Parrish et al. 1997).
A-58
Adult
In Guam, A. virescens are found along the outer reef slopes, in deep channels and in
shallow lagoons at depths of 3B180 m (Amesbury and Myers 1982). Druzhinin (1970)
reported A. virescens at depths as great as 150 fathoms. Talbot (1960) reported that A.
virescens was more abundant in shallow water over coral reefs along the coast of East
Africa.
Haight (1989) found the diet of A. virescens on Penguin Bank in the MHI to include fish
(89%), larval fish (6%), planktonic crustaceans (1%), shrimp (3%) and crab (1%). Talbot
(1960) reported the diet of A. virescens on the coast of East Africa to consist of fish
(49%), plankton (17%), cephalopods (14%), nonplanktonic crustaceans (12%) and others
(8%). Unlike most other deepwater species of lutjanids, A. virescens has feeding habits
that do not seem to be constrained by substrate association (Parrish 1987). The species
forages throughout the water column, feeding high in the water column as well at greater
depths (Ralston 1979, Parrish 1987). A. virescens is the only lutjanid that is regularly
caught at or near the surface with a lure (Kramer 1986). Haight (1989) found the greatest
CPUE (fish/line-h) at depths of 50B100 m on Penguin Bank in the MHI. Haight (1989)
reports that A. virescens feed during daytime hours. The landings for this species are
seasonal. In Hawaii, the majority of the landings are made JuneBDecember (Ralston 1979,
Haight 1989).
A. virescens reach sexual maturity at approximately 438 cm (SL) (Grimes 1987). Lutjanid
species associated with islands obtain sexual maturity at a relatively larger size than
continental species. Likewise, deepwater species mature at a relatively larger size than
shallow water species (Grimes 1987). There is a consistent difference between percentage
of maximum length and when sexual maturity is obtained between continental and insular
species. Amesbury and Myers (1982) report that uku in Palau form
large spawning aggregations JanuaryBMay on the outer reef slope on or just after a new
moon. In Hawaii, A. virescens spawn during the summer months (Ralston 1979).
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow-water species complex (0-100 m). The EFH for A.
virescens is shown in Table 15.
A-59
Table 15. Species: Aprions virescens (Gray snapper, jobfish, uku)
Egg
Duration
Diet
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Larvae
17B36 h incubation time
depending on the species and
the water temperature (Leis
1987)
N/A
Juvenile
Adult
No information available
No information available
(No information available for
this species)
Fish (89%), larval fish (6%),
Planktonic crustaceans (1%),
shrimp (3%) and crab (1%),
(Haight 1989).
Aprion virescens form large
spawning aggregations in
Palau* Spawning in lutjanids
typically occurs at night during
spring tides (new moon and full
moon) (Grimes 1987).
Location
40 m, hard, flat, course sand
bottoms (Parrish 1989)
Water Column
Pelagic
Bottom Type
Oceanic Features
N/A
Lutjanid eggs are subject to
advection by ocean currents
(Munro 1987
A-60
Pelagic, lutjanid larvae were
found to be most abundant
above 40 m in the Caribbean
Sea (Hoss et al. 1986).
N/A
Lutjanid larvae are subject to
advection by ocean currents
(Munro 1987)
Demersal
Hard, flat, course sand bottom
It is thought that distribution of
juvenile snapper within its
preferred habitat type may be
closely related to water flow
Bibliography
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. Guam: Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory: contribution nr
17.
Anderson WD Jr. 1987. Systematics of the fishes of the family Lutjanidae (Perciformes:
Percidei), the snappers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 1B31.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commission. Inshore Fisheries Research Project technical document nr
2.
Druzhinin AD. 1970. The range and biology of snappers (family Lutjanidae). J Icth
10:717B36.
Haight WR. 1989. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater
snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii [MS thesis]. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii.
Grimes CB. 1987. Reproductive biology of Lutjanidae: a review. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 239B94.
Leis J.M. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Parrish F. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish Bull
87(4):1001B5.
Parrish FA, DeMartini EE, Ellis DM. 1997. Nursery habitat in relation to production of
juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Fish
Bull 95:137B48.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
A-61
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Polovina JJ. 1982. A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea
handline fishery in Hawaii. Fish Bull 80(3):435B48.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Talbot FH. 1960. Notes on the biology of the Lutjanidae (Pisces) of the East African
Coast, with special reference to L. Bohar (Forskal). Annals So Afri Museum
45:549B74.
Tinker SW. 1978. Fishes of Hawaii. Honolulu: Hawaiian Service. 532 p.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1995 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-62
3.5.3 Habitat description for large jacks: Caranx ignobilis (giant trevally/jack);
Pseudocaranx dentex (thick-lipped trevally, or butaguchi); Seriola dumerili (greater
amberjack, or kahala); Caranx lugubris (black trevally/jack)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Because of the great similarity in habitat utilization patterns, a single, general habitat
profile has been prepared for the following closely related BMUS: Caranx ignobilis (giant
trevally); Pseudocaranx dentex (thick-lipped trevally, or butaguchi); Seriola dumerili
(greater amberjack, or kahala); Caranx lugubris (black trevally/jack). Where available
information has been provided on a species specific level.
Large carangids, or jacks, form an important component of shallow water reef and lagoon
fish catches throughout the Pacific Islands The species are found distributed throughout
tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region in shallow coastal areas and in
estuaries and on reefs, the deep reef slope, banks and seamounts, notes Sudekum et al.
(1991). Despite their importance to fisheries, little is known about the basic biology and
habitat requirements of the large jacks, the authors add.
Caranx ignoblis is one of the most abundant species of jacks found in Hawaii, (Sudekum
et al. 1991). Seki (1986) notes that Pseudocaranx dentex is rarely caught in the MHI, but
is abundant in the NWHI where it is found at depths of 18B183 m. In addition to living on
deeper reef slopes and banks, P. dentex can also be found in near-shore areas in large
schools of 200B300 fish, Seki observes. Seriola dumerili is commonly found inhabiting the
inner reefs and outer slopes of island shelves to depths of 250 m (Humphreys 1986). It has
been observed at depths of up to 335 m (Myers 1991, Ralston et al. 1986). Caranx
lugubris occurs singularly or in small groups on offshore banks and along the steep outer
reef slopes at depths of 12 to 354 m (Myers, 1991). This circumtropical species appears to
be confined to clear, offshore waters at depths of 25 to 65 m (Smith and Heemstra, 1986).
C. lugubris is the most common carangid taken from offshore banks in the Marianas.
Jacks are highly mobile, wide-ranging predators that travel throughout the water column
from the surface to depths of 250 m, although they are closely more affiliated with
demersal habitats and feeding on benthos (Uchida and Uchiyama 1986, Sudekum et al.
1991).
Sudekum et al (1991) found that C. ignoblis reached sexual maturity at about 3.5 years (60
cm). C. ignoblis is the largest of the jacks found in the Indo-Pacific region and may
obtain a total weight of over 50 kg with a lifespan in excess of 15 years (Lewis et al.
1983). S. dumerili reaches sexual maturity at about 54 cm, when it is between 1 and 2
A-63
years old (Kikkawa and Everson 1986, Uchida and Uchiyama 1986). C. lugubris reach
sizes of up to 85 cm (Randall et al., 1990).
The sex ratio of females to males for C. ignoblis in Hawaii was slightly skewed in favor of
femalesC1:1.39 (Sudekum et al. 1991). In contrast, Lewis et al. (1983) report a sex ratio in
favor of male C. ignoblis of nearly 2:1 in Fiji.
In Hawaii, peak spawning for C. ignoblis occurs between May and August. Gravid fish of
are found between April and November in the NWHI (Sudekum et al. 1991). In Fiji,
Lewis et al. (1983) found that a fairly brief spawning period occurs from October to
December, with peak activity in late October to early November. Johannes (1981) reports
that C. ignoblis spawns in pairs within larger aggregations during new and full moon
events. Myers (1991) reports that C. ignoblis gather to spawn on offshore banks and
shallow seaward reefs. Humphreys (1986) reports that in the NWHI, S. dumerili spawn
throughout the year with peak activity occurring in April.
Jacks are taken principally by deep-sea handline gear as well as traps (Seki 1986). As
commercial landing data for carangids are often combined, accurate catch data for
individual species are usually not available. In American Samoa, Guam and the Northern
Mariana Islands jacks as a group account for between 3% and 8% of the reported
bottomfish landings. Landings of jacks in Guam comprise mainly a mix of C. ignoblis
and C. malampygus (WPRFMC 1997). C. lugubris is an important food fish in the
Marianas despite concerns about ciquatera (Myers, 1991).
S. dumerili is nowadays landed in insignificant amounts in Hawaii but used to be an
important component of bottomfish landings in Hawaii. The decline in landings is due
principally to its association with ciguatera intoxications and a ban on commercial sales of
this species (Uchida and Uchiyama 1986). P. dentex accounts for approximately 15% of
the total catch in the NWHI bottomfish fishery (WPRFMC 1997).
Egg and Larval Distribution
The available literature describing the egg and larval stages of tropical marine fish is
exceedingly sparse. According to Miller et al. (1979), the available information
demonstrates that carangid larvae are common in the near-shore waters of Hawaii.
Caragnid eggs are planktonic, spherical and 0.70-1.3 mm in diameter (Laroche et al.,
1984; Miller et al. 1979). One to several oil globules are usually present (Laroche et al.,
1984). Caragnid eggs hatch in 24 to 48 hours after spawning at water temperatures of 18
to 30 C (Laroche et al., 1984). The identification of carrangid eggs to even the family
level is frequently impossible because their similarity in size and appearance to many
other marine fishes (Laroche et al., 1984).
Carangid larvae are relatively small, 1.0 to 2.0 mm, at hatching (Laroche et al., 1984).
Larvae have a relatively large yplk sac and possess an oil globule at the anterior end of the
sac (Laroche et al., 1984). The lack of diagnostic morphological features makes it
A-64
difficult to identify newly hatched carangid larvae to even the family level (Laroche et al.,
1984).
Miller et al. describe Seriola sp. larvae as moderately deep-bodied and large-headed and
possessing well-developed preopecular spines. In a survey of larval distribution in nearshore waters of Hawaii, Seriola sp. were found to be relatively uncommon, the authors
add.. The researchers also found that more Seriola sp. larvae were taken in summer than
in winter, although not significantly. They also found that Seriola sp. larvae were more
common in offshore than in near-shore tows. The early life history of C. lugubris is poorly
known.
Juvenile
Juvenile C. ignoblis are often found in near-shore and estuarine waters (Lewis et al. 1983)
and in small schools over sandy inshore reef flats (Myers 1991).
There a few food habit studies available for the genus Seriolla. The feeding habits of a S.
quinqueradiata, a related species, indicates that juveniles prey on the larvae and juveniles
of Mullidae, Engraulidae, Scomberesocidae and planktonic crustaceans.
Adult
C. ignoblis is predominantly piscivorus in itsr diet, fish comprising >90% of its
diets(Sudeum et al. 1991, Parrish et al. 1980). This fish also preys on crustaceans,
gastropods and cephalopods. Sudekum et al. (1991) found that the diet of C. ignoblis
included abundant (13.6%) parrotfish (Scaridae), as well as roundscads or opelu, wrasses
(Labridae), bigeyes (Priacanthidae) eels (Muraenidae, Congridae), cephalopods and
crustaceans (crabs, shrimp and lobsters).
The predominance of reef fishes in the diet of C. ignoblis strongly suggests that shallowwater reef habitats are of prime importance as foraging habitat for large jacks. However,
the occurrence of small pelagic fish such as roundscads and squid in the diets of these
species diets indicates that time is also spent foraging in the water column (Sudekum et al.
1991). C. ignoblis appears to be primarily a nocturnal feeder (Sudekum et al. 1991,
Okamoto and Kawamoto 1980) It has been estimated that C. ignoblis along with C.
melampygus, another large jack may annually consume as much as 30,000 mt of prey at
French Frigate Shoals in the NWHI (Sudekum et al. 1991).
S. dumerili is an opportunistic bottom feeder, with primary prey items comprising fishes,
eels, groupers (Serranidae), bigeyes, crustaceans (crabs and shrimps) and octopus (Seki
1986, Humphreys 1980). Humphreys (1986) observes that S. dumerili diet in the NWHI is
includes bottom-associated prey and octopus while in the MHI the primary prey items are
pelagic species, such as roundscads. There is a significant shift in the diet of S. dumerili
from cephalopods to fish as it increases in weight (Humphreys 1980).
A-65
All species of jacks may range throughout the water column, but they are associated
primarily with demersal habitat.
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow-water species complex (0-100 m). The EFH for large
jacks is shown in Table 15.
A-66
Table 16. Habitat description for large jacks
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
24 to 48 hours after
spawning at water
temperatures of 18
to 30 C
In Hawaii, Seriola sp. larvae are more
common in offshore than in near-shore
tows. The early life history of C. lugubris
is poorly known.
C. ignoblis lifespan in excess of 15 years
Diet
N/A
No information available
C. ignoblis reached sexual
maturity at about 3.5 years
(60 cm). S. dumerili reaches
sexual maturity at about 54
cm, when it is between 1 and
2 years old
There is a significant shift in
the diet of some species of
jacks from cephalopods to
fish they increase in age
Distribution: General
and Seasonal
In Hawaii, Seriola sp. larvae were taken
in summer than in winter, although not
significantly.
often found in near-shore and
estuarine waters and in small
schools over sandy inshore
reef flats
Water Column
pelagic
pelagic
bentho-pelagic
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection
by prevailing
currents
Subject to advection by prevailing
currents
Jacks are found over a wide
variety of bottom type,
shallow-water reef habitats
are prime foraging habitat
N/A
A-67
predominantly piscivorus, fish comprising
>90% of its diets. Also preys on crustaceans,
gastropods and cephalopods, eels. Shallowwater reef habitats are of prime importance as
foraging habitat for large jacks. Time is also
spent foraging in the water column.
found distributed throughout tropical and
subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region
in shallow coastal areas and in estuaries and
on reefs, the deep reef slope, banks and
seamounts
bentho-pelagic, All species of jacks range
throughout the water column, but they are
associated primarily with demersal habitat.
Jacks are found over a wide variety of bottom
type, shallow-water reef habitats are prime
foraging habitat
N/A
Bibliography
Humphreys RL Jr. 1986. Greater amberjack. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors.
Fishery atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Technical report nr
NMFS 38.
Humphreys RL Jr. 1980. Feeding habits of the kahala, Seriola dumerili, in the Hawaiian
archipelago. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on
Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, volume 2; 1980 May
25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 233B40. Report nr UNIHISEAGRANT-MR-84-01.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon. Berkeley: Univ California Pr. 245 p.
Kikkawa BS, Everson AR . 1984. Gonadal maturation, fecundity and spawning of the
greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) in Hawaiian waters with reference to ciquatoxin
incidences. In: Grigg RW , Tanoue KY, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on
Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, volume 2; 1980 May
25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 149B160. Report nr UNIHISEAGRANT-MR-84-01.
Laroche, W.A., W.F. Smith-Vaniz and S.L. Richardson. 1984. Carangidae: development.
in
Ontogeny and systematics of fishes, based on an international symposium
dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, August 15-18, 1983, La Jolla,
California. Special publication of the American Society of icthyologists and
herpetologists, no 1. pp. 510-522.
Lewis AD, Chapman LB, Sesewa A. 1983. Biological notes on coastal pelagic fishes in
Fiji. Fiji: Fisheries Division (MAF). Technical report nr 4.
Miller JM, Watson W, Leis JM. 1979. An atlas of common nearshore marine fish larvae
of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
Miscellaneous report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-02.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Barrigada, Guam: Coral Graphics.
Okamoto H, Kawamoto P. 1980. Progress report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: 1977 to 1979. In: Grigg, RW,
Pfund RT, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on the status of resource
investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI.
p 71B80. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. Miscellaneous
report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Parrish J, Taylor L , DeCrosta M, Feldkamp S, Sanderson L, Sorden C. 1980. Trophic
studies of shallow-water fish communities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In:
A-68
Grigg RW, Pfund RT, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on the status of resource
investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. p 175B88. Miscellaneous
report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottom fish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull. 84:141B55.
Randall, John E., Gerald R. Allen, and Roger C. Steene. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier
Reef and Coral Sea. Crawford House Press, Bathhurst, Australia. 507 pp.
Seki MP. 1986. Butaguchi. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
Seki MP. 1984. The food and feeding habits of the white trevally, Pseudocaranx dentex in
the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: RW Grigg, Pfund RT, editors. Proceedings of
the Symposium on Status of Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands, volume 2; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea
Grant College Program. p 264-77. Miscellaneous report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR80-04.
Smith=s Sea Fishes. 1986. Smith, Margaret M., and Phillip C. Heemstra (eds). SpringerVerlag, Berlin.
Sudekum AE, Parrish JD, Radtke RL, Ralston S. 1991. Life history and ecology of large
jacks in undisturbed, shallow, oceanic communities. Fish Bull (89):492B513.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-69
3.5.4 Habitat description for Epinephelus fasciatus (blacktip grouper)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Epinephelus faciatus is a member of the Serranidae family, the groupers. The English
common name of species is blacktip grouper. In American Samoa it is known as fausi; in
Guam and Northern Mariana Islands it is gadao matai.
According to Heemstra and Randall (1993) E. fasciatus is a common worldwide with
distinguishable populations in six areas: 1) Western Pacific, 2) Pacific Plate islands, 3)
Marquesas Islands, 4) Japan, 5) Western Australia, and 6) Indian Ocean and Red Sea. In
the Pacific, it is found from the Pitcairn Islands in the east to Australia in the west and as
far north as Japan and Korea. In the Indian Ocean, this species ranges from the Red Sea to
Western Australia. It is not found in the Hawaiian Islands.
Heemstra and Randall state that E. fasciatus inhabit coral reefs and rocky bottom substrate
from the shore to a depth of 160 m. In Madagascar, where i t is one of the most abundant
serranids found, it inhabits depths of 20 to 45 m.
The authors go on to say that, except for occasional spawning aggregations, most species
of groupers are solitary fishes with a limited home range. Based on the results of tagging
studies, it has been found that serranids are resident to specific sites, often residing on a
particular reef for years.
Based on the available data, groupers appear to be protogynous hermphrodites. Heemstra
and Randall note that, after spawning for one or more years, the female undergoes sexual
transformation, becoming male.
According to the authors, some species of serranids spawn in large aggregations, others in
pairs. Individual males may spawn several times during the breeding season. Some
species of groupers are known to undergo small, localized migrations, of several km to
spawn.
Because of its distribution and abundance in shallow waters, E. faciatus is an important
food fish throughout its geographic range. According to Heemstra and Randall, the
primary fishing gear types used to take this species includes hook-and-line, gill nets,
spears, and traps.
A-70
Egg and Larval Distribution
According to Heemstra and Randall, serranid larvae are distinguishable by their [email protected] bodies and highly developed head spination. The pelagic, fertilized eggs of E.
faciatus are spherical and transparent and range in size from 0.70 to 1.20 mm in diameter
with a single oil globule 0.13 to 0.22 mm in diameter. Based on the available data, the
length of the pelagic larval stage of groupers is 25B60 days. The wide geographic
distribution of serranids is thought to be due to this relatively long pelagic larval phase,
the authors note.
Juvenile
Very little is known about the distribution and habitat utilization patterns of this species.
Research has found that transformation of pelagic serranid into benthic larvae takes place
between 25 mm to 31 mm TL (Heemstra and Randall, 1993). The juveniles of some
species of serranids are known to inhabit sea-grass beds and tide pools. There is no
specific information available for the habitat utilization patterns of juvenile E. fasciatus.
Adult
E. fasciatus is a common species throughout its range. It inhabits coral reefs and rocky
bottom from shallows to 160 m (Smith and Heemstra 1986).
Serranids typically are long-lived and have relatively slow growth rates; E. fasciatus
reported to reach a maximum length of about 40 cm (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Groupers are typically ambush predators, hiding in crevices and among coral and rocks in
wait for prey (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Adults reportedly feed during both the day
and night. Harmelin-Vivien and Bouchon (1976) report the diet of E. fasciatus includes
brachyuran crabs, fishes, shrimps and galathied crabs (Heemstra and Randall, 1993).
Other food habit studies identify octopus, crabs, stomatopods, fishes and ophiurids in the
diet of E. fasciatus (Morgan 1982, Randall and Ben-Tuvia 1983).
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow-water species complex (0-100 m). The EFH for E.
fasciatus is shown in Table 17.
A-71
Table 17. Habitat description for Epinephelus fasciatus (blacktip grouper)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Serranid eggs incubate in 20-35
days
25B60 days
Serranids are long-lived , slow
growing species.
Diet
N/A
No information available
Transformation of pelagic
serranid into benthic larvae
takes place between 25 mm to
31 mm TL
No information available
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Serranid eggs have a relatively
long pelagic phase that results
in wide geographic distribution
pelagic
N/A
Serranid larvae have a long
pelagic phase that results in
wide geographic distribution
pelagic
N/A
demersal
inhabits coral reefs and rocky
bottom substrate from the shore
to a depth of 160 m.
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
demersal
The juveniles of some species
of serranids are known to
inhabit sea-grass beds and tide
pools. There is no specific
information available for the
habitat utilization patterns of
juvenile E. fasciatus.
N/A
Water Column
Bottom Type
Oceanic Features
A-72
The diet of E. fasciatus includes
brachyuran crabs, fishes,
shrimps and galathied crabs,
octopus, stomatopods, and
ophiurids
Common worldwide including
western Pacific region
N/A
Bibliography
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory contribution nr 17.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commision. Inshore fisheries research project technical document nr. 2.
Harliem-Vivien ML, Bouchon C. 1976. Feeding behavior of some carnivorous fishes
(Serranidae and Scopaenidae) from Tulear (Madagascar). Mar Biol 37:329B40.
Haight WR, Kobayashi D, Kawamoto KE. 1993. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):20B7.
Heemstra PC, Randall JE. 1993. FAO fisheries synopsis, nr 125, volume 16. Rome: Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 241 p.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Moffitt RB. 1993. Deepwater demersal fish. In: Wright A, Hill L, editors. Nearshore
marine resources of the South Pacific, 73B95, FFA, Honiara. Suva: Institute of Pacific
Studies; Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency; Canada: International Centre for Ocean
Development.
Morgans JFC. 1982. Serranid fishes of Tanzania and Kenya. Ichthyol Bull. JLB Smith
Inst Ichthyol 46:1B44, 6 pls.
Okamoto H, Kanenaka B. 1983. Preliminary report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1977B1982. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue
KY, editorss. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; University of Hawaii, Honolulu,
HI. p 123B43. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
Parrish, Frank. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish Bull
87(4):1001B5.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
A-73
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Randall JE, Ben-Tuvia A. 1983. A review of the groupers (Pisces: Serranidae:
Epinephelinae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species of Cephalopholis.
Bull Mar Sci 33(2):373B426.
Smith MM, Heemstra PC, editors. 1986. Smith=s sea fishes. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami.DT. 1983. Life history, distribution and abundance of bottomfishes
in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors.
Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the northwestern
Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p
229B47. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
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3.5.5 Habitat description for Epinephelus quernus (sea bass, hapuupuu)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Epinephelus quernus is a member of the family Serranidae. The English common name of
this species is sea bass. In Hawaii adults of this species are known as hapu. Juveniles are
referred to as hapuupuu.
According to Heemstra and Randall (1993) E. quernus is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands
and Johnston Atoll. It is the only grouper species native to the Hawaiian Islands, although
a closely related species, E. niphobles, is found in the Eastern Pacific. E. quernus is found
at a depth range of 20B380 m, the authors add.
Hook and line is the primary gear type used to take this species. Between the years of
1984B1995, E. quernus accounted for approximately 14% of the total deep-slope
bottomfish landed in Hawaii (WPRFMC 1997).
Egg and larval distribution
Heemstra and Randall describe the small pelagic, fertilized eggs as spherical, transparent
and 0.70B1.20 mm in diameter with a single oil globule 0.13B0.22 mm in diameter.
Serranid larvae are characterized by their [email protected] bodies and highly developed head
spination, Heemstra and Randall note. Based on the best available data the length of the
pelagic larval stage of groupers 25B60 days. The wide geographic distribution of serranids
is thought to be due to this relatively long pelagic larval phase, the authors continue.
Transformation of pelagic serranid into benthic larvae takes place between 25 mm and 31
mm TL.
Juvenile
Juvenile E. quernus are commonly taken in lobster traps in the NWHI. Besides this
limited information there is no specific information available for the distribution, habitat
requirements or habitat utilization patterns of juveniles of this species. However, the
juveniles of some species of serranids are known to inhabit sea-grass beds and tide pools
(Heemstra and Randall 1993).
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Adult
Adults of this species typically attain at least 80 cm total length and reach a weight of 10
kg (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Heemstra and Randall note that groupers are typically ambush predators, hiding in
crevices and among coral and rocks in wait for prey. Adults feed during both day and
night, the authors add. Seki (1984) reports that the diet of E. quernus consists primarily of
fish with crustaceans, particularly shrimp, being the next most abundant prey item.
Essential Fish Habitat: Deep-water species complex (100-400 m). The EFH for E. querus
is shown in Table 18.
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Table 18. Habitat description for Epinephelus quernus (sea bass, hapuupuu)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Serranid eggs incubate in 20-35
days
25B60 days
Serranids are long-lived , slow
growing species.
Diet
N/A
No information available
Transformation of pelagic
serranid into benthic larvae
takes place between 25 mm to
31 mm TL
No information available
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Serranid eggs have a relatively
long pelagic phase that results
in wide geographic distribution
Serranid larvae have a long
pelagic phase that results in
wide geographic distribution
Water Column
Bottom Type
pelagic
N/A
pelagic
N/A
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
A-77
demersal
Juvenile E. quernus are
commonly taken in lobster traps
in the NWHI. Besides this
limited information there is no
specific information available
for the distribution, habitat
requirements or habitat
utilization patterns of juveniles
of this species. However, the
juveniles of some species of
serranids are known to inhabit
sea-grass beds and tide pools
N/A
E. quernus consists primarily of
fish with crustaceans,
particularly shrimp, being the
next most abundant prey item.
E. quernus is endemic to the
Hawaiian Islands and Johnston
Atoll. It is the only grouper
species native to the Hawaiian
Islands.
demersal
E. quernus is found at depths of
20B380 m. It inhabits rocky
bottom substrate.
N/A
Bibliography
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory contribution nr 17.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commission Inshore fisheries research project technical document nr 2.
Heemstra PC, Randall JE. 1993. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily
Epinephelinae). Rome: FAO. 382 p. Fisheries synopsis nr 125, volume 16.
Kendall AW Jr. 1984. Serranidae: development and relationships. In: Moser HG, Richards
WJ, Cohen DM, Fahay MP, Kendall AW Jr, Richardson SL, editors. Ontogeny and
systematics of fishes. An international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert
Halvor Ahlstrom; 1984 Aug 15B18; La Jolla, CA. Am Soc of Icthyol and Herpetol. p.
499B510.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Moffitt RB. 1993. Deepwater demersal fish. In: Wright A, Hill L, editors. Nearshore
marine resources of the South Pacific, 73B95, FFA, Honiara. Suva: Institute of Pacific
Studies; Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency; Canada: International Centre for Ocean
Development.
Morgans JFC. 1982. Serranid fishes of Tanzania and Kenya. Ichthyol Bull. JLB Smith
Inst Ichthyol 46:1B44, 6 pls.
Okamoto H, Kanenaka B. 1983. Preliminary report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1977B1982. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue
KY, editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 123B43. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, eds. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder,
CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
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Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB , Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana srchipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
Polovina, JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Randall JE,, Ben-Tuvia A. 1983. A review of the groupers (Pisces: Serranidae:
Epinephelinae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species of Cephalopholis.
Bull Mar Sci 33(2):373B426.
Seki MP. 1984. The food and feeding habits of the grouper, Epinephelus quernus Seale,
1901, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors.
Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p
179-91. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 2.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution, and abundance of
bottomfishes in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, eds.
Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p
229B47. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 2.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-79
3.5.6 Habitat description for Etelis carbunculus (red snapper, ehu)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Etelis carbunculus is a red snapper that is known in Hawaii as ehu. It is widely distributed
throughout the Indo-Pacific region from East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and from
southern Japan to Australia (Allen 1985; Everson 1984). Like most bottomfish species, E.
carbunculus is important in western Pacific fisheries but its life history is not well known
(Ralston 1979).
E. carbunculus are found concentrated on the steep slopes of deepwater banks of Pacific
Islands in habitats characterized by a hard substrate of high structural complexity. They
are found solitarily or in small groups in depths of 90 to 350 m (Allen 1985, Everson
1984, Ralston and Polovina 1982).
E. carbunculus reportedly obtain sexual maturity at about 29.8 cm FL (Everson 1986).
Everson (1984) reports that the sex ratio is skewed 2:1 in favor of females over males.
They reportedly reach a maximum length of 80 cm.
Everson (1984) reports that E. carbunculus are serial spawners, spawning multiple times
during the spawning season, and that they have a shorter, more well-defined spawning
period than do most other species of snappers, spawning from July to September in the
NWHI. In Vanuatu spawning reportedly occurs throughout most of the year (Allen 1985).
E. carbunculus is an important commercial species throughout its range and is taken
primarily with deepsea handlines. It is one of the principal species in the deepwater
bottomfish fishery in Hawaii, accounting for approximately 7% of the total reported
bottomfish landings in 1996 (WPRFMC 1997). NMFS data show that it is the
predominant species of deepwater bottomfish in the NWHI west of Lisianski, accounting
for 22.7% to 86.5% of the total bottomfish landed in these areas (Everson 1986;
Uchiyama and Tagami 1984).
In American Samoa, E. carbunculus is one of the most valuable species landed and
comprised almost 9% of the total reported bottomfish landings in 1996 (WPRFMC 1997).
In a five-year study of the bottomfish fishery resources of the Northern Mariana Islands
and Guam, Polovina et al. (1985) collected more than 30 species of fish. E. carbunculus
was one of the three most abundant species collected, accounting for 12.5% of the total
fish collected.
In Guam, it comprised 4% of the total reported bottomfish landed in 1996 (WPRFMC
1997). Catch data for the Northern Mariana Islands are not available for this species.
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Egg and Larval Distribution
In a detailed review of the early life history of tropical snappers, Leis (1987) points out
that there have been very few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larval stages of lutjanids
and that very few larvae can be identified to species. However, it is possible to distinguish
E. carbunculus larvae from E. coruscans in specimens larger than 13.7 mm (Leis and Lee
1994).
Eteline snapper larvae are generally more abundant in slope and oceanic waters than over
the continental shelf (Leis and Lee 1994, Leis 1987). During the day, snapper larvae tend
to avoid surface waters, but at night they are more evenly distributed vertically in the
surface water column, Leis notes (1987). During the winter months larvae of most species
are much less abundant, he adds.
Juvenile
There is very little information available concerning the preferred habitat of juveniles of
this species. Juvenile ehu are found dispersed in their natural habitat (Kelly 1998,
Reseacrher Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB), personal communication).
Parrish (1989) demonstrated that the habitat requirements of the juveniles of several
species of deepwater snappers are markedly different than those of adults.
Adult
The distribution and preferred habitat of adults of this species are described above.
In a detailed review of the trophic biology of snappers, Parrish (1987) states that, like
most species of fully deepwater snappers, very little is known about the food habits of the
E. carbunculus. Food habit studies of these species are difficult because gut contents are
frequently lost due to regurgitation when specimens are brought to the surface from great
depths, he explains. However, he notes, in the Mariana Islands important prey items in the
diet of E. carbunculus include fish, benthic crustaceans and pelagic urochordates.
Planktonic forms of prey are surprisingly important for snappers, both in bulk consumed
and frequency of occurrence, especially for many deep-water species, Parrish adds. Major
planktonic food items include pelagic urochordates (Pyrosomida, Salpidae, and Dolioda)
and pelagic gastropods (pteropods and heteropods).
According to Parrish, the depths at which E. carbunculus feed are not well documented,
but it is believed that most deep-water snappers, including this species, feed primarily at
or near the bottom. There is also very little information available about the type of
substrate where feeding occurs, he says. But, he notes, these species are usually caught in
areas of rather high relief, particularly on the steep slopes of islands.
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Haight (1989) found that the catch rate for E. carbunculus was highest between 200B250
m on Penguin Bank in the MHI. He also found that E. carbunculus fed primarily between
1800B2000, with fish comprising almost 98% of the prey items in the species=s diet. Other
prey items included copepods, shrimp, crabs and octopus. This species is known to be an
aggressive feeder (Haight 1989, Ralston 1979).
Essential Fish Habitat: Deepwater bottomfish complex (100B400 m). The EFH for E.s is
shown in Table 19.
E. carbunculus is found concentrated on the steep slopes of deepwater banks of Pacific
Islands in habitats characterized by a hard substrate of high structural complexity (Ralston
1979, Ralston and Polovina 1982, Everson 1984, Polovina 1985, Haight 1989, Moffitt and
Parrish 1996). Ehu is found concentrated between the depths of 90 to 350 m (Allen 1985,
Everson 1984, Ralston and Polovina 1982).
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Table 19. Habitat description for Etelis carbunculus (red snapper, ehu)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
17B36 h incubation time
depending on the species
and the water
temperature
No information available
No information available
Diet
N/A
The pelagic larval phase of lutjanids life
history last for 25B-47 days and that size
may be a more important factor than age in
determining when settlement occurs. Size
at settlement varies widely among species
and ranges from 10-50 mm
No information available
No information available
Distribution:
General and
Seasonal
Not well documented,
widely distributed.
Eteline snapper larvae are more abundant
in slope and oceanic waters than over the
continental shelf
Water Column
Pelagic
Bottom Type
N/A
Lutjanid larvae are known to avoid the
surface layer during the day (Leis 1987).
At night, snapper larvae are found more
evenly distributed throughout the surface
waters (Leis 1987).
N/A
No specific information
available, the habitat
requirements of the
juveniles of several
species of deepwater
snappers are markedly
different than those of
adults.
Demersal: No specific
information is available
for the distribution and
habitat preferences of
juvenile onaga
No information available
The diet of E. carbunculus include fish, benthic
crustaceans and pelagic urochordates
It is widely distributed throughout the IndoPacific region from East Africa to the Hawaiian
Islands and from southern Japan to Australia
Oceanic Features
Lutjanid eggs are subject
to advection by ocean
currents
Lutjanid larvae are subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-83
No information available
Adult
Demersal, E. carbunculus is found concentrated
on the steep slopes of deepwater banks of Pacific
Islands in habitats characterized by a hard
substrate of high structural complexity. Found
concentrated between the depths of 90 to 350 m
Areas of high relief, (e.g., steep slopes,
pinnacles, headlands, rocky outcrops)
Areas of high relief form localized zones of
turbulent vertical water movement. Higher
densities of some eteline snapper species have
been found on the up-current side islands, banks
and atolls.
Bibliography
Allen GR. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Volume 6, Snappers of the world. FAO. 208 p.
Everson AR. 1986. Ehu. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwest Hawaiian Islands. p 106B7. NOAA. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
Everson AR. 1984. Spawning and gonadal maturation of the ehu, Etelis carbunculus, in
the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors. Proceedings
of the second symposium on resource investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 128B48.
Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 2.
Haight WR. 1989. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater
snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii [MS thesis]. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Moffitt RB, Parrish FA. 1996. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus. Pac Sci 50(4):371B81.
Parrish F. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish Bull
87(4):1001B5.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston A, Polovina JJ. 1982. A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea
handline fishery in Hawaii. Fish Bull 80(3):435B48.
A-84
3.5.7 Habitat description for Etelis coruscans (red snapper, onaga)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Etelis coruscans has the common English name of red snapper and is known in Hawaii as
onaga. Ralston (1979), while noting that the life history of the E. coruscans is poorly
understood, says the species is widely distributed throughout the Pacific region and
extends into the Indian Ocean, with known occurrences in Hawaii, Samoa, the Mariana
Islands, the Cook Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.
An eteline snapper in the Lutjanidae family, E. coruscans is found in considerably deeper
waters then other species of deep-slope snappers (Everson 1986, Moffitt 1993). It is
caught at depth ranging from 100B160 fathoms (Ralston 1979). E. coruscans is found in
association with areas of abrupt relief, such as steep drop-offs, ledges, outcrops and
pinnacles (Everson 1986). Ralston (1979) determined that 92% of the total E. coruscans
landed in Hawaii were taken in deep, offshore waters beyond the 3-mile limit of state
jurisdiction.
According to the 1996 Annual Report for Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish in the
Western Pacific, E. coruscans accounted for approximately 10% of the total reported
bottomfish landings for the NWHI (311,000 lb) and almost 16% of the reported total
landings of BMUS (421,000 lb) in the MHI and commanded the highest price per pound
of any bottomfish species landed in Hawaii. It also accounted for 11% of the total reported
BMUS landings (32,245 lb) in American Samoa and commanded the second highest price
per lb of any species landed in the territory. In the Northern Mariana Islands, E. coruscans
was the single most abundant bottomfish species landed in 1996, accounting for almost
29% of the total catch (52,967 lb), and commanded the highest price per pound of any
bottomfish species landed in the the commonwealth, the annual report continues. In
Guam, the species comprised only about 3% of the total reported bottomfish landings
(54,122 lb), the report adds. While relatively uncommon in Guam, the E. coruscans is a
highly prized species.
Haight (1989) studied the trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of
deepwater snappers on Penguin Bank, Hawaii. Of the six species of lutjanid snappers
collected in his study, E. coruscans made up 7% of the total catch. The size of the E.
coruscans taken in this same study ranged from 26.5B74.4 cm FL.
Ralston (1979) says E. coruscans is known to reach sizes of up to 80 lb, but most
commercially landed E. coruscans weigh between 1B15 lb. In the MHI most of the E.
coruscans landed are taken from the Pengiun BankBNorth Molokai region, Ralston adds.
Landings of E. coruscans are seasonal in Hawaii, with CPUE increasing during the fall
A-85
and early winter months, peak landings occurring in or around the month of December
and minimum of E. coruscans landings occurring during the early summer months,
Ralston observes.
A cluster analysis of bank catch composition in the Mariana archipelago determined that
the banks can be grouped into three catch profiles, southern, northern and seamount
clusters. The seamount cluster was characterized throughout the resource assessment by
its higher proportion of Etelis species (Etelis coruscans and E. carbunculus), almost twice
the amount of the other clusters (Polovina, 1985).
Lutjanids, such as E. coruscans, are hooked near or several m above the bottom (Moffitt
1993).
Eggs and Larval Distribution
There have been very few ecological or taxonomic studies of the eggs and larvae of E.
coruscans. As discussed, most of the available data pertaining to the early life stages of
lutjanids are broad, nonspecies specific in nature. Leis (1987) says lutjanids spawn small,
pelagic, spherical, eggs that are typically less than 0.85 mm in size and that hatch in 17B36
hours depending on species and water temperature.
Little is known about this species=s larval life. Leis (1987) notes that newly hatched
lutjanid larvae have unpigmented eyes, no mouth, a large yolk sac, spination of the head
and fins, and limited swimming capabilities, he says. Lutjanid larvae are known to avoid
the surface layer during the day, but, at night, they are found evenly distributed throughout
the surface waters, he observes. The duration of their pelagic phase has been estimated to
range 25 B47 days, and larvae of eteline snapper, including those of E. coruscans, are
found in greater abundance over oceanic and slope waters than over the waters of the
continental shelf, he notes. It is thought that the pelagic phase of eteline lutjanids is longer
than that of Lutjanus spp., and size may be a more important factor than age in
determining when larval settlement occur, Leis says. Snapper larvae are subject to
advection by ocean currents (Munro 1987).
Juvenile
Virtually nothing is known about juvenile E. coruscans life history and habitat
requirements. Current research has shown that shallow, flat featureless areas may be
essential habitat for growth and survival of juvenile Pritipomoides filamentosus, Aprion
virescens and Aphareus rutilans. Research has identified two areas that support dense,
persistent aggregations of juvenile snapper in relatively shallow water (65B100 m). Both
are in the MHICthe first is off Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu, and the second, off the
southwest coast of Molokai. The flat featureless substrate of these two sites is quite
different than the high-relief, hard bottom that adult snappers are known to inhabit.
A-86
At the Kaneohe Bay site, an internal, semi-diurnal tide provides an influx of cold water to
the area at high tide (Moffitt and Parrish 1996). It has been hypothesized that such a water
flow may enhance food supplies in an area (Parrish et al. 1997). Parrish et al (1997) also
found a significant correlation between juvenile snapper abundance and sources of coastal
drainage at the site off of Molokai. Research to identify additional juvenile bottomfish
nursery areas in the Hawaiian Islands is ongoing. Research to identify, describe and map
nursery habitat areas for juvenile E. coruscans throughout the region is needed.
Adult
Adult E. coruscans are found in considerably deeper waters than other species of snappers
(Everson 1986, Moffitt 1993). They are caught at depths ranging from 100 to 160 fathoms
(Ralston 1979). They are found in areas of abrupt relief, such as steep drop-offs, outcrops,
ledges and pinnacles. They grow to a much larger size (81 cm FL) than other species of
Etelis and Pristipomoides and weigh up to 20 kg (Amesbury and Myers 1982). Everson
(1986) reports the mean weights of males and females of the species to be 4.28 kg and
5.45 kg respectively in the NWHI.
Analyzing the CPUE distribution by depth intervals for all species landed, Haight (1989)
found that E. coruscans are caught at the highest rate between depths of 250 and 300 m,
the deepest region occupied by any of the snappers common to the Hawaiian Islands that
have been collected. This compares with an average hooking depth of 125 fathoms in the
NWHI noted in Amendment 2 of the bottomfish FMP and 119 fathoms in the Northern
Mariana Islands observed by Polovina et al.(1985).
Peak feeding times for adult E. coruscans occur during daylight hours, with the highest
catch rates between 0600B0800 hours (Haight 1989). E. coruscans feed at or near the
bottom (Moffitt 1993), and their diet includes fish (76.4%), shrimp (16.4%), planktonic
crustaceans (3.4%), chepalopods (2%), urocordates (1.5%) and crabs (.2%) (Haight 1989).
While little is known about the reproductive cycle of E. coruscans it is probably similar to
ehu (Everson 1986). Polovina and Ralston (1986) estimate sexual maturity at two years of
age. In the NWHI, ripe ovaries were collected from E. coruscans in August and
September during a study that took place during the summer months only (Everson 1986).
Grimes (1987) reports that deepwater snappers reach sexually maturity at approximately
50% of their total length.
Essential Fish Habitat: Deep-water complex (100-400). The EFH for E. corsuscans is
shown in Table 20.
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Table 20. Species: Etelis coruscans (red snapper, onaga)
Egg
Duration
17B36 h incubation
time depending on
the species and the
water temperature
(Leis 1987)
Diet
N/A
Distribution:
General and
Seasonal
Water Column
Pelagic
Bottom Type
N/A
Oceanic Features
Lutjanid eggs are
subject to advection
by ocean currents
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Leis (1987) reports that the pelagic
larval phase of lutjanids life history last
for 25B-47 days and that size may be a
more important factor than age in
determining when settlement occurs.
Size at settlement varies widely among
species and ranges from 10-50 mm
No information available
No specific information
available
Etelis coruscans is a long-lived, slow growing
species
Not known
Eteline snapper larvae are more
abundant in slope and oceanic waters
than over the continental shelf (Leis
1987)
The species is widely
distributed throughout the
Pacific region
Lutjanid larvae are known to avoid the
surface layer during the day (Leis
1987). At night, snapper larvae are
found more evenly distributed
throughout the surface waters (Leis
1987).
N/A
Demersal:
fish (76.4%), shrimp (16.4%), planktonic
crustaceans (3.4%), chepalopods (2%), urocordates
(1.5%), crabs (.2%) (Haight 1989).
The species is widely distributed throughout the
Pacific region and extends into the Indian Ocean,
with known occurrences in Hawaii, Samoa, the
Mariana Islands, the Cook Islands, Tuvalu and
Vanuatu.
Demersal, 100-160 fathoms
Lutjanid larvae are subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-88
No specific information is
available for the distribution
and habitat preferences of
juvenile onaga
No information available
Areas of high relief, (e.g., steep slopes, pinnacles,
headlands, rocky outcrops)
Higher densities of some eteline snapper species
have been found on the up-current side islands,
banks and atolls.
Bibliography
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory: contribution nr 17.
Everson AR. 1986. Onaga. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. p 108B109. NOAA. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
Haight WR. 1989. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater
snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii [MS thesis]. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii.
Haight WR, Kobayashi D, Kawamoto KE. 1993. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):20B7.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Moffitt RB. 1993. Deepwater demersal fish. In: Wright A, Hill L, editors. Nearshore
marine resources of the South Pacific, 73B95, FFA, Honiara.Suva: Institute of Pacific
Studies, Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency; I Canada: I nternational Centre for Ocean
Development.
Moffitt RB, Frank AP. 1996. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus. Pac Sci 50(4):371B81.
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 639B59.
Parrish FA, DeMartini EE, Ellis DM. 1997. Nursery habitat in relation to production of
juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Fish
Bull 95:137B48.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
A-89
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution, and abundance of
bottomfishes in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY,
editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p. 229B47. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1995 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-90
3.5.8 Habitat description for Lethrinus amboinensis (ambon emperor)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Lethrinus amboinensis is a member of the Lethrinidae family and the subfamily
Lethrininae. It has the English common name of ambon emperor, while in American
Samoa, it is commonly known as filoa-gutumumu and in Guam and the Northern Mariana
Islands, as mafuti or lililok. It is absent from the Hawaiian Islands.
Carpenter and Allen (1985) present a major review of the known habitat requirements and
life history of L. amboinensis. The species is found from southern Japan to northwestern
Austalia and from Indonesia eastward through the Marshall Islands, Solomons, Samoa and
the Marquesas. It is commonly confused with L. microdon and L. olivaceus, the authors
note.
Very little is known about the biology of this species or its habitat utilization patterns. It is
known to inhabit deeper waters of coral reefs and adjacent sandy bottom areas. According
to Carpenter and Allen, lethrinids are found inhabiting coastal waters, including coral and
rocky reefs, sandy bottoms, sea-grass beds and mangrove swamps.
The spawning behavior of lethrinids is poorly documented. Based on the limited data
available, Carpenter and Allen describe a generalized pattern: Spawning is generally
prolonged, occuring throughout the year. It is preceded by small, localized migrations at
or near dusk. Peak spawning events occur on or near the new moon. Large aggregations of
lethrinids have been observed spawning near the surface as well as at the bottom of reef
slopes, the authors state.
Lethrinids are relatively long-lived, with an average age range of 7 to 27 years, Carpenter
and Allen report. The average age of growth cessation for lethrinids is 11 years with a
reported maximum size of approximately 70 cm total length. The males tend to be of a
larger size than females. The ambon emperor is commonly taken at sizes ranging from 30
to 50 cm in total length, the authors add.
Lethrinids are of moderate to significant importance in commercial, recreational and
artisanal fisheries throughout the tropical Pacific, Carpenter and Allen report. In American
Samoa, L. amboinensis accounted for approximately 2% of the total landed bottomfish
reported in the 1996 Annual Report of Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish in the
Western Pacific. In contrast, L. amboinensis and L. rubrioperculatus accounted for
approximately 18% and 20% of the total landed bottomfish in Guam and the Northern
Mariana Islands, respectively, according to the 1996 annual report. In the case of the
Northern Mariana Islands, there was a preponderance of L. rubrioperculatus in the total
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lethrinids landed. Emperors are taken primarily with handlines, droplines longlines and
traps, the annual report notes. Carpenter and Allen (1989) say that lethrinids are important
recreational target species in some countries, and some species of lethrinids are reported
to be ciguatoxic.
Egg and Larval Distribution
Carpenter and Allen describe lethrinid eggs as pelagic, spherical and colorless, possessing
an oil globule and ranging in size from 0.68 to 0.83 mm in diameter. The eggs typically
hatch within 21 to 40 hours after fertilization occurs, they add.
Newly hatched lethrinid larvae range in size from 1.3 to 1.7 mm. The general physical
characteristics include an unopened mouth, a large yolk sac, unpigmented eyes, variable
body pigmentation and, most notably, extensively developed head spination and cheek
scales, Carpenter and Allen report.
Juvenile and Adult
As discussed above, very little is known about the biology of L. amboinensis or its habitat
utilization patterns. It is known to inhabit deeper waters of coral reefs and adjacent sandy
bottom areas. Carpenter and Allen say lethrinids are found inhabiting coastal
watersCincluding coral and rocky reefs, sandy bottoms, sea-grass beds and mangrove
swampsCand adult L. amboinensis prey primarily on fishes and crustaceans.
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow-water species complex (0-100 m)
Bibliography
Allen GR. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Volume 6, Snappers of the world. FAO.
Fisheries synopsis nr 125, volume 6. 208 p.
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory contribution nr 17.
Carpenter KE, Allen GR. 1989. FAO species catalogue. Volume 9, Emperor fishes and
large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). FAO. Fisheries synopsis nr 125,
volume 9. Rome: FAO. 118p.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commission. Inshore fisheries research project technical document nr 2.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
A-92
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
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3.5.9 Habitat description for Lethrinus rubriopeculatus (redgill emperor)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Lethrinus rubrioperculatus is a member of the family Lethrinidae, the subfamily
Lethrininae and the genus Lethrinus. The English common name of this species is redgill
emperor. In American Samoa it is known as filoa-pa=o=omumu; in Guam and the Northern
Mariana Islands it is called mafuti tatdong. L. rubrioperculatus is not found in the
Hawaiian Islands.
Carpenter and Allen (1989) describe the geographical distribution of this species as being
widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, from East Africa to the Marquesas, from southern
Japan to Australia. Adults of this species are found inhabiting sand and rubble areas on
outer reef slopes to depths of 160 m, the researchers note. Individuals of the species are
commonly found at lengths of approximately 30 cm and that the maximum reported total
length for this species is 50 cm, they add.
The common mode of sexuality in Lethrinids is sequential protogynous hermaphroditism.
When lethrinids first obtain sexual maturity they are initially female, later they change.
Carpenter and Allen say that this reproductive mode explains several aspects of lethrinid
population structure: the sex ration is usually slightly in favor of females, and on average
males tend to be larger then females. Research indicates that the sexual transformation
occurs over a wide size range, the authors note.
L. rubrioperculatus is commonly taken with handlines, trawls and traps and is one of the
most important commercial species of bottomfish in the Northern Mariana Islands,
Carpenter and Allen continue.
Egg and Larval Distribution
Lethrinid eggs are pelagic. They are described by Carpenter and Allen as spherical,
possessing an oil globule and between 0.68 and 0.83 mm in size. They hatch between 21
and 40 hours after fertilization. Newly hatched lethrinid larvae are 1.3B1.7 mm in length,
with unpigmented eyes, unopened mouth, variable body pigmentation and a large yolk
sac. Extensive spination of the head is a notable feature of lethrinid larvae=s physical
appearance, Carpenter and Allen note.
Juvenile
There is virtually no information available concerning the distribution or habitat
utilization patterns of this species.
A-94
Adult
Adults of this species feed primarily on crustaceans, fish, echinoderms and molluscs
(Allen 1985).
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow-water species complex (0-100 m)
Bibliography
Allen GR. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Volume 6, Snappers of the world. FAO.
Fisheries synopsis nr 125, volume 6. 208 p.
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam, Volume 1, The
fishes. University of Guam Marine Laboratory: contribution number 17. Univ Guam
Pr.
Carpenter KE, Allen GR. 1989. FAO species cataloque. Volume 9, Emperor fishes and
large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). Rome: FAO. Fisheries synopsis nr
125, volume 9. 118 p.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commission. Inshore Fisheries Research Project technical document nr
2.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
A-95
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-96
3.5.10 Habitat description for Lutjanus kasmira (blue-lined snapper, taape)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Lutjanus kasmira is in the family Lutjanidae, subfamily Lutjaninae. L. kasmira is
distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region; from East Africa to the Line and
Marquesas Islands, from Australia to Japan (Allen 1985, Druzhinin 1970). It also occurs
in waters around Hawaii where it was introduced in 1955 and 1961 by the Hawaii
Department of Land and Natural Resources (Uchida 1986). There are concerns among
fishermen that L. kasmira may compete with native species of commercially important
bottomfish, but available data does not support this claim (Oda and Parrish 1981).
L. kasmira is found on outer reef slopes at depths of up to 265 m and in shallow inshore
waters and lagoons (Myers 1991; Amesbury and Myers 1982). Myers (1991) observes
that, during the day, the species commonly forms large aggregations near high relief
bottom features such as prominent coral heads, ledges, caves, wrecks and patch reefs, and
at night, disperses to forage on benthic organisms, primarily crustaceans and fish.
Lutjanids are dioecious (Allen 1985). L. kasmira reaches maturity at 12 B25 cm. Suzuki
and Hioka (1979) note that group spawning has been observed in L. kasmira in the
evening and at night. Males initiate courtship by rubbing and pecking against the body of
the female. As other males congregate, they begin an upward spiral ascent, culminating
with the release of the gametes near the surface, the authors state. Mizenko (1984) found
that spawning events occur with a lunar periodicity coinciding with full and new moon
events over an extended spawning period. In Western Samoa, peak spawning occurs
during the autumn and winter months, the author adds.
Egg and Larval Distribution
Very little is known about this species=s early life history. Suzuki and Hioka describe the
eggs as 0.78B0.85 mm, noting that fertilized eggs are buoyant and spherical and contain, a
single oil globule. They hatch in approximately 18 hours at 22 to 25 C under controled
conditions, the authors add.
Newly hatched lutjanid eggs are typical of other pelagic larvae. They are subject to
advection by ocean currents (Munro 1987). Suzuki and Hioka say newly hatched L.
kasmira larvae measure 1.83 mm in total length and possess a large ellipsoid yolk. Leis
(1987) estimates the pelagic larval phase of lutjanids at 25B47 days. It is thought that the
pelagic phase of Lutjanus spp. is shorter than that of the eteline lutjanids, and size may be
a more important factor than age in determining when larval settlement occurs, Leis notes.
A-97
Juvenile
Juveniles of this species are known to utilize shallow water habitats such as seaward reefs
and sea-grass beds as nursery habitat (Myers 1991; Amesbury and Myers 1982).
Adult
L. kasmira is found widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, occurring in a variety of
habitat types and depths. Mizenko (1984) found that except during spawning events the L.
kasmira was segregated by sex, with males dominating the deeper waters of the outer reef
slope.
L. kasmira is a nocturnal predator that preys primarily on fish and crustaceans (Parrish
1987, Oda and Parrish 1981, Van der Elst 1981). Rangarajan (1972) reports that the chief
prey items of L. kasmira, in order of abundance, include teleost fish, crabs, megalopa and
prawns. Rangarajan concludes that there is no significant difference in the diets of young
and adult fish of this species.
L. kasmira is frequently sold in local markets. In American Samoa it accounts for
approximately 11% of the total reported bottomfish landings (WPRFMC 1997). In
Hawaii, it is one of the principal species taken in the deep slope handline fishery (Allen
1985). The bulk of the taape landed are taken in state waters (Ralston 1979). In Guam,
taape accounted for a little over 3% of the total reported bottomfish landed (WPRFMC
1997). Catch data are not available for this species for in the Northern Mariana Islands. L.
kasmira is taken primarily by means of handlines, gill nets and traps (Allen 1985).
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow water bottomfish complex (0B100 m).
L. kasmira is found in a wide range of habitats. It is often found in shallow, near-shore
habitats and is commonly found in association with coral reef habitats.
Bibliography
Allen R. 1985. Snappers of the world. FAO. Fisheries synopsis nr 125, volume 6. 208 p.
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Vol. 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory contribution nr 17.
Druzhinin AD. 1970. The range and biology of snappers (family Lutjanidae). J Icththy
10:717B36.
Grimes CB. 1987. Reproductive biology of Lutjanidae: A review. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 239B94.
A-98
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Mizenko D. 1984. The biology of Western Samoan reef-slope snapper (Pisces:
Lutjanidae) populations of Lutjanus kasmira, L. rufolineatus and Pristipomoides
multidens [MS thesis]. University of Rhode Island.
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 639B59.
Myers, Robert F. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Barrigada, Guam: Coral Graphics.
Oda DK, Parrish J. 1981. Ecology of commercial snappers and groupers introduced to
Hawaiian reefs. In: Gomez ED , Birkeland CE, Buddemeier RW,Johannes RE, Marsh
JA Jr, Suda RT, editors. Proceedings of the fourth international coral reef symposium;
18B22 May 1981; Manila, Philippines. 1:59B67.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management
.Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Rangarajan K. 1972. Food and feeding habitats of the snapper, Lutjanus kasmira (Forskal)
from the Andaman Sea. Indian J Fish 17:43B52.
Suzuki K, Hioka S. 1979. Spawning behavior, eggs, and larvae of the Lutjanid fish,
Lutjanus kasmira, in an aquarium. Japanese J Icthy. 26(2):161B6.
Talbot FH. 1960. Notes on the biology of the Lutjanidae (Pisces) of the East African
Coast, with special reference to L. Bohar (Forskal). Annals So Afri Museum.
45:549B74.
Uchida RN. 1986. Taape. In: Uchida RN,Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwest Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. p 110B1. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
Van der Elst R. 1981. A guide to common sea fishes of southern Africa. Cape Town,
South Africa: C. Struik. 367 p.
A-99
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
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3.5.11 Habitat description for Pristipomoides auricilla (yellowtail snapper, yellowtail
kalekale), P. flavipinnis (yelloweye snapper, yelloweye opakapaka) and P. zonatus
(snapper, gindai)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
These three Pristipomoides, or snappers, are part of the fish assemblage associated with
the rocky deeper reef slopes in the Indo-Pacific region beyond the areas of hermatypic
corals. All three species are found in depths ranging from 80 to 300 m, although P.
auricilla and P. flavipinnis are most abundant in the depth range 180B270 m, and P.
zonatus, between 100 and 200 m. P. auricilla and P. zonatus are found throughout the
western Pacific region, while P. flavipinnis is absent from Hawaii.
These three species do not comprise major fractions of bottomfish catches in Hawaii, but
P. zonatus and P. auricilla form about 6% and 20% respectively of commercial
bottomfish catches in Guam.
Egg and Larval Distribution
There are relatively few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larvae of species of lutjanids.
Lutjanids eggs typically are less than 0.85mm in size (Leis 1987). They hatch in 17B36 h
depending on water temperature.
Clarke (1991), in a larval fish survey conducted off Oahu in the MHI, found eteline
snapper larvae were rarely collected, comprising less than 0.5% of the 5,200 fish larvae
identified. In this study, eteline snapper larvae were collected exclusively during the late
summer and fall.
Very little is known about this species larval life history stage. Newly hatched lutjanid
eggs are typical of other pelagic larvae. They have a large yolk sac, no mouth,
unpigmented eyes and limited swimming capabilities. Snapper larvae are subject to
advection by ocean currents (Munro 1987). Leis (1987) estimated the duration of the
pelagic phase of lutjanids at 25B 47 days. It is thought that the pelagic phase of eteline
lutjanids, such as P. seiboldii, is longer than that of Lutjanus spp, and size may be a more
important factor than age in determining when larval settlement occurs in Lutjanids, Leis
notes.
Juvenile
Very little is known about the distribution and habitat requirements of this species.
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Adult
See ALife History and General [email protected] above.
Essential Fish Habitat: Deep-water species complex (100-400). The EFH for P. auricilla,
P. flavipinnis and P. zonatus is shown in Table 15.
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Table 21.Habitat description for Pristipomoides auricilla, P. flavipinnis and P. zonatus
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
17B36 h 18 hours
No information available
No information available
Diet
N/A
The pelagic larval phase of
lutjanids life history last for 25B47 days and that size may be a
more important factor than age
in determining when settlement
occurs.
No information available
No information available
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Not well documented, widely
distributed.
Eteline snapper larvae are more
abundant in slope and oceanic
waters than over the continental
shelf
Very little is known about the
distribution and habitat
utilization patterns of this
species.
Water Column
Pelagic
Demersal
Bottom Type
N/A
Lutjanid larvae are known to
avoid the surface layer during
the day. At night, snapper larvae
are found more evenly
distributed throughout the
surface waters.
N/A
Cconsists primarily of fish,
crab, shrimp, polychaetes,
pelagic urochordates and
cephalopods
All three species are found in
depths ranging from 80 to 300
m, although P. auricilla and P.
flavipinnis are most abundant in
the depth range 180B270 m, and
P. zonatus, between 100 and
200 m. P. auricilla and P.
zonatus are found throughout
the western Pacific region,
while P. flavipinnis is absent
from Hawaii.
Demersal
Oceanic Features
Lutjanid eggs are subject to
advection by ocean currents
Lutjanid larvae are subject to
advection by ocean currents
No information available
A-103
No information available
Found over rocky bottoms at
depths of 80-300 m
No information available
Bibliography
Allen GR. 1985. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Vol. 6. , Rome: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations. 208 p.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 639B59.
A-104
3.5.12 Pristipomoides filamentosus (pink snapper, opakapaka)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Pristipomoides filamentosus is an eteline snapper in the family Lutjanidae. It known by
the English common name of pink snapper; in Hawaii, it is known as opakapaka. P.
filamentosus, is widely distributed throughout the Indo-west Pacific region (Mees 1993,
Druzhinin 1970). It is a deepwater species of snapper with a depth distribution of 30B360
m (Kami 1973, Moffitt 1993). It is a long-lived, slow-growing species, capable of
reaching a length of 31.5 inches and an age of 18 years (Moffitt 1993, Waas 1994).
P. filamentosus is one of the most important demersal species of fish managed by the
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council (the Council). The Council=s
1996 Annual Report for the Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries reports
landings for the species were 137,755 lb from the MHI and an additional 76,860 lb from
the NWHIC approximately 32% of the total reported BMUS landings in the Hawaiian
Islands. The species also commanded the second highest price per pound of any BMUS in
Hawaii, the report adds.
While less prevalent, P. filamentosus is still an important species in the American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands bottomfish fishery. In Guam, it comprises
roughly 3% of the total bottomfish landed, and in terms of price per pound, it is one of the
most valuable bottomfish species landed, the 1996 annual report notes. In the Northern
Mariana Islands, it comprises an estimated 10% of the total reported bottomfish landings,
while in American Samoa, it accounts for less than 1% of the total BMUS species landed.
According to Ralston and Polovina (1982), most of the fishing effort for deepwater
bottomfish species occurs in the steep drop-off zone that surrounds the islands and banks
of the Hawaiian archipelago; these researchers use the 100-fathom isobath that surrounds
an island or bank to estimate the total amount of bottomfish habitat. Uchiyama and
Tagami (1983) found that P. filamentosus dominated the catch at Necker Island, French
Frigate Shoals and Brooks Banks.
Egg and Larval Distribution
There are relatively few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larvae of species of lutjanids.
According to Leis (1987), lutjanids eggs typically are less than 0.85mm in size. They
hatch in 17B36 h depending on water temperature. Pink snapper eggs are small, spherical
and pelagic.
Little is known about the larval life of P. filamentosus. But the eggs of newly hatched
lutjanid, such as P. filamentosus, are typical of other pelagic larvae. They have a large
yolk-sac, no mouth, unpigmented eyes and limited swimming capabilities. Leis (1987)
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estimates that the duration of the pelagic phase of lutjanids to range from 25 to 47 days.
The pelagic phase of eteline lutjanids is longer than that of Lutjanus spp., he notes. Size
may be a more important factor than age in determining when larval settlement occurs in
lutjanids, Leis adds. Snapper larvae are subject to advection by ocean currents (Munro
1987).
Juvenile
Little is known about the life history and habitat requirements of juvenile P. filamentosus.
A dense aggregation of juvenile of this species has been found offshore of Kaneohe Bay
on the island of Oahu in an area of very low relief, at depths of 65B100 m. This flat,
featureless habitat is very different from the high relief areas preferred by adults of the
species. While sampling for juvenile snapper was extended beyond the 60B100 target
depth, no juveniles were taken outside of this depth range (Moffitt and Parrish 1996).
These data demonstrate that at this specific location, juvenile P. filamentosus has a strong
affinity for a relatively narrow depth range. It is thought that this habitat may provide
them the advantage of reduced predation pressure and lessen interspecific competition.
Parrish et al. (1997) suggest that areas of uniform sediment type are an important substrate
feature for juvenile P. filamentosus. They found a significant correlation between their
abundance and clay-silt substrate; they also found significantly lower abundance of these
juvenille in areas surrounded by escarpment-type relief than in areas of uniform sediment
bottom. The same research found a similar pattern of significantly lower abundance of
juveniles in areas of exposed hard substrate.
Juvenile P. filamentosus first appear at Kaneohe Bay at a size of about 7B10 cm FL
(Moffitt and Parrish 1996). They stay in this habitat for less than a year before moving
into deeper waters (150B190 m) as they mature (Parrish et al. 1996). When the juveniles
move into deeper water, they are 18B20 cm FL (Moffitt and Parrish 1996). Age-length
studies for species indicate a body length of 18 cm length would be obtained by age 1
(DeMartini et al. 1994).
A fishing survey of the MHI has identified only one other area with an aggregation of
juvenile P. filamentosus similar to the Kaneohe Bay site. Parrish et al. (1997) identified
the second site in 1993 off the southwest coast of Molokai. Snapper abundance at this site
was found not to be correlated with substrate type. However, there was a significant
correlation between juvenile snapper abundance and sources of coastal drainage. At the
Kaneohe site, an internal, semi-diurnal tide provides an influx of cold water to the juvenile
snapper nursery grounds during high tide (Moffitt and Parrish 1996). Parrish et al.
postulate that distribution of juvenile snapper within their preferred habitat type may be
more closely related to water flow than sediment particle size. They hypothesize that
water flow may enhance the food supplies in these areas. Parrish (1989) reports the diet of
juvenile P. filamentosus comprises primarily small crustaceans. Other prey items include
juvenile fish, cephalopods, gelatinous plankton and fish scale.
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The results of a tagging study found that juvenile P. filamentosus migrate between deeper
daytime locations and shallow nighttime positions (Moffitt and Parrish 1996). This
movement, which displayed a crepuscular periodicity, was unrelated to water temperature.
The results of this study demonstrated that these juvenile pink snapper were more active
during the day than night.
Based on video abundance data, Parrish et al. (1997) calculated a mean estimated density
of 6.6 km2 for [email protected] habitat. They applied this number to all of the available
habitat at the 60B90 m depth range in the MHI (2,600 km2) and came up with an estimate
of 17,200 individuals. This estimate is only 15% of the 115,600B189,200 juvenile
snappers, back-calculated from commercial catch data, needed to sustain the current level
of landings in the MHI for this species of pink snapper, the authors note.
It is not known how widespread the preferred habitat of juvenile P. filamentosus is in the
waters of Hawaii. Surveys suggest that it represents only a small fraction of the total
habitat at the appropriate depths (Parrish et al. 1997). Areas of flat featureless bottom have
typically been thought of as providing low value fishery habitat. The discovery of dense
juvenile snapper aggregations in areas of very low relief provides substantial evidence to
the contrary. This fact has important management implications for the conservation and
protection of this critical and limited habitat type. More research is needed to help
identify, map and study nursery habitat for juvenile P. filamentosus.
Adult
Adult P. filamentosus are found on the steep slopes and deepwater banks of Pacific
islands. They aggregate near areas of high bottom relief (Parrish 1987). Large mixed
groups of snappers (50B100), including P. filamentosus, have been observed aggregating
2B10 m above high relief structures on Penguin Bank (Haight 1989). Moffitt (1993)
reports that some species of deepwater snappers, such as P. filamentosus, are not be
restricted to high relief, deep-slope habitat. During the day, individuals of this species are
found in areas of high relief at depths of 100B200 m; during the night, these individuals
migrate into shallower flat, shelf areas, where they are found at depths of 30B80 m, Moffitt
observes. Areas of high relief form localized zones of turbulent vertical water movement
that increase the availability of prey items (Haight et al. 1993). Ralston et al. (1986) found
higher densities of P. filamentosus on the up-current side vs. the down-current side of
Johnston Atoll.
Haight (1989) studied the trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of
deepwater snappers (Lutjanidae) on Penguin Bank. Based on the observations of the
manned submersible and ROV surveys, maximum densities were calculated of 1.37
fish/m2 and 1.24 fish/m2 for snapper (Haight 1989). During the manned submersible dives,
a mean encounter rate of 0.035 fish/m2 was observed .P. filamentosus occur in
progressively shallower waters (103 m) in the more northern reaches of the NWHI
(Humphreys 1986).
A-107
The diets of deepwater snappers, such as P. filamentosus, are poorly understood. Parrish
(1987) includes pelagic tunicates, fish, shrimp, cephalopods, gastropods, planktonic
urochordates and crabs as prey items and reports that snappers feed mostly at night and
forage over a wide area. Haight (198(9) characterizes P. filamentosus as a crepuscular
feeder, displaying two peak foraging periods, shortly before dawn and shortly after sunset;
he also found the species to display a seasonal variation in its diet.
The depths at which snappers feed are not well documented. According to Parrish (1987),
P. filamentosus feed primarily at depths of greater than 100 m and stay within several m
of the bottom, but little is known about the type of substrate where they feed. Haight
(1989) found the greatest catch per unit effort (CPUE) for P. filamentosus on Penguin
Bank at depths of between 100 and 150 m. Moffitt (1993) observed a diurnal migration
from areas of high relief at depths of 100B200 m during the day to shallow flat shelf areas
at depths of 30B80 m at night.
Female of this species reach maturity at a length of 42.7 cm and have a protracted
spawning period of seven months (JuneBDecember) that peaks in August (Kikkawa 1983).
Essential Fish Habitat: Deep-water species complex (100-400)
A-108
Table 22. Habitat Description for Pristipomoides filamentosus (pink snapper, opakapaka)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
17-36 h. incubation time
depending on species and water
temperature (Leis, 1987)
10 months of age (7B10 cm FL)
-- 17 month (18B25 cm FL)
(Haight et al. 1997).
17 monthsB18 years (need to confirm)
Haight et al. (1993) reports the age of
entry into the fishery as 2 to 3 years after
settlement
Diet
N/A
Leis (1987) reports pelagic phase of
lutjanids life history last for 25-47 days.
Size may be a more important factor
than age in determining when settlement
occurs (Leis 1987). Size at settlement
varies widely among species and ranges
from 10B50 mm
No information available
Distribution General
and Seasonal
P. filamentosus spawn from June
to December.
Small crustaceans, juvenile fish,
cephalopods gelantinous
plankton, fish scale
Juvenile opakapaka appear
during fall and early winter
months (Haight et al. 1993).
Location
Lutjanids are generally more
abundant over the continental
shelf waters
Prey items include: pelagic tunicates, fish,
shrimp, cephalopods gastropods,
planktonic urochordates, crabs
P. filamentosus migrate diurnally from
areas of high relief during the day at
depths of 100B200 m, to shallow (30B-80
m) flat shelf areas at night (Moffitt 1993)
Bottom; 30B343 m.
Water Column
N/A
Bottom Type
Oceanic Features
In Hawaii Pristipimoides larvae were
found in AugustBOctober. Most species
of lutjanid larvae are less abundant in
winter
Eteline snapper larvae are more
abundant in slope and oceanic waters
than over the continental shelf (Leis
1987)
Pelagic: lutjanids larvae display diurnal
vertical migrations in water column
(Leis 1987); lutjanids larvae=s
abundance has been shown to increase
with depth during the day (Leis 1987).
N/A
Snapper larvae are subject to advection
by ocean currents (Munro 1987)
A-109
Bottom; 65B100 m
Demersal
Low relief , current flow, clay
silt
It is thought that distribution of
juvenile snapper within its
preferred habitat type may be
closely related to water flow.
Areas of high relief, (e.g., steep slope and
pinnacles)
Areas of high relief form localized zones
of turbulent vertical water movement.
Higher densities of P. filamentosus have
been found on the up-current side of
Johnston Atoll
Bibliography
Anderson WD Jr. 1987. Systematics of the fishes of the family Lutjanidae (Perciformes:
Percidei), the snappers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 1B31.
DeMartini EE, Landgraf KC, Ralston S. 1994. A recharacterization of the age-length and
growth relationships of the Hawaiian snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus. US
Druzhinin AD. 1970. The range and biology of snappers (family Lutjanidae). J Icth
10:717B36.
Haight WR. 1989. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater
snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii [MS thesis]. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii.
Haight WR, Kobayash D, Kawamoto KE. 1993. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mari Fish Rev 55(2):20B7.
Humphreys RL Jr. 1986. Opakapaka. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas
of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Technical report NMFS 38.
Grimes CB. 1987. Reproductive biology of Lutjanidae: a review. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 239B94.
Kami HT. 1973. The Pristipomoides (Pisces: Lutjanidae) of Guam with notes on their
biology. Micronesica 9(1):97B117.
Kikkawa BS. 1980. Preliminary study on the spawning season of the opakapaka,
Pristipimoides filamentosus. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors. Proceedings of the
second symposium on resource investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands;
1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 226B32.
ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01.
Kikkawa BS. 1983. Maturation, spawning, and fecundity of opakapaka, Pristipomoides
filamentosus, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY,
editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 149B60. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
Kramer SH. 1986. Uku. In: Uchida R N, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Techinical report nr NMFS 38.
A-110
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, eds. Tropical snappers and groupers:
biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Mees CC. 1993. Population biology and stock assessment of Pristipomoides filamentosus
on the Mahe Plateau, Seychelles. J Fish Biol 43:695B708.
Moffitt RB. 1993. Deepwater demersal fish. In: Wright A, Hill L, editors. Nearshore
marine resources of the South Pacific, 73B95, FFA, Honiara. Suva: Institute of Pacific
Studies; Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency; Canada: International Centre for Ocean
Development.
Moffitt RB, Parrish FA. 1996. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus. Pac Sci 50(4):371B81.
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fisheries
management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 639B59.
Okamoto H, Kanenaka B. 1983. Preliminary report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1977B1982. In: Grigg RW , Tanoue
KY, editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 123B43. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 Vol. 1.
Parrish F. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish Bull
87(4):1001B5.
Parrish FA, DeMartini EE, Ellis DM. 1997. Nursery habitat in relation to production of
juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Fish
Bull 95:137B148.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Ralston S, Polovina JJ. 1982. A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea
handline fishery in Hawaii. Fish Bull 80(3):435B48.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
A-111
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution and abundance of bottomfishes
in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors.
Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p
229B47. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and Seamount Groundfish Fishery, 1996 Annual Report. Honolulu: Western Pacific
Regional Fishery Management Council.
A-112
3.5.13 Habitat description for Pristipomoides sieboldii (pink snapper, kalekale)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Pristipomoides sieboldii is a member of the family Lutjanidae. Within the family
Lutjanidae there are four subfamilies including the Etelinae, in the which the genus
Pristipomoides is found. The English common name of this species is pink snapper. In
Hawaii it is known as kalekale while in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands it is
called guihan boninas.
There are 15 known species in the genus Pristipomoides in the Indo-Pacific region.
According to Allen (1985), individuals of this genus are typically found singularly or in
small groups, and members of P. seiboldii are found over rocky bottoms at depths of 180
to 360 m throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific region from East Africa to Hawaii and as far
north as southern Japan.
P. sieboldii is taken primarily with handlines and bottom longlines (Allen 1985).
According to the 1996 Annual Report of Bottomfish andSeamount Groundfish in the
Western Pacific, the species is commonly taken in the MHI offshore handline fishery.
Most of the fishing effort for deepwater bottomfish species occurs in the steep drop-off
zone that surrounds the islands and banks of the Hawaiian archipelago (Ralston and
Polovina 1982). However, as noted in the bottomfish FMP, P. sieboldii is infrequently
taken in American Samoa, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, based on the
available landing data.
Egg and Larval Distribution
There are relatively few taxonomic studies of the eggs and larvae of species of lutjanids.
Lutjanids eggs typically are less than 0.85mm in size (Leis 1987). They hatch in 17B36 h
depending on water temperature.
In a larval fish survey conducted off Oahu in the MHI, Clarke (1991) found eteline
snapper larvae were rarely collected, comprising less than 0.5% of the 5,200 fish larvae
identified. In this study, eteline snapper larvae were collected exclusively during the late
summer and fall.
Very little is known about this species=s larval life history stage. Newly hatched lutjanid
eggs are typical of other pelagic larvae. They have a large yolk sac, no mouth,
unpigmented eyes and limited swimming capabilities. Leis (1987) estimates the duration
of the pelagic phase of lutjanids at 25B47 days and believes that the pelagic phase of
eteline lutjanids, such as P. sieboldii, is longer than that of Lutjanus spp. However, he
notes that size may be a more important factor than age in determining when larval
A-113
settlement occurs in lutjanids. Munro (1987) says snapper larvae are subject to advection
by ocean currents.
Juvenile
Very little is known about the distribution and habitat requirements of this species. In the
Hawaiian Islands, schools of several hundred juvenile P. sieboldii have been observed
along the Oahu=s north shore (Kelley C. 1998. pers. comm).
No information concerning the diet of juvenile P. sieboldii is available. Parrish (1989)
found the diet of juvenile P. filamentosus, another eteline snapper, to consist primarily of
small crustaceans. Other prey items included juvenile fish, cephalopods, gelatinous
plankton and fish scales.
Adult
P. sieboldii=s maximum size is commonly about 40 cm but can reach to approximately 60
cm (Allen 1985).
The diets of deepwater snappers, such as kalekale, are poorly understood (Parrish 1987).
The diet of adult P. sieboldii consists primarily of fish, crab, shrimp, polychaetes, pelagic
urochordates and cephalopods (Allen 1985). The depths at which snappers feed are not
well documented. Parrish (1987) reports that snappers feed mostly at night and forage
over a wide area.
Essential Fish Habitat: Deep-water species complex (100-400 m). The EFH for P.
seiboldii is shown in Table 23.
A-114
Table 23. Habitat description for Pristipomoides sieboldii (pink snapper, kalekale)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
17B36 h depending on water
temperature
No information available
No information available
Diet
N/A
25B47 days, the pelagic phase of
eteline lutjanids, such as P.
sieboldii, is longer than that of
Lutjanus spp. Size may be a
more important factor than age
in determining when larval
settlement occurs in lutjanids.
No information available
No information concerning the
diet of juvenile P. sieboldii is
available
Distribution: General and Seasonal
Widely distributed throughout
range
Widely distributed throughout
range
No information
Water Column
Bottom Type
pelagic
N/A
pelagic
N/A
demersal
No information available
Oceanic Features
Eggs are subject to advection by
ocean currents
Snapper larvae are subject to
advection by ocean currents
No information available
The diet of adult P. sieboldii
consists primarily of fish, crab,
shrimp, polychaetes, pelagic
urochordates and cephalopods
P. seiboldii are found over
rocky bottoms at depths of 180
to 360 m throughout the tropical
Indo-Pacific region from East
Africa to Hawaii and as far
north as southern Japan.
demersal
rocky bottoms at depths of 180
to 360 m throughout the tropical
Indo-Pacific region
No information available
A-115
Bibliography
Allen R. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. FAO. Fisheries
synopsis no 125, volume 6. 208 p.
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the coastal resources of Guam. Vol. 1, The
fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory contribution nr 17.
Anderson WD Jr. 1987. Systematics of the fishes of the family Lutjanidae (Perciformes:
Percidei), the snappers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 1B31.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commission. Inshore Fisheries Research Project technical document nr
2.
Druzhinin AD. 1970. The range and biology of snappers (family Lutjanidae). J Icththy
10:717B36.
Haight WR, Kobayashi D, Kawamoto KE. 1993. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):20B7.
Grimes CB. 1987. Reproductive biology of Lutjanidae: A review. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 239B94.
Kami HT. 1973. The Pristipomoides (Pisces: Lutjanidae) of Guam with notes on their
biology. Micronesica 9(1):97B117.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 639B59.
Okamoto H, Kanenaka B. 1983. Preliminary report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1977B1982. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue
KY, eds. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25-27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 123B43. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
A-116
Parrish FA, DeMartini EE, Ellis DM. 1997. Nursery habitat in relation to production of
juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Fish
Bull 95:137B48.
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63.
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana Archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
Polovina JJ, Ralston S, 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. US Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Polovina JJ. 1982. A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea
handline fishery in Hawaii. Fish Bull 80(3):435B48.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution, and abundance of
bottomfishes in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY,
editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 229B47. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-117
3.5.14 Habitat description for Variola louti (lunartail grouper)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, MHI, NWHI, Northern Mariana
Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Variola louti is a member of the family Serranidae, the groupers. V. louti is one of only
two species of the genus Variola. It is the more common of the two genuses (Heemstra
and Randall 1993). The English common name of this species is the lunartail grouper. In
American Samoa it is known as papa. In Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands it is
known as bueli.
Heemstra and Randall (1993) describes V. louti=s distribution as being throughout the
tropical Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea to South Africa to the Pitcairn Islands. In
the western Pacific, it ranges southern Japan to New South Wales, Australia, and is found
at most of the islands of the west central Pacific, the authors continue. Variola louti is
absent from the Hawaiian Islands.
According to Heemstra and Randall, the lunartial grouper is commonly found on coral
reefs at depths of 4 to 200 m. The species seems to prefer clear water areas typical of
offshore reefs and islands and is normally found swimming up in the water column well
above the reef, the authors note.
V. louti are reported to reach maturity between 81 cm and 100 cm in length (Van der Elst
1981, Heemstra and Randall 1993) and 12 kg in weight (Postel et al. 1963).
Very little is known about the spawning behavior of this species. One study found mature
females at 33 cm standard length (Morgans 1982). Research has documented spawning
activity between December and February (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
According to Heemstra and Randall, lunartail grouper is an important food fish in
artisanal fisheries throughout the Indo-Pacific region, even though it is known to often be
the cause of ciguatera poisoning.
Egg and Larval Distribution
Heemstra and Randall describe the fertilized eggs as pelagic, spherical and transparent and
0.70B1.20 mm in diameter with a single oil globule 0.13B0.22 mm in diameter. Based on
the available data the length of the pelagic larval stage of groupers is 25B60 days. The
wide geographic distribution of serranids is thought to be due to this relatively long
pelagic larval phase, the authors note.
A-118
Heemstra and Randall calculate that the transformation of pelagic serranid into benthic
larvae takes place between 25 mm and 31 mm TL. The serranid larvae are distinguishable
by their [email protected] bodies and highly developed head spination, the authors point out.
Juvenile
The juveniles of some species of serranids are known to inhabit sea-grass beds and tide
pools. There is no specific information available for the habitat utilization patterns of
juvenile V. louti
Adult
Heemstra and Randall describe goupers as typically ambush predators, hiding in crevices
and among coral and rocks in wait for prey. V. louti feeds primarily on fishes (particularly
coral-reef species), crabs, shrimps and stomatopods, with adults reportedly feeding during
both daylight and nightime hours, the authors add.
Essential Fish Habitat: Shallow-water species complex (0-100). The EFH for V. louti is
shown in Table 24.
A-119
Table 24. Habitat description for Variola louti (lunartail grouper)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Serranid eggs incubate in 20-35
days
The pelagic larval stage of
groupers is 25B60 days
No information available
Diet
N/A
N/A
V. louti are reported to reach
maturity between 81 cm and
100 cm in length
No information available
Distribution: General and Seasonal
The wide geographic
distribution of serranids is
thought to be due to this
relatively long pelagic larval
phase
The juveniles of some species
of serranids are known to
inhabit sea-grass beds and tide
pools. There is no specific
information available for the
habitat utilization patterns of
juvenile V. louti
Water Column
Bottom Type
pelagic
N/A
pelagic
N/A
demersal
No information available
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
No information available
A-120
V. louti feeds primarily on
fishes (particularly coral-reef
species), crabs, shrimps and
stomatopods
Distributed throughout the
tropical Indo-Pacific region
from the Red Sea to South
Africa to the Pitcairn Islands. In
the western Pacific, it ranges
southern Japan to New South
Wales, Australia, and is found
at most of the islands of the
west central Pacific. Variola
louti is absent from the
Hawaiian Islands.
demersal
Commonly found on coral reefs
at depths of 4 to 200 m.
No information available
Bibliography
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fishes. Univ Guam Pr. University of Guam Marine Laboratory contribution nr 17.
Dalzell P, Preston GL. 1992. Deep reef slope fishery resources of the South Pacific, a
summary and analysis of the dropline fishing survey data generated by the activities of
the SPC fisheries programme between 1974 and 1988. Noumea, New Caledonia:
South Pacific Commission. Inshore fisheries research project technical document nr 2.
Harliem-Vivien ML, Bouchon C. 1976. Feeding behavior of some carnivorous fishes
(Serranidae and Scopaenidae) from Tulear (Madagascar). Mar Biol 37:329B40.
Heemstra PC, Randall J. 1993. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily
Epinephelinae). Rome: FAO. Fisheries synopsis nr 125, volume 16. 382 p.
Kendall AW Jr. 1984. Serranidae: development and relationships. In: Moser HG, Richards
WJ, Cohen DM, Fahay MP, Kendall AW Jr, Richardson SL, editors. Ontogeny and
systematics of fishes. An international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert
Halvor Ahlstrom; 1984 Aug 15B18; La Jolla, California. Am Soc of Icthyol and
Herpetol. p 499B510.
Leis JM. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In: Polovina JJ, Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and
groupers: biology and fisheries management. Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p 189B237.
Moffitt RB. 1993. Deepwater demersal fish. In: Wright A, Hill L, editors. Nearshore
marine resources of the South Pacific, 73B95, FFA, Honiara. Suva: Institute of Pacific
Studies; Honiara: Forum Fisheries Agency; Canada: International Centre for Ocean
Development.
Morgans JFC. 1982. Serranid fishes of Tanzania and Kenya.. JLB Smith Inst Ichthyol.
Ichthyol Bull 46:1B44, 6 pls.
Munro JL. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In: Polovina JJ,
Ralston S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management.
Boulder, CO: Westview Pr. p.639B59.
Okamoto H, Kanenaka B. 1983. Preliminary report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1977B1982. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue
KY, eds. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 123B43. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
A-121
Parrish JD. 1987. The trophic biology of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina JJ, Ralston
S, editors. Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fisheries management.
Boulder CO: Westview Pr. p 405B63
Polovina JJ. 1985. Variation in catch rates and species composition in handline catches of
deepwater snappers and groupers in the Mariana Archipelago. In: Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress; 1985; Tahiti. Volume 5.
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB, Ralston S, Shiota PM, Williams H. 1985. Fisheries resource
assessment of the Mariana archipelago, 1982B85. Mar Fish Rev 47(4):19B25.
Polovina JJ, Ralston S. 1986. An approach to yield assessment for unexploited resources
with application to the deep slope fisheries of the Marianas. U. Fish Bull
84(4):759B70.
Postel E, Fourmanoir P, Gueze P. 1963. Serranides de la reunion. Me. Inst Foundam Afr
Noire 68:339B84.
Ralston S. 1979. A description of the bottomfish fisheries of Hawaii, American Samoa,
Guam and the Northern Marianas. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of
bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. US Fish Bull (84):141B55.
Randall JE, Ben-Tuvia A. 1983. A review of the groupers (Pisces: Serranidae:
Epinephelinae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species of Cephalopholis.
Bull Mar Sci 33(2):373B426.
Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, eds. 1986. Fishery atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands. NOAA. Techinical report nr NMFS 38.
Uchiyama JH, Tagami DT. 1983. Life history, distribution, and abundance of
bottomfishes in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY,
editors. Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the
northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1983 May 25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University
of Hawaii. p 229B47. Report nr ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 volume 1.
Van Der Elst R. 1981. A guide to the common sea fishes of Southern Africa. Cape Town:
C Struik. 367 p.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish
and seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
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3.5.15 Habitat description for Beryx splendens (alfonsin)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI),
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
(NMI), Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
The alfonsins (Berycidae), typically bright red in coloration, are fairly large fish. The
family consists of two genera, Beryx and Centroberyx (Mundy, 1990).
Alfonsin inhabit rocky bottom habitats at depths of several hundred meters (Seki and
Tagami, 1986; Masuda et al., 1975). The distribution of the alfonsin is widespread in the
tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans (Busakhin,
1982). In the Pacific northern hemisphere, alfonsin are found primarily in two areas, over
the southern Emperor and Northern Hawaiian Ridge (SE-NHR) seamounts in the central
Pacific and from Japan to Palau in the western Pacific. In the central Pacific, alfonsin are
found over seamounts while in the western Pacific region they are also found over
continental shelf areas (Humphreys et al., 1984). Over the SE-NHR seamounts their
distribution overlaps with that of the pelagic armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri).
Most of the available information about the biology and life history of alfonsin come from
studies done in the South Pacific and a few Russian studies from the Atlantic. Alfonsin
occupies a wide depth range from 10 to 1240 m (Lehodey and Grandperrin, 1995; Massey
and Horn, 1990).
Based on examination of otoliths, Lehodey and Grandperrin (1996) calculated a
maximum age of 16.8 years for a female of 56.7 cm (FL). The average size of alfonsin
captured at the Hancock seamounts in the SE-NHR region ranges from 15.3 to 35.3 cm
(FL) (Uchida, 1986).
In the South Pacific, females reportedly grow faster than males, the difference increasing
with age (Lehodey and Grandperrin, 1994). At the Hancock seamounts, the sex ratio is
nearly equal (Humphreys et al., 1983). In the South Pacific, Alfonsin reaches sexual
maturity at 6 years of age for females and at 7 to 8 years for males; approximately 33 to
34 cm respectively for females and males (Lehodey and Grandperrin, 1996; Mundy,
1990). In the western Pacific, alfonsin reportedly reach sexual maturity by age three
(Ikenuye, 1969). Alfonsin spawns between August and October in the Hancock seamount
region (Mundy, 1990). The pelagic eggs hatch approximately 1 day after spawning
(Uchida, 1986)
Tagging studies conducted by Japanese researchers indicate that alfonsins migrate form
coastal to offshore waters as they mature. Alfonsins become demersal at one year of age
or less (Uchida, 1986)
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In the past, a large-scale foreign seamount groundfish fishery extended throughout the
southeastern reaches of the northern Hawaiian Ridge. A collapse of the seamount
groundfish stocks has resulted in a greatly reduced yield in recent years. Alfonsin are
taken primarily by means of bottom trawls. While it is the second most abundant species
taken in the seamount groundfish fishery it comprises only a small portion of the total
catch (Seki and Tagami, 1986). Much of the demersal habitat on the southern Emperor
and Northern Hawaiian Ridge (SE-NHR) seamounts is too steep and rough for bottom
trawling. In the past, the principal gear used in the harvest of alfonsin by the Japanese was
bottom longlines and handlines (Seki and Tagami, 1986).
Although a moratorium on the harvest of the seamount groundfish within the EEZ has
been in place since 1986, no substantial recovery of the stocks has been observed.
Historically, there has been no domestic seamount groundfish fishery.
Egg and larval distribution
Although alfonsin are commercially important species little is known about their early life
history. As previously mentioned the eggs of the alfonsin are pelagic and hatch in about 1
day after spawning. The larvae are planktonic for the first 2 to 3 days of existence after
which time they begin to swim (Uchida, 1986). The dispersal of eggs and larvae is
determined by the prevailing currents (Humphreys et al., 1983).
Larvae
At the Hancock seamount Beryx larvae have been found almost exclusively in the upper
50 m of the water column. Larvae are nearly twice as abundant in the upper 25 m than
between the 25 to 50 m (Mundy, 1990).
Juvenile distribution
Juveniles undergo a pelagic development phase that lasts several; months. Recruitment to
benthic habitat takes place at approximately 1.5 years of age. (Lehodey and Grandperrin
1994). Juveniles inhabit shallower water than do adults, moving into progressively deeper
waters as they grow and mature (Seki and Tagami, 1986).
Galaktionov (1984) studied the schooling behavior of juvenile alfonsin. He found that
during midday juveniles were concentarted on the bottom. Between 1700 and 1800 hours
school formation occurs relatively rapidly. The schooled juveniles move into shallower
water at depths as shallow as 75 m around sunset.
Adult distribution
The alfonsin is a bentho-pelagic species, migrating to the surface at night to feed returning
to the bottom during the day (Lehodey and Grandperrin, 1994). Galaktionov (1984)
reports that adult alfonsin form dense schools from 1000 to 1100 hours and from 1600 to
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1700 to hours. The fish school while at or near the bottom and slowly migrate upward
through the water column.
Food habit studies indicate that small fish dominate this species diet. Other prey items
include small crustaceans including decapods, euphausiids, krill and mysids (Uchida,
1986). Alfonsin are believed to prey primarily on bathypelagic organisms, with benthic
prey contributing little to its diet (Lehodey and Grandperrin, 1994). In turn, alfonsin are
preyed upon by large pelagic predators, including tuna.
In the western Pacific region, the abundance and distribution of alfonsin is dependent on
the prevailing currents, particularly the Kuroshio (Uchida, 1986). Size increases with
depth and latitude (Uchida, 1986). Sekli and Tagami (1986) report an optimum
temperature range for this species of 6 to 18 C.
Essential Fish Habitat: Seamount groundfish complex. The EFH for B. splendens is shown
in Table 25.
The EFH designation for the adult life stage of the seamount groundfish complex is all
EEZ waters and bottom habitat bounded by latitude 29-35N and longitude 171E179W between 80 to 600 m. EFH for eggs, larvae and juveniles is the epipelagic zone (~
200 m) of all EEZ waters bounded by latitude 29-35N and Longitude 171E-179W.
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Table 25. Habitat description for Beryx splendens (alfonsin)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Eggs hatch approximately
1 day after spawning
N/A
Alfonsin reaches sexual maturity at 6 years
of age for females and at 7 to 8 years for
males; approximately 33 to 34 cm
respectively for females and males
No information available
16.8 years for a female of 56.7 cm
Diet
The larvae are planktonic for
the first 2 to 3 days of
existence after which time
they begin to swim.
No information available
Distribution:
General and
Seasonal
No information available
No information available
Alfonsins migrate form coastal to offshore
waters as they mature
Water Column
Pelagic
Pelagic, Juveniles undergo a pelagic
development phase that lasts several;
months. Recruitment to benthic habitat
takes place at approximately 1.5 years of
age. Juveniles inhabit shallower water than
do adults, moving into progressively deeper
waters as they grow and mature
Bottom Type
N/A
Pelagic, At the Hancock
seamount Beryx larvae have
been found almost
exclusively in the upper 50 m
of the water column. Larvae
are nearly twice as abundant
in the upper 25 m than
between the 25 to 50 m
N/A
Oceanic Features
The dispersal of eggs is
determined by the
prevailing currents
The dispersal of larvae is
determined by the prevailing
currents
The abundance and distribution of alfonsin
is dependent on the prevailing currents,
particularly the Kuroshio
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N/A
Small fish dominate this species diet. Other
prey items include small crustaceans
including decapods, euphausiids, krill and
mysids
The distribution of the alfonsin is widespread
in the tropical and subtropical waters of the
Pacific. In the Pacific northern hemisphere,
alfonsin are found primarily in two areas, over
the southern Emperor and Northern Hawaiian
Ridge (SE-NHR) seamounts in the central
Pacific and from Japan to Palau in the western
Pacific.
Demersal, Alfonsin occupies a wide depth
range from 10 to 1240 m
Alfonsin inhabit rocky bottom habitats at
depths of several hundred meters. In the
central Pacific, alfonsin are found over
seamounts while in the western Pacific region
they are also found over continental shelf
areas
The abundance and distribution of alfonsin is
dependent on the prevailing currents,
particularly the Kuroshio
Bibliography
Busakhin, S. V. 1982. Systematics and distribution of the family Berycidae (Osteichthyes)
in the world ocean. Journal of ichthyology 22(6): 1-21.
Galaktionov, G.Z. 1984. Features of the schooling behavior of the Alfonsina, Beryx
splendens (Berycidae), in the thalassobathyl depths of the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of
Ichthyology 24(5):148-151.
Humphreys, Robert L., Jr., Darryl T. Tagami, and Michael P. Seki. 1983. Seamount
fishery resources within the southern Emperor-northern Hawaiian Ridge area. in R.W.
Grigg and K.Y. Tanoue (eds.), Proceedings of the second symposium on resource
investigations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, May 25-27, 1983, p. 283-327.
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 Vol. 1.
Ikenuye, H. 1969. Age determination by otolith of a Japanese alfonsin, Beryx splendens,
with special reference to growth. Journal of Tokyo University of Fisheries 55(2):9198.
Lehodey, P. and R. Grandperrin. 1996. Age and growth of the alfonsino Beryx splendens
over the seamounts off New Caledonia. Marine Biology 125:249-258.
Lehodey, P. and R. Grandperrin. 1994. A study of the fishery and biology of Beryx
splendens (alfonsin) in New Caledonia. Fisheries Newsletter 71:30-34.
Lehodey, P. Paul Marchal, and R. Grandperrin. 1994. Modelling the distribution of
alfonsino, Beryx splendens, over the seamounts of New Caledonia. U.S. Fishery
Bulletin. 92:748-759.
Massey, B.R. and P.L. Horn. 1990. Growth and age structure of alfonsino (Beryx
splendens) from the lower east coast, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand
journal of marine and freshwater research. 24:126-136.
Masuda, Haime, Chuichi Araga, and Tetsuo Yoshino. 1975. Coastal fishes of southern
Japan. Tokai University Press. 379 pp.
Mundy, Bruce C. 1990. Development of larvae and juveniles of the alfonsins, Beryx
splendens and B. decadactylus (Berycidae, Beryciformes). Bulletin of Marine
Sciences. 46(2):257-273.
Saski, Takashi. 1986. Development and present status of the Japanese trawl fisheries in
the vicinity of seamounts. in Environment and Resources of Seamounts in the North
Pacific, (Richard N. Uchida, Sigeiti Hayasi, and George W. Boehlert, eds). pp 21-30 .
NOAA Technical Report NMFS 43.
A-128
Seki, Michael P., and Darryl T. Tagami. 1986. Review and present status of handline and
bottom longline fisheries for alfonsin. in Environment and Resources of Seamounts in
the North Pacific, (Richard N. Uchida, Sigeiti Hayasi, and George W. Boehlert, eds).
pp 31-35. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 43.
Uchida, Richard N. 1986. Berycidae. in Fishery Atlas of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands,
(R.N. Uchida and J.H. Uchiyama, eds.), pp. 78-79. NOAA Technical Report. NMFS
38.
Vinnichenko, V.I. 1997. Vertical diurnal migrations of slender alfonsino Beryx splendens
(Berycidae) at underwater rises of the open North Atlantic. Journal of Icthyology.
37(6):438-444.
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3.5.16 Habitat description for Hyperoglyphe japonica (ratfish, butterfish)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI),
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
(NMI), Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
There is no information available concerning the life history and basic biology of the
ratfish. This species is infrequently taken as an incidental species in conjunction with the
seamount groundfish fishery.
3.5.17 Habitat description for Pseudopentaceros wheeleri (armorhead)
Management Plan and Area: American Samoa, Guam, Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI),
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
(NMI), Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, Midway Island,
Howland and Baker Islands and Wake Islands.
Life History and General Description
Boehlert and Sasaki (1988) and Humphreys et al. (1983) were the primary sources used in
the preparation of this species profile.
The pelagic armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) is widely distributed throughout the
North Pacific Ocean (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). Electrophoretic and meristic work
suggests that a single stock of pelagic armorhead exists (Humphreys et al., 1983).
Oceanographic conditions seem to be the primary factor regulating the armorhead=s
distribution. Zones of upwelling, produced by the prevailing currents, result in high
biological productivity over the Southern Emperor-Northern Hawaiian Ridge (SE-NHR)
seamounts (Pontekorvo, 1974 in Humphreys et al.,1983). The life histories and
distributional patterns of the armorhead are poorly understood as is the effects of
oceanographic variability on migration and recruitment of the armorhead.
The pelagic armorhead has two distinct life history phases that includes a pelagic juvenile
phase and a demersal adult phase (Somerton and Kikkawa, 1992). Between 1.5 and 2.5
years of age, the pelagic armorhead inhabits the epipelagic zone of the subarctictransitional waters of the North Pacific during a lengthy pre-recruit phase (Humphreys,
1995; Somerton and Kikkawa, 1992). During this time the fish remain nonreproductive.
Subsequently, these fish recruit to demersal habitat on the SE-NHR seamounts.
Humphreys et al. (1983) report that adults are found on the slopes of seamounts down to
depths of 800 to 900 m. The commercial fishery for pelagic armorhead targets fish on the
summits of seamounts at the 200 to 490 m depth range (Humphreys et al., 1983;
Takahashi and Sasaki, 1977)
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The smallest reported sizes for pelagic armorhead range from 5 to 20 mm and typically
occurred south of 33 N (Humphreys et al., 1984). Research indicates an age estimate of 3
years for 22 cm fork length (FL) and 6 years for 32 cm fork length (Humphreys et al.,
1983). Based on length frequency data, it is believed that fish taken by the trawl fishery
are typically 5 to 7 years of age (Chikuni, 1970 in Humphreys et al., 1983). Females are
slightly larger than males.
Adult pelagic armorhead have three distinct morphological types: Alean [email protected],
Aintermediate [email protected] and Afat [email protected] While all three types are found over the SE-NHR
seamounts, the lean and intermediate types predominate. The epipelagic phase of the
armorhead life history is characterized by the accumulation of fat reserves and continuous
somatic growth (Humphreys et al., 1989). The bluish mottled coloration of the open ocean
fat type is indicative of its epipelagic existence. The open ocean fat type is
nonreproductive. After recruitment to the summits of the SE-NWR seamounts, newly
settled adults rapidly lose their mottled bluish coloration, ultimately assuming a brownish
coloration. This transformation is fairly rapid and explains the relatively low abundance of
fat type on the seamounts. Somatic growth ceases and the fat reserves are depleted as the
fish become reproductively active. These physiological changes result in the intermediate
morphological type and ultimately the lean type as the fat reserves are further depleted
(Humphreys et al., 1989). The existence of these distinct morphological types are absent
in juveniles. (Humphreys et al., 1983).
The main reproductive population is found on SE-NHR seamounts between latitude 29
and 35 N. (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). Spawning activity is benthic and is restricted to
December to February at the SE-NHR seamounts.(Humphreys, 1995). Peak spawning
activity occurs between January and February (Humphreys et al., 1983). Research
indicates that armorhead reach sexual maturity at 1.5 to 2.5 years in age, ranging in size
from 23.0 to 28.5 standard length (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). Spawning occurs at depths
ranging from 200 to 500 m (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). It is thought that P. wheeleri is
semelparous, spawning only once before dying.
Eggs, larvae and juveniles are pelagic and are found widely distributed in the North
Pacific Ocean (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). Initially the larvae are found in the epipealgic
waters in the vicinity of the SE-NHR seamounts (Humprheys et al., 1993). The larvae are
transported by prevailing ocean currents to the subarctic waters of the North Pacific Ocean
(Humphreys et al., 1993). Boehlert and Sasaki (1973) report a 1.5 to 2.5 year time period
between spawning and recruitment to the seamounts. The process by which these fish
return and recruit to the seamounts is poorly understood (Humphreys et al., 1993). It is
thought that recruitment occurs only during the late spring to midsummer months. The
long pelagic phase combined with the variability of oceanic conditions play an important
role in determining the strength of year-classes in this species (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988).
The size of individuals at recruitment is generally uniform, ranging from 25 to 33 cm
(Humphreys et al., 1989).
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In the past, a large-scale foreign seamount groundfish fishery extended throughout the
southeastern reaches of the northern Hawaiian Ridge. The seamount groundfish complex
consists of three species (pelagic armorhead=s, alfonsins, and ratfish). These species dwell
at 200 to 600 m on the submarine slopes and summits of seamounts. A collapse of the
seamount groundfish stocks has resulted in a greatly reduced yield in recent years.
Although a moratorium on the harvest of the seamount groundfish within the EEZ has
been in place since 1986, no substantial recovery of the stocks has been observed.
Historically, there has been no domestic seamount groundfish fishery.
Egg and larval distribution
The egg, larval and juvenile stages of the pelagic armorhead all occur in the surface layers
where they are subject to advection by the prevailing currents (Humphrey et al., 1984;
Borets, 1979).
Larval and juvenile stages prey on zooplankton. Interannual variability in environment
conditions affecting the abundance and availability of zooplankton may play an important
role in the survival of these early life stages and thus year class strength (Boehlert and
Sasaki, 1988).
Larvae of P. wheeleri are neustonic and are carried eastward by the prevailing wind driven
surface flow in the SE-NHR seamount region (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). Through some
unknown mechanism, fish move northeastward ultimately entering the subarctic waters of
the Alaska gyre (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988). The two available studies of larval
distribution of armorhead conflict but suggest that the distribution of larvae varies from
year to year (Boehlert and Sasaki, 1988).
Juvenile distribution
As stated, during the first 1.5 to 2.5 years of life, juveniles lead a pelagic existence,
inhabiting the epipelagic zone of the subarctic-transitional waters of the North Pacific
Ocean (Somerton and Kikkawa, 1992). Subsequently, a shift occurs from pelagic to
demersal habitat. During the pelagic juvenile phase, armorhead acquire large reserves of
fat before recruiting to SE-NHR seamounts. The largest influx of juvenile recruits to the
Juveniles recruit to the SE-NHR seamounts occurs during spring between April and June
(Humphreys, 1995). Recruits are characterized by their bluish to grey coloration and their
fat reserves. After recruitment, the fish gradually assume a brownish coloration. The diet
of juveniles is comprised primarily of small plankktonic prey items, particularly copepods
(Borets, 1979).
Adult distribution
As stated, adults are found on the slopes of seamounts. P. wheeleri display crespuscular
migrations through the water column. During daylight hours, they are found in the upper
water column at depths between 80 to 100 m. As dusk approaches they descend to the
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summits of the seamounts. It is thought that these movements are related to foraging
activity (Humphreys et al., 1983). At night, dense aggregations of armorhead are found on
the summits of the seamounts (Somerton and Kikkawa, 1992).
The pelagic armorhead feeds during daylight hours, especially between the hours of 0800
and 1000. (Humphreys et al., 1983; Sakiura, 1972). Prey items include epipelagic
crustaceans, copepods, amphipods, tunicates,eupausiids, pteropods, sergestids,
myctophids, macrura and mesopelagic fish. Organisms of the deep scattering layer also
comprise a portion of this species diet (Humphreys et al., 1983; Sakiura, 1972).
It is believed that the horizontal and vertical distribution of P. wheeleri is controlled by
water temperature. The lower tolerance limit is approximately 5 C while the upper limit
is roughly 20 C. It is thought that the preferred temperature range of this species is 8 to
15 C (Humphreys et al., 1983; Chikuni, 1971). Pelagic armorhead are found year-round
on the southern Emperor-Northern Hawaiian Ridge seamounts.
The life expectancy of the armorhead once it has recruited to demersal habitat ranges from
4 to 5 years.
Essential Fish Habitat: Seamount groundfish complex. The EFH for Pseusopentaceros
wheeleri is shown in Table 26.
The EFH designation for the adult life stage of the seamount groundfish complex is all
EEZ waters and bottom habitat bounded by latitude 29-35N and longitude 171E179W between 80 to 600 m. EFH for eggs, larvae and juveniles is the epipelagic zone (~
200 m) of all EEZ waters bounded by latitude 29-35N and Longitude 171E-179W.
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Table 26. Habitat description for Pseudopentaceros wheeleri (armorhead)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
No information available
No information available
Diet
N/A
Larval stages prey on
zooplankton
Fish recruit to demersal
habitat Between 1.5 and
2.5 years of age
Juvenile stages prey on
zooplankton
Distribution: General and
Seasonal
Eggs are found in the epipealgic
waters in the vicinity of the SE-NHR
seamounts
Initially the larvae are
found in the epipealgic
waters in the vicinity of
the SE-NHR seamounts
Water Column
pelagic
pelagic
The pelagic armorhead
inhabits the epipelagic
zone of the subarctictransitional waters of the
North Pacific during a
lengthy pre-recruit phase
pelagic
The life expectancy of the armorhead once it
has recruited to demersal habitat ranges from 4
to 5 years
Prey items include epipelagic crustaceans,
copepods, amphipods, tunicates,eupausiids,
pteropods, sergestids, myctophids, macrura and
mesopelagic fish.
The pelagic armorhead (Pseudopentaceros
wheeleri) is widely distributed throughout the
North Pacific Ocean
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
N/A
Oceanic Features
The eggs are transported by
prevailing ocean currents to the
subarctic waters of the North Pacific
Ocean
The larvae are
transported by prevailing
ocean currents to the
subarctic waters of the
North Pacific Ocean
Oceanographic
conditions seem to be the
primary factor regulating
the armorhead=s
distribution.
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Demersal, During daylight hours, they are
found in the upper water column at depths
between 80 to 100 m. At night, dense
aggregations of armorhead are found on the
summits of the seamounts
Adults are found on the slopes of seamounts
down to depths of 800 to 900 m
Oceanographic conditions seem to be the
primary factor regulating the armorhead=s
distribution.
Bibliography
Boehlert, George W., and Takashi Sasaki. 1988. Pelagic biogeography of the armorhead
(Pseudopentaceros wheeleri), and recruitment to isolated seamounts in the North
Pacific Ocean. U.S. Fishery Bulletin 86(3): 453-465.
Borets, L.A. 1979. The population structure of the boarfish, Pentaceros richardsoni, from
the Emperor Seamounts and the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Ichthyology 19(3):15-20.
Chikuni, S. 1971. Groundfish on seamounts in the North Pacific. Bulletin of Japanese
Society of Fisheries Oceanography. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Translation
No. 2130. 12 pp.
_________. 1970. The APhantom fish,@ Akusakari [email protected] --- an outline. Enyo (Far Seas)
Fisheries Research Laboratory News 3:1-4. National Marine Fisheries Service,
Terminal Island, CA.
Humphreys, Robert L., Jr. 1995. Recruitment variation in a seamount population of
armorhead: an analysis of biological characters derived primarily from otolith
analysis. Master=s Thesis, University of Hawaii.
Humphreys, Robert L., Jr., Mark Crossler, and Craig M. Rowland. 1993. Use of a
monogenean gill parasite and feasibility of condition for identifying new recruits to a
seamount population of armorhead Pseudopentaceros wheeleri (Pentacerotidae). U.S.
Fishery Bulletin 91:455-463.
Humphreys, Robert L., Jr., Gary A. Winans, and Darryl T. Tagami. 1989. Synonymy and
life history of the north Pacific armorhead, Pseudopentaceros wheeleri Hardy (Pisces:
Pentacerotidae). Copeia 1: 142-153.
Humphreys, Robert L., Jr., Darryl T. Tagami, and Michael Seki. 1983. Seamount fishery
resources within the Southern Emperor-Northern Hawaiian Ridge area. in R.W. Grigg
and K.Y. Tanoue (eds.), Proceedings of the second symposium on resource
investigations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, May 25-27, 1983, p. 283-327.
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, ANYHOW-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01 Vol. 1.
Pontekorvo, T.B. 1974. Certain peculiarities of distribution of hydrological and biological
characteristics in the region of Hawaiian undercurrent mountain banks. Izyestiya of
the Pacific Scientific Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography (TINRO)
92:32-37. (Partial English translation by W.G. Van Campen, 1983; available
Southwest Fisheries Center Honolulu Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service,
NOAA, Honolulu, HI).
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Sakiura, H. 1972. The pelagic armorhead Pentaceros richardsoni, fishing grounds off the
Hawaiian Islands, as viewed by the Soviets. The Fishing and Food Weekly 658:28-31,
June 15, 1972. Translation no. 16. Southwest Fisheries Science Center Honolulu
Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Honolulu, HI 96812.
Somerton, David A. and Bert S. Kikkawa. 1992. Population dynamics of pelagic
armorhead Pseudopentaceros wheeleri on Southeast Hancock Seamount. U.S. Fishery
Bulletin 90:756-769.
Takahashi, Y., and T. Sasaki. 1977. Trawl fishery in the central Pacific seamounts.
Division of northern waters groundfish Resources, Far Seas Fisheries Research
Laboratory. 49 pp. Translation no. 22. Southwest Fisheries Science Center Honolulu
Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Honolulu, HI 96812.
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4. CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT UNIT SPECIES
4.1 Currently Harvested Coral Reef Taxa
4.1.1 Surgeonfish (Acanthuridae)
The surgeonfishes are one of the most prominent groups of reef-dwelling fishes in the
tropical Indo-Pacific. They are important food fish on many Pacific islands, where they are
typically caught by spearfishing or nets. In recent catch data (1991-1995) for Hawaii, 6 of
the top 25 inshore species by weight were acanthurids (Friedlander 1996).1 In American
Samoa, Acanthuridae compose 28% of the reef fish catch (Dalzell et al. 1996), and over 40%
of the catch composition by weight in the 1994 artisanal fishery was surgeonfishes. Some
species are also sought after for the aquarium trade; those are discussed further as part of a
separate management unit species assemblage.
There are no species of surgeonfish endemic to any of the management areas considered in
this plan, although A. triostegus sandvicensis in Hawaii is recognized as an endemic
subspecies. Also, Zebrasoma flavescens has a distribution from the North Pacific to southern
Japan, but it is abundant only in Hawaii. Twenty-three species of surgeonfish are found in
Hawaii (Randall 1996), 39 species in Micronesia (Myers 1991), and 32 species in Samoa .
Generally, acanthurids are diurnal herbivores or planktivores. All acanthurids shelter on the
reef at night. Acanthurus thompsoni, Naso annulatus, N. brevirostris, N. caesius, N.
hexacanthus, and N. maculatus feed primarily on zooplankton well above the bottom. Naso
lituratus and naso unicornis browse mainly on leafy algae such as Sargassum (Randall
1996).
Surgeonfishes commonly defend territories that are primarily feeding territories; among three
different species studied (Acanthurus lineautus, A. leucosternon,and Zebrasoma scopas ), it
was noted that each occupied characteristic depth zones and habitat types (Robertson et al.
1979).
Schooling behavior is common in acanthurids, particularly in association with spawning
aggregations. Biologists have documented trains of surgeonfishes traveling along the reef to
join thousands of other surgeonfish at spawning aggregation sites. Once there, the fish
mingle near the substrate and slowly move upward as a group. Near dusk, small groups (615 individuals) of fish make spawning rushes to near the water surface and release gametes.
Following spawning, fish return to the substrate, form trains, and return to their home reefs.
Many species also form large single-species or mixed-species schools, apparently for
overwhelming territorial reef fish to feed on the algal mats they are protecting. In
Acanthurus nigrofuscus, for example, such schools may number in the thousands, and the
1
A . dussumieri-32,407 lbs, A. triostegus-11,705 lbs, Naso spp.-9969 lbs, A. xanthopterus-5,234 lbs, A.
olivaceous-4,813 lbs, and Ctenochaetus strigosus-3,776 lbs .
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fishes may migrate as much as 500 to 600 m daily to reach the feeding grounds (Fishelson et
al. 1987).
Acanthurid eggs are pelagic, spherical, and small, 0.66-0.70 mm in diameter with a single oil
droplet to 0.165 mm for Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis (Randall 1961). For that species,
hatching occurred in about 26 hours. Watson and Leis (1974) found an egg size of 0.575 to
0.625 mm in diameter for an unidentified acanthurid from Hawaii. Like other coral reef
fishes, surgeonfish larvae are typically less abundant in samples taken from the water column
near the reef than they are in samples from offshore (Miller 1973). Surgeonfish larvae are
primarily found well offshore at depths from 0-100m.
Although surgeonfish generally settle at a larger size than most reef fish, acanthurids are one
of the families with juveniles that settle with larval characters still present (Leis & Rennis
1983). Late phase larvae actively swim inshore at night, seek shelter in the reef, and begin
the transformation to juveniles (Clavijo 1974). Juvenile surgeonfish have been reported to
shelter in tide pools in Hawaii (Randall 1961).
Adult surgeonfish are found in many coral reef habitat types, including mid-water, sand
patch, subsurged reef, and seaward or surge zone reef. The largest number of surgeonfish
species are typically found in the subsurge reef habitat, which are defined by Jones (1968) to
be areas of moderate to dense coral growth corresponding to the subsurge portions of
fringing reefs, deepwater reef patches, reef filled bays, and coral-rich parts of lagoons inside
of atolls. These species are typically found between 0-30m depth, although surgeonfish do
live in depths from 0-150m. Some species of Naso have been seen below 200m (Chave &
Mundy 1994).
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Acanthurid assemblages pursuant
to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader description
of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section II. A.1.
Given the pelagic nature of the egg and larval phases of acanthurids, and their subsequent
wide distribution, EFH for these life stages of this management unit is designated as
extending from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. For
juvenile and adult acanthurids, because of their varied habitat preferences, EFH is designated
as all bottom habitat and the adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.2 Triggerfish (Balistidae)
The triggerfishes are named for an ability to lock their large, thickened first dorsal spine in an
upright position, which can be released only by pressing down on the second dorsal spine
(the trigger). When alarmed, or at night, they wedge themselves into a hole in the reef or
rocks by erecting the first dorsal spine and pelvic girdle. During the day, most are carnivores
of a wide variety or benthic animals including crustaceans, mollusks, sea urchins, other
echinoderms, coral, tunicates, and fishes. Some feed largely on benthic algae and
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zooplankton, including M. niger and M. vidua, while Xanthichthys auromarginatus and X.
mento feed mainly on zooplankton. Triggerfishes are usually solitary except when they form
pairs at spawning time, although the black durgon, Melichthys niger may form large
aggregations. Eleven species are known from the Hawaiian Islands. At least 20 species
occur in Micronesia, and at least 16 species occur in Samoa. The range of the family is
circumglobal, with some species (e.g., the clown triggerfish, Balistoides conspicillum)
extending into temperate waters (to South Hokkaido, Japan [Myers 1991]).
The habitat preferences for the family are variable, and may include protected lagoons, highenergy surge zones, ledges and caves of steep dropoffs, sand bottoms, and rocky coral areas
(Myers 1991). Preferences may vary from species to species, or may change within a given
species depending on the life phase. Of the eleven known Hawaiian species, one
(Canthidermis maculatus) is strictly pelagic (Randall 1996), rather than reef-associated (and
is thus not considered as part of this management unit assemblage). Depth preferences are
also variable. Some species frequent the shallow subtidal zone, while others are known only
from fairly deep waters (e.g., Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus, 75-200 m; Myers 1991). Many
species are collected for aquariums; the clown triggerfish Balistoides conspicillum is among
the most highly prized aquarium fishes.
Balistids produce demersal eggs that may or may not be tended by a parent, usually the
female. Unlike most other families of reef fishes, the balistids exhibit extensive maternal
care of eggs. This could be related to a harem-based social structure that requires the male to
vigorously defend his territory from other males. Balistid eggs are spherical, slightly over
0.5 mm in diameter, and translucent. Eggs are typically deposited in shallow pits excavated
by the parents as an adhesive egg mass containing bits of sand and rubble. Triggerfish eggs
hatch in as little as 12 hours and no more than 24 hours. The pelagic larval stage can last for
quite a while, and some species reach a large size before settling to the bottom. Several
species of Melichthys can reach as much as 144 mm before settling (Randall 1971, Randall &
Klausewitz 1973). Prejuveniles are often associated with floating algae, and may be
cryptically colored. Berry and Baldwin (1966) suggested that sexual maturity of Sufflamen
verres and Melichthys niger occurs at approximately half maximum size, at an age of a year
or more.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Balistidae assemblages pursuant
to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader description
of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section 4.2.1.54.
For the pelagic larvae of balistids, EFH is designated to include the shoreline to the outer
boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. For eggs, EFH is designated as the water column
and all rocky or gravelly bottom areas from 0B50 fm. For adults and juveniles, EFH is
designated as all bottom habitats and the adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm.
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4.1.3 Big Eye Scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) and Mackerel Scad (Decapterus macarellus)
Members of the family Carangidae, the big eye scad (Selar crumenophthalmus) and mackerel
scad (Decapterus macarellus) are regarded as important food fishes in many of the US
Pacific Islands. Silvery-blue in color, Selar spp. and Decapterus spp. have round spindle
shaped bodies and grow to a length of 8 to15 inches. There are six common species of scads
that occur in Hawaii, Micronesia, and Samoa: Decapterus macarellus, D. macrosoma, D.
maruadsi, D. Pinnulatus, Selar crumenophthalmus and S. boops, although D. macarellus and
S. crumenophthalmus comprise most of the commercial catch. Juvenile big eye scad
seasonally form large schools in shallow sandy lagoons, bays and channels during the day
where they feed on small shrimps, benthic invertebrates and foraminifera, and may migrate
offshore at night (Meyers 1999). Adults generally remain offshore. In Hawaii, the big eye
scad (akule) fishery is one of the heathiest commercial fishery in the state. During the annual
appearance of juvenile akule (hahalalu), commercial and recreational fishers use a variety of
gear including hook and line, surround gill nets and purse seine nets to harvest schools.
Similarly, mackerel scad (opelu) are also harvested in this manner.
Depending on species, the ovaries of the female may contain from 30,000 to 200,000 eggs.
The eggs are spherical with a single oil globule, non-adhesive and free-floating (Yamaguchi
1953). The spawning of scad occurs in the pelagic environment, although very little
information is available concerning the distribution of eggs or larvae of Selar spp. and
Decapterus spp. (but presumably these stages are dispersed widely by ocean currents).
Therefore EFH for this life stage is designated as the water column from the shoreline to the
outer limits of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. Because adult and juvenile scads are reported to
occur both in very shallow nearshore waters, and deeper waters offshore, EFH for this life
stage is designated as all sandy bottoms and adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.4 Gray Reef Shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos; Carcharhinidae)
The Carcharinidae are one of the largest and most important families of sharks, with many
common and wide-ranging species found in all warm and temperate seas. They are the
dominant sharks in tropical waters in variety, abundance, and biomass. Most species inhabit
tropical continental coastal and offshore waters, but several species prefer coral reefs and
oceanic islands.
The gray reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) is distributed in tropical waters across
the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea eastward as far as Hawaii. It is often associated with coral
reefs, and is one of the species most likely to be encountered by scuba divers. As with other
sharks, the eggs of the gray reef shark develop internally. Thus there are no planktonic egg
or larval phases. The gestation period for C. amblyrhynchos is about 12 months, with from
1-6 pups being produced in a litter. DeCrosta et al. (1984) reported maximum ages from a
sample of 30-65 specimens to be 10 years, but Myers (1991) states that sexual maturity is
only reached at around 7 years of age, and that the species may live up to 25 years.
Juvenile sharks frequently inhabit inshore areas such as bays, seagrass beds, and lagoon flats
before moving into deeper water as they mature. Adult sharks prefer steep outer reef slopes
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and dropoffs, and the species has been reported from shallow waters to depths of 274 meters
(Myers 1991). Adults may move back into shallow inshore areas during mating or birthing
events. Some species forage in these shallow areas as well. Reef-associated sharks range
widely and are found in a variety of coral reef habitats. Adult female C. amblyrhynchos have
been reported to aggregate seasonally over shallow reef areas in the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands.
EFH for adult and juvenile Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos is designated as all bottom habitat
and the adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fathoms. Since eggs and developing young are
carried internally, no separate EFH designation for eggs or larvae is applicable.
4.1.5 Soldierfish/Squirrelfish (Holocentridae)
Holocentrids are spiny, deep-bodied, usually red fishes with large eyes and mouth, small
teeth, large coarse scales, and stout dorsal and anal fin spines. The soldierfish genera
Myripristis, Plectrypops, Pristelepis, Ostichthys, and the squirrelfish genera, Neoniphon and
Sargocentron, are represented throughout the Indo-Pacific. Soldierfishes and squirrelfishes
are nocturnal predators; soldierfish predominantly feed on large zooplankton in the water
column, while squirrelfish prey mainly on benthic crustaceans, worms, and small fishes.
Most holocentrids prefer low-light environments, and during the day hover along dropoffs, in
or near caves and crevices, under rocky or coral overhangs, or among branching corals.
Depth ranges for the various holocentrid species are reported from shallow water down to an
average of approximately 40 m, but with some species occurring as deep as 235m. About 17
holocentrid species inhabit Hawaiian waters. At least 13 species of soldierfishes and 16
species of squirrelfishes occur in Micronesia. At least 31 holocentrid species are found in
Samoan waters. Myripristis amaena is particularly important in the recreational fishery at
Johnston Atoll where it is the species caught in greatest abundance (Irons et al. 1990). It is
common in reef fish catches throughout the Hawaiian archipelago.
Little is known about embryonic development and larval cycles in this group. After
fertilization, pelagic eggs are distributed in the water column for an indeterminate period of
time. Both eggs and larvae are subject to advection by ocean currents. The larval stage is
believed to last for several weeks, at the end of which the larvae settle down in refugia on the
reef.
Holocentrids are slow growing, late maturing, and fairly long lived. A study (Dee and
Parrish 1993) on the reproductive and trophic ecology of Myripristis amaena found that
sexual maturity for both sexes was reached between 145 and 160 mm SL at about 6 yrs of
age. Longevity was determined to be at least 14 years. Fecundity was relatively low, fewer
than 70,000 eggs in the most fecund specimen, and increased sharply with body weight.
Spawning peaked from early April to early May, with a secondary peak in September. The
diet of M. amaena was mainly meroplankton, especially brachyuran crab megalops, hermit
crab larvae, and shrimps, but also a variety of benthic invertebrates and fishes.
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To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Holocentridae assemblages
pursuant to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based
upon the ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader
description of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section
4.2.1.9.
In light of the uncertainties about distribution of eggs and larvae of the Holocentridae, EFH
for these stages is designated under the Coral Reef Ecosystem FMP as the water column
extending from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. EFH for
holocentrids in the juvenile and adult stages is designated as all rocky and coral areas and the
adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm. Because caves, crevices and overhangs serve as the
primary sheltering habitat for all species of the family Holocentridae, these areas are
particularly important habitat.
4.1.6 Flag-tails (Kuhliidae)
The flagtail family is comprised of the single genus Kuhlia, distributed throughout the IndoPacific region. The flagtails are ordinary-looking silvery fishes, usually with banded tails.
The Hawaiian flagtail, or >aholehole (Kuhlia sanvicensis), is an endemic species that is much
prized as a food fish. >Aholehole form dense schools by day, often in areas of heavy surge,
where they are safe from predators; at night the schools disperse to feed on plankton. Young
>aholehole are often found in tidepools. >Aholehole may enter brackish and even fresh water
areas (Hoover 1993).
Kuhlia marginata is found on Johnston Island and in Micronesia., while K. mugil has a wide
Indo-Pacific distribution (Myers 1991). K. rupestris is a brackish-water species from Guam
(Randall 1996).
No information on the egg and larval stages of this species is available so a conservative
designation for EFH for these stages was made, from 0-50 fm from the shoreline to the limits
of the EEZ. Because adult and juvenile flagtails are generally found in very shallow waters,
EFH for this management unit is designated as all bottom habitat and the adjacent water
column from 0 to 25 fm.
4.1.7 Rudderfishes (Kyphosidae)
Rudderfishes, or sea chubs, are shore fishes that occur over rocky bottoms or associated with
coral reefs along exposed coasts. They are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific from Easter Island westward to the Red Sea. Adults of species in the
genus Kyphosus typically swim in schools several meters above the bottom, and are reported
to feed on a variety of algae including filamentous Rhodophyta and coarse Phaeophyta such
as Sargassum (Myers 1991). Three species occur in Hawaii, Micronesia, and Samoa:
Kyphosus bigibbus, K. cinerascens, and K. vaigiensis. Another species, Sectator ocyurus
has been reported in Hawaii, but is rare and may be a waif from the tropical eastern Pacific.
K. cinerascens may occur at least to 24 m depth.
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Very little is known about reproduction in the kyphosids. The eggs are spherical, pelagic,
and 1.0-1.1 mm in diameter (Watson and Leis 1974). The larvae hatch at 2.4B2.9 mm. Eggs
and larvae are both subject to advection by ocean currents. The largest pelagic specimen, a
juvenile, examined by Leis and Rennis (1983) was 56 mm. Juvenile individuals may be
carnivorous for a while before becoming herbivorous (Rimmer 1986). Juveniles often occur
far out at sea beneath floating debris.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Kyphosidae assemblages
pursuant to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based
upon the ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader
description of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section
4.2.1.33.
The scant information available for the developmental life history for eggs, larvae and
juveniles for this family indicates that these stages usually occur in the upper layer of pelagic
waters. EFH for these stages is designated to extend from the shoreline to the outer boundary
of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. Because adults are almost always found in very shallow
inshore waters, EFH is designated all rocky and coral bottom habitat and the adjacent water
column from 0 to 15 fm.
4.1.8 Wrasses (Labridae)
The Labridae comprise a large family, second only to the Gobiidae for number of species in
the Western Pacific. It is a very diverse family in size and body shape, with adult sizes
ranging from less than 5 cm in Wetmorella albofasciata to greater than 229cm in the
Napoleon, Cheilinus undulatus.
Labrids are shallow-water fishes closely associated with coral reefs or rocky substrate,
though some species of Bodianus occur deeper than 200 m (Smith 1986, Chave & Mundy
1994), and the razorfishes, Xyrichtys and Cymolutes spp., occur on sand flats (though
densities of these two genera tend to decline with distance from coral reefs; ). Labrids are
diurnal, and at night many bury themselves in the sand, seek refuge in holes and cracks of the
reef, or lie motionless on the bottom. During the day, labrids keep close to coral or rocky
cover, darting into refugia in the reef or burying themselves in the sand when danger
approaches. Labrids can be found in virtually all coral reef habitats, including rubble, sand,
algae, seaweeds, rocks, flats, tidepools, crevices, caves, fringing reefs, patch reefs, lagoons
and reef slopes (Myers 1991, Randall 1993, Green 1996). Schooling behavior and
excursions away from the reef into the water column are usually associated with reproduction
(Thresher 1984). The degree of association with reef habitat varies for different species;
many members of the family have large home ranges encompassing a wide variety of
habitats (Green 1996). In general, many of the smaller species stay confined to very small
areas of the reef, while larger species have bigger home ranges (Green 1996). However,
even very large species such as Cheilinus undulatus return to favored holes or crevices to
spend the night or to escape danger (Myers 1991).
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The geographic range of the family as a whole includes shallow tropical and temperate seas
of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Labrids are found throughout shallow areas in
the Western Pacific, and include 96 known species in Micronesia (Myers 1991), and 43
species in Hawaii. Fourteen species of wrasses are endemic to Hawaii: Anampses
chrysocephalus, Anampses cuvier, Bodianus sanguineus, Cirrhilabrus jordani, Coris
ballieui, Coris flavovittata, Coris venusta, Cymolutes lecluse, Labroides phthirophagus,
Macropharyngodon geoffroy, Stethojulis balteata, Thalassoma ballieui, Thalassoma
duperrey, and Xyrichtys umbrilatus (Randall 1996). The Hawaiian population of another
species, Bodianus bilunulatus albotaeniatus, is recognized as a subspecies (Randall 1996).
No wrasse species are reported to be endemic to American Samoa. There are no important
species of introduced wrasses to the Western Pacific.
There is generally a dearth of information on the life history parameters of age, growth, and
mortality of many coral reef fishes, including labrids, and what information exists for some
species cannot realistically be applied to the whole family.
Many species migrate to prominent coral or rock outcrops for spawning, including species of
Thalassoma, Halichoeres, Choereodon, Bodianus, and Hemigymnus (Thresher 1984). Sandy
areas are necessary for the sand-dwelling labrids, Xyrichtys spp. and Cymolutes spp. Labrid
eggs are pelagic, spherical, 0.45 to 1.2 mm in diameter, lightly pigmented if at all, and
usually contain a single oil droplet (Leis & Rennis 1983, Thresher 1984, Colin & Bell 1991).
Larvae hatch at 1.5-2.7 mm and have a large yolk sac, unformed mouth, and unpigmented
eyes (Leis & Rennis 1983). Both eggs and larvae are dispersed by ocean currents. Victor
(1986) measured the duration of the larval phase of twenty four species of wrasses in Hawaii
and found a range of 29.5 days (Anampses chrysocephalus) to 89.2 days (Thalassoma
duperrey), although he noted substantial variability within species, up to a standard deviation
of 11 days for some wrasses. Victor (1986) and other authors (Miller 1973, Leis & Miller
1976) have noted that despite their abundance as adults in the nearshore fauna of coral reef
habitats, labrid larvae are conspicuously absent from nearshore samples, and common in
offshore samples. Some labrid larvae are routinely found in the open ocean (Leis & Rennis
1983).
Like adult wrasses, juvenile labrids inhabit a wide variety of habitats from shallow lagoon
flats to deep reef slopes. Green (1996) reported that Labroides dimidiatus and Thalassoma
lunare use deeper reef slope and reef base habitats as recruits, and shallower habitats as
adults. Examples of ontogenetic shifts in habitat use are not widely reported for the family,
although relatively few studies have examined the topic.
Labrids have some importance as a minor component of the catch of commercial fishermen
in Hawaii, according to Division of Aquatic Resources catch statistics from 1991-1995. Two
species are present in the top 25 inshore fish species by weight B 4159 lbs of Bodianus
bilunulatus and 3955 lbs of Xyrichthys pavo (Table 15 in Friedlander 1996). Some wrasse
species are caught for the aquarium trade, including Pseudocheilinus octotaenia,
Cirrhilabrus jordani, Thalassoma spp., Anampses chrysocephalus, Macropharyngodon
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geoffroy, and Novaculichthys taeniourus, but wrasses are a small portion of the trade in
numbers and value (Pyle, pers. comm). In American Samoa, labrids comprise less than 3%
of the reef fish catch (Dalzell et al. 1996), while in Guam, Labridae made up 7.3 percent of
total landings by weight of the small-boat based spearfishing landings between 1985-1991
(Table 63 in Green 1997). Dalzell et al. (1996) reported that labrids composed
approximately 4% of the reef fish catch in Guam. Data on labrids from other sites in the
region are either too general to be useful, or lacking.
4.1.9 Napoleon Wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus)
Within the Labridae, the Napoleon wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, merits special consideration
because of its importance as a target species and because its populations, under pressure
through overfishing have been declining rapidly. Once an economically important species on
Guam, C. undulatus is now rarely seen on the reefs, much less reported on the inshore survey
catch results (Hensley and Sherwood 1993). Similar declines in the number of sightings are
reported from Saipan (Green 1997). Spearfishing, particularly at night when wrasses are
more exposed and vulnerable, has significantly decreased the numbers of this very large reef
fish. They are sought after despite accounts of ciguatera poisoning (Myers 1991). A
description for the species as it occurs in Micronesia follows (Myers 1991):
The humphead is among the largest of reef fishes. Adults develop a prominent bulbous
hump on the forehead and amazingly thick fleshy lips. Adults occur along steep outer reef
slopes, channel slopes, and occasionally on lagoon reefs, at depths of 2 to at least 60m. They
often have a [email protected] cave or crevice within which they sleep or enter when pursued.
Juveniles occur in coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs, particularly among thickets of staghorn
Acropora corals. The Napoleon is usually solitary, but occasionally occurs in pairs. It feeds
primarily on mollusks and a wide variety of other well-armored invertebrates including
crustaceans, echinoids, brittle stars, and starfish, as well as on fishes. It is one of the few
predators of toxic animals such as the crown-of-thorns starfish, boxfishes, and sea hares. The
thick fleshy lips appear to absorb sea urchin spines, and the pharyngeal teeth easily crush
heavy-shelled gastropods like Trochus and Turbo. Much of its prey comes from sand or
rubble.
Cheilinus undulatus ranges across the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea to the Tuamotus, as far
north as the Ryukyus, and south to New Caledonia. Though rare, the species can be found
throughout Micronesia, and also in American Samoa.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Labridae assemblages pursuant to
Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader description
of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section 4.2.1.41.
As indicated above, eggs and larvae of labrids are subject to wide dispersal by ocean
currents. Similarly, adult labrids may occur over and utilize a wide range of habitat types
that extend beyond the physical boundaries of coral reefs. Thus, EFH for all life stages in the
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Labridae is designated as the water column and all bottom habitat extending from the
shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm.
In light of the continued extreme vulnerability of the Napoleon to overharvesting, it is critical
that its preferred habitats are protected so that there may be some opportunity for populations
of the species to recover to healthier levels. Thus, cave environments that are known (past or
present) habitat for adult napoleon wrasse, and Acropora beds that may provide suitable
habitat for juvenile napoleon wrasse, are particular valuable habitat for this species.
4.1.10 Goatfish (Mullidae)
Goatfishes are important commercial fishes that are highly esteemed as food. All have a
characteristic pair of long barbels at the front of the chin housing chemosensory organs, and
the barbels are used to probe holes in the reef or nearby open sandy areas for benthic
invertebrates or small fishes. Some species are primarily nocturnal, others are diurnal, and a
few are active by day or night. Nocturnal species tend to hover in stationary aggregations or
rest on coral ledges by day. In general, goatfishes are found in shallow waters, to depths of
around 10m, but some species are reported from deeper waters (e.g., Mulloides pfluegeri at
110m [Myers 1991]; P. porphyreus at 140m [Randall 1996]).
There are 10 native species of goatfish known from Hawaiian waters, and one accidentallyintroduced species from the Marquesas, Upeneus vittatus. Two species, Parupeneus
porphyreus and P. chrysonemus, are endemic to Hawaii. Fifteen species are recorded from
Micronesia. Thirteen species are recorded from Samoa.
Holland et al. (1993) conducted a study of the movements, distribution, and growth rates of
Mulloidichthys flavolineatus by using tagging data. M. flavolineatus and M. vanicolensis
were the most abundant mullids found in Hanalei Bay, Kauai (Friedlander et al. 1997). M.
flavolineatus ranked second in overall mean biomass at 211g/100m2, with an overall mean
numerical density of 1.1 individuals/100m2. M. vanicolensis had higher numbers in patch
reef habitat, but the larger fish were present in reef slope habitat, indicating partitioning of
habitat by size. Parupeneus cyclostomus was the rarest and most mobile of the mullids found
in Hanalei Bay, with an overall mean density of 0.01 individuals/100m2 or 2.02 g/100m2.
The largest individuals were seen in deeper reef slope habitat.
Schooling is common among the mullids, and group spawning and pair spawning have been
documented for the family. An aggregation of 300 to 400 individuals was observed
spawning at 21m depth off the coast of the U.S. Virgin Islands (Colin & Clavijo 1978).
Groups of fish made spawning rushes about 2 meters above the bottom before releasing
gametes.
Goatfish have pelagic eggs which are spherical, transparent, and non-adhesive with a single
oil droplet. Egg diameters range from 0.63 to 0.93 mm and hatch within 3 days. Large size
of larvae at settlement, and wide distribution, suggest that goatfish in general have a larval
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development period that lasts several weeks. Pelagic eggs and larvae are subject to advection
by ocean currents. After settlement, juveniles take approximately one year to reach sexual
maturity. Munro (1976) suggested that few live more than 3 years. In P. porphyreus, peak
spawning occurs somewhere between December and July. Counts of nuclear rings on
otoliths indicate a larval period of approximately 40-60 days. The juvenile phase involves
rapid color changes, a lengthening of the gut, and an external change in shape. Fishes can
mature sexually by about 1.25 years of age. Fecundity was estimated as 11,000 to 26,000
eggs per spawn. Adults in this species may live 6 years or longer (Moffitt 1979).
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Mullidae assemblages pursuant to
Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat.
For a broader description of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS
see Section 4.2.1.32. EFH for the egg and larval stages of the mullids is designated as the
water column extending from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50
fm. EFH for the juvenile and adult stages is designated as all rocky/coral and sand-bottom
habitat and adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.11 Mullets (Mugilidae)
The Mugilidae, or mullet family, includes silver-sided fishes that generally favor shallow
nearshore waters. They can tolerate a wide range of salinities, are often found in brackish
water, and occasionally even venture into fresh water. Traditionally, mullets have been an
important food resource for people throughout the Western Pacific. Mullets generally feed
over the reef or over sandy or mud bottoms. Three species of mullet occur in Hawaii: the
common Striped mullet or >ama=ama (Mugil cephalus), the Acute-jawed mullet or uouoa
(Neomyxus leuciscus), and Moolgarda engeli, an introduced species that is proliferating at
the expense of the more important striped mullet. At least 8 species in 5 genera are reported
from Micronesia (Myers 1991). By weight, the striped mullet is ranked tenth among fish
species caught inshore in Hawaii (DAR data in Green 1997), while acute-jawed mullet is the
fourth most-important species caught at Johnston Atoll (1989-1990 data, Green1997).
Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus): This species feeds over sandy or muddy bottoms in shallow
water, filtering out fine algae and organic detritus material through the gills. Although
reported to have circumglobal distribution in subtropical seas, there are no verifiable records
in the literature of the occurrence of the species in Micronesia (Myers 1991), and it is
possible that other species or subspecies may account for the reportedly wide distribution
(Randall 1996).
Very little information is available concerning the distribution of eggs or larvae of mullets.
(but presumably these stages are dispersed widely by ocean currents). Therefore EFH is
designated as the water column from the shoreline to the outter limits of the EEZ to a depth
of 50 fm. Because adult and juvenile mullets are reported to occur almost exclusively in very
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shallow nearshore waters, EFH for the species is designated as all sand and mud bottoms and
the adjacent water column from 0 to 25 fm.
4.1.12 Moray Eels (Muraenidae)
Members of Muraenidae, the morays, lack pectoral fins and scales and have a large mouth.
Most species have long, fang-like teeth, but some do not. Species with long canines feed
mainly on reef fishes, occasionally on crustaceans and octopuses. Species of Echidna and
Gymnomuraena with mainly nodular or molariform teeth feed more on crustaceans,
especially crabs. Morays have a lengthy pelagic leptocephalus larval stage that has resulted
in a very wide distribution. In the Pacific Islands, morays are hunted for food in many
locations, even though large individuals may be ciguatoxic. Morays typically remain hidden
within the framework of the reef, and many are more active at night than during the day.
There are 38 species of morays in Hawaii, second only to the wrasses for number of species.
Gymnothorax steindachneri is endemic to Hawaii. At least 53 species are known from
Micronesia. At least 47 species are known from Samoa.
Eel eggs are pelagic and spherical with a wide periviteline space, usually no oil droplets and
in some species a densely reticulated yolk. The eggs are relatively large, ranging from 1.8 to
4.0 mm. Watson and Leis (1974) collected 145 eels eggs off Hawaii that ranged from 2.4 to
3.8 mm. Brock (1972) found 200,000 to 300,000 ripe eggs in each of four 5.0 to 6.8 kg
Gymnothorax javanicus. Hatching of an unidentified 1.8 mm muraenid egg took
approximately 100 hours (Bensam 1966).
Eels have a characteristic leptocephalus larval stage: a long, transparent, feather-shaped larva
that starts out at 5-10 mm and grows up to 200 mm before settlement and metamorphosis.
The duration of the planktonic stage is on the order of 3B5 months for moringuids (Castle
1979), 6B10 months for muraenids (Eldred 1969, Castle 1965) and about 10 months for some
congrids (Castle and Robertson 1974).
Both juvenile and adult eels inhabit cryptic locations in the framework of the reef or in sand
plains for some species. Some species remain so hidden within the reef that they have never
been seen alive; their existence is known only from samples taken with the use of poisons.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Muraenidae assemblages
pursuant to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based
upon the ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader
description of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS, see Section
4.2.1.4.
Because moray eels eggs and larvae have a pelagic phase, EFH for this life phase is
designated as the water column from the shoreline to the outer limits of the EEZ to a depth of
50 fm. The EFH for the adult and juvenile phase is defined to include all coral, rocky and
sand-bottom areas from 0 to 50 fm.
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4.1.13 Octopuses (Octopodidae)
The octopods are mollusks of the class Cephalopoda. Several octopod species are found in
the region, and at least two (Octopus cyanea and O. ornatus) are of some economic
importance. While some octopods are known from at least 1,000 meters depth, these deepwater species are not reef-associated. Reef-inhabiting octopods generally occur from the
shallowest parts of the reef down to depths of around 50 m. They are bottom-dwelling
species that usually occupy holes and crevices in rocks or coral areas; while they can swim
rapidly if necessary (especially in escape swimming), octopuses usually avoid swimming in
mid-water. In sandy areas, they may dig burrows or construct shelters built from scattered
rocks. Octopods venture out of their dens in search of food, and may swim and crawl over
the bottom to distances more than 100m from their holes. In Hawaii, Octopus cyanea forages
during the day, and is known as Aday [email protected], while O. ornatus, the Anight [email protected], forages after
dark (Kay 1979).
Octopods lay demersal eggs that are attached in clusters within rocky recesses on the reef.
Some (e.g., large specimens of Octopus cyanea) may lay up to 700,000 eggs (Van Heukelem
1983). Embryonic development is considered Adirect,@ that is, there is no larval phase.
However, the degree of development at hatching may be related to the size of the egg. In
those species with smaller eggs (<4mm), hatchlings are less-developed, and first go through a
planktonic [email protected] phase, before settling down to a benthic existence (Young and
Harman 1989). Those species with larger eggs (around 17mm range) are typically more
developed, and hatch immediately to a benthic stage. In Octopus cyanea, eggs are about
3mm in diameter. Newly-hatched juveniles are about 3mm long, and enter a planktonic
stage, believed to last around 30-40 days. Similarly, Octopus ornatus has a juvenile,
planktonic paralarval stage that measures less than 4mm in mantle length (Young and
Harman 1989).
The following octopod species are known from Hawaiian waters: Octopus cyanea, O.
ornatus, Berrya hoylei and Scaeurgus patagiatus. An additional three unnamed species are
believed present (Young and Harman 1989). Octopus hawiiensis, an endemic species
originally described in 1837, was only recently observed again in the islands (Hoover 1998).
Octopus are a component of the incidental catch of the lobster-trap fishery in the Northwest
Hawaiian Islands (WPRFMC 25 May 99). An unnamed species of octopus is known from
Waianae, Oahu. It occupies burrows in sandy areas. The burrows have openings about the
diameter of a thumb. It is not known whether the octopus digs the burrow, or simply
occupies a burrow already dug by another animal (e.g., mantis shrimp). This octopus
emerges from its burrow and mimics a flatfish (B. Carlson, pers. omm.. 27 Aug 99).
On Tutuila Island, American Samoa, it was reported that octopus accounted for
approximately five percent of the catch composition for the shoreline subsistence fishery
(Craig et al. 1993). Octopus (Octopus cyanea and O. ornatus) are reef-associated species
commonly taken as food in the Marianas (Myers 1997 in Green October 1997). Octopus
cyanea was identified as a species found on the reef slope at Rota, and targeted for capture in
the local fishery (Smith et al 1989). Octopus are considered a preferred catch item in Saipan
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(Micronesian Environmental Services, March 1997). Octopus, mainly Octopus cyanea, are
considered the most sought-after unshelled mollusk.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Octopods assemblages pursuant
to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat.
Because some species of octopus have a pelagic paralarval phase that is subject to advection
by ocean currents, EFH for this life phase is designated as the water column from the
shoreline to the outer limits of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. The EFH for the adult and
juvenile phase and for the demersal eggs of the octopods, is defined to include all coral,
rocky and sand-bottom areas from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.14 Threadfins (Polynemidae)
Threadfins are relatives of the mullets, named for their thread-like lower pectoral rays that
are used as feelers which become relatively shorter with growth. Threadfins typically occur
over shallow sandy to muddy bottoms, occasionally in fresh or brackish water. One species,
Polydactylus sexfilis, or moi, occurs in Hawaii, where it is highly valued as a food fish. In
Hawaii, it has become rare as a result of intense fishing pressure, and is currently being
propagated in hatcheries for use in stock enhancement projects. The same species occurs in
Micronesia. Two species occur in Samoa, P. sexfilis and P. plebeius. The family
Polynemidae is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific
Oceans.
P. sexfilis is a fast-growing species that inhabits turbid waters, and can be found in large
schools in sandy holes along rocky shoals and high energy surf zones. In Kaneohe Bay,
adults may be found on reef faces, in the depths of the inner bay and in shallow (2-4 m) areas
with muddy sand bottoms (Lowell 1971). When moi were more abundant in Hawaii,
airplane spotters used to locate large schools and direct net fishermen to the catch.
Threadfins are also reported to prefer sandy and mud bottom habitats in Micronesia (Myers
1991).
Spawning takes place for 3-6 days per month and has been observed in Hawaii from June to
September, with a peak in July and August (Ostrowski and Molnar 1997). Spawning may be
year-round in very warm locations. Spawning occurs inshore and eggs hatch offshore within
14-24 hours depending on water temperature (May 1979). Eggs are small, averaging 0.75
mm in diameter with a large oil globule. Both eggs and larvae are subject to advection by
ocean currents. Larvae are pelagic, but after metamorphosis they enter nearshore habitats
such as surf zones, reefs, and stream mouths (Ostrowski and Molnar 1997). Young moi,
from 150-250 mm long, are found from shoreline breakers to 100 m depth (Lowell 1971).
Fishing for juvenile P. sexfilis, or moilii, has historically been an important recreational and
subsistence seasonal fishery in Hawaii.
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To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Polynemidae assemblages
pursuant to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based
upon the ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader
description of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section
4.2.1.44.
EFH for the egg and larval stages of the polynemids is designated as the water column
extending from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. EFH for
the juvenile and adult stages is designated as all rocky/coral and sand-bottom habitat and the
adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.15 Bigeyes (Priacanthidae)
Priacanthids are nocturnal zooplanktivores that feed on larger zooplankton such as the larvae
of crabs, fishes, polychaete worms and cephalopods. The family is distributed
circumtropically and in temperate seas, but some species are limited to the Indo-Pacific or
the Hawaiian islands. In Hawaiian waters, 4 species have been recorded: Heteropriacanthus
cruentatus, the endemic Priacanthus meeki, and two deep-water species. In Micronesian
waters, H. cruentatus, P. hamrur, and a deep species from over 200 m depth have been
recorded. The shallow-water species are limited to 100 m or less. Five species are recorded
from Samoan waters.
The glasseye, H. cruentatus, inhabits lagoon or seaward reefs from below the surge zone to a
depth of at least 20m. During the day it is usually solitary or in small groups but may gather
in large numbers at dusk prior to ascending into the water column for feeding.
Spawning by priacanthids has not been observed, but Colin and Clavijo (1978) reported
seeing an aggregation of more than 200 individuals at a reef where many other species were
spawning. The eggs of Pristigenys niphonium and Priacanthus macracanthus are pelagic,
spherical, and 0.75 mm in diameter (Suzuki et al. 1980, Renzhai and Suifen 1982). The
larvae hatch at 1.4 mm (Renzhai and Suifen 1982). The size of the largest examined pelagic
larval specimen was 48 mm (Leis and Rennis 1983). Eggs and larvae are subject to
advection by ocean currents. Caldwell (1962) reported a size at settlement for the deepwater
subtropical species Pristigenys alta of 65mm.
Habits and habitat preferences for the family are similar to those of the holocentrids, in that
these fishes prefer shaded overhangs, caves, and crevices on the reef during the daytime. At
night, fishes may move out into the water column to feed, and some types are reported to
feed over soft-bottom areas.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Priacanthid assemblages pursuant
to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader description
of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section 4.2.1.23.
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Because the distribution of eggs and larvae of the Priacanthidae have not been thoroughly
studied, a precautionary approach is required in establishing EFH for these stages.
Therefore, EFH for priacanthid eggs and larvae is designated as the water column extending
from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. EFH for
priacanthids in the juvenile and adult stages is designated as all rocky/coral and sand-bottom
habitat and the adjacent water column from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.16 Parrotfishes (Scaridae)
Scarids inhabit a wide variety of coral reef habitats including seagrass beds, coral-rich areas,
sand patches, rubble or pavement fields, lagoons, reef flats, and upper reef slopes (Myers
1991). They are prominent members in numbers and biomass of shallow reef environments.
Scarids are chiefly distributed in tropical regions of the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans.
Parrotfishes often occur in large, mixed-species schools which rove long distances while
feeding on reefs. A few species are territorial, but the majority are roving herbivores, with
the size of the home range increasing with the size of the fish. Choat and Robertson (1975)
found that smaller, less mobile scarids are usually associated with cover such as Acropora
growth. Open areas with large amounts of grazing surface harbor larger, more mobile, and
school-forming scarids. Schooling behavior is common among the scarids, both for feeding
and spawning.
Species endemic to Hawaii are: Calotomus zonarchus, Chlorurus per spicillatus, and Scarus
dubius. Seven species of scarids can be found in Hawaii, 33 species in Micronesia, and 23
species in Samoa.
Scarids spawn in both pairs and groups. Group spawning frequently occurs on the outer
slope of the reef in areas with high current speeds. Pair spawnings are frequently observed at
the reef crest or reef slope at peak or falling tide. Scarids have been observed to undergo
spawning migrations within lagoons and to the outer reef slope (Randall and Randall 1963,
Yogo et al. 1980, Johannes 1981, Choat and Randall 1986, Colin and Bell 1991). Some
species are diandric, forming schools and spawning in groups often after migration to
specific sites, while others are monandric, at times being strongly site-attached with haremic,
pair spawning (Choat and Randall 1986). The pelagic eggs and larvae of scarids are subject
to dispersal by ocean currents.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Scarid assemblages pursuant to
Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader description
of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section 4.2.1.42.
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4.1.17 Bumphead Parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum)
The Bumphead parrotfish, Bulbometopon muricatum, merits special consideration because of
its importance as a target species and because its populations, under pressure through
overfishing, have been declining rapidly over much of its range. The Bumphead is a very
large parrotfish (to 120cm and 75kg) that typically occurs in schools on clear outer lagoon
and seaward reefs at depths from 1-30m. They are often located on reef crests and fronts. In
unfished areas they may enter outer reef flats at low tide. The Bumphead is very wary in the
daytime but sleeps in groups on the reef surface at night, making it an easy target for
spearfishermen. As a result, it has nearly disappeared from most of Guam=s reefs. Johannes
(1981) cites an example of Bumpheads changing the location of their sleeping site away from
the shallow reef flat to the deeper reef slope in Palau in response to increasing nighttime
spearfishing. Their range is Indo-Pacific, although they are not found in the Hawaiian
Islands. On the Great Barrier Reef, fish of less than 400mm are thought to have different
habitat requirements from larger fish, since these smaller fishes are not seen on outer reefs
(H. Choat, personal communication).
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Scarid assemblages pursuant to
Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat. For a broader description
of the life history and habitat utilization patterns of individual MUS see Section 4.2.1.42.
As indicated above, eggs and larvae of scarids are subject to dispersal by ocean currents.
Similarly, adult scarids may occur over and utilize a wide range of coral and other shallowwater habitat types. Thus, EFH for all life stages in the Scaridae is designated as the water
column and all bottom habitats from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to a
depth of 50 fm.
In light of the continued vulnerability of the Bumphead parrotfish to overharvesting, it is
critical that its preferred habitats be protected so that there may be some opportunity for
populations of the species to recover to healthier levels over time. At present, little
information is available regarding the specific habitat requirements of this species. Further
research is thus needed to better understand the habitat requirements of the Bumphead
parrotfish so that appropriate Habitat Areas of Special Concern can be designated, and other
management measures initiated, to better protect this species.
4.1.18 Rabbitfish (Siganidae)
Siganids are small (from 20 -50 cm), essentially marine tropical Indo-West Pacific fishes.
They have venomous dorsal, anal and pelvic spines. With a single row of flattened, close-set
teeth, rabbitfishes feed primarily on algae and seagrasses, although some may occasionally
feed on tunicates or sponges. Because of their herbivorous diet, most species live at depths
less than 15 m, but some are trawled from as deep as 50m. Half the species live as pairs on
coral reefs, the others usually gather in small schools. One species, Siganus vermiculatus, is
almost exclusively estuarine; the rest move between estuaries, coral reefs, rocky shores, and
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other habitats. Rabbitfishes generally spawn on a lunar cycle with peak activity during the
spring and early summer. Spawning occurs in pairs or groups on outgoing tides either at
night or early in the morning. Juveniles of some species are estuarine. Rabbitfishes are
highly esteemed foodfishes. Some of the colorful ones are popular aquarium fishes. None
are found in Hawaii. Approximately 16 species are found in Micronesia, and at least 4
species in Samoa.
Spawning by rabbitfishes is typically preceded by a migration to specific and traditional
spawning sites. The location varies from near mangrove stands (S. lineatus, Drew 1971), to
shallow reef flats (S. canaliculatus, Manacop 1937, Johannes 1981), the outer reef crest
(several spp. at Palau, McVey 1972; Johannes 1978), and even the deeper reef (S. lineatus,
Johannes 1981). Sites are usually characterized by easy access to the ocean via channels, and
large areas of sea grass flats nearby.
Reproduction in the schooling species has been studied in some detail, and in general the
eggs are adhesive and demersal (with a few exceptions such as the pelagic eggs of S.
argenteus); hatching occurs within 1-3 days and yolk sac absorption is completed in about 3
or 4 days (Lam 1974). Fecundity is high: 250,000-500,000 eggs per spawning season (Lam
1974, Gunderman et al. 1983). Larvae are pelagic and feed on phytoplankton and
zooplankton. The duration of the larval stage is about 3 weeks in S. fuscescens (Hasse et al.
1977) and 3-4 weeks in S. vermiculatus (Gunderman et al. 1983). Popper et al. (1976)
reported that siganid larvae follow a lunar rhythm in appearing on the reef, typically arriving
inshore 3-5 days after a new moon. Fish are 15-20 cm long and sexually mature after one
year. Judging by maximum size, some species survive from 2-4 years. S. argenteus is unique
amongst the Siganidae in having a prejuvenile stage which is distinct from the larval and
juvenile stages and is specially adapted for a pelagic life (Hubbs 1958). They can reach sizes
of 6-8 cm SL before settling. Not surprisingly, S. argenteus has the widest distribution of all
rabbitfishes.
The rabbitfishes vary widely in their habitat uses. The schooling species typically move
between a wide range of habitats, whereas the pairing species tend to lead a sedentary
existence among the branches of hard corals. Rabbitfishes are common on reef flats, around
scattered small coral heads, and near grass flats. Gundermann et al. (1983) divided the
siganids into two groups on the basis of habitat, behavioral characteristics and coloraton.
One group includes species (S. corallinus, S. puellus, and Lo vulpinnus) that live in pairs,
have limited home-ranges on reefs and are brightly colored. The remaining group, including
S. rivulatus and S. canaliculatus, form schools at some stage of their life cycle, may
undertake substantial migrations, and assume coloration similar to their preferred habitat.
Schools of juvenile S. rostratus and S. spinus swarm on the reef flats of Guam each year
during April and May, and occasionally during June and October. Tsuda et al. (1976) studied
the feeding and habitat requirements for these fish to determine the likelihood of mariculture
of the rabbitfishes, which are highly esteemed for gastronomic and cultural reasons in Guam.
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Very little information is available concerning the distribution of eggs or larvae of rabbitfish.
Therefore EFH for this life stage is designated as the water column from the shoreline to the
outter limits of the EEZ to a depth of 50 fm. Because adult and juvenile rabbitfish are
reported to occur almost exclusively in very shallow nearshore waters, EFH for this life stage
is designated as all benthic habitats and the adjacent water column from 0 to 25 fm.
4.1.19 Barracudas (Sphyraenidae)
The barracudas, all in the single genus Sphyraena, are top-level carnivorous fishes that feed
mainly on other fishes. Some species are primarily diurnal, while others are nocturnal.
Species such as Sphyraena helleri school in large groups during the day but disperse at night
to feed. Sphyraena barracuda is typically a solitary diurnal predator. In Hawaiian waters,
these are the only two species positively recorded. In Micronesian waters, at least 6 species
occur. In Samoan waters, at least five species occur.
Juvenile S. barracuda occur among mangroves and in shallow sheltered inner reef areas.
Adults occur in a wide range of habitats ranging from murky inner harbors to the open sea. S.
forsteri, S. acutipinnis, S. novaehollandiae, and S. obtusata are all schooling barracudas that
occur over lagoon and seaward reefs. S. forsteri is reported to occur on outer reef slopes to a
depth of 300m (Myers 1991). S. genie is a larger schooling barracuda that frequently schools
within defined territories on submarine terraces and is most often caught at night by trollers
in Micronesia. In general, barracudas may be found in almost any tropical marine habitat,
including within lagoons and mangrove areas, over coral reefs or sand or mud bottoms, or off
of deep outer reef slopes.
Barracudas migrate to specific spawning areas, often in very large numbers at reef edges or
in deeper water. The eggs are pelagic, spherical, and range in diameter from 0.7-1.5 mm
with a single clear or yellow oil droplet. Eggs hatch within 24-30 hours. Both eggs and
larvae may be carried for long distances by ocean currents. Larvae begin to feed within 3
days on small copepods. Larger larvae voraciously feed on zooplankton and other fish
larvae. Settlement typically occurs at a length of 18 mm, but S. barracuda larvae
occasionally drift in the ocean for an indefinite period of time, usually associated with
floating debris or algae, developing all the characteristics of juveniles and sometimes
attaining large sizes before being delivered inshore. Newly settled juveniles are piscivorous.
Because eggs and larvae of barracudas are subject to wide dispersal by currents, and since
the adults may occur over virtually any bottom type, EFH for all life stages in the
Sphyraenidae is designated to extend from the shoreline to the outer boundary of the EEZ to
a depth of 50 fm.
4.1.20 Turban Shells/Green Snail (Turbinidae)
Turban shells are a gastropod belonging to the family Turbinidae which are distributed
throughout the Indo-Pacific region extending into the South Pacific. In Micronesia and the
South Pacific, several varieties of turban shells are harvested mainly for food but the shells of
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certain species are also highly prized for lacquerware and jewelry. The main species of
turban shells harvested are the green snail (Turbo marmoratus), the rough turban (T.
Setosus), and the silver-mouth turban (T. Argyrostomus).
Green snails share similar habitat with other gastropod species like the trochiids and are
generally found in healthy coral reef habitats which receive constant flow of oceanic water.
Juveniles are often found on shallow reef crests while adults prefer deeper habitats with well
developed reef and abundant coral growth. Very little information is available on the
reproduction of green snails as none have been observed spawning in the wild. Lab studies
conducted by (Yamaguchi 1988) indicate that ovaries of a well developed female may
contain up to 7 million eggs which are then ejaculated and fertilized by male sperm.
Although the eggs are heavier than saltwater, they are easily dispersed with slight agitation.
To reduce the complexity and the number of EFH identifications required for individual
species and life stages, the Council has designated EFH for Turbinidae assemblages pursuant
to Section 600.805(b) of 62 FR 66551. The designation of these complexes is based upon the
ecological relationships among species and their preferred habitat.
Because eggs and larvae are subject to advection by ocean currents, EFH for these stages is
designated as the water column from the shoreline to the outer limit of the EEZ to a depth of
50 fm. For adults and juveniles, EFH is designated as all bottom habitat and the adjacent
water column from 0 to 50 fm.
4.1.21 Aquarium Taxa/Species Habitat
Within the jurisdictional waters of the WPRFMC, Hawaii is the main site where commercial
collection and sale of coral reef fishes and invertebrates for the aquarium trade is occurring.
On Guam, commercial collection at present is quite limited (only one commercial operation
is involved in the export of live aquarium fish). On American Samoa, commercial collection
of aquarium fishes is allowed by permit, but presently there are no commercial aquarium fish
operators. In CNMI, the commercial export of live aquarium fishes is prohibited. No
aquarium fish collecting occurs on other U.S. Pacific islands, since these islands are either
National Wildlife Refuges or are in use by the military (Green 1997).
Because Hawaii is the area where most commercial harvesting of aquarium species occurs,
the aquarium MUS complex is based primarily on those species known from Hawaiian
waters. While the descriptions that follow give general information about the distribution of
aquarium taxa across the region, EFH is defined primarily on the basis of the occurrence of
taxa in Hawaii.
The AAquarium Species/[email protected], does not represent a taxonomically related cluster of
species. Nonetheless, the species contained in this MUS form a natural assemblage from the
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ecological standpoint, since most are found in similar habitat, primarily being closely
associated with shallow coral areas.2
4.1.21.1 Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae)
Surgeonfishes are among the most common families found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs.
They are primarily herbivores and planktivores. The larval period is long, up to around 2.5
months (Randall 1961). Surgeonfish larvae are primarily found well offshore at depths from
0-100m. Like other common adult members of the coral reef fish community, surgeonfish
larvae are typically less abundant in samples of the water column near the reef than they are
in samples from offshore (Miller 1973). Presumably, the prolonged pelagic larval period
contributes to the wide distribution of species in this family. Although surgeonfish larvae
generally settle at a larger size than most other reef fish, acanthurids are one of the families
wherein juveniles settle with larval characters still present (Leis & Rennis 1983). Late-phase
larvae actively swim inshore at night, and seek shelter on the reef. Surgeonfishes have
relatively long life spans, up to as much as 40 years (Dalzell et al. 1996).
Yellow tang (Zebrasoma flavescens): Although widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, this
species is only abundant in Hawaii. The yellow tang is a popular aquarium fish that
represents more than 75% of all aquarium animals caught statewide (Clark and Gulko 1999).
They occur singly or in loose groups on coral-rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs from
below the surge zone to at least 46 m depth. Juveniles tend to hide among branches of finger
coral, while adults graze near the shore in calm areas.
Z. flavescens tends to prefer the leeward sides of islands, particularly areas of dense coral
growth of Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. It feeds on algae growing exposed
on basalt and dead coral heads, as well as in crevices and interstices of the reef that it can
reach with its long, thin snout (Jones 1968).
Yellow-eyed surgeon fish (Ctenochaetus strigosus): Like the yellow tang, the yellow-eyed
surgeon is distributed across the tropical Indo-Pacific, but is only common in Hawaii.
Individuals are observed in coral-rich areas of deep lagoon and seaward reefs. In addition to
its importance as an aquarium species, it is also a popular food fish.
Achilles tang (Acanthurus achilles): This fish is distributed only in the Pacific Islands. It is
common in Hawaii and Polynesia, but rare in Micronesia. It is a territorial species that feeds
on filamentous and fleshy algae. The Achilles tang is primarily found in the surge zone to a
depth of 4 m.
3
One exception is the feather-duster worm, a sessile benthic invertebrate that occupies sandy or rubble bottom
areas. The species is nonetheless included as part of the aquarium assemblage because of its commercial
importance as a harvested aquarium species.
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4.1.21.2 Moorish Idol (Zanclus cornutus; Zancildae)
The Moorish idol, sole member of this monotypic family, is ubiquitous in areas of hard
substrate, from waters less than 1 m deep in turbid inner harbors and reef flats, to clear
seaward reefs as deep as 182 m. It is often found in small groups but may sometimes occur
in schools of as many as 100 or more individuals. The species has a long larval stage and
settles at a large size, >6cm SL for some individuals. As a result, they are ubiquitous
wherever hard substrate is found, from turbid inner harbors to clear seaward reefs. They feed
mainly on sponges, but will also take other invertebrates and algae. Their range is the IndoPacific and tropical eastern Pacific, and they are found throughout the jurisdiction. They are
a popular aquarium fish.
4.1.21.3 Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)
Angelfishes are indisputably among the most beautiful and popular of all aquarium fishes, in
many cases commanding very high prices. Six species are found in Hawaiian waters, and
four of them are endemic: Centropyge fisheri, Centropyge potteri, Desmoholacanthus
arcuatus, and Genicanthus personatus. At least 26 species occur in Micronesia, and at least
11 species occur in Samoa.
Pomacanthid eggs are small, spherical, nearly transparent, and contain from one to several oil
droplets. Hatching occurs within 24 hours after release (Thresher 1984). Feeding by the
larvae begins within 2-3 days and settlement to the bottom occurs between 17-39 days (Allen
et al. 1998).
Adult angelfishes require suitable shelter in the form of boulders, caves, and coral crevices.
Most species occur from 2 to 30 m depth, but a few such as Centropyge narcosis are found in
waters over 100m deep. Angelfishes are territorial, and males frequently maintain a harem of
2-5 females and defend a territory ranging from a few square meters for some smaller species
(e.g., Centropyge) to well over 1 sq km for some larger species (e.g, Pomacanthus).
Angelfish (Centropyge shepardi and C. flavissimus): These are two of the prime target
species for the aquarium trade, and are found on Guam. Shepard=s angelfish (C. shepardi) is
usually observed on outer reef slopes at depths between 18-56 m. The lemonpeel angelfish
(C. flavissumus) inhabits areas of rich coral growth in shallow lagoons or on exposed
seaward reefs to depths of 25 m or more.
4.1.21.4 Dragon Moray (Enchelycore pardalis; Muraenidae)
Morays, in the family Muraenidae, occur mostly in waters less than 30 m deep. There are 38
species of morays in Hawaii, second only to the wrasses for number of species.
Gymnothorax steindachneri is endemic to Hawaii. At least 53 species are known from
Micronesia. At least 47 species are known from Samoa.
Eel eggs are pelagic, spherical, and relatively large, ranging from 1.8 to 4.0mm. Watson and
Leis (1974) collected 145 eel eggs off Hawaii which ranged from 2.4 to 3.8mm. Brock
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(1972) found 200,000 to 300,000 ripe eggs in each of four 5.0 to 6.8kg Gymnothorax
javanicus. Hatching of an unidentified 1.8mm muraenid egg took approximately 100 hours
(Bensam 1966).
Eels have a characteristic leptocephalus larval stage: a long, transparent, feather-shaped larva
that starts out at 5-10 mm and grows up to 200mm before settlement and metamorphosis.
The duration of the planktonic stage is on the order of 6-10 months for muraenids (Eldred
1969, Castle 1965).
Both juvenile and adult eels inhabit cryptic locations in the framework of the reef, or in sand
plains for some species. Some species remain so hidden within the reef that they have never
been seen alive; their existence is known only from samples taken with the use of poisons.
Many species emerge to feed and some may even slither over rocks and enter shallow
tidepools. Enchelycore pardalis, the dragon moray, is a striking fish that is popular with
aquarists, and may attain a length of around 1 m. It is distributed throughout the IndoPacific. Known in Hawaii as puhi kauila, it is more common in the NWHI than in the MHI.
4.1.21.5 Hawkfishes (Cirrhitidae)
Hawkfishes are small grouper-like fishes in the family Cirrhitidae. In Hawaii, there are 6
species recorded. At least 10 species occur in Micronesia, and at least 8 species occur in
Samoa. The colorful species are popular aquarium fishes.
Eggs are pelagic, spherical, and approximately 0.5 mm in diameter. The development at
hatching is unknown. A lengthy pelagic larval stage, probably lasting a few to several weeks
(Randall 1963) is suggested by the widespread distribution and limited geographic variation
of some species.
Adults typically inhabit rock, coral, or rubble of the surge zone, seaward reefs, lagoons,
channels, rocky shorelines, and submarine terraces. Some are typically found on heads of
small branching corals.
Longnose hawkfish (Oxycirrhites typus): The longnose hawkfish, Oxycirrhites typus, is a
popular aquarium species that feeds mainly on zooplankton, and is usually seen perched on
black coral or gorgonians at depths greater than 30 m. The fish is distributed throughout the
Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas. The fish is found and collected in Hawaii.
Flame hawkfish (Neocirrhitus armatus): This spectacular hawkfish is commonly found along
surge-swept reef fronts and marine terraces to a depth of about 11m. It inhabits coral heads
of various species, including Stylophora mordax, Pocillopora elegans, P. edouxi, and P.
verrucosa. The species is distributed in the islands and coastlines of the Pacific plate, and is
collected in Guam.
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4.1.21.6 Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae)
Butterflyfishes are among the most colorful and conspicuous fishes on the coral reef. Many
species are corallivores that feed on polyps of corals and other coelenterates. The
corallivores tend to be territorial and limited to the shallower depth ranges of the corals that
they feed upon (e.g., Pocillopora meandrina). Others feed heavily on benthic algae and
small benthic invertebrates. Some species, including those of Hemitaurichthys, are primarily
zooplanktivores which often occur in mid-water aggregations and range into relatively deep
water.
Butterflyfish eggs are planktonic and hatch within two days. The duration of the planktonic
stage is not well studied, but Burgess (1978) suggested it is likely to be at least several
months. Settlement occurs at night and juveniles tend to occupy shallower, more sheltered
habitats than adults. The family is represented in Hawaiian waters by 24 species; Chaetodon
fremblii, C. miliaris, and C multicinctus are endemic to Hawaii, and C. tinkeri is found only
in Hawaii and the Marshall Islands. The family is represented in Micronesian waters by at
least 40 species and in Samoan waters by 30 species. The yellow-crowned butterflyfish C.
flavocoronatus is listed as a vulnerable species in Guam on the 1996 IUCN Red List.
Threadfin butterflyfish (Chaetodon auriga): This species is one of the most common
butterflyfishes of areas of mixed sand, rubble, and coral, and typically occurs in shallow
waters to a depth of 30m. It is distributed from the Red Sea eastward to Hawaii, and is taken
as an aquarium fish in Hawaii and Guam.
Raccoon butterflyfish (Chaetodon lunula): This is a nocturnal species (possibly the only
nocturnal butterflyfish) that inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs to depths in excess of 30m. It
prefers rocky areas with high relief. Juveniles occur in shallows and idepools. The species
is distributed from East Africa to Hawaii, and is captured for use as an aquarium fish in
Hawaii and Guam.
Black-backed butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus): This species occurs in areas where
corals grow luxuriantly, and can be found in shallow waters to depths of over 15 m. The
black-backed butterflyfish is found from the Red Sea to American Samoa; it is absent in
Hawaii. It has some importance as an aquarium species in Guam.
Saddled butterflyfish (Chaetodon ephippium): The saddled butterflyfish is a relatively
common inhabitant of lagoon and seaward reefs to a depth oaf around 30m. It prefers areas
of rich coral growth and clear water. The species is distributed throughout the Central and
Western Pacific, but is uncommon in Hawaii. It is captured for aquarium use in Hawaii and
Guam.
4.1.21.7 Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
The damselfishes are among the most abundant fishes on coral reefs. Most damselfishes
occur in shallow water on coral or rock substrata, wherever there is shelter. The species of
Chromis, Dascyllus, Lepidozygus, Amblyglyphidodon, Neopomacentrus, and Pomachromis
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are aggregating planktivores that often form large schools in the water column. Most
members of Abudefduf, Chrysiptera, and Pomacentrus are omnivores that feed on benthic
algae, small invertebrates, or zooplankton. Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus feeds on coral
polyps. Other members of Plectroglyphidodon, as well as members of Stegastes, are
aggressively territorial herbivores. Algal feeders frequently cultivate algal mats which they
weed of undesirable algae and aggressively defend from other reef inhabitants. The
anemonefishes, subfamily Amphiprioninae, live in a symbiotic relationship with large sea
anemones. No anemonefish are found in Hawaii both because of the absence of host
anemones, and the short larval duration, which has apparently prevented distribution of
viable larvae to such an isolated location.
Pomacentrid eggs are demersal, elliptical, and adhesive by means of a cluster of fine threads
at one end of the egg. Eggs are kept in nests and aggressively guarded by the males. Egg
diameters range from 0.49 - 2.3mm. Hatching occurs in 2-4 days for most species, but up to
2 weeks for anemonefish eggs. The planktonic larval stage typically lasts 2-3 weeks but may
be longer. Thresher, Colin and Bell (1989) found larval durations for the following genera:
Amphiprion and Premnas: 7-14 days, Chromis and Dascyllus: 17-47 days with most between
20-30 days, and genera in the subfamily Pomacentrinae: 13-42 days. Size at settlement
ranges from 7 to 15mm, and several studies suggest that settlement occurs mainly at dusk and
at night (Williams 1980, Nolan 1975).
Many damselfishes are suitable for use in aquaria. Three of the species taken in the greatest
numbers on Guam are further described below.
Blue-green chromis (Chromis viridis): Huge aggregations of this brightly colored chromis
may be seen above thickets of branching corals in protected areas. They occur on subtidal
reef flats and in lagoons to depths of around 12 m. The species has a wide distribution
throughout the Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea to Line Islands and throughout Micronesia.
Humbug dascyllus (Dascyllus aruanus): This damselfish occurs in large aggregations in
shallow water, above branching Acropora heads. The fishes are strongly associated with
their home coral heads. They are a shallow-water species, and are distributed from the Red
Sea to the Line Islands, Lord Howe Island, and Micronesia.
Three-spot dascyllus (Dascyllus trimaculatus): This popular aquarium species occurs in
waters from 1-55m depth. Juveniles shelter among sea anemone tentacles, and adults are
found around prominent coral mounds or large rocks. The species has an Indo-Pacific
distribution from the Red Sea to the Line Islands, Lord Howe Island, and Micronesia.
4.1.21.8 Turkeyfishes (Scorpaenidae)
The Scorpaenidae, variously known as lionfishes, turkeyfishes, or scorpionfishes, possess
venomous dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins in many species. They are stout-bodied, benthic
carnivores that typically have fleshy flaps, a mottled coloring, and small tentacles on the head
and body. These camouflage features help them to hide and effectively ambush small fishes
and crustaceans. Lionfishes and turkeyfishes may swim well above the bottom, whereas
small cryptic species of the subfamily Scorpaeninae tend to remain on the bottom and may be
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quite common in shallow rubbly areas. Fishes in the family are often observed by divers in
shallow waters (around 10 m) but may also occur deeper (to at least 50m). In Hawaiian
waters, around 25 species in the family are known (Hoover 1993) and 3 are endemic:
Dendrochirus barberi, Pterois sphex, and Scorpaenopsis cacopsis. At least 30 species are
known from Micronesia, and at least 22 species are recorded from Samoa.
Most reef scorpaenids (Scorpaena, Pterois, Dendrochirus) have 0.7-1.2mm spherical to
slightly ovoid eggs embedded in a large, pelagic, sac-like gelatinous matrix (Leis & Rennis
1983). Eggs hatch in 58-72 hours. The duration of the planktonic larval stage is not known.
4.1.21.9 Feather-duster Worms (Sabellidae)
Feather-duster worms are attached benthic invertebrates in the Phylum Annelida, Class
Polychaeta. The most conspicuous part of these animals is the large fan, or crown. The body
is enclosed in a leathery tube that is mostly embedded in the substrate of the reef, often in
sandy or rubble-bottom areas. Feather-duster worms generally prefer shallow, turbid waters,
and can be found inhabiting harbors, bays, and similar sheltered areas. Occasionally, they are
also found in clearer waters, down to depths of 30m or more.
Collectively, the aquarium fish unit comprises a diverse array of organisms that favor a wide
variety of substrates, depths, and habitats. However, in general the group is characterized by
a close association with the shallow coral reef environment, and most collecting of the
species in the group occurs within a narrowly-defined range, i.e., from near-surface waters to
depths usually no greater than about 50 m. The EFH for the juvenile and adult phase of this
management unit is therefore designated as all coral, rubble, or other hard-bottom features
and the adjacent water column from 0-50 fm. EFH for eggs and larvae of the group (though
some eggs are demersal, e.g. in damselfishes) is described to include waters from 0-50 fm
from the shoreline to the limits of the EEZ.
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4.2 Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Management Unit Species
Introduction
This report presents a compilation of information that will be used to help to define essential
fish habitat (EFH) as part of a Coral Reef Ecosystem (CRE) Fisheries Management Plan
(FMP) for the Western Pacific Region pursuant to Sections 303(a) and (b) of the MagnusonStevens Act. The development of a CRE FMP is also in keeping with the spirit and intent of
Executive Order No. 13089 on Coral Reef Protection, issued by the President on June 11,
1998.
The report presents data for selected fish, invertebrate, and sessile taxa, termed Management
Units Species (MUS), occurring within the geographical fishery management units (FMUs)
under the jurisdiction of the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
(WPRFMC). Information was gathered through review of available literature, and
communication with authorities in the field. For each taxon, an effort was made to locate
those data that will be helpful in defining EFHs, including descriptions of the habitat and
ecological requirements for each life phase of the organisms under consideration.
For the purpose of this investigation, the taxa included were limited to those known or
believed to occur on or in association with coral reefs, at least during some phase of the life
cycle. In general therefore, pelagic taxa are excluded from this report. Similarly, those
species occurring exclusively in zones deeper than the typical depth for coral reefs (as
defined by the lower limits of the photic zone, i.e., 100 m depth), are not included.
4.2.1 EFH for Management Unit Species B Fish
4.2.1.1 Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes)
The acanthurids typically have ovate to elongate compressed bodies, a small terminal mouth
with a single row of close-set teeth, eyes high on the head, continuous unnotched dorsal and
anal fins, and a tough skin with very small ctenoid scales. The common name surgeonfish
stems from the presence of one or more pairs of sharp spines on the caudal peduncle which
may be used to slash other fish or unwary human handlers. In species of the genera
Acanthurus, Ctenochaetus, and Zebrasoma, the single lancet-like spine folds into a groove,
while species of Naso have 2 fixed, keel-like spines. Some Naso species have a horn-like
projection on the forehead, and as a result all members of the genus are commonly called
unicornfishes. Generally, acanthurids are diurnal herbivores or planktivores. Species of
Ctenochaetus and some of Acanthurus have a thick-walled gizzard-like stomach and often
ingest sand with their diet of benthic algae. Some species of Acanthurus and many Naso spp.
feed mainly on zooplankton in the water column. All acanthurids shelter on the reef at night.
Reproduction typically occurs on a lunar cycle with greater activity in winter or early spring,
but with some activity throughout the year. Spawning events are more frequent at dusk and
involve groups, pairs, or both. The larval stage is long by reef fish standards, and size at
settlement is larger than most. Surgeonfishes are important foodfishes on most Pacific
islands. This description was composed from Myers (1991) and Randall (1996).
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Habitat utilization - Jones (1968) divided the acanthurids from Hawaii and Johnston Island
into 4 major habitat types: mid-water (Acanthurus thompsoni, Naso hexacanthus), sand patch
(A. dussumieri, A. mata, A. olivaceous, A. xanthopterus), subsurge reef (A. nigrofuscus, A.
nigroris, A. sandvicensis, Ctenochaetus hawaiiensis, C. strigosus, Naso brevirostris, N.
lituratus, N. unicornis, Zebrasoma flavescens, Z. veliferum), and seaward reef or surge zone
(A. achilles, A. glaucopareius, A. guttatus, A. leucopareius) dwellers. The same paper gives
extensive descriptions of feeding habits and each species use of the habitat features.
Life history - The biology and life history of surgeonfish have been studied in a number of
Western Pacific locations, including Acanthurus triostegus in Hawaii (Randall 1961), Naso
brevirostris in French Polynesia (Caillart 1988), and Acanthurus nigricauda and A.
xanthopterus in Papua New Guinea (Dalzell 1989). Age and growth has been described by a
combination of oberving captive specimens, otolith microstructure, length frequency data,
and tagging. Lou and Moltschanowskyj (1992) validated daily growth increment formation
on otoliths of several juvenile surgeonfish species, and Lou (1993) plotted growth curves for
juvenile Ctenochaetus binotatus by measuring lapillus growth increments. Surgeonfishes
have relatively long life spans. Randall (1961) reported Naso unicornis and Acanthurus
xanthopterus living 15-20 years in captivity. Surgeonfish on the Great Barrier reef have
shown an average maximum life span of over 20 years, and 40 years in one instance (Dalzell
et al. 1996). Both of these situations involve no mortality from fishing. Hart & Russ (1996)
measured A. nigrofuscus ages and found a mean age at different reefs on the Great Barrier
reef ranging from 5.4 to 9.5 years, with the oldest specimen being 25 years old. Choat and
Axe (1996) aged 10 species of acanthurids from the Great Barrier Reef through the use of
otoliths and found life spans of 30-45 years in which growth was very rapid in the first 3-4
years of life. In American Samoa, Craig et al. (1997) found A. lineatus to grow very rapidly
during the first year, 70-80% of total growth, followed by slower growth and a long life, up
to 18 years.
Permanent sexual dimorphism is uncommon in the family. There are usually few differences
between males and females, though in some species there are size differences, usually larger
males. Males of the genus Naso frequently have a larger horn than females. Sexual
dichromatism only exists during times of spawning, the rest of the time the sexes are
similarly colored. Spawning is frequently timed with the lunar cycle, either during a new
moon, a full moon, or both. Many surgeonfishes spawn in large aggregations, and others
spawn strictly in pairs. Pair spawners may spawn throughout the lunar month (Robertson et
al. 1979). The act of reproduction for all surgeonfishes involves a quick upward rush of the
participants and a release of gametes into the water column. Spawning rushes typically occur
in low light conditions, usually at or near dusk.
Detailed descriptions of spawning behavior and spawning cycles of eight Indo-Pacific
surgeonfish species are given in Robertson (1983).
Acanthurids appear to have a peak in spawning activity in late winter and early spring.
Spawning of Acanthurus triostegus in Hawaii occurs primarily from December to June
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(Thresher 1984). Watson and Leis (1974) identified peak spawning from March to May, and
another peak in October, for many reef fish in Hawaii, including acanthurids. There are
instances of year-round spawning, and Randall (1961) suggested that seasonal variations in
spawning may be less obvious in the deep tropics where variations in seawater temperature
are less pronounced. Large aggregations of acanthurids do occur during spawning events,
often near the mouths of channels in the reef and in areas with strong offshore currents
(Randall 1961, Johannes 1981).
There are no species of surgeonfish endemic to any of the management areas in this plan,
although A. triostegus sandvicensis in Hawaii is recognized as a subspecies. Also,
Zebrasoma flavescens has a distribution from the North Pacific to southern Japan, but it is
abundant only in Hawaii. Twenty three species of surgeonfish are found in Hawaii (Randall
1996), 39 species in Micronesia (Myers 1991), and 32 species in Samoa (Wass 1984).
Schooling behavior is common in acanthurids, particularly in association with spawning
aggregations. Biologists have documented trains of surgeonfishes traveling along the reef to
join thousands of other surgeonfish at spawning aggregation sites. Once there, the fish
mingle near the substrate and slowly move upward as a group. Near dusk, small groups (615 individuals) of fish make spawning rushes to near the water surface and release gametes.
Following spawning, fish return to the substrate, form trains, and return to their home reefs.
Many species also form large single-species or mixed-species schools, apparently for
overwhelming territorial reef fish to feed on the algal mats they are protecting.
Trophic ecology - Although acanthurids are predominantly herbivores, they are diverse and
delicate feeders harvesting a variety of plants and organic materials which are processed in a
gut environment characterized by a complex microflora (Choat 1991). Species of
Ctenochaetus feed on detritus and algal fragments by whisking them from the substrate with
comb-like teeth. Acanthurus thompsoni, Naso annulatus, N. brevirostris, N. caesius, N.
hexacanthus, and N. maculatus feed primarily on zooplankton well above the bottom. Naso
lituratus and naso unicornis browse mainly on leafy algae such as Sargassum (Randall
1996).
Surgeonfishes commonly defend territories that are primarily feeding territories (Robertson
et al. 1979). In a study of the behavioral ecology of Acanthurus lineautus, A. leucosternon,
and Zebrasoma scopas, Robertson et al. (1979) described the morphology, feeding strategies,
and social and mating systems of three territorial species that occupied characteristic depth
zones and habitat types.
Jones (1968) identified Acanthurus thompsoni and Naso hexacanthus as zooplankton feeders
on copepods, crustacean larvae, and pelagic eggs; A. dussumieri, A. mata, A. olivaceus,
Ctenochaetus hawaiiensis, and C. strigosus as grazers on a calcareus substratum rich in
diatoms and detritus; and A. achilles, A. glaucopareius, A. guttatus, A. leucopareius, A.
nigrofuscus, A. nigroris, A. sandvicensis, Zebrasoma flavescens, Z. veliferum, Naso
brevirostris, N. lituratus, and N. unicornis as browsers on multicellular benthic algae.
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Pacific fisheries- Surgeonfishes are important food fish on many Pacific islands, where they
are typically caught by spearfishing or nets. Some species are also sought after for the
aquarium trade.
Main Hawaiian Islands - Less than 12% of the catch of inshore fishes reported in DAR
commercial statistics from 1991-1995 came from federal waters (Friedlander 1996). For
catches reported to DAR between 0-200nm, six of the top 25 inshore species by weight are
acanthurids: A. dussumieri-32,407 lbs, A. triostegus-11,705 lbs, Naso spp.-9969 lbs, A.
xanthopterus-5,234 lbs, A. olivaceous-4,813 lbs, and Ctenochaetus strigosus-3,776 lbs
(Friedlander 1996).
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands - No data is available on catches of surgeonfish in this
area, where inshore fisheries are fairly unexploited (see Green 1997).
American Samoa - Craig et al. (1993) reported that no major commercial fishery operates in
federal waters in American Samoa. Closer to shore, Acanthuridae compose 28% of the reef
fish catch (Dalzell et al. 1996). Over 40% of the catch composition by weight in the 1994
artisanal fishery was surgeonfishes (in Craig et al. 1995). In 1994, A. lineatus ranked second
among all species harvested in both the artisanal and substience fisheries, accounting for 10
% of the total catch of 295 metric tons (Craig et al. 1997). The artisanal fishery captured 28 t
of A. lineatus by spearfishing. A much smaller amount of that species, only 1-3% of the
catch, was taken in the subsistence fishery by use of gill nets, throw nets, rod-and-reels, and
handlines.
Guam - At this time, much less than 20% of the total coral reef resources harvested in Guam
are taken from federal waters (Myers 1997). Acanthuridae composed 9.12 % of the reef fish
catch in Guam (Dalzell et al. 1996). Small-boat based spearfish landings from FY85-91 were
19.0% surgeonfishes by weight (Myers 1996). Further discussion of reef fish catches in
Guam can be found in Green (1997).
CNMI - Most reef fish landed in the Northern Mariana Islands are reported as mixed reef
fish. Only 1.11% of the catch was assigned to surgeonfishes (Dalzell et al. 1996).
Egg and larval distribution - Acanthurid eggs are pelagic, spherical, and small - 0.66-0.70
mm in diameter with a single oil droplet to 0.165 mm for Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis
(Randall 1961). For that species, hatching occurred in about 26 hours. Watson and Leis
(1974) found an egg size of 0.575 to 0.625 mm in diameter for an unidentified acanthurid
from Hawaii.
Acanthurid larvae are typically diamond-shaped and strongly laterally compressed, with a
prominent serrated dorsal spine, two large and serrated pelvic fin spines, and a single
smoother spine near the anal fin (Thresher 1984). Late larval stages, roughly 20-25 mm, are
orbicular, transparent except for a silvery abdomen and gut, with small scales in narrow
vertical ridges on the body (Randall 1996). Spines on the larvae serve to enhance protection
from predation, and may be venomous. Lou (1993) reported that Ctaenochaetus binotatus
A-171
larvae fed on various zooplankton for a larval period ranging from 47-74 days. Similarly,
Randall (1961) reported a zooplankton diet and a larval duration of 2.5 months for
Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis.
Surgeonfish larvae are primarily found well offshore at depths from 0-100m. Like other
common adult members of the coral reef fish community, surgeonfish larvae are typically
less abundant in samples of the water column near the reef than they are in samples from
offshore (Miller 1973).
Although surgeonfish generally settle at a larger size than most reef fish, acanthurids are one
of the families with juveniles that settle with larval characters still present (Leis & Rennis
1983). Late phase larvae actively swim inshore at night, seek shelter in the reef, and begin
growing scales and intestines to complete the transformation to juveniles (Clavijo 1974).
Lengthening of the alimentary track to accommodate an herbivorous diet happens fairly
quickly. Juvenile surgeonfish have been reported to shelter in tide pools in Hawaii (Randall
1961). Hart and Russ (1996) found an age-at-maturity for Acanthurus nigrofuscus of 2 years.
Choat (1991) reported a range of 12-18 months to maturity for acanthurids. Juveniles
frequently differ in coloration and behavior from adults.
Adult surgeonfish are found in many coral reef habitat types, including mid-water, sand
patch, subsurge reef, and seaward or surge zone reef. The largest number of surgeonfish
species are typically found in the subsurge reef habitat, which are defined by Jones (1968) to
be areas of moderate to dense coral growth corresponding to the subsurge portions of
fringing reefs, deepwater reef patches, reef filled bays, and coral-rich parts of lagoons inside
of atolls. These species are typically found between 0-30m depth, although surgeonfish do
live in depths from 0-150m. Some species of Naso have been seen below 200m (Chave &
Mundy 1994).
Acanthurids were the dominant family of fishes in Hanalei Bay in both numbers and biomass
(Friedlander 1997). There were high numbers of surgeonfish in shallow, complex backreef
habitat. Biomass for the depth stratum 4.3-7.2m was dominated by three surgeonfish species,
A. Tristegus, A. leucopareis, and Ctenochaetus strigosus. C. strigosus and A. nigrofuscus
were common in the shallow complex backreef as well as in the deep slope and spur and
groove habitat types (Friedlander and Parrish 1998).
As an example for the family, Acanthurus nigrofuscus form schools that migrate 500 to
600m daily to intertidal feeding areas of algal turf communities. In the summer, the main
food items are brown and red algae, while in the winter, it is green algae. Spawning occurs
in large schools of 2000 to 2500 fish on selected sites at dusk (Fishelson et al. 1987).
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Cross Seamount, and Johnson Atoll. Pacific Science 48: 367-409.
A-172
Choat, J.H. 1991. The biology of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs. In: Sale, P.F. (Ed.), The
Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, pp. 120-155.
Choat, J.H. and L.M. Axe. 1996. Growth and longevity in acanthurid fishes; analysis of
otolith increments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 134: 15-26.
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Management Council. 62 pp.
Friedlander, A.M., DeFelice, R.C., Parrish, J.D., and J.L. Frederick. 1997. Habitat resources
and recreational fish populations at Hanalei Bay, Kauai. Final report to state of Hawaii,
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Friedlander AM and JD Parrish. 1998. Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a
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Hart, A.M., and G.R. Russ. 1996. Response of herbivorous fishes to crown-of-thorns starfish
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Acanthurus nigrofuscus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 136: 25-35.
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(Surgeon fish). Micronesica 4: 309-361.
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Wales Univ. Press, Sydney, Australia, and Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.
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comparison of families Scaridae and Acanthuridae. J. of Fish Biol. 42: 15-23.
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Table 27. Management Unit Species: Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
26 hours for A.
triostegus
sandvicensis
47-74 days for C. Binotatus,
2.5 months for A. triostegus
sandvicensis
1-2 years
25 yrs for A. Nigrofuscus (Hart & Russ
1996), over 40 yrs for Naso spp. (Choat &
Axe 1996)
Diet
N/A
various zooplankters
(Randall 1961)
mostly herbivorous
although some may feed
on zooplankton
Acanthurus & Zebrasoma - algal turfs,
Ctenochaetus - detritus and sediment,
Naso & Paracanthurus - mostly
zooplankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
some species spawn
year-round, but
generally there
appears to be a peak
in spring and early
summer; many
species show lunar
spawning
periodicity
year-round distribution, with
perhaps more settlement in
late summer or fall
coral reef habitats
throughout the Western
Pacific
coral reef habitats throughout the Western
Pacific, spawning aggregations at
prominent outcroppings, some species are
fairly stationary and territorial while others
travel long distances for feeding
Location
water column from
the surface to 100m
0-100m, larvae typically are
more common in offshore
waters than in water over
reefs
tide pools, refugia on the
reef
bottom and water-column; most between
0-100m but some deeper than 200m
Water column
N/A
pelagic
demersal and mid-water
demersal and mid-water
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral, rock, sand, mud,
rubble, pavement
coral, rock, sand, rubble, pavement
Oceanic features
subject to ocean
currents
subject to ocean currents
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spawning aggregations may occur at
channels just before or during outgoing
tide
4.2.1.2 Carcharhinidae, Sphyrnidae, Triaenodon obesus (sharks)
Carcharinidae is one of the largest and most important families of sharks, with many
common and wide-ranging species found in all warm and temperate seas. They are the
dominant sharks in tropical waters in variety, abundance and biomass. Most species inhabit
tropical continental coastal and offshore waters, but several species prefer coral reefs and
oceanic islands. All members of Carcharhinidae have a circular eye, nictitating eyelids, a
first dorsal fin positioned well ahead of the pelvic fins, precaudal pits and well developed
lower caudal lobe.
Sharks differ from bony fishes in their cartilagenous skeleton, 5 to 7 gill openings on each
side of the head, the frequent presence of a spiracle behind or below the eye, a rough skin
composed of small, close-set dermal denticles, the absence of a swimbladder and the
presence of a very large liver with large amounts of oil. Many sharks are apex predators in
the food chain, feeding on bony fishes, octopuses, squids, shrimps, sea birds, other sharks
and rays, sea turtles and marine mammals. Many sharks, including members of
Carcharhinidae and Sphyrnidae, make seasonal migrations to warmer waters in the winter
and cooler waters in the summer.
DeCrosta et al. (1984) reported on age determination, growth and energetics of the gray reef
shark, the Galapagos shark and the tiger shark in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
(NWHI). They found maximum ages from a sample of 30B65 specimens of each species to
be 10, 15 and 22 years, respectively. The gray reef shark was the most highly piscivorous
species with 51% of its diet composed of perciform fish, as well as >12% eels and >22%
cephalopods. The Galapagos shark ate primarily cephalopods (43%), tetraodontiform fish
(21%), eels (14%) and parrotfish (7 %). The tiger shark was a very opportunistic feeder, with
seabirds in 75% of the specimen stomachs, but also sea turtles (33%), lobsters (30%),
cephalopods (22%) and tetraodontiform fish (15%).
Sphyrnidae is a small but common family of wide-ranging, warm-temperate and tropical
sharks found in continental and insular waters. Depths range from the surface to at least 275
m depth. Hammerheads are very active swimmers, ranging from the surface to the bottom.
They are versatile feeders on bony fishes, elasmobranchs, cephalopods, crustaceans and other
prey, although some may specialize on other elasmobranchs (Compagno 1984). Sphyrnids
are similar to carcharhinids with one obvious exception, a blade-like lateral extension of the
head. The head shape serves to spread the eyes and olfactory organs farther apart and may
increase electroreception, vision and smell; increases lift and maneuverability; and may be
used to pin prey such as rays to the bottom.
Sharks reproduce by internal fertilization. Male sharks can be identified by the presence of a
pair of claspers along the medial edge of the pelvic fin. The tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier,
and most sharks are ovoviviparous, developing eggs within the uterus. The sharks of
Sphyrnidae and Carcharinidae except the tiger shark, are viviparous, nourishing embryos by
a placenta-like organ in the female. Some species such as Nebrius concolor and Sphyrna
lewini move into shallow water to give birth. Calm, protected bays such as Kaneohe Bay are
important nursery areas for sharks such as S. lewini.
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Forty species of sharks are known from Hawaiian waters, but 20 of them occur only in deep
water. Sharks likely to be associated with coral reefs in Hawaii include the gray reef shark
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, the Galapagos shark C. galapagensis, the tiger shark
Galeocordo cuvier, the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, the sandbar shark C.
plumbeus, the whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus and the scalloped hammerhead S.
lewini. Ten species of carcharhinid sharks and two sphyrnid species, S. lewini and S.
mokorran, are described for Micronesia in Myers (1991). Twelve carcharhinid and two
sphyrnids are recorded for American Samoa.
Schooling is well documented for many shark species, especially the hammerheads. These
species make long migrations in large groups for the purpose of spawning.
Trophic ecology - Sharks are apex predators on many coral reefs, where their presence may
be a good indication of large stocks of fishes upon which they feed. All sharks are
carnivorous, feeding on a wide variety of fishes, elasmobranchs and invertebrates including
eagle rays, other sharks, reef fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, tuna, baitfishes and mahimahi.
Larger species such as tiger sharks and great white sharks feed on those animals as well as
porpoises, whales, sea turtles, sea birds, domestic animals, humans occasionally and marine
debris, such as tin cans and plastic cups. Many sharks are nocturnal feeders, as sensory
organs such as ampullae of Lorenzini are used to detect electomagnetic fields of prey fishes.
The same sensory systems, including exceptional smell and a highly developed lateralis
system, allow sharks to detect injured prey from considerable distance and lead to
opportunistic feeding during the day as well.
Reproductive ecology - Egg and larval distribution are not applicable to sharks because they
develop eggs internally. Sharks typically have a gestation period within the female of about
12 months. The gestation period and number of offspring per litter of common Western
Pacific Region reef-associated sharks are Triaenodon obesus - 13 mths, 1B5 pups;
Carcharhinus albimarginatus - 12 mths, 1B11 pups; C. amblyrhynchos - about 12 mths, 1B6
pups; C. falciformis - 2B14 pups; C. galapagensis - 6B16 pups; C. melanopterus - 8B9 mths,
2B4 pups; Galeocerdo cuvier - 12B13 mths, 10B82 pups; C. plumbeus - 8B12 mths, 1B14 pups,
Negaprion acutidens - 1B11 pups; Sphyrna lewini - 15B31 pups; and S. mokorran - 13B42
pups.
Juvenile sharks frequently inhabit inshore areas such as bays, seagrass beds and lagoon flats
before moving into deeper water as they mature. For example, S. lewini has welldocumented nursery areas in shallow, turbid coastal areas such as Guam=s inner Apra Harbor
and Kaneohe Bay and Keehi lagoon on Oahu in Hawaii. The southern part of Kaneohe Bay
is a major breeding and pupping ground for this species. Pups tend to avoid light, preferring
more turbid water. They school in a core refuge area during the day and then disperse at
night, foraging along the base of patch reefs (Clarke 1971, Holland et al. 1993). Schools of
young hammerheads forage near the bottom within these bays before moving to deeper outer
reef waters as adults.
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Size at maturity for reef-associated sharks within the management area are T. obesus - 101
cm for females and 82 cm for males, C. galapagensis - 205B239 cm for males and 215B245
cm for females, C. melanopterus - 131B178 cm for males and 144B183 cm for females, G.
cuvier - 226B290 cm for males and 250B350 cm for females, C. plumbeus - 131B178 cm for
males and 144B183 cm for females, S. lewini - 140B165 cm for males and about 212 cm for
females, and S. zygaena - about 210B240 cm for males and females.
Adult sharks can be found in shallow inshore areas during mating or birthing events. Some
species forage in these shallow areas as well. Reef-associated sharks are found in a wide
variety of coral reef habitats, and because of their wide-ranging nature, no particular coral
reef habitat except the inshore areas important for mating and birthing holds significantly
higher numbers of sharks than other habitats. The larger species, such as Galeocerdo cuvier,
are more often found on outer reef slopes near deep dropoffs. Randall et al. (1993) noted the
presence of tiger sharks in lagoon waters of Midway Island during JuneBAugust when they
prey upon fledgling Laysan albatross. Adult female gray reef sharks C. amblyrhynchos
aggregate seasonally over shallow reef areas in the NHWI.
Bibliography
Clarke TA. 1971. The ecology of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, in
Hawaii. Pac Sci 25:133B44.
Compagno LJV. 1984. Sharks of the world. FAO Species Catalogue, FAO Fisheries
Synopsis No. 125, vol. 4, part 1 and part 2. Rome: United Nations Development
Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 655p.
Crow GL, CG Lowe and BM Wetherbee. 1996. Shark records from longline fishing
programs in Hawaii with comments on Pacific Ocean distributions. Pac Sci 50(4):
382B92.
DeCrosta MA, LR Taylor and JD Parrish. 1984. Age determination, growth, and energetics
of three species of carcharhinid sharks in Hawaii. Proc 2nd Symp Res Invest NWHI (2),
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01:75B95.
Holland KN, Wetherbee BM, JD Peterson and CG Lowe. 1993. Movements and distribution
of hammerhead shark pups on their natal grounds. Copeia 1993 (2): 495B502.
Kimley AP. 1980. Observations of courtship and copulation in the nurse shark,
Ginglymostoma cirratum. Copeia, 1980:878B82.
Kimley AP. 1981. Grouping behavior in the scalloped hammerhead. Oceanus 24:65B71.
Kimley AP. 1985. Schooling in Sphyrna lewini, a species with low risk of predation: a nonegalitarian state. Z Tierpsychol 70:297B319.
A-179
Lowe CG, Wetherbee BM, GL Crow and AL Tester. 1996. Ontogenetic dietary shifts and
feeding behavior of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, in Hawaiian waters. Env Biol of
Fishes.
Mckibben JN and DR Nelson. 1986. Patterns of movement and grouping of gray reef sharks,
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Enewetak, Marshal Islands. Bull Mar Sci 38:89B110.
Michael SW. 1993. Reef sharks and rays of the world: a guide to their identification,
behavior, and ecology. Monterey, CA: Sea Challengers, 1993.
Polovina JJ and BB Lau. 1993. Temporal and spatial distribution of catches of tiger sharks
(Galeocerdo cuvier) in the pelagic longline fishery around the Hawaiian Islands. 209B5.
JJP, Honolulu Laboratory, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NMFS.
Randall JE. 1977. Contribution to the biology of the whitetip reef shark. Pac Science
31:143B164.
Randall JE, JL Earle, RL Pyle, JD Parrish and T Hayes. Annotated checklist of the fishes of
Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci 47(4):356B400.
Suzumoto A, RL Pyle and RB Reeve. 1991. Sharks Hawaii. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Pr.
44p.
Taylor L. 1994. Sharks of Hawai=i: their biology and cultural significance. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
Tricas TC and EM LeFeuvre. 1985. Mating in the reef whitetip shark, Triaenodon obesus.
Mar Biol 84:233B7.
Tricas TC. 1981. Diel behavior of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, at French Frigate
Shoals, Hawaiian Islands. Copeia, 1981:904B8.
Wass RC. 1971. A comparative study of the life history, distribution and ecology of the
sandbar shark and the gray reef shark. PhD thesis. Univ of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Wetherbee B. 1990. Feeding biology of sharks. Amer Littor. Soc Spec Publ 14:74B6.
A-180
Table 28. Management Unit Species: Carcharhinidae, Sphyrnidae (sharks)
Gestation
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
about 12 months
to 5B10 years or more
to 20 years or more
Diet
N/A
carnivorous - fish, elasmobranchs,
squid, crustaceans, molluscs, may feed
more intensively on crustaceans in
inshore nursery areas
carnivorous - fish,
elasmobranchs, squid,
crustaceans, molluscs
Distribution, general and
seasonal
Sphyrnids and some Carcharhinids
have inshore nursery grounds
variable among species, S. lewini and
Negaprion acutidens inhabit inshore
nursery grounds
Carcharinidae: variable among
the family from Indo-Pacific,
circumglobal, and circumtropical
Sphyrnidae: circumtropical
Location
variable
highly variable, S. lewini and
Negaprion acutidens inhabit inshore
nursery grounds
Carcharinidae: highly variable
among the family
Sphyrnidae: primarily pelagic but
use inshore areas for reproduction
Water column
N/A
inshore benthic, neritic to epipelagic,
1B275 m
inshore benthic, neritic to
epipelagic, mesopelagic. 1B275 m
Bottom type
N/A
highly variable due to wide-ranging
nature of most species
highly variable due to wideranging nature of most species
Oceanic features
N/A
unknown
unknown
A-181
4.2.1.3 Dasyatididae, Myliobatidae, Mobulidae (rays)
The rays are characterized by a flattened form, a lack of dorsal fins, a distinct tail which has
one or more venomous barbs in some families and a small mouth with close-set pavementlike teeth. Water is taken in through a spiracle behind the eye and expelled through gill slits
on the underside of the ray. Rays often bury into the sand with only the eyes and spiracle
showing. Most rays are carnivorous on shellfish, worms and small burrowing fishes, except
the members of Mobulidae that feed on zooplankton in the water column. Rays are
ovoviviparous, giving birth to fully developed young that are nourished from vascular
filaments within the uterus during gestation.
Dasyatidae - There are 3 species in Hawaii - Dasyatis violacea, D. brevis and D. latus; 4
species in Micronesia - D. kuhlii, Hymantura uarnak, Taeniura melanospilos and Urogymnus
asperrimus; and 2 species in Samoa - D. kuhlii and Hymantura fai. Sting rays feed on sanddwelling and reef-dwelling invertebrates and fishes, often excavating large burrows in sand
bottoms to capture subsurface mollusks and worms.
Myliobatidae - One species, the spotted eagle ray Aetobatis narinari, represents the family in
Hawaiian, Micronesian and Samoan waters. Eagle rays feed mainly on hard-shelled
mollusks and crustaceans, using their snout to probe through sand and powerful jaws to crush
the shells. An average of 4 pups is born per litter after a gestation period of about 12 months.
They have a depth range from the intertidal to 24 m. Groups move from reef channels and the
reef face during flood tide to feed. Schools of up to 200 individuals have been observed.
Mobulidae - One species of manta ray, Manta birostris (which recently has come to include
other synonyms, including M. alfredi) represents the family in Hawaiian and Micronesian
waters. Mantas are the largest of all rays and may attain a width of 6.7 m and a weight of
1,400 kg. They occur singly or in small groups in surface or mid-waters of lagoons and
seaward reefs, particularly near channels. They strain zooplankton from the water using
cephalic flaps to direct the plankton into the mouth. They occur in all tropical and
subtropical seas. Mating and birthing occur in shallow water, and juveniles often remain in
these areas before heading into deeper water as adults. During winter, mantas may migrate
to warmer areas or deeper water or disperse offshore.
Bibliography
Compagno LJV. 1990. Alternative life-history styles of cartilaginous fishes in time and
space. Env Biol Fish 28:33B75.
Michael SW. 1993. Reef sharks and rays of the world: a guide to their identification,
behavior, and ecology. Monterey, CA: Sea Challengers, 1993.
Tricas TC. 1980. Courtship and mating-related behaviors in myliobatid rays. Copeia,
1980:553B6.
A-182
Table 29. Management Unit Species: Dasyatididae, Myliobatidae, Mobulidae (rays)
Gestation
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
about 12 months for Myliobatidae, avg of
4 pups
little information
little information on longevity
Diet
N/A
small fish, crustaceans, mollusks,
worms, zooplankton for Mobulidae,
may be a greater emphasis on
shellfish for juveniles in shallow
water habitats
fish, crustaceans, mollusks, worms,
zooplankton for Mobulidae
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
N/A
Dasyatis latus range includes Hawaii
and Taiwan,
D. kuhlii and Hymantura uarnak
range through the Indo-west-Pacific,
Taeniura melanospilos and
Urogymnus asperrimus range the
Indo-Pacific, the spotted eagle ray and
manta ray are circumtropical
Dasyatis latus range includes Hawaii and
Taiwan,
D. kuhlii and Hymantura uarnak range
through the Indo-west-Pacific, Taeniura
melanospilos and Urogymnus asperrimus
range the Indo-Pacific, the spotted eagle ray
and manta ray are circumtropical
Location
variable
wide variety of habitats from shallow
lagoons to outer reef slopes, nursery
areas in seagrass beds, mangroves,
and shallow flats are important for
many species
wide variety of habitats from shallow
lagoons to outer reef slopes, generally
located from 0-100m but have been found
much deeper
Water column
N/A
demersal and in the water column
demersal and in the water column
Bottom type
N/A
soft (sand and mud), coral reef,
pavement
soft (sand and mud), coral reef, pavement
Oceanic features
N/A
unknown
unknown
A-183
4.2.1.4 Chlopsidae, Congridae, Moringuidae, Ophichthidae (eels)
There are 15 families of true eels, and these are some of the important ones on Western
Pacific Region coral reefs. The eels are characterized by very elongate bodies, lack of pelvic
fins, very small gill openings and a caudal fin that, if present, is joined with the dorsal and
anal fins.
Members of Muraenidae, the morays, lack pectoral fins and scales and have a large mouth.
Most species have long, fang-like teeth, but some do not. Species with long canines feed
mainly on reef fishes, occasionally on crustaceans and octopuses. Species of Echidna and
Gymnomuraena with mainly nodular or molariform teeth feed more on crustaceans,
especially crabs. Morays have a lengthy pelagic leptocephalus larval stage that has resulted
in a very wide distribution. Morays are hunted for food in many locations, even though large
individuals may be ciguatoxic. Morays typically remain hidden within the framework of the
reef, and many are more active at night than during the day. There are 38 species of morays
in Hawaii, second only to the wrasses for number of species. Gymnothorax steindachneri is
endemic to Hawaii. At least 53 species are known from Micronesia. At least 47 species are
known from Samoa.
Members of Chlopsidae, the false morays, resemble morays but have pectoral fins and
posterior nostrils open to the margin of the upper lip. Males are typically smaller with larger
teeth, which may be used for grasping females during courtship. They probably migrate off
the reef to spawn but otherwise stay well hidden within the reef framework. Five species are
recorded from Samoa.
Members of Congridae include the conger eels and garden eels. Conger eels have welldeveloped pectoral fins. Garden eels are smaller, extremely elongate burrowing forms with
reduced or absent pectoral fins. They occur in large colonies on sand plains or slopes at
depths of 7B53 m with strong currents. They are diurnal planktivores that extend from their
burrows to feed on plankton in the current. The large-eye conger, Ariosoma marginatum,
and the Hawaiian garden eel, Gorgasia hawaiiensis, are endemic to Hawaii. Five species are
recorded in Samoan waters.
Members of Moringuidae, the spaghetti eels, have extremely elongate bodies with the anus
located about two thirds of the way back. They change morphology radically as they mature.
Immature spaghetti eels are orange-brown with small eyes and reduced fins. Mature eels
have large eyes and a distinct caudal fin and are dark above and silvery below. Females
burrow in shallow sandy areas but migrate to the surface to spawn with males, which are
pelagic. Six species are recorded from Samoan waters.
Members of Ophichthidae, the snake eels, have elongate, nearly cylindrical bodies with
median fins and small pectoral fins. Most species of snake eels are indwellers that stay
buried in the sand but a few will occasionally come out and swim across sand, rubble or
seagrass habitats. They appear to be nocturnal, and some species, if not all, come to the
surface to spawn at night. Sixteen species are reported from the Hawaiian Islands. The
freckled snake eel, Callechelys lutea, is endemic to Hawaii, and the magnificent snake eel,
A-184
Myrichthys magnificus, is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island. At least 26
species are known from Micronesia. Five species are recorded from Samoan waters.
Sexual characteristics of eels vary widely among the different families. Spawning migrations
are a general, though not universal, characteristic of eel reproduction. Eel species that
migrate for spawning, including members of the congrids, moringuids and ophichthids, tend
to be sexually dimorphic, with moringuids displaying the greatest morphological difference
between males and females. Nonmigratory eels such as morays and garden eels typically
have no definitive external sexual dimorphism. Hermaphroditism has been documented for
some species, including some morays, but is not a widespread characteristic of eels. Group
spawning of eels has been documented, with large numbers of adults congregating at the
water surface at night.
Eel eggs are pelagic and spherical with a wide periviteline space, usually no oil droplets and
in some species a densely reticulated yolk. The eggs are relatively large, ranging from 1.8 to
4.0 mm. Watson and Leis (1974) collected 145 eels eggs off Hawaii that ranged from 2.4 to
3.8 mm. Brock (1972) found 200,000 to 300,000 ripe eggs in each of four 5.0 to 6.8 kg
Gymnothorax javanicus. Hatching of an unidentified 1.8 mm muraenid egg took
approximately 100 hours (Bensam 1966).
Eels have a characteristic leptocephalus larval stage: a long, transparent, feather-shaped larva
that starts out at 5-10 mm and grows up to 200 mm before settlement and metamorphosis.
The duration of the planktonic stage is on the order of 3B5 months for moringuids (Castle
1979), 6B10 months for muraenids (Eldred 1969, Castle 1965) and about 10 months for some
congrids (Castle and Robertson 1974).
Both juvenile and adult eels inhabit cryptic locations in the framework of the reef or in sand
plains for some species. Some species remain so hidden within the reef that they have never
been seen alive; their existence is known only from samples taken with the use of poisons.
Bibliography
Bensam P. 1966. The eggs and early development of a muraenid eel. J Mar Biol Assoc India,
8:181B7.
Brock RE. 1972. A contribution to the biology of Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker). MS
thesis, Univ of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Castle PHJ. 1965. Muraenid leptocephali in Australian waters. Trans Roy Soc NZ,
7:125B133.
Castle PHJ. 1979. Early life history of the eel Moringua edwardsi (Pisces, Moringuidae) in
the western north Atlantic. Bull. Mar. Sci. 29: 1B18.
A-185
Castle PHJ and DA Robertson. 1974. Early life history of the congrid eels Gnathophis
habenatus and G. incognitus in New Zealand waters. NZ J Mar Freshwater Res, 8:
95B110
Eldred B. 1969. Embryology and larval development of the blackedge moray, Gymnothorax
nigromarginatus (Girard, 1859). Fla Bd Conserv Mar Lab, Leafl Ser, 4(13):16pp.
Gosline W and DW Strasburg. 1956. The Hawaiian fishes of the family Moringuidae:
another eel problem. Copeia, 1956: 9B18.
Raju SN. 1974. Distribution, growth and metamorphosis of leptocephali of the garden eels,
Taenioconger sp. and Gorgasia sp. Copeia, 1974: 494B500.
Watson W and JM Leis. 1974. Ichthyoplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Sea Grant Tech
Rept. TR-75-01.
A-186
Table 30. Muraenidae, Chlopsidae, Congridae, Moringuidae, Ophichthidae (eels)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
100 hours or more
3B10 months
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
Juvenile
most are benthic carnivores on
fish, octopus, crustaceans;
frequently nocturnal
garden eels are diurnal
planktivores
Adult
most are nocturnal benthic carnivores on
fish, octopus, crustaceans;
the morays of Gymnomuraena, Enchelycore
and Sideria feed mainly on crustaceans;
garden eels are diurnal planktivores
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
eggs frequently
released near the
surface; some are
pelagic spawners,
others spawn on
reefs
predominantly
offshore
worldwide in tropical and
temperate seas; Callechelys
lutea, Ariosoma marginatum,
Gorgasia hawaiiensis and
Gymnothorax steindachneri are
endemic to the Hawaiian
islands; Myrichthys magnificus
is endemic to the Hawaiian
Islands and Johnston Island
worldwide in tropical and temperate seas;
Callechelys lutea, Ariosoma marginatum,
Gorgasia hawaiiensis and Gymnothorax
steindachneri are endemic to the Hawaiian
Islands; Myrichthys magnificus is endemic
to the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island
Location
near reefs and
offshore
predominantly
offshore
coral reefs and soft-bottom
habitats
coral reefs and soft-bottom habitats
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef crevices, holes;
sand, mud, rubble
coral reef crevices, holes;
sand, mud, rubble
Oceanic features
A-187
4.2.1.5 Engraulidae (anchovies)
The anchovies are a large family of small, silvery schooling fishes that are common baitfish
for pole-and-line tuna fisheries. They share many of the characteristics of the clupeids but
can be distinguished by their rounded overhanging snout and slender lower jaw. Most
species also have a brilliant silver mid-lateral band. Anchovies typically inhabit estuaries
and turbid coastal waters. However, but some occur over inner protected reefs, and, at least
one, Encrasicholina punctifer, is found in the open sea. Anchovies occur in dense schools
and feed by opening their mouths to strain plankton from the water with their numerous gill
rakers. Two species are known from Hawaiian waters: the endemic Hawaiian anchovy
Encrasicholina purpurea and the offshore species E. punctifer. Seven species are known
from Micronesian waters. Four species are known from Samoan waters.
Anchovy eggs are pelagic. In Coilia, Setipinna and Thryssa they are spherical and of small
to moderate size (0.8B1.6 mm). Eggs of Encrasicholina, Engraulis and Stolephorus are ovate
to elliptical and vary from small to large (0.8B2.3 x 0.5B0.8 mm) (Zhang et al 1982, Fukuhara
1983, McGowan and Berry 1984, Ikeda and Mito 1988). Larvae hatch at 2.5B3.7 mm. The
size of the largest pelagic specimen examined by Leis and Trnski (1989) was 23B27 mm.
Thryssa baelama occurs in large schools in turbid waters of river mouths and inner bays. The
oceanic or buccaneer anchovy E. punctifer is mostly pelagic, but it can be found in large atoll
lagoons or deep, clear bays. The blue anchovy E. heterolobus occurs primarily in deep bays
under oceanic influence. Other anchovies occur in estuaries and coastal bays.
Bibliography
Clarke TA. 1987. Fecundity and spawning frequency of the Hawaiian anchovy or nehu,
Encrasicholina purpurea. Fish Bull 85:127B38.
Clarke TA. 1992. Egg abundance and spawning biomass of the Hawaiian anchovy or nehu
Encrasicholina purpurea, during 1984B1988 in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Pac Sci 46:325B43.
Fukuhara O. 1983. Development and growth of laboratory reared Engraulis japonica
(Houttuyn) larvae. J Fish Biol 23(6):641B52
Ikeda T and S Mito. 1988. Pelagic fish eggs. pp 999B1083 in Okiyama (ed) 1988.
Leary DF, GI Murphy and M Miller. 1975. Fecundity and length at first spawning of the
Hawaiian anchovy or nehu (Stolephorus purpureus Fowler) in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Pac
Sci 29:171B80.
Leis, JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
McGowan MF and FH Berry. 1984. Clupeiformes: development and relationships. pp 108B26
in ASIH Spec Publ 1.
A-188
Nakamura E. 1970. Synopsis of biological data on Hawaiian species of Stolephorous. In The
Kuroshio: a symposium on the Japan Current, JC Marr (ed). Honolulu: East-West Centre
Pr. 425B46.
Struhsaker P and JH Uchiyama. 1976. Age and growth of the nehu, Stolephorus purpureus
(Pisces: Engraulidae) from Hawaii Islands as indicated by daily growth increments of
sagittae. Fish Bull 74:9B17.
Whitehead PJP, GJ Nelson and T Wongratana. 1987. FAO species catalog >Clupeoid fishes
of the world= Part 2 - Engraulidae. FAO fisheries synopsis 125 (7B2):304B545. Rome:
FAO.
Zhang X, Chen Z, Ruan J, He G and X Sha. 1982. On the development of the eggs and larvae
of Thrissa kammalensis and Thrissa mystax. Acta Zoologica Sinica 28(2): 183B9 (in
Chinese, English abstract).
A-189
Table 31. Management Unit Species: Engraulidae (anchovies)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
plankton
plankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
same as adults
Two species in Hawaiian waters: the
endemic Hawaiian anchovy Encrasicholina
purpurea and the offshore species E.
punctifer. Seven Micronesian species. Four
Samoan species.
Location
schools in inshore waters
estuaries and turbid coastal waters but some
occur over inner protected reefs and at least
one, Encrasicholina punctifer, is found in
the open sea
Diet
N/A
plankton
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
frequently near the surface
frequently near the surface
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
same as adults
sand, coral reef, rock, mud
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-190
4.2.1.6 Clupeidae (herrings)
Herrings, sardines and sprats are small planktivorous silvery fishes with a single short dorsal
fin near the middle of the body, no spines, no lateral line and a forked caudal tail. They are
schooling fishes that are important for food and bait. Round herrings include several species
that inhabit coral reefs as well as coastal waters. Sardines typically inhabit coastal waters of
large land masses or high islands. In Hawaiian waters, 4 species occur. Two were
introduced: the goldspot sardine Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus unintentionally from the
Marshall Islands in 1972 and the Marquesan sardine Sardinella marquensis intentionally
from the Marquesas between 1955 and 1959, but it never became abundant. The other two
Hawaiian species are the delicate roundherrring Spratelloides delicatulus, which is an inshore
species that occurs in small schools over coral reefs and the red-eye roundherring Etrumeus
teres, although it is rare. In Micronesian waters, there are at least 6 species of Clupeidae. In
Samoan waters, 9 species have been recorded.
Clupeid eggs are spherical and vary among species from small to large (0.8B2.1 mm). They
are thought to be pelagic in all tropical taxa except Spratelloides, which has demersal eggs
(McGowan and Berry 1984, Jiang and Lim 1986). Clupeid larvae range from 1.6 to 4.7 mm
long at the time of hatching. The size of the largest pelagic specimens examined by Leis and
Trnski (1989) ranged from 21 to 33 mm.
The gold spot sardine, or herring, is an important food fish in many areas. It schools near
mangroves and above sandy shallows of coastal bays and lagoons during the day and moves
into deeper water at night to feed. In Belau, it migrates to tidal creeks to spawn from
November to April (Myers 1991). The blue sprat Spratelloides delicatulus generally schools
near the surface of clear coastal waters, lagoons and reef margins where it feeds on plankton.
Bibliography
Jiang S and L Lim. 1986. Studies on the eggs and larvae of Sardinella aurita (Cuv. and Val.)
in the fishing grounds of southern Fujian and Tawan Bank. Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol.
4(1):108B18.
Leis, JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
McGowan MF and FH Berry. 1984. Clupeiformes: development and relationships. pp 108B26
in ASIH Spec Publ 1.
Myers, RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Whitehead PJP. 1985. FAO species catalog >Clupeoid fishes of the world= Part 1 Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO fisheries synopsis 125(7B1): 1B303.
Rome: FAO.
A-191
Table 32. Management Unit Species: Clupeidae (herrings, sprats and sardines)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
plankton
plankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
same as adults
Four species in Hawaiian waters; two introduced:
Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus and Sardinella
marquensis, and two others: Spratelloides delicatulus
and Etrumeus teres. At least 6 species occur in
Micronesian waters, and at least 9 species occur in
Samoa.
Location
schools in inshore waters
estuaries and turbid coastal waters but some occur over
inner protected reefs
Diet
N/A
plankton
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
frequently near the surface
frequently near the surface; 0B20 m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
same as adults
sand, coral reef, rock, mud
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-192
most species tend to accumulate in relatively clear
coastal, lagoon, and seaward reef waters
4.2.1.7 Antennariidae (frogfishes)
Frogfishes have bulbous bodies, jointed elbow-like pectoral fins that are used like arms,
small holes behind the pectorals for gill openings and large upturned mouths. The first dorsal
spine is modified to a lure consisting of the slender ilicium tipped with the esca (bait), which
is used to attract prey. The frogfishes are very well camouflaged piscivores with cryptically
colored prickly skin and fleshy or filamentous appendages. They are able to lure prey by
waving the esca above their head, then striking quickly with a large mouth. They are able to
swallow prey longer than themselves because of a highly distensible body. At intervals of 3
to 4 days, reproductive females lay thousands of tiny eggs embedded in a large, sometimes
scroll-shaped gelatinous mass. Habitats where frogfish are found include bottoms of
seagrass, algae, sponge, rock or corals from tidepools to lagoon and seaward reefs. In
Hawaiian waters, 6 species are found, with one endemic: the Hawaiian freckled frogfish
Antennarius drombus. At least 12 species occur in Micronesia, and at least 7 species in
Samoa. Frogfishes are rare on most coral reefs and are present only in low numbers if at all.
Spawning by anglerfishes involves the production of a large, jelly-like egg mass. Frogfishes
appear to be sexually monomorphic, with the only difference between sexes being the
expanded size of the female prior to releasing eggs. For those species that have been
observed spawningCHistrio histrio (Mosher 1954, Fujita and Uchida 1959), Antennarius
nummifer (Ray 1961) and A. zebrinus (Burgess 1976)Cspawning occurred in pairs after a
quick spawning rush to the surface. Egg masses, or Arafts,@ or Ascrolls,@ vary in size from
species to species but are usually quite large. That of H. histrio is about 9 cm long (Mosher
1954, Fujita and Uchida 1959); that of A. multiocellatus, A. tigrinus and A. zebrinus is
slightly larger (Mosher 1954, Burgess 1976); and that of A. nummifer is about 5 cm across
and about 7 cm high (Ray 1961). Some species have immense egg rafts, including a raft
produced by A. hispidus in an aquarium that was 2.9 m by 15.9 cm (Hornell 1922). Since
rafts can be produced at 3-to 4-day intervals for many species, fecundity is extremely high
for the frogfishes. Eggs hatch within 2B5 days. For H. histrio, growth and development is
extremely fast, and an entire generation can take as little as 21 days (Adams 1960). Other
species likely have much longer development and life spans.
A different spawning mode has been documented for members of at least two genera,
Lophiocharon and Histiophryne, which brood eggs attached to the body of the male. The
eggs are much larger (3.2B4.2mm) and more advanced at hatching than for pelagic spawners
(Pietsch and Grobecker 1987).
Bibliography
Adams JA. 1960. A contribution to the biology and postlarval development of the sargassum
fish, Histrio histrio (Linnaeus), with a discussion of the Sargassum complex. Bull Mar
Sci, 10:55B82.
Burgess WE. 1976. Salts from the seven seas. Trop Fish Hobbyist 25:57B64.
A-193
Fujita S and K Uchida. 1959. Spawning habits and early development of a sargassum fish,
Pterophryne histrio (Linne.). Sci Bull Fac Agric Kyushu Univ 17:277B82.
Hornell J. 1922. The Madras marine aquarium. Bull Madras Fish Bur 5:57B96.
Mosher C. 1954. Observations on the spawning behavior and the early larval development of
the sargassum fish, Histrio histrio (Linnaeus). Zoologica 39:141B52.
Pietsch TW and DB Grobecker. 1987. Parental care as an alternative reproductive mode in an
antennariid Anglerfish. Copeia, 1980:551B3.
Ray C. 1961. Spawning behavior and egg raft morphology of the ocellated fringed frogfish,
Antennarius nummifer (Cuvier). Copeia, 1961:230B1.
A-194
Table 33. Management Unit Species: Antennariidae (frogfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
2B5 days
days for H. histrio,
but likely weeks for
other species
Diet
N/A
likely zooplankton
Juvenile
Adult
H. histrio may only live a month or so; little
information on others but likely to live much longer
similar to adult
ambush small fish which they lure close by waving an
esca that resembles food
shallow tropical and temperate seas worldwide; 6
species in Hawaii with one endemic: the Hawaiian
freckled frogfish Antennarius drombus. At least 12
species in Micronesia, and at least 7 species in Samoa.
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
large egg [email protected]
released at the
surface after a fast
spawning rush
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal; 1B130 m, but most at less than 30 m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
seagrass, algae,
sponge, rock or
corals
seagrass, algae, sponge, rock or corals
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
from tidepools to lagoon and seaward reefs
A-195
4.2.1.8 Anomalopidae (flashlightfish)
Flashlightfish are small, dark fishes with luminous organs under each eye, blunt snouts, large
mouths and a forked tail. The lime-green light is produced biochemically by bacteria within
the light organ. The light may be used to attract zooplankton prey, to communicate to other
flashlightfish or to confuse predators. They are usually at depths from 30 to 400 m but may
be found much shallower in some locations. They remain hidden during the day and venture
out at night to feed, tending to occur shallower on dark, moonless nights. Flashlightfish do
not occur in the Hawaiian Islands, but two species occur in Micronesian waters: Anomalops
katoptron and Photoblepheron palpebratus. A. katoptron also occurs in Samoan waters.
The eggs of A. katoptron and P. palpebratus are of moderate size (1.0B1.3 mm) with a
mucous sheath. They are positively buoyant (Meyer-Rochow 1976). The larvae of A.
katoptron hatch at 2.6B3.3 mm.
Bibliography
Leis, JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
McCosker JE and RH Rosenblatt. 1987. Notes on the biology, taxonomy and distribution of
flashlightfishes (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae). Japan J Ichthyol 34(2):157B64.
Meyer-Rochow VB. 1976. Some observations on spawning and fecundity in the luminescent
fish Photoblepharon palpebratus. Mar Biol 37(3):325B8.
Myers, RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
A-196
Table 34. Management Unit Species: Anomalopidae (flashlightfishes)
Egg
Juvenile
N/A
zooplankton
zooplankton
Anomalops katoptron and
Photoblepheron palpebratus
same as adult
hidden in caves or crevices by day;
active in the water column by night
pelagic
same as adult
demersal by day, and in the water
column by night; 5B400 m
N/A
coral reef
coral reef
Location
pelagic
Bottom type
Oceanic features
zooplankton
none found in Hawaiian Islands;
2 species in Micronesia,
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Water column
Adult
hatch at a size of
2.6B3.3 mm
Duration
Diet
Larvae
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-197
4.2.1.9 Holocentridae (soldierfishes/squirrelfishes)
Holocentrids are spiny, deep bodied, usually red fishes with large eyes and mouth, small
teeth, large coarse scales and stout dorsal and anal fin spines. The family is divided into two
subfamilies: the Myripristinae (soldierfishes of the genus Myripristis, Plectrypops,
Pristelepis and Ostichthys are found in the Indo-Pacific; the latter two occur in deep water)
and the Holocentrinae (squirrelfishes of the genus Neoniphon and Sargocentron).
Soldierfishes lack a well-developed preopercular spine and a pointed snout, both of which are
present in squirelfishes. The spine on the preopercle of squirrelfish may be venomous.
Soldierfishes and squirrelfishes are both nocturnal predators, but soldierfish predominantly
feed on large zooplankton in the water column while squirrelfish prey mainly on benthic
crustaceans, worms and small fishes. During the day, most holocentrids hover in or near
caves and crevices or among branching corals.
About 17 holocentrid species inhabit Hawaiian waters, some of them in very deep water. At
least 13 species of soldierfishes and 16 species of squirrelfishes occur in Micronesia. At least
31 holocentrid species are found in Samoan waters.
Holocentrids are slow growing, late maturing and fairly long lived. A study (Dee and Parrish
1993) on the reproductive and trophic ecology of Myripristis amaena found that sexual
maturity for both sexes was reached between 145 and 160 mm SL at about 6 years of age.
Longevity was determined to be at least 14 years. Fecundity was relatively low, fewer than
70,000 eggs in the most fecund specimen, and increased sharply with body weight.
Spawning peaked from early April to early May, with a secondary peak in September. The
diet of M. amaena was mainly meroplankton, especially brachyuran crab megalops, hermit
crab larvae and shrimps but also a variety of benthic invertebrates and fishes.
M. amaena is particularly important in the recreational fishery at Johnston Atoll where it is
the species caught in greatest abundance (Irons et al. 1990). It is common in reef fish catches
throughout the Hawaiian archipelago.
Bibliography
Brecknock EL. 1969. Some aspects of the ecology of Myripristis murdjan in the Hawaiian
Islands. MS thesis, Univ of Hawaii, Honolulu, 22 p.
Dee AJ and RL Radtke. 1989. Age and growth of the brick soldierfish, Myripristis amaena.
Coral Reefs 8:79B85.
Dee AJ and JD Parrish. 1994. Reproductive and trophic ecology of the soldierfish Myripristis
amaena in tropical fisheries. Fish. Bull. 92:516B30.
Gladfelter WB and WS Johnson. 1983. Feeding niche separation in a guild of tropical reef
fishes (Holocentridae). Ecology 64:552B63.
A-198
Irons DK, RK Kosaki and JD Parrish. 1990. Johnston Atoll resource survey. Final report of
Phase Six (21 July 1989B20 July 1990). Project report to US Army Engineer District,
Honolulu, HI, 150 pp.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon. Los Angeles: Univ Calif Pr, 320pp.
Jones S and M Kumaran. 1964. Notes on the eggs, larvae and juveniles of fishes from Indian
waters XII. Myripristis murdjan (Forskal) and XIII. Holocentrus sp. Ind J Fish
18:155B67.
Mckenny TW. 1959. A contribution to the life history of the squirrelfish Holocentrus
vexillarius Poey. Bull Mar Sci 9:174B221.
Schroeder RE. 1985. Recruitment rate patterns of coral reef fishes at Midway lagoon,
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In C Gabrie and B Salvat (eds.), Proc Fifth Int Coral
Reef Congress, Tahiti, 27 MayB1 June 1985, vol. 5, p. 379B84. Antenne Museum-EOHE,
Moorea, French Polynesia.
Wyatt JR. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the squirrelfishes, Holocentridae.
ICLARM Stud Rev 7:50B8.
A-199
Table 35. Management Unit Species: Holocentridae (soldierfishes/squirrelfishes)
Egg
Duration
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
probably several weeks, settle
at large size (up to 30 mm or
more)
6 years for M. amaena
at least 14 years (Dee and Radtke 1989)
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
diet similar to adults
Myropristis spp.: mostly meroplankton,
especially brachyuran crab megalops,
hermit crab larvae and shrimps, but also a
variety of benthic invertebrates and fishes,
Holocentrinae: feed mainly on benthic
crustaceans
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spawning peak in
AprilBMay and another
in Sept. for M. amaena
at Johnston Atoll
generally, a recruitment peak
in June-July and another in
Feb.BMarch, but a lot of
variation
tropical Atlantic,
Indian, and Pacific
Oceans
tropical Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific
Oceans
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal in caves and
crevices during the
day; demersal and in
the water column at
night
demersal in caves and crevices during the
day ; demersal and in the water column at
night
Bottom type
N/A
settle in refugia on the reef
coral reef caves and
crevices, also within
the branches of
branching corals
coral reef caves and crevices, also within
the branches of branching corals
Oceanic
features
subject to advection by
ocean currents
subject to advection by ocean
currents
Location
A-200
4.2.1.10 Aulostomidae (trumpetfishes)
Trumpetfishes are very elongate with a compressed body, a small mouth, a long tubular
snout, small teeth and a small barbel on the chin. The one Indo-Pacific species occurs in
three color patterns: uniformly brown to green, mottled brown to green and uniformly
yellow. They feed on fishes and shrimps by slowly moving close to the prey, often in a
vertical stance, and then darting forward to suck the prey in through its snout. Trumpetfishes
inhabit rocky and coral habitats of protected and seaward reefs from below the surge zone to
a depth of 122 m. They have an ability to blend in with a background of coral branches or
seagrasses by hanging vertically in order to sneak up on unwary prey. They also camouflage
themselves by traveling with schools of surgeonfishes or large individual fish to sneak up on
prey. There are three species in the world, but only one in the Indo-Pacific, Aulostomus
chinensis. It is found in Hawaii, Micronesia and Samoa.
Spawning by A. chinensis has been observed off One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef. At
dusk, a male and female made a spawning ascent of 5B8 m to release gametes before
returning to the bottom (in Thresher 1984). The pelagic eggs of A. chinensis are spherical,
smooth and 1.3 to 1.4 mm in diameter. Larvae are approximately 4.8 mm at hatching
(Watson and Leis 1974).
Bibliography
Mito, S. 1966. Fish eggs and larvae: Illustrations of the marine plankton of Japan 7:74pp.
Thresher, RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub.
Watson W and JM Leis. 1974. Ichthyoplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: a one-year study of
the fish eggs and larvae. Univ Hawaii Sea Grant Program Honolulu Tech Rept UNIHISEAGRANT-TR-75-01 178 pp.
A-201
Table 36. Management Unit Species: Aulostomidae (trumpetfish)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
approximately 4
days
4.8 mm at hatching
Diet
N/A
likely small
zooplankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
ambush predators of small fishes
and crustaceans
similar to adults
one Indo-Pacific species,
Aulostomus chinensis
Location
pelagic
pelagic
similar to adults
protected and seaward reefs from
below the surge zone to 122 m
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
similar to adults
reef-associated; 1B122 m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
similar to adults
coral reef and rock
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-202
4.2.1.11 Fistularidae (cornetfish)
Cornetfishes have a very elongate body like the trumpetfish but differ in the body being
vertically flattened rather than laterally compressed and by having a forked caudal fin with a
long median filament. Like the trumpetfish, cornetfish feed by sucking small fishes and
crustaceans into their long tubular snout. They are seen in virtually all reef habitats except
areas of heavy surge. They are usually seen in open sandy areas and may occur in schools of
similarly sized individuals. One species, Fistularia commersonii, is seen on Hawaiian,
Micronesian and Samoan coral reefs, and another species is seen only in deep water.
Fistularid eggs are pelagic and large, with a diameter of 1.5B2.1 mm (Mito 1961). The larvae
hatch at 6B7 mm (Mito 1961). Hatching occured in about 7 days for Fistularia petimba (Mito
1966). The size of the largest examined pelagic fistularid specimen examined by Leis and
Rennis (1983) was 145 mm.
Bibliography
Delsman HC. 1921. Fish eggs and larvae from the Java Sea. 1. Fistularia serrata. Treubia
2:97B108.
Leis JM and DS Rennis. 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Honolulu: Univ
of Hawaii Pr.
Mito S. 1961. Pelagic fish eggs from Japanese waters - I. Clupeina, Chanina, Stomiatina,
Myctophida, Anguillida, Belonida, and Syngnathida. Sci Bull Fac Agr Kyushu Univ
18(3) pp 285B310 plus plates 20B34 (in Japanese, English summary).
Mito, S. 1966. Fish eggs and larvae: Illustrations of the marine plankton of Japan 7: 74pp.
Watson W and JM Leis. 1974. Ichthyoplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: a one-year study of
the fish eggs and larvae. Univ Hawaii Sea Grant Program Honolulu Tech Rept UNIHISEAGRANT-TR-75-01 178 pp.
A-203
Table 37. Management Unit Species: Fistularidae (cornetfish)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
4 B7 days
6 mm at hatching
Diet
N/A
likely small zooplankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
ambush predators of small fishes
and crustaceans
similar to adults
two Indo-Pacific species:
Fistularia commersonii and one
deepwater species
Location
pelagic
pelagic
similar to adults
virtually all coral reef habitats
except areas of high surge; most
common in sandy areas where it
may form schools of similarly
sized fish
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
similar to adults
reef-associated; 1B128 m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
similar to adults
sand, coral reef, rock
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by ocean
currents
A-204
4.2.1.12 Syngnathidae (pipefishes/seahorses)
Pipefishes and seahorses have a long tubular snout with a very small mouth, which they use
to feed in a pipette-like manner on small free-living crustaceans such as copepods. Some
species clean other fishes. Many species are small and generally inconspicuous bottom
dwellers that feed on minute benthic and planktonic animals. The syngnathids have very
unique parental care in which the female deposits eggs into a ventral pouch on the male,
which carries the eggs until hatching. Most species are rarely seen on reefs in the
management area, partly because of their small size and inconspicuous nature. They occur in
a wide variety of shallow habitats from estuaries and shallow sheltered reefs to seaward reef
slopes, though they are generally limited to water shallower than 50 m. There are 8 species
reported from Hawaiian waters, where the redstripe pipefish Dunckerocampus baldwini is
endemic. At least 37 species occur in Micronesian waters, and at least 17 species occur in
Samoa.
Bibliography
Dawson CE. 1985. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Res
Lab, Ocean Springs, MS.
Gronell A. 1984. Courtship, spawning and social organization of the pipefish, Corythoichthys
intestinalis (Pisces, Syngnathidae) with notes on two congeneric species. Z Tierpsychol
65:1B24.
Strawn K. 1958. Life history of the pygmy sea horse Hippocampus zosterae at Cedar Key,
FL. Copeia 1:16B22.
Vincent ACJ. 1996. The international trade in seahorses. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC Intl.,
163 pp.
A-205
Table 38. Syngnathidae (pipefishes/seahorses)
Egg
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
small free-living crustaceans such as copepods;
minute benthic and planktonic invertebrates
likely weeks to
months
Duration
Diet
Larvae
N/A
circumtropical and temperate; 8 spp. reported
from Hawaiian waters, where the redstripe
pipefish Dunckerocampus baldwini is endemic.
At least 37 species in Micronesian waters, and
at least 17 in Samoa
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
male carries eggs in
a ventral pouch
offshore waters
occasionally found
in the open sea in
association with
floating debris
wide variety of shallow habitats from estuaries
and shallow sheltered reefs to seaward reef
slopes
Water column
male carries eggs in
a ventral pouch
pelagic
similar to adults
benthic and free-swimming
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
similar to adults
coral, rock, mud, seagrass, algae
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-206
4.2.1.13 Caracanthidae (coral crouchers)
The coral crouchers consist of one genus, Caracanthus, and 4 small species. They are small,
deep-bodied, ovoid fishes with venomous dorsal spines and small tubercles covering the
body. They are found exclusively among the branches of certain Stylophora, Pocillopora
and Acropora corals, where they feed on alpheid shrimps and other small crustaceans. The
name coral crouchers comes from their tendency to tightly wedge themselves into the coral
branches when threatened. One species, the Hawaiian orbicular velvetfish Caracanthus
typicus, is found in Hawaiian waters and is endemic. Two species are found in Micronesian
and Samoan waters: the spotted coral croucher C. maculatus and the pigmy coral croucher C.
unipinna. C. maculatus is common among the long branches of large pocilloporid corals such
as Pocillopora eydouxi, Stylophora mordax and ramose species of Acropora. C. unipinna is
found in S. mordax and ramose species of Acropora.
The spawning mode and development at hatching of coral crouchers is not known.
Caracanthid larvae are very similar to Scorpaenid larvae. The size of the largest examined
pelagic specimen was 16.5 mm (Leis and Trnski 1989).
Bibliography
Leis, JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
Myers, R.F. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Smith MM and PC Heemstra (eds). 1986. Smith=s sea fishes. Johannesburg, S Africa:
Macmillan.
A-207
Table 39. Management Unit Species: Caracanthidae (coral crouchers)
Egg
Larvae
N/A
zooplankton
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Diet
alpheid shrimps and other small crustaceans
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
same as adults
Indian and Pacific Ocean; one endemic
species in Hawaii - Caracanthus typicus, two
species in Micronesia
Location
same as adults
exclusively among the branches of certain
Stylophora, Pocillopora, and Acropora
corals
Water column
probably pelagic;
gelatinous egg
masses float
pelagic; 0B100m
depth
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
Stylophora, Pocillopora, and
Acropora corals
Stylophora, Pocillopora and Acropora corals
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-208
4.2.1.14 Tetrarogidae (waspfish)
Waspfishes are closely related to scorpionfishes but have dorsal fins that originate over or in
front of the eyes, typically do not have scales and tend to be more compressed. They have
extremely venomous spines. They feed on small fishes and crustaceans. No species are
found in Hawaiian waters, and only one species is found in Micronesia: the mangrove
waspfish Tetraroge barbata, which inhabits muddy inshore waters of mangrove swamps and
may also move into freshwater rivers.
There is little information on waspfish reproduction, but it is likely to be very similar to that
for Scorpaenidae. They likely produce small to medium eggs embedded in a large, pelagic,
sac-like gelatinous matrix.
Bibliography
Leis, JM and DS Rennis. 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Sydney: New
South Wales Univ Pr and Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Pr.
Harmelin-Vivien ML and C Bouchon. 1983. Feeding behavior of some carnivorous fishes
(Serranidae and Scorpaenidae) from Tulear (Madagascar). Mar Biol 37:329B40
Miller JM, W Watson and JM Leis. 1979. An atlas of common nearshore marine fish larvae
of the Hawaiian Islands. Misc Rep 80B02. Univ of Hawaii Sea Grant, Honolulu.
Mito S and K Uchida. 1958. On the egg development and hatched larvae of a scorpaenid fish,
Pterois lunulata. Sci Bull Fac Agric , Kyushu Univ 16:381B85.
Moyer JT and MJ Zaiser. 1981. Social organization and spawning behavior of the pteroine
fish Dendrochirus zebra at Miyake-jima, Japan. Japan J Ichthyol 28:52B69 .
Norris JE and JD Parrish. 1988. Predator-prey relationships among fishes in pristine coral
reef communities. Proc Int Coral Reef Symp 6th (2):107B13.
Takai T and T Fukunaga. 1971. The life history of a ovo-viviparous scorpaenoid fish,
Sesbastes longispinis (Matsubara). I. Egg and larval stages. J Shimonoseki Univ Fish.
20:91B5.
A-209
Table 40. Management Unit Species: Tetrarogidae (waspfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
ambush small fishes and
crustaceanss
ambush small fishes and crustaceans
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
no information on
spawning in the
wild
Duration
Indo-West Pacific; little seasonal
difference in distribution
estuarine or freshwater habitats;
mangroves or rivers
Location
Water column
probably pelagic;
gelatinous egg
masses float
pelagic; 0B100m depth
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-210
demersal
demersal
mangroves, rock, rubble, mud
4.2.1.15 Scorpaenidae (scorpionfishes)
Scorpionfishes are so named for the venomous dorsal, anal and pelvic fins of many species.
They are stout-bodied, benthic carnivores that typically have fleshy flaps, a mottled coloring
and small tentacles on the head and body. These camouflage features help them to ambush
small fishes and crustaceans. Scorpionfish lie on the reef and wait for unwary prey to come
near, when they pounce on the prey with a large mouth full of small viliform teeth. Many
feed mainly at dusk or during the night. Lionfishes and turkeyfishes of the subfamily
Pteroinae have greatly enlarged pectoral fins, elongate dorsal fin spines and bright
colorations. The lionfish and turkeyfish species may swim well above the bottom, whereas
small cryptic species of the subfamily Scorpaeninae tend to remain on the bottom and may be
quite common in shallow rubbly areas. In Hawaiian waters, 13 species are known and 3 are
endemic: Dendrochirus barberi, Pterois sphex and Scorpaenopsis cacopsis. At least 30
species are known from Micronesia. At least 22 species are recorded from Samoa.
Most reef scorpaenids (Scorpaena, Pterois, Dendrochirus) have 0.7B1.2 m spherical to
slightly ovoid eggs embedded in a large, pelagic, sac-like gelatinous matrix (Leis and Rennis
1983). Eggs hatch in 58B72 hours. The duration of the planktonic larval stage is not known.
Older larval stages are described by Miller, Watson and Leis (1979).
Harmelin-Vivien and Bouchon (1976), analyzing the stomach contents of 17 species of
scorpionfish from Tuléar, Madagascar, find that crustaceans generally were a dominant
component of their diet. Only one species, S. gibbosa, fed exclusively upon fishes, while
others fed on a mixture of fish and crustaceans. Seven species fed mainly on crustaceans
such as brachyurans, shrimps and polychaetes. Their diets were supplemented with small
amounts of galatheids and amphipods. Feeding tended to be heavier at night than during the
day, but feeding was apparent for both night and day for all species.
Several biologists and aquarium collectors have noted reduced numbers of the endemic
Hawaiian turkeyfish, Pterois sphex. Sightings of this previously more abundant species have
become very infrequent. Its numbers may have been reduced by collecting efforts driven by
its popularity as an aquarium fish. Randall et al. (1993) lists it as occasional in caves or
ledges inside and outside the lagoon at Midway Atoll, but it is now very rare in the main
Hawaiian Islands.
Bibliography
Harmelin-Vivien ML and C Bouchon. 1983. Feeding behavior of some carnivorous fishes
(Serranidae and Scorpaenidae) from Tulear (Madagascar). Mar Biol 37:329B40.
Leis, JM and DS Rennis. 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Sydney: New
South Wales U Pr. and Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Pr.
Miller JM, W Watson, and JM Leis. 1979. An atlas of common nearshore marine fish larvae
of the Hawaiian Islands. Misc Rep 80-02. Univ of Hawaii Sea Grant, Honolulu, HI.
A-211
Mito S and K Uchida. 1958. On the egg development and hatched larvae of a scorpaenid fish,
Pterois lunulata. Sci Bull Fac Agric, Kyushu Univ 16:381B5.
Moyer JT and MJ Zaiser. 1981. Social organization and spawning behavior of the pteroine
fish Dendrochirus zebra at Miyake-jima, Japan. Japan J Ichthyol 28:52B69.
Norris JE and JD Parrish. 1988. Predator-prey relationships among fishes in pristine coral
reef communities. Proc Int Coral Reef Symp 6th (2):107B113.
Orton GL. 1955. Early developmental stages of the California scorpionfish Scorpaena
guttata. Copeia, 1955:210B214.
Randall JE, Earle JL, Pyle RL, JD Parrish and Hayes. 1993. Annotated checklist of the fishes
of Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci 47(4):356B400.
Takai T and T Fukunaga. 1971. The life history of a ovo-viviparous scorpaenoid fish,
Sesbastes longispinis (Matsubara). I. Egg and larval stages. J Shimonoseki Univ Fish
20:91B5.
A-212
Table 41. Management Unit Species: Scorpaenidae (scorpionfishes)
Egg
Duration
little information,
but 58B72 hrs for
Scorpaena guttata
(David 1939)
Diet
N/A
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
little information on
spawning in the
wild
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
2B3 yrs for 2 Mediterranean
species
zooplankton
Location
ambush small fishes and
invertebrates
ambush fish and invertebrates;
Scorpaenopsis diabolus feeds exclusively
on fishes (Harmelin-Vivien et al. 1976)
worldwide in tropical and
temperate seas; little seasonal
information, but probably
recruitment peak in summer or
fall
worldwide in tropical and temperate seas;
small home ranges; little seasonal
difference in distribution
reef and hard-bottom associated
reef and hard-bottom associated
Water column
pelagic; gelatinous
egg masses float
pelagic; 0B100m
depth
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef, rock, rubble
coral reef, rock, rubble
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-213
4.2.1.16 Serranidae (groupers)
Egg and Larvae
Serranid fertilized eggs are spherical, transparent and range in size from 0.70 to 1.20 mm in
diameter. Each egg contains a single oil globule 0.13 to 0.22 mm in diameter. Based on the
available data, the length of the pelagic larval stage of groupers is 25-60 days (Kendall 1984,
Leis 1987). The wide geographic distribution of serranids is thought to be due to this
relatively long pelagic larval phase. Serranid larvae are distinguishable by their kite-shaped
bodies and highly developed head spination (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Juvenile
Very little is known about the distribution and habitat utilization patterns of juvenile
serranids. Research has found that transformation of pelagic serranids into benthic larvae
takes place between 25 mm to 31 mm TL (Heemstra and Randall, 1993). The juveniles of
some species of serranids are known to inhabit sea-grass beds and tide pools.
Adult
Serranids inhabit coral reefs and rocky bottom substrates from the shore to depths of at least
400 m. Serranids typically are long-lived and have relatively slow growth rates. Based on the
available data, groupers appear to be protogynous hermaphrodites. After spawning for one
or more years the female undergoes sexual transformation, becoming male. Some species of
serranids spawn in large aggregations, others in pairs. Individual males may spawn several
times during the breeding season. Some species of groupers are known to undergo small,
localized migrations, of several km to spawn. Except for occasional spawning aggregations,
most species of groupers are solitary fishes with a limited home range (Heemstra and
Randall, 1993). Based on the results of tagging studies, it has been found that serranids are
resident to specific sites, often residing on a particular reef for years .
Groupers are typically ambush predators, hiding in crevices and among coral and rocks in
wait for prey (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Adults reportedly feed during both the day and
night. The diet of adult serranids includes brachyuran crabs, fishes, shrimps, galatheid crabs,
octopus, stomatopods, fishes and ophiurids (Heemstra and Randall, 1993, Morgan 1982,
Randall and Ben-Tuvia 1983, Harmelin-Vivien and Bouchon 1976)
Bibliography
Allen, G.R. 1985. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid
species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. no. 125, volume 6 208 p..
Brock, V.E., and T.C. Chamberlain. 1968. A geological and ecological reconnaissance off
western Oahu, Hawaii, principally by means of the research submarine Asherah. Pac. Sci.
22:373-394.
A-214
Carpenter KE, Allen GR. 1989. FAO species catalogue. Volume 9, Emperor fishes and largeeye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). FAO. Fisheries synopsis no 125, volume 9.
Rome: FAO. 118p.
Ellis, D. A., E. E. Demartini, and R. B. Moffitt. 1992. Bottom trawl catches of juvenile
opakapaka, Pristipomoides filamentosus (F. Lutjanidae), and associated fishes, Townsend
Cromwell cruise TC-90-10, 1990. U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, NMFS, SWFC Admin.
Rep. H-92-03. 33pp.
Everson, A.R., H.A. Williams, and B.M. Ito. 1989. Maturation and reproduction in two
Hawaiian Eteline snappers, Uku, Aprion virescens, and Onaga, Etelis coruscans. U.S.
Fish. Bull. 87:877-888.
Everson, A.R. 1984. Spawning and gonadal maturation of the ehu, Etelis carbunculus, in
the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. pp. 128-148 In: Grigg, R.W. and K.Y. Tanoue
(Eds.). Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Resource Investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Vol. 2. University of Hawaii Sea Grant Miscellaneous
Report UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01. Honolulu, Hawaii.
Grimes, C.B. 1987. Reproductive biology of the Lutjanidae: a review. In J. J. Polovina and S.
Ralston (editors), Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fisheries management, p.
239-294. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Haight WR, Kobayashi D, Kawamoto KE. 1993a. Biology and management of deepwater
snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Fish Rev 55(2):20-27.
Haight, W.R., J.D. Parrish, and T.A. Hayes. 1993b. Feeding ecology of Lutjanid snappers at
Penguin Bank, Hawaii. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 122:328-347.
Harliem-Vivien ML, Bouchon C. 1976. Feeding behavior of some carnivorous fishes
(Serranidae and Scopaenidae) from Tulear (Madagascar). Mar Biol 37:329-40.
Heemstra PC, Randall JE. 1993. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily
Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind,
coral grouper, and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. 382 p. Fisheries synopsis
no 125, volume 16.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon. Berkeley: Univ California Pr. 245 p.
Kendall AW Jr. 1984. Serranidae: development and relationships. In: Moser HG, Richards
WJ, Cohen DM, Fahay MP, Kendall AW Jr, Richardson SL, editors. Ontogeny and
systematics of fishes. An international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert
Halvor Ahlstrom; 1984 Aug 15B18; La Jolla, CA. Am Soc of Icthyol and Herpetol. p.
499-510.
A-215
Kikkawa, B.S. 1984. Maturation, spawning, and fecundity of opakapaka, Pristipomoides
filamentosus, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. pp. 149-160 In: Grigg, R.W. and
K.Y. Tanoue (Eds.). Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Resource Investigations
in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Vol. 2. University of Hawaii Sea Grant
Miscellaneous Report UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01. Honolulu, Hawaii.
Laroche, W.A., W.F. Smith-Vaniz and S.L. Richardson. 1984. Carangidae: development. in
Ontogeny and systematics of fishes, based on an international symposium dedicated to
the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, August 15-18, 1983, La Jolla, California. Special
publication of the American Society of ichthyologists and herpetologists, no 1. pp. 510522.
Leis, J. M. 1987. Review of the early life history of tropical groupers (Serranidae) and
snappers (Lutjanidae). In J. J. Polovina and S. Ralston (editors), Tropical snappers and
groupers: Biology and fisheries management, p. 329-373. Westview Press, Boulder,
Colorado.
Lewis AD, Chapman LB, Sesewa A. 1983. Biological notes on coastal pelagic fishes in Fiji.
Fiji: Fisheries Division (MAF). Technical report no 4.
Manooch, C. S. III. 1987. Age and growth of snappers and groupers. In J. J. Polovina and
S. Ralston (editors), Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fisheries management,
p. 329-373. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Morgan JFC. 1982. Serranid fishes of Tanzania and Kenya. Ichthyol Bull. JLB Smith Inst
Ichthyol 46:1B44, 6 pls.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Barrigada, Guam: Coral Graphics.
Miller JM, Watson W, Leis JM. 1979. An atlas of common nearshore marine fish larvae of
the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
Miscellaneous report no UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-02.
Moffitt RB, Parrish FA. 1996. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus. Pac Sci 50(4):371-81.
Moffitt, R. B., F. A. Parrish, and J. Polovina. 1989. Community structure, biomass and
productivity of deepwater artificial reefs in Hawaii. Bull. Mar. Sci. 44(2):616-630.
Munro, J.L. 1987. Workshop synthesis and directions for future research. In J. J. Polovina
and S. Ralston (editors), Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fisheries
management, p. 329-373. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Parrish, F. A. 1989. Identification of habitat of juvenile snappers in Hawaii. Fish. Bull. U.S.
87:1001-1005
A-216
Parrish, J.D. 1987. Trophic biology of snappers and groupers. pp. 405-463 In: Polovina, J.J.
and S.V. Ralston (Eds.). Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fishery
management. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Ralston, S. 1987. Mortality rates of snappers and groupers. In J. J. Polovina and S. Ralston
(editors), Tropical snappers and groupers: Biology and fisheries management, p. 375-404.
Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Ralston, S. 1981. A study of the Hawaiian deepsea handline fishery with special reference
to the population dynamics of opakapaka, Pristipomoides filamentosus (Pisces:
Lutjanidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Wash., Seattle, Washington, 204 p.
Ralston, S., R. M. Gooding, and G. M. Ludwig. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison
of bottomfish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston
Atoll. U. S. Fish. Bull. 84(1):141-155
Ralston, S., and G. T. Miyamoto. 1983. Analyzing the width of daily otolith increments to
age the Hawaiian snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus. Fish. Bull. 81(3):423-535.
Randall JE,, Ben-Tuvia A. 1983. A review of the groupers (Pisces: Serranidae:
Epinephelinae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species of Cephalopholis. Bull
Mar Sci 33(2):373-426.
Sudekum AE, Parrish JD, Radtke RL, Ralston S. 1991. Life history and ecology of large
jacks in undisturbed, shallow, oceanic communities. Fish Bull (89):492-513.
Uchida, R.N. and J.H. Uchiyama (Eds.). 1986. Fishery Atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 38. 142 pp.
Walker, M.H. 1978. Food and feeding habits of Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson (Pisces:
Percifomes) and other lethrinids on the Great Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res.,
29:623-630
Yamaguchi, Y. 1953. The fishery and the biology of the Hawaiian opelu, Decapterus
pinnulatus. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, 125 p.
Young, P.C., and R.B. Martin. 1982. Evidence for protogynous hermaphroditism in some
lethrinid fishes. Fish. Biol. 21:475-484.
A-217
Table 42.Management Unit: Serranidae (groupers)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Incubate in 20-35 days
Pelagic duration : 25-60
days
Metamorphosis to
demersal habitat at ~25-31
mm TL
Long-lived, slow growing
Diet
N/A
No information available
No information available
Primarily feed in demersal
habitat. Diet includes
crabs, shrimp, octopus and
fish.
Distribution
Serranid eggs have a
relatively long pelagic
phase that results in wide
distribution
Serranid larvae have a
relatively long pelagic
phase that results in wide
distribution
Throughout Indo-Pacific.
Juveniles of some species
Inhabit shallow reef areas
(sea-grass beds and tide
pools).
Throughout Indo-Pacific.
Inhabit shallow coastal
coral reef areas to deep
slope rocky habitats (0-400
m)
Water Column
Pelagic
Pelagic
Demersal
Demersal
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
Wide variety of shallowwater reef and estuarine
habitats
Primary forage habitat is
shallow to deep reef and
rocky substrate.
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
N/A
N/A
A-218
4.2.1.17 Grammistidae (soapfish)
The soapfishes are small, grouper-like fishes that emit a toxic slime to deter predation by
larger fishes. They are secretive fish that occur on reef flats, shallow lagoon and seaward
reefs, often in small caves, under ledges or in holes at depths up to 150 m. They are
nocturnal predators on fishes, crustaceans and a variety of invertebrates. They are
represented in Hawaii by three species of the genus Liopropoma and two species of
Pseudogramma. At least one species, L. aurora, is endemic. There are 6 species of
soapfishes in Micronesia and 4 species in Samoan waters. The taxonomy of the soapfish is
frequently under debate, and it has been placed in at least 4 other families. Randall (1996)
treats Grammistinae as a subfamily of the Serranidae.
The grammistids, like the serranids, are generally hermaphroditic, although Smith (1971)
reported that members of Liopropoma appeared to be secondary gonochorists, with separate
sexes but clearly derived from hermaphroditic ancestors. Smith and Atz (1966) reports that
members of Pseudogramma are hermaphroditic. All are typically solitary and territorial.
Diploprion and Liopropoma appear to have pelagic eggs, while Pseudogramma has large,
bright red eggs that are probably demersal. The duration of the planktonic phase is not
known, but the size of the largest examined pelagic specimen was 12.6B14.5 mm (Leis and
Rennis 1983).
Bibliography
Leis JM and DS Rennis. 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Honolulu: Univ
of Hawaii Pr.
Randall, J.E. 1996. Shore fishes of Hawaii. Vida, OR: Natural World Pr.
Smith, CL. 1971. Secondary gonochorism in the serranid genus Liopropoma. Copeia,
1971:316B9.
Smith, CL and EH Atz. 1969. The sexual mechanism of the reef bass Pseudogramma
bermudensis and its implications in the classification of the Pseudogrammidae (Pisces:
Perciformes). Zeit Morph Tiere 65:315B26.
A-219
Table 43. Management Unit Species: Grammistidae (soapfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
N/A
zooplankton
similar to adult
small fishes, crustaceans and other
invertebrates
similar to adult
Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans; 5
species in Hawaii with at least one
endemic; at least 6 species in Micronesia
Duration
Diet
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
pelagic; possibly
demersal for
Pseudogramma
spp.
predominantly
offshore
Water column
pelagic; possibly
demersal for
Pseudogramma
spp.
pelagic
demersal; 1-150 m
demersal; 1B150 m
Bottom type
N/A
similar to adults
secretive inhabitants of caves, crevices on
coral reefs and rocky substrate
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-220
outer reef slopes, reef flats, lagoons,
wave-washed seaward reefs
4.2.1.18 Plesiopidae (prettyfins)
Prettyfins, or longfins, are characterized by a disjunct lateral line, preopercle with a double
border and long pelvic fins. They are nocturnal predators on small crustaceans, fishes and
gastropods. They are secretive during the day. No species are recorded for the Hawaiian
Islands and 3 species are recorded for Micronesian waters. Three species are recorded in
Samoan waters. The comet Calloplesiops altivelis is a popular aquarium fish that is
relatively uncommon in Micronesia. The red-tipped longfin Plesiops caeruleolineatus is a
common, but seldom seen, fish on exposed outer reef flats and outer reef slopes to a depth of
23 m. The bluegill longfin P. corallicola is relatively common on reef flats under rocks or in
crevices.
Prettyfin reproduction is similar to the closely related dottybacks. They are demersal
spawners in which the male tends the egg mass. Mito (1955) reported that P. semeion eggs
are 0.9 by 0.6 mm, and are deposited in a single layer on the underside of a rock.
Bibliography
Mito, S. 1955. Breeding habits of a percoid fish, Plesiops semeion. Sci Bull Fac Agric,
Kyushu Univ, 15:95B9.
Myers, RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Randall JE. 1986. Red Sea reef fishes. London: Immel Publ.
Thresher, RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub.
A-221
Table 44. Management Unit Species: Plesiopidae (prettyfins)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
15 days by a
mouth-brooding
species in an
aquarium (Debelius
and Baensch 1994)
3 months for a related basslet
3 years for a related basslet
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
probably similar to adult
Adult
small crustaceans, fishes, and
gastropods
3 species recorded for Micronesian
waters; none in Hawaiian waters
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
near adult territory;
often in caves or
crevices
primarily offshore
similar to adults
outer reef slopes and flats
Water column
demersal; or carried
in the mouth of the
male
pelagic
demersal; 3-45 m
demersal; 3B45 m
Bottom type
cleared patch of
rock or coral
N/A
same as adults
holes and crevices on coral reefs;
also sand and rock
Oceanic features
subject to advection by ocean
currents
A-222
4.2.1.19 Pseudochromidae (dottybacks)
Dottybacks are small (<65mm) elongate fishes with a long continuous dorsal fin. Two
genera are present in Micronesian waters: Pseudochromis has a disjunct lateral line, whereas
Pseudoplesiops lacks one. Members of Pseudoplesiops typically remain hidden within the
reef framework and are rarely seen except when an ichthyocide is used. Some members of
Pseudochromis are brightly colored and are sought after for the aquarium trade. The
dottybacks are carnivores of small crustaceans, polychaete worms and zooplankton. The
dottybacks are demersal spawners, and some may brood eggs in the mouth of the male.
Females of Pseudochromis produce a spherical mass of eggs that is guarded by the male.
Dottybacks are not present in Hawaiian waters, while 10 species are present in Micronesian
waters. Five species are recorded for Samoan waters.
Dottybacks are hermaphrodites. Males are typically larger than females. Some species are
obviously sexually dichromatic, while others are not. Pseudochromoid egg balls range in
diameter from 7 mm with about 60 eggs in Assessor macneilli (Thresher 1984) to 5B8 cm
with 8,200 to 17, 500 eggs for Acanthoclinus quadridactylus (Jillet 1968). Individual
Pseudochromis fuscus eggs are 1.25 mm in diameter, slightly elongate spheroids attached by
several adhesive threads. Incubation periods range from 3 to 5 days at approximately 29C.
Hatching typically occurs at night, shortly after sunset. Newly hatched larvae of P. fuscus
are 2.5 mm, and feeding typically begins on the first day after hatching (Lubbock 1975).
Jillett (1968) estimates a planktonic larval stage of 3 months for A. quadridactylus, which
reaches sexual maturity in approximately 3 years.
Pseudochromis cyanotaenia is sexually dichromatic, relatively common near holes and
crevices of exposed outer reef flats and reef margins to a depth of 4 m, often occurs in pairs
and feeds on small crabs, isopods and copepods. P. fuscus is common near small patches of
branching corals on shallow sandy subtidal reef flats and lagoons.
Bibliography
Jillett JB. 1968. The biology of Acanthoclinus quadridactylus (Bloch and Schneider)
(Teleostei-Blennioidea) II. Breeding and development. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res
19:1B8.
Lubbock R. 1975. Fishes of the family Pseudochromidae (Perciformes) in the northwest
Indian Ocean and Red Sea. J. Zool., London, 176: 115-157.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Randall JE. 1986. Red Sea reef fishes. London: Immel Publ.
Thresher RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub.
A-223
Table 45. Management Unit Species: Pseudochromidae (dottybacks)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
3B5 days for
Pseudochromis
fuscus (Thresher
1984)
3 months
3 years for an
Australian species
Acanthoclinus
quadridactylus
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
probably similar to
adult
Adult
small crustaceans, polychaete worms, and zooplankton
10 species recorded for Micronesian waters; none in
Hawaiian waters
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
near adult territory;
often in caves or
crevices
primarily offshore
similar to adults
exposed outer reef flats and reef margins; also near
small patches of branching corals on shallow sandy
subtidal reef flats and lagoons
Water column
demersal; or carried
in the mouth of the
male
pelagic
demersal; 0B100m
demersal; 0B100m
Bottom type
cleared patch of
rock or coral
N/A
same as adults
holes and crevices on coral reefs; also sand
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-224
4.2.1.20 Acanthoclinidae (spiny basslets)
Acanthoclinids are closely related to the pseudochromids but differ in having more dorsal
and anal fin spines and 1or 2 instead of 3 to 5 pelvic rays. Basslets in general produce
demersal eggs and have a tendency towards oral incubation. Eggs are typically tended by the
male or brooded by them in the case of brooders. Other basslets have eggs that hatch within
3B16 days and larvae that have a planktonic stage of up to 3 months. The basslets are fairly
secretive inhabitants of coral reefs, but some species are conspicuous as they hover near
shelter. They are often collected for aquariums. There are 10 known species, but only 3
occur in the Indo-Pacific, with none in Hawaii and one species in Micronesia. Hiatt=s basslet
Acanthoplesiops hiatti is a tiny species (to 21 mm) that has been collected from shallowwashed seaward reefs in Micronesia.
Bibliography
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Randall JE. 1986. Red Sea reef fishes. London: Immel Publ..
A-225
Table 46. Management Unit Species: Acanthoclinidae (spiny basslets)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
3B16 days
months
Diet
N/A
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
small crustaceans, polychaete worms, and zooplankton
West-central Pacific; one species Acanthopesiops hiatti
found in Micronesia
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
Water column
demersal
offshore waters
shallow wavewashed seaward
reefs
shallow wave-washed seaward reefs
pelagic
reef-associated;
1B65 m
reef-associated; 1B65 m
coral or rock shelter
coral or rock shelter
Bottom type
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-226
4.2.1.21 Cirrhitidae (hawkfish)
Hawkfishes are small grouper-like fishes characterized by projecting cirri on the tips of the
dorsal spines. The common name comes from their tendency to perch themselves on the
outermost branches of coral heads or other prominences. They use enlarged lower pectoral
rays to support their body or to wedge themselves in place. All are carnivores of small
benthic crustaceans and fishes. The species thus far studied are protogynous hermaphrodites,
and the males are territorial and defend a harem of females. Courtship and spawning occur at
dusk or early night throughout the year in the tropics. Spawning occurs at the apex of a
short, rapid paired ascent. The pelagic larval stage probably lasts a few to several weeks
(Randall 1963). In Hawaii, there are 6 species recorded. At least 10 species occur in
Micronesia, and at least 8 species occur in Samoa. The colorful species are popular
aquarium fishes.
Hawkfishes range in size at maturity from less than 10 cm to almost a meter. Most species
are sexually monomorphic. Pair spawning occurs with the male making quick ascents with
each of the members of his harem in rapid succession. Eggs are pelagic, spherical and
approximately 0.5 mm in diameter. The development at hatching is unknown. A lengthy
pelagic stage is suggested by the widespread distribution and limited geographic variation of
some species. The smallest specimen examined by Leis and Rennis (1983) was 2.7 mm, and
the largest pelagic specimen examined was 33.0B37.9 mm. Juveniles of most species
resemble the adults.
Adults typically inhabit rock, coral or rubble of the surge zone, seaward reefs, lagoons,
channels, rocky shorelines and submarine terraces. Some are typically found on heads of
small branching corals. The longnose hawkfish Oxycirrhites typus is a popular aquarium fish
that feeds mainly on zooplankton and is usually seen perched on black coral or gorgonians at
depths greater than 30 m.
Bibliography
Leis JM and DS Rennis. 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Honolulu: Univ
of Hawaii Pr.
Lobel PS. 1974. Sea spawningsChawkfish. Octopus 1(7):23.
Randall JE. 1963. Review of the hawkfishes (family Cirrhitidae). Proc US Nat Mus 113:
389B450.
Suzuki K, Tanaka Y, Hioki S and Y Shiobara. 1980. Studies on reproduction and larval
rearing of coastal marine fishes. pp. 53B82 in G Yamamoto (ed); Research in large scale
aquaculture of marine fisheries resources. Inst of Oceanic Res and Dev Tokai Univ:
Shimizu.
Thresher RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub.
A-227
Table 47. Management Unit Species: Cirrhitidae (hawkfishes)
Egg
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
carnivores of small benthic crustaceans and fishes;
the longnose hawkfish Oxycirrhites typus feeds
heavily on zooplankton
weeks to months
Duration
Diet
Larvae
N/A
most are Indo-West Pacific; 6 species in Hawaii, at
least 10 species in Micronesia, and at least 8
species in Samoa
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
near adult territory
generally offshore
similar to adults
the surge zone, seaward reefs, lagoons, channels,
rocky shorelines and submarine terraces. Some are
typically found on heads of small branching corals
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
rock, coral, or rubble
rock, coral, or rubble
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-228
4.2.1.22 Apogonidae (cardinalfishes)
The cardinalfishes are named for the red color of some of the species, although most are
fairly drab and many are striped. They are characterized by two dorsal fins, large eyes, a
large mouth and double-edged preopercles. Most species are small, less than 12 cm. They
are typically nocturnal, remaining hidden under ledges or in holes in the reef during the day.
Most prey mainly on large zooplankton, but some feed primarily on small benthic
crustaceans. A few species form dense aggregations immediately above mounds of
branching corals. As far as is known, all species are brood spawners in which the male
carries the eggs in his mouth until they hatch. Ten species occur in Hawaii, and at least 58
species occur in Micronesia. Apogon erythrinus, A. maculiferus, and A. menesemus are
endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. At least 36 species occur in Samoa.
External sexual dimorphism is slight or nonexistent in the cardinalfishes, except for females
that are noticeably swollen with eggs prior to spawning. Temporary color differences during
courtship and spawning occur in a few species. Apogonid species display a variety of
different seasonal spawning patterns, from year-round spawning to spring and fall peaks.
Spawning may also be tied to the phases of the moon.
Schooling behavior is important in some species of cardinalfishes. The fragile cardinalfish
A. fragilis occurs in large aggregations above branching corals. Despite these aggregations,
courtship and spawning in cardinalfishes are always paired rather than group activities. The
female often initiates courtship, which involves prolonged tight side-by-side swimming until
spawning occurs and the female releases a ball of eggs which the male quickly circles back to
and inhales. The male broods the eggs in the mouth for anywhere from 2 to 8 days. The
eggs, up to 22,000 of them, are bound together by threads that originate from one pole of the
egg and, in some species, a fine mucous membrane. Upon hatching, the eggs become
planktonic larvae ranging in size from 1.0B3.3 mm. The planktonic larval stage lasts
approximately 60 days, until larvae settle out at a size ranging from 10 to 25 mm.
Cardinalfish are found in water depths from 1 to 80 m. Members of the genera
Apogonichthys, Foa and Fowleria are typically secretive, cryptic inhabitants of seagrasses,
algal beds or rubble of sheltered reefs and reef flats. The bay cardinalfish Foa
brachygramma is usually found around dead coral, sponge or heavy plant growth in shallow
bays such as Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, and Tumon Bay, Guam.
Chave (1978) detailed the ecology of 6 species of Hawaiian cardinalfishes, all of which
remain in holes and caves in the daytime and emerge at night to feed on zooplankton and
benthic invertebrates. The habitat requirements of each species were distinct. Some species
remain near the substrate at night (A. snyderi and A. erythrinus), while others occur in
midwater (A. menesemus, A. maculiferus and A. waikiki), and Foa brachygramma occurs in
both locations. A. snyderi eats mostly sand dwelling invertebrates in sandy, bright, flat
substrate, A. maculiferous eats mostly midwater zooplankton near dawn, and A. erythrinus
eats crustaceans only (Chave 1978).
A-229
Bibliography
Charney P. 1976. Oral brooding in the cardinalfishes Phaeoptyx conklini and Apogon
maculatus from the Bahamas. Copeia, 1976:198B200.
Chave EH. 1978. General ecology of six species of Hawaiian cardinalfishes. Pac Sci 32:
245B69.
Chave EH and DW Eckert. 1974. Ecological aspects of the distribution of fishes at Fanning
Island. Pac Sci 28(3):279B319.
Fraser TH. 1972. Comparative osteology of the shallow water cardinalfishes (Perciformes:
Apogonidae) with reference to the systematics and evolution of the family. Ichthyol Bull
1B105.
Hobson ES. 1972. Activity of Hawaiian reef fishes during the evening and morning
transitions between daylight and darkness. Fish Bull 70:715B40.
Hobson ES. 1974. Feeding relationships of teleostean fishes on coral reefs in Kona, Hawaii.
Fish Bull 72:915B1031.
Hobson ES and R Chess. 1978. Trophic relationships among fishes and plankton in the
lagoon at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Fish Bull 76:133B53.
Oppenheimer JR. 1970. Mouthbreeding in fishes. Anim Behav 18:493B503.
A-230
Table 48. Management Unit Species: Apogonidae (Cardinalfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
2B8 days
approximately 60
days
Diet
N/A
zooplankton;
tintinnids (Watson
1974)
feed on plankton at night; some species
eat primarily small benthic crustaceans
feed on plankton at night; some
species eat primarily small benthic
crustaceans
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
throughout the year,
spring and fall peaks
for some species
throughout the
year, spring and
fall peaks for some
species
Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean
Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean
Location
within the father=s
mouth
predominantly
offshore
coral reefs
coral reefs
Water column
within the father=s
mouth
pelagic
demersal and mid-water at night for
feeding on zooplankton; 1-80m depth
demersal and mid-water at night
for feeding on zooplankton; 1B80
m depth
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef ledges, holes, flats, rubble,
within the branches of branching corals
coral reef ledges, holes, flats,
rubble, within the branches of
branching corals
Oceanic features
A-231
4.2.1.23 Priacanthidae (bigeyes)
Priacanthids have very large eyes, moderately deep compressed bodies, oblique mouths with
a projecting lower jaw, small conical teeth in a narrow band in each jaw, an opercle with 2
flat spines and a serrate preopercle with a broad spine at the corner. They are usually red but
are able to change quickly to silver or blotches of silver and red. They are nocturnal
zooplanktivores on larger zooplankton, such as the larvae of crabs, fishes, polychaete worms
and cephalopods. The family is distributed circumtropically and in temperate seas, but some
species are limited to the Indo-Pacific or the Hawaiian Islands. In Hawaiian waters, 4 species
have been recorded: Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, the endemic Priacanthus meeki and two
deep-water species. In Micronesian waters, H. cruentatus, P. hamrur and a deep species from
below 200 m depth have been recorded. The shallow-water species are limited to 100 m or
less. Five species are recorded from Samoan waters.
The glasseye H. cruentatus inhabits lagoon or seaward reefs from below the surge zone to a
depth of at least 20 m. During the day it is usually solitary or in small groups but may gather
in large numbers at dusk prior to ascending into the water column for feeding.
Spawning by priacanthids has not been observed, but Colin and Clavijo (1978) reports seeing
an aggregation of more than 200 individuals at a reef where many other species were
spawning. The eggs of Pristigenys niphonium and Priacanthus macracanthus are pelagic,
spherical and 0.75 mm in diameter (Suzuki et al. 1980, Renzhai and Suifen 1982). The
larvae hatch at 1.4 mm (Renzhai and Suifen 1982). The size of the largest examined pelagic
larval specimen was 48 mm (Leis and Rennis 1983). Caldwell (1962) reports a size at
settlement for the deep-water subtropical species Pristigenys alta of 65 mm.
Bibliography
Caldwell DK. 1962. Development and distribution of the short bigeye, Pseudopriacanthus
altus (Gill) in the western North Atlantic. Fish Bull (US) 62:103B49.
Colin PL and I Clavijo. 1978. Mass spawning by the spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus
maculatus. Bull Mar Sci 28: 78B82.
Leis JM and DS Rennis. 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Sydney: New
South Wales Univ Pr. and Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Pr.
Renzhai Z and L Suifen. 1982. The development of egg and larvae of Priacanthus
macracanthus (Cuvier and Valenciennes). J Fisheries China 6(3):243B51.
A-232
Table 49. Management Unit Species: Priacanthidae (bigeyes)
Egg
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
larger zooplankton such as the larvae of crabs, fishes,
polychaete worms and cephalopods; also crustaceans
and soft-bodied invertebrates
from 10 mm to
about 60 mm
Duration
Diet
Larvae
N/A
various zooplankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
worldwide in tropical and temperate seas, but 3 IndoPacific genera, 1 Hawaiian endemic
Location
lagoon or seaward reefs from below the surge zone to
a depth of at least 80 m
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-233
demersal and midwater column
demersal and mid-water column; some species very
deep
coral reef crevices or overhangs during the day; may
feed over soft substrate at night
4.2.1.24 Malacanthidae (tilefishes)
The tilefishes have elongate bodies with one sharp opercular spine and a long continuous
dorsal fin. They have viliform and canine teeth for taking a variety of benthic animals along
with substantial amounts of plankton. They usually occur in pairs on sandy and rubbly areas
of outer reef slopes. They frequently build a burrow into which they retreat when threatened,
often piling rubble on top. They can be found in depths from 6 to 115 m in mud, sand,
rubble or talus areas of barren seaward slopes. The family is distributed worldwide in
tropical and temperate seas. The family is represented in Hawaiian waters by a single
species, Malacanthus brevirostris, and in Micronesian waters by the same species plus four
more: Hoplolatilus cuniculus, H. fronticinctus, H. starcki and M. latovittatus. Two species
are present in Samoan waters: M. brevirostris and M. latovittatus.
Accounts of spawning are few, but pairs typically make a short spawning ascent to release
pelagic, spheroid eggs, about 0.7 mm in diameter with a single oil globule. After a larval
phase of undetermined duration, Malacanthus settle to the bottom at a size of about 6 cm and
immediately construct burrows under rocks in shallow water (Araga 1969).
Bibliography
Araga C. 1969. Young form of the rare coral fish, Malacanthus latovittatus from Tanabe
Bay. Pub Seto Mar Biol Lab 16:405B10.
Ikeda T and S Mito. 1988. Pelagic fish eggs. pp 999B1083 in Okiyama (ed). An atlas of the
early stage fishes in Japan. Tokyo: Tokai Univ Pr.
Johnson GD. 1984. Percoidei: development and relationships. pp 464-499 in ASIH Spec Publ
1.
Leis JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
Randall JE. 1981. A review of the Indo-Pacific sand tilefish genus Hoplolatilus (Perciformes:
Malacanthidae). Freshw and Mar Aquar 4(12):39B46.
Thresher RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub.
A-234
Table 50. Management Unit Species: Malacanthidae (Tilefishes)
Egg
Duration
Diet
Larvae
Juvenile
weeks or months
settlement at a size of about 6
cm
N/A
benthic invertebrates and
plankton
Adult
benthic invertebrates and plankton
3 Indo-Pacific genera
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
shallow sheltered habitats
outer reef slopes
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
sand, mud, rubble
sandy and rubbly areas
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-235
4.2.1.25 Echineididae (remoras)
Remoras have a broad flat head uniquely modified for suction that allows them to attach to
other marine animals. Some species are host specific while others use a variety of hosts such
as sharks, rays, large bony fishes, sea turtles or marine mammals. Some species are free
swimming. The two species of Echeneis are not host-specific and are free-living part of the
time. Remoras are circumglobal in their distribution. In Hawaii and in Micronesia, the
sharksucker E. naucrates is the most common, although Remora remora may be found on
large sharks and Remorina albescens on mantas. Five species are recorded from Samoan
waters, including E. naucrates, R. remora, and Phtheirichthys lineatus, which was attached
to a hawksbill turtle. Remoropsis pallidus and Rhombochirus osteochir were found attached
to marlin.
Johnson (1984) reports that eggs of E. naucrates and R. remora are large (1.4B2.6 mm),
pelagic and spherical, although Nakajima et al. (1987) reports E. naucrates eggs are
negatively buoyant. Newly hatched eggs are 4.7B7.5 mm long. The size of the largest
examined pelagic larval stage was 14.5B22 mm (Leis and Trnski 1989).
Bibliography
Johnson GD. 1984. Percoidei: development and relationships. pp 464-499 in ASIH Spec Publ
1.
Leis JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
Nakajima H, H Kawahara, and S Takamatsu. 1987. The breeding behavior and the behavior
of larvae and juveniles of the Sharksucker, Echeneis naucrates. Japan J Ichthyol
34(1):66B70.
A-236
Table 51. Management Unit Species: Echineididae (remoras)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adults
zooplankton such as copepods
and isopods; zoobenthos such as
small crustaceans; detritus, and
small fishes (Randall 1967)
circumglobal
circumglobal
coastal and pelagic waters
coastal and pelagic waters; often
attached to sharks, rays, large
bony fishes, sea turtles, or marine
mammals
size at hatching ranges from
3.7 to 7.5 mm
Duration
Diet
N/A
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
little information on
seasonal patterns
zooplankton
Location
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
same as adults
pelagic; either free swimming or
attached to large reef-associated
inhabitants
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-237
4.2.1.26 Carangidae (jacks, papio, ulua)
Eggs and larvae
There are few extant studies of the distribution of carangid eggs and larvae. Carangid eggs
are planktonic, spherical and 0.70-1.3mm in diameter (Laroche et al. 1984, Miller et al.
1979). The eggs usually contain one to several oil globules. The eggs hatch 24-48 hours
after spawning in water temperatures from 18 to 30 C (Laroche et al. 1984). The larvae are
relatively small (1 - 2 mm) at hatching and contain a relatively large yolk sac. The larvae are
moderately deep bodied and large headed with well developed preopercular spines (Miller et
al. 1979). According to Miller et al. (1979) carangid larvae are common in nearshore waters
surrounding the Hawaiian Archipelago.
Juvenile
Juvenile carangids are often found in nearshore and estuarine waters and may form small
schools over sandy inshore reef flats (Lewis et al. 1983, Meyers 1991). Available diet
studies suggest that juvenile carangids are planktivorous and feed on fish larvae and
planktonic crustaceans
Adult
The carangids are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical waters in the Indo-Pacific.
They are widely distributed in shallow coastal waters, estuaries, shallow reefs, deep reef
slope, banks and seamounts (Sudekum et al. 1991). Juvenile and adult carangids are an
important component of shallow reef and lagoon fish catches throughout the management
area. Adult carangids are large highly-mobile predators that range widely through the reef
and deep slope habitat from depths of 0- 250m. A single species (Seriola dumerili) has been
documented to forage at depths of up to 355 m (Myers 1991, Ralston et al. 1986). Although
most of the large jacks utilize the complete water column in their habitat range they are
associated primarily with demersal habitat.
In general adult carangids are piscivourous, they also prey on crustaceans, gastropods, and
cephalopods. Caranx ignobilis, one of the most abundant species of jacks found in Hawaii is
primarily piscivourous, preying primarily on reef-associated fish. The most recent study of
the feeding habits of C. ignobilis concludes that the predominance of reef fishes in its diet
indicates that shallow-water reef areas are important foraging habitat for these fish. The
occurrence of small pelagic fish and squid in the diet of C. ignobilis indicates that part of its
foraging also occurs in the water-column (Sudekum at al. 1991).
Reproductive information is sparse for most species. In Hawaii the sex ratio for C. ignobilis
is slightly skewed toward females 1:1.39 (Sudekum et al. 1991). Peak spawning occurs
between May and August, although gravid fish are present in the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands (NWHI) between April and November. Spawning occurs in pairs within larger
aggregations during the new and full moon (Johannes 1981), on offshore banks and shallow
nearshore reefs (Myers 1991).
A-238
Bibliography
Humphreys RL Jr. 1986. Greater amberjack. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery
atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
Humphreys RL Jr. 1980. Feeding habits of the kahala, Seriola dumerili, in the Hawaiian
archipelago. In: Grigg RW, Tanoue KY, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on
Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, volume 2; 1980 May
25B27; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 233B40. Report nr UNIHISEAGRANT-MR-84-01.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon. Berkeley: Univ California Pr. 245 p.
Kikkawa BS, Everson AR . 1984. Gonadal maturation, fecundity and spawning of the greater
amberjack (Seriola dumerili) in Hawaiian waters with reference to ciquatoxin incidences.
In: Grigg RW , Tanoue KY, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on Resource
Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, volume 2; 1980 May 25B27;
Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. p 149B160. Report nr UNIHISEAGRANT-MR-84-01.
Laroche, W.A., W.F. Smith-Vaniz and S.L. Richardson. 1984. Carangidae: development. in
Ontogeny and systematics of fishes, based on an international symposium dedicated to
the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, August 15-18, 1983, La Jolla, California. Special
publication of the American Society of icthyologists and herpetologists, no 1. pp. 510522.
Lewis AD, Chapman LB, Sesewa A. 1983. Biological notes on coastal pelagic fishes in Fiji.
Fiji: Fisheries Division (MAF). Technical report nr 4.
Miller JM, Watson W, Leis JM. 1979. An atlas of common nearshore marine fish larvae of
the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
Miscellaneous report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-02.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Barrigada, Guam: Coral Graphics.
Okamoto H, Kawamoto P. 1980. Progress report on the nearshore fishery resource
assessment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: 1977 to 1979. In: Grigg, RW, Pfund
RT, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on the status of resource investigations in the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI. p 71B80. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. Miscellaneous report nr UNIHISEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Parrish J, Taylor L , DeCrosta M, Feldkamp S, Sanderson L, Sorden C. 1980. Trophic studies
of shallow-water fish communities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Grigg RW,
Pfund RT, editors. Proceedings of the Symposium on the status of resource investigations
A-239
in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. p 175B88. Miscellaneous report nr
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Ralston S, Gooding RM, Ludwig GM. 1986. An ecological survey and comparison of bottom
fish resource assessments (submersible versus handline fishing) at Johnston Atoll. US
Fish Bull. 84:141B55.
Randall, John E., Gerald R. Allen, and Roger C. Steene. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier
Reef and Coral Sea. Crawford House Press, Bathhurst, Australia. 507 pp.
Seki MP. 1986. Butaguchi. In: Uchida RN, Uchiyama JH, editors. Fishery atlas of the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. NOAA. Technical report nr NMFS 38.
Seki MP. 1984. The food and feeding habits of the white trevally, Pseudocaranx dentex in
the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: RW Grigg, Pfund RT, editors. Proceedings of the
Symposium on Status of Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands,
volume 2; 1980 Apr 24B25; Honolulu, HI. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Sea Grant
College Program. p 264-77. Miscellaneous report nr UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Smith=s Sea Fishes. 1986. Smith, Margaret M., and Phillip C. Heemstra (eds). SpringerVerlag, Berlin.
Sudekum AE, Parrish JD, Radtke RL, Ralston S. 1991. Life history and ecology of large
jacks in undisturbed, shallow, oceanic communities. Fish Bull (89):492B513.
[WPRFMC] Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1997. Bottomfish and
seamount groundfish fisheries of the western Pacific region, 1996 annual report.
Honolulu: WPRFMC.
A-240
Table 52. Management Unit: Carangidae (jacks)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
24 - 48 hours after
spawning
Poorly known, larvae
thought to be more
common offshore than
inshore
Sexual maturity attained at
1-3.5 years depending on
species
One species (C. ignobilis)
life span exceeds 15 years
Diet
N/A
No information available
Generally switch from
planktivory to piscivory
with increase in age
Predominantly piscivorous
utilizing shallow-water
reefs. The water-column is
also utilized .
Distribution
Pelagic
Pelagic, more common in
summer
Near-shore and estuarine
waters
Throughout Indo-Pacific.
Inhabit shallow coastal
areas to deep slope (0350m)
Water Column
Pelagic
Pelagic
Bentho-pelagic
Bentho-pelagic, utilize
entire water-column but
primarily associated with
demersal habitat
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
Wide variety of shallowwater reef and estuarine
Primary forage habitat is
shallow to deep reef
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
N/A
N/A
A-241
4.2.1.27 Decapterus/Selar (scads, opelu, akule)
Egg and Larvae
The spawning of scads occurs in the pelagic environment. Depending on the species the
ovaries of the female may contain from 30,000 to 200,000 eggs. The spawned eggs are
spherical with a single oil globule, non-adhesive, and free floating (Yamaguchi 1953).
Juvenile
After hatching the larvae and juvenile fish remain in the pelagic environment where they
frequently form large aggregating schools. Reports from fishermen have identified
aggregations of juvenile scads as far as 80 nmi. offshore (Yamaguchi 1953). Juveniles enter
the nearshore coastal waters in late fall and winter, where they grow rapidly over the next
few months, usually attaining sexual maturity during the first year of life.
Larval and juvenile fish remain in offshore pelagic waters for the first several months of their
life, after which they migrate to the nearshore adult habitat (0-100m).
Adults
Adults spawn in pelagic waters usually in proximity to their coastal habitat. Spawning
appears to be seasonal from March through August, reaching a peak from May to July.
These species feed in the water column and are mainly planktivorous, preying on
zooplankton. Their diet consists of amphipods, crab megalops, fish larvae, pteropods, and
copepods, however some species also feed on small fishes such as anchovies and
holocentrids (Yamaguchi 1953). Adult opelu and akule inhabit nearshore waters around
islands from shoreline depths to 100m.
A-242
Table 53. Management Unit: Decapturus/Selar (scads)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
No information
No information
migrate to nearshore
waters ~ Six months after
hatching
Relatively fast growing
and short lived. Sexual
maturity usually in first
year of life
Diet
N/A
planktivorous
zooplanktivorous
primarily
zooplanktivorous, with
some piscivory
Distribution
circumtropical pelagic
circumtropical pelagic
circumtropical nearshore
circumtropical nearshore
Water Column
pelagic
pelagic
pelagic and nearshore reef
in water column
nearshore reef in water
column (neritic)
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
offshore pelagic, migrate
to nearshore waters in first
year
nearshore waters
A-243
4.2.1.28 Caesionidae (fusiliers)
Fusiliers are planktivorous, schooling fishes. They have an elongate, fusiform body, a small
terminal mouth with a very protrusible upper jaw, small conical teeth and a deeply forked
tail. During the day, fusiliers swim actively in midwater around or near reefs in
synchronomous formation, changing the formation to feed on zooplankton. They are
particularly abundant along steep outer reef slopes and around deep lagoon pinnacles. They
are often observed around cleaner stations, where some members of the aggregations pause
to be cleaned by cleaner wrasses. They are not found in Hawaii. At least 10 species occur in
Micronesia, and at least 5 species occur in Samoa.
The reproductive biology of caesionids has been examined in only a few species. They
appear to be typified by early sexual maturity and high fecundity. They have a prolonged
spawning season, but recruitment peaks once or twice a year. Fusiliers are dioecious and
gonochoristic, with no significant difference in sex ratio. Spawning has been observed for
Caesio teres (Bell and Colin 1986) and Pterocaesio digramma (Thresher 1984). These
caesionids spawn in large groups around the full moon. They migrate to select areas on the
reef at dusk and initiate spawning during slack water. In C. teres, spawning is preceded by
periodic mass vertical ascents and descents to within about 1 m of the surface. During
spawning they stay near the surface and subgroups within the mass swirl rapidly in circles
and release gametes (Carpenter 1988).
During initial recruitment to a reef, juvenile caesionids generally remain close to the
substrate and dart around coral heads and rocks to escape. At night, fusiliers shelter in
crevices and under coral heads. Fusiliers often school in mixed species aggregations. They
are primarily reef inhabitants, although they often range over soft bottoms in between reefs.
Bibliography
Bell LJ and PL Colin. 1986. Mass spawning of Caesio teres at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall
Islands. Envir Biol Fish 15(1):69B74.
Cabanban AS. 1984. Some aspects of the biology of Pterocaesio pisang in the central
Visayas. MS thesis. Coll of Sci, Univ of the Philippines: 69pp.
Carpenter KE. 1988. Fusilier fishes of the world. FAO species catalogue No. 125, Vol. 8.
Rome: United Nations Development Programme FAO of the United Nations.
Hiatt RW and DW Strasburg. 1960. Ecological relationships of fish fauna on coral reefs of
the Marshall Islands. Ecol Monogr 30:65B127.
Hobson ES and JR Chess. 1978. Trophic relationships among fishes and plankton in the
lagoon at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Fish Bull NOAA/NMFS 76:133B53.
A-244
Table 54. Management Unit Species: Caesionidae (fusiliers)
Egg
Duration
Larvae
Juvenile
weeks to months
reach
maturity
early
various plankton
planktivores
Adult
Diet
N/A
planktivores
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
prolonged spawning
season but tends to peak
once or twice a year
Location
spawning occurs at specific
sites on a reef (Bell and
Colin 1986)
offshore
similar to
adults
abundant along steep outer reef slopes and around
deep lagoon pinnacles
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
reefassociated;
typically
remain close
to shelter
pelagic
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral or rock
coral, rock, but range over sand in travels from reef to
reef
Oceanic features
subject to advection by
ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
tropical Indo-Pacific; None in Hawaii, at least 10 spp.
in Micronesia, and 5 in Samoa
A-245
4.2.1.29 Haemulidae (sweetlips)
Haemulids are very similar to lutjanids but differ by having smaller mouths a bit lower on the
head with small conical teeth and thickened lips, by having pharyngeal teeth and by lacking
canine and palatine teeth. Some members of the sweetlip family are commonly called grunts
because of the sound they can make by grinding the pharyngeal teeth and amplifying the
noise with their gas bladder. Haemulids are primarily nocturnal feeders on benthic
invertebrates. During the day they typically school under or near overhangs or tabular corals.
Their general lethargy during the day and their schooling tendencies makes them easy targets
for spearfishers. As a result, they have become scarce in waters near population centers such
as Guam. Most species of Plectorhinchus change color dramatically with group. The striped
juveniles of many species are similar and difficult to distinguish from other haemulid
juveniles. Eleven species are recorded from Micronesian waters. None are recorded for the
Hawaiian Islands. Three species are recorded from Samoan waters.
There is little information on haemulid reproduction, particularly in Indo-Pacific locations.
Given their similarity to other roving benthic predators, such as groupers or snappers, the
haemulids probably migrate to spawning sites on the outer reef slope for group spawning at
dusk. Eggs are pelagic with a single oil droplet, and hatching time is approximately 24
hours. Duration of the planktonic stage for Haemulon flavolineatum is approximately 15
days, when the larvae settle to the bottom at a length of approximately 6 mm (McFarland
1980, Brothers and McFarland 1981). Juvenile grunts are commonly found in small groups
on grass flats, near mangroves and in other inshore areas. Cummings et al. (1966) report
sexual maturity of H. album at approximately 37.5 cm. Gaut and Munro (1983) found mean
lengths at maturity for the Caribbean species H. plumieri, H. flavolineatum, H. sciurus and H.
album of 22 cm FL, 12 cm FL or less, 15.5 cm FL 22 cm FL and 24 cm FL respectively.
Bibliography
Baillon N and M Kulbicki. 1988. Ageing of adult tropical fish by otoliths: A comparison of
three methods on Diagramma pictum. Proc 6th Int Coral Reef Symp, Australia, 1988.
Vol. 2:341B6.
Brothers EB and WN McFarland. 1981. Correlations between otolith microstructure, growth
and life history transitions in newly recruited french grunts. Rapp.P.-v. Re=un Cons Int
Explor Mer 178:369B74.
Cummings WC, BD Brahy and JY Spires. 1966. Sound production, schooling and feeding
habits of the margate, Haemulon album Cuvier, off North Bimini, Bahamas. Bull Mar Sci
16(3):626B40.
Gaut VC and JL Munro. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the the grunts,
Pomadasyidae. ICLARM Stud Rev 7:110B41.
McFarland WN. 1980. Observations on recruitment in haemulid fishes. Proc Gulf Caribb
Fish Inst 32:132B238.
A-246
Munro JL, VC Gaut, R Thompson and PH Reeson. 1973. The spawning seasons of
Caribbean reef fishes. J Fish Biol. 5:69B84.
Podosinnikov AY. 1977. Early ontogeny of the Astriped grunt,@ Parapristipoma humile
(Pomadasyidae, Pisces). J Ichthy 17(4):683B4.
A-247
Table 55. Management Unit Species: Haemulidae (sweetlips and grunts)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
approximately 24
hrs
15 days to months
from 6 mm until
12B24 mm FL
Diet
N/A
copepods, nauplii
(Houde and Lovdal
1984)
similar to adult
nocturnal predators on benthic invertebrates, including
crustaceans, mollusks, and fishes
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
likely spring
spawning peak
similar to adult
no species recorded for Hawaii; tropical and temperate
seas in marine and brackish waters worldwide; 11
Micronesian species
Location
probably
outcroppings on
outer reef slopes
offshore
sheltered inshore
areas in lagoons,
estuaries,
mangroves as well
as adult locations
close to patch reefs, lagoons,inshore and seaward reefs,
channels, outer reef slopes
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal and reef
or mangroveassociated
demersal and reef-associated; 1B100m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
sandy to muddy
bottoms, coral,
rocky ledges or
table corals
sandy to muddy bottoms, coral, rocky ledges or table
corals
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-248
Adult
4.2.1.30 Lethrinidae (emperors)
Egg and Larvae
Lethrinid eggs are pelagic, spherical ,colorless, and range in size from 0.63 to 0.83 mm. The
eggs hatch within 21 to 40 hours after fertilization (Carpenter and Allen 1989). The larvae
when hatched range in size from 1.3 to 1.7mm. Larval characteristics include unpigmented
eyes, large yolk sac, variable body pigmentation and extensively developed head spination.
Juveniles and Adults
Juvenile and adult lethridids are found throughout the Indo-Pacific in tropical and subtropical waters. They are fairly long-lived ranging 7-27 years (Carpenter and Allen 1989).
Although little is known of the biology of these species, they are known to inhabit the deeper
waters of coral reefs and adjacent sandy areas. Some species also occur in shallow water
habitats around coral reefs, sand flats, sea-grass beds and mangrove swamps (Carpenter and
Allen 1985). Lethrinids appear to be carnivorous bottom-feeders. Their diet includes: crabs,
sea-urchins, bivalves, gastropods, and fish (Walker 1978).
Based on the available data, lethrinids appear to be protogynous hermaphrodites (Young and
Martin 1982). Spawning occurs throughout the year, and is preceded by localized
migrations during crepuscular periods. Peak spawning occurs on or near the new moon.
Spawning may occur at near the surface as well as near the bottom of reef slopes. Lethrinids
may reach a maximum length of 70 cm. Males tend to attain a larger size than females.
A-249
Table 56. Management Unit: Lethrinidae (emperors)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
hatch 21 - 40 hours after
spawning
No information
No information
7-27 Years
Diet
N/A
No information
No information
Carnivorous bottomfeeders
Distribution
Pelagic
Pelagic
Nearshore areas and
shallow seamounts
Throughout Indo-Pacific.
Inhabit shallow coastal
areas to deep slope (0350m)
Water Column
Pelagic
Pelagic
Benthic
Benthic
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
Demersal Reef
Primary forage habitat
shallow to deep reef
feeding on the bottom
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
N/A
N/A
A-250
4.2.1.31 Lutjanidae (snappers)
Egg and Larvae
Lutjanid eggs are pelagic, spherical and 0.65-1.02 mm in diameter. Each egg contains a
single oil globule which provides buoyancy during the pelagic phase. Incubation is between
17-27 hours depending on species and temperature. Newly hatched larvae of lutjanids in
general are typical of those from fish with small pelagic eggs; the larvae have a large yolk
sac, unpigmented eyes and no mouth. The yolk sac typically lasts 3-4 days, after which the
mouth is fully formed and the eyes become pigmented (Leis 1987). The larvae are absent
from surface waters during the day and migrate upward at night. Snapper larvae are thought
to be planktonic and subject to advection by ocean current systems until benthic habitat
suitable for metamorphosis is encountered (Munro 1987). The duration of the pelagic phase
is thought to be at least 25 days (Leis 1987) and may be as long as 45 days.
Juveniles
Little information currently exists on larval development, settlement or early juvenile life
history of deepwater snappers in Hawaii (Haight et al. 1993a). Little is known about the
ecology of juveniles from time of settlement to their appearance in the adult fishery. Age at
entry to the fishery for the principle fishery species in Hawaii is thought to be 2 to 3 years
after settlement (Moffitt and Parrish 1996). In a three year study of fish settlement on
artificial reefs adjacent to adult snapper habitat in Hawaii, no recruitment of juvenile
snappers to the reefs was observed, although adults aggregated at times around the reef
structures (Moffitt et al. 1989).
Studies on juveniles of one snapper species in Hawaii indicated juvenile Pristipomoides
filamentosus first appear in the relatively shallow (60 - 100 m) nearshore areas at about 10
months of age (7 - 10 cm FL) during the fall and early winter months. The young fish remain
in this habitat for the next 7 months until they reach 18 - 24 cm FL (Moffitt and Parrish 1996,
Ellis et al 1992). In situ scuba observations of the juvenile habitat found it to be a relatively
flat, soft sediment substrate devoid of relief (Parrish 1989).
Adults
Tropical snappers in general are slow growing, long lived and have low rates of natural
mortality. Maximum ages exceed 10 years and von Bertalanffy growth coefficients (K) are
usually in the range of 0.10 to 0.25 per year (Manooch 1987). Most ageing studies of
tropical snappers have depended on the enumeration of regularly formed marks on calcareous
structures. In Hawaii, Ralston and Miyamoto (1983) used daily growth increments deposited
on the otoliths of immature P. filamentosus to determine its growth rate. The estimated
growth coefficient of opakapaka is 0.145 per year, and asymptotic upper boundary on growth
(L) was 78 cm FL, which occurred at over 18 years of age.
Ralston (1987), in a comprehensive review of published reports on snapper growth and
natural mortality, determined that for the 10 species studied, mortality and growth rates were
highly correlated, with a mean M/K ratio of 2.0. Thus, if a value of K is available for a given
A-251
species, its natural mortality rate can be estimated. Using an age-length probability matrix
for opakapaka applied to length frequency samples, Ralston (1981) estimated the natural
mortality rate for opakapaka in Hawaii to be 0.25, which when compared to the estimated K
value for this species (0.145) is close to the value predicted by the M/K relationship derived
for snappers in general.
Size at sexual maturity for lutjanids on average occurs at about 43 to 51% of L (Allen
1985). Size at maturity has been estimated for only two species in the MHI and two species
in the NWHI. In the MHI, uku reaches sexual maturity at 47 cm fork length (FL), which is
46% of maximum size (L). Onaga reaches sexual maturity at 61 cm FL (62% L ) (Everson
et al. 1989). In the NWHI, ehu reaches maturity at about 30 cm FL (46% L) and opakapaka
reaches maturity at around 43 cm FL (48% L) (Everson 1984, Kikkawa 1984, Grimes 1987).
Gonadal studies on four of the species in Hawaii indicate that spawning may occur serially
over a protracted period but is at a maximum during the summer months, and peaks from
July to September (Everson et al. 1989, Uchida and Uchiyama 1986). Estimated annual
fecundity is 0.5 to 1.5 million eggs. The eggs are released into the water column.
Although snappers throughout the world are generally thought of as top level carnivores,
several snapper species in the Pacific are known to incorporate significant amounts of
zooplankton, often gelatinous urochordates, in their diets (Parrish 1987). Haight et al.
(1993b) found zooplankton to be an important prey item in four of the commercially
important snappers in Hawaii. The same study found that the six snapper species studied
were either primarily zooplanktivorous or primarily piscivorous, with little overlap in diet
composition between trophic guilds. A contributing factor in the distribution pattern of
zooplanktivores may be that currents striking deepwater areas of high relief form localized
zones of turbulent vertical water movement, increasing the availability of planktonic prey
items (e.g. Brock and Chamberlain 1968). In an ecological study of the bottomfish resources
of Johnston Atoll, Ralston et al. (1986) found P. filamentosus in much higher densities on the
upcurrent versus downcurrent side of the atoll, and postulated that this was related to
increased availability of allochthonous planktonic prey in the neritic upcurrent areas due to
oceanic currents impacting the atoll.
A-252
Table 57. Management Unit Lutjanidae (snappers)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
Incubate 17-36 hours
Pelagic duration : 25-47
days
Reach sexual maturity in
2-3 years
Long-lived, slow growing.
Age at entry to fishery at 23 years
Diet
N/A
No information available
Diet of one species
includes crustaceans,
cephalopods and small fish
Primarily demersal
carnivores although some
species are
zooplanktivorous
Distribution
Widely distributed
throughout management
area
Widely distributed
throughout management
area
Throughout Indo-Pacific.
Juveniles of some species
Inhabit shallow reef areas
not utilized by adults
Throughout Indo-Pacific.
Inhabit shallow coastal
coral reef areas to deep
slope rocky habitats (0-400
m)
Water Column
Pelagic
Pelagic
Demersal
Demersal
Bottom Type
N/A
N/A
Wide variety of shallowwater reef and estuarine
habitats
Primary forage habitat is
shallow to deep reef and
rocky substrate.
Oceanic Features
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
Subject to advection by
prevailing currents
N/A
N/A
A-253
4.2.1.32 Mullidae (goatfishes)
Goatfish are important commercial fish that are highly esteemed as food. All have a
characteristic pair of long barbels at the front of the chin, a moderately elongate body, two
well-separated dorsal fins, a small mouth with a slightly protruding upper jaw and a forked
tail. Goatfish use the barbels, which contain chemosensory organs, to probe sand or holes in
the reef for benthic invertebrates or small fishes. The barbels are tucked between the lower
portion of the gill covers when not in use. Some species are primarily nocturnal, others are
diurnal and a few are active by day or night. Nocturnal species tend to hover in stationary
aggregations or rest on coral ledges by day.
There are 10 native species of goatfish known from Hawaiian waters, and one accidental
introduced species from the Marquesas, Upeneus vittatus. Two species, Parupeneus
porphyreus and P. chrysonemus, are endemic to Hawaii. Fifteen species are recorded from
Micronesia. Thirteen species are recorded from Samoa.
Goatfish have pelagic eggs, which are spherical, transparent and non-adhesive with a single
oil droplet. Egg diameters range from 0.63 to 0.93 mm and hatch within 3 days. Goatfish in
general have a long larval development. After settlement, juveniles take approximately 1
year to reach sexual maturity. Munro (1976) suggests that few live more than 3 years.
Schooling is common among the mullids. Group spawning and pair spawning have been
documented for goatfishes. An aggregation of 300 to 400 individuals was observed
spawning at 21 m depth off the coast of the US Virgin Islands (Colin and Clavijo 1978).
Groups of fish made spawning rushes about 2 meters above the bottom before releasing
gametes.
Holland et al. (1993) conducted a study of the movements, distribution and growth rates of
Mulloidichthys flavolineatusby using tagging data. M. flavolineatus and M. vanicolensis
were the most abundant mullids found in Hanalei Bay (Friedlander et al. 1997). M.
flavolineatus ranked second in overall mean biomass at 211g/100m2, with an overall mean
numerical density of 1.1 individuals/100m2. M. vanicolensis had higher numbers in patch
reef habitat, but the larger fish were present in reef slope habitat, indicating partitioning of
habitat by size. Parupeneus cyclostomus was the rarest and most mobile of the mullids found
in Hanalei Bay, with an overall mean density of 0.01 individuals/100m2 or 2.02 g/100m2.
The largest individuals were seen in deeper reef slope habitat. P. cyclostomus has a diet
strongly dominated by fish, particularly fish that are diurnally active over reef and other hard
substrata. It also eats lesser quantities of crabs, shrimps and stomatopods and trace amounts
of other invertebrates. It typically probes sand or reef crevices to flush out small fish with its
barbels. P. cyclostomus is inactive at night.
The diet of the Hawaiian endemic P. porphyreus encompasses a wide variety of benthic
invertebrates such as crabs, shrimps, isopods, amphipods, ostracods, stomatopods, planktonic
crab megalops larvae and copepods, gastropods, foraminiferans and fish in order of
decreasing importance. P. porphyreus shelters in areas of high relief and feeds over hard
substrate and sandy areas nearby (Friedlander et al. 1997).
A-254
The breeding season for P. porphyreus shows peak spawning somewhere between December
and July. Counts of nuclear rings on otoliths indicate a larval period of approximately 40B60
days. The juvenile phase involves rapid color changes, a lengthening of the gut and an
external change in shape. Juveniles can sexually mature as early as 1.25 years. Fecundity
was estimated as 11,000 to 26,00 eggs per spawn. Adults live 6 years or longer (Moffitt
1979).
Five goatfish species at Midway Island were generalized feeders, eating mostly small
crustaceans, polychaetes and bivalve and opisthobranch molluscs (Sorden 1982). Sorden
(1982) discusses similarities and differences among feeding preferences of the goatfish fauna
at Midway.
Bibliography
Colin PL and IE Clavijo. 1978. Mass spawning by the spotted goatfish, Pseudopeneus
maculatus (Bloch). Bull Mar Sci 28:780B2.
Friedlander AM, DeFelice RC, Parrish JD and JL Frederick. 1997. Habitat resources and
recreational fish populations at Hanalei Bay, Kauai. Final report to state of Hawaii,
Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources. Hawaii
Cooperative Fishery Research Unit.
Holland KN, JD Peterson, CG Lowe and BM Wetherbee. 1993. Movements, distribution and
growth rates of the white goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus in a fisheries conservation
zone. Bull of Mar Sci 52:982B92.
Mahi CA. 1969. The food and feeding habits of the kumu, Parupeneus porphyreus. MS
thesis, Univ of Hawaii, Department of Zoology.
Moffitt RB. 1979. Age, growth, and reproduction of the kumu, Parupeneus porphyreus
(Jenkins). MS thesis, Univ of Hawaii, Department of Zoology.
Munro JL. 1976. Aspects of the biology and ecology of Caribbean reef fishes: Mullidae
(goat-fishes). J Fish Biol 9: 79B97.
Munro JL. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the goatfishes, Mullidae. ICLARM
Stud Rev 7:142B54.
Sorden CT. 1982. Trophic relationships of goatfishes (family Mullidae) in the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands. MS thesis, Univ of Hawaii, Department of Zoology.
A-255
Table 58. Management Unit Species: Mullidae (goatfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
3 days
relatively long,
months?
approximately one year
3 years (Munro 1976)
Diet
N/A
planktivorous
benthic invertebrates such as crabs,
shrimps, isopods, amphipods,
ostracods, stomatopods, planktonic
crab megalops larvae and copepods,
gastropods, and foraminiferans; some
species eat small fish
benthic invertebrates such as crabs,
shrimps, isopods, amphipods,
ostracods, stomatopods, planktonic
crab megalops larvae and copepods,
gastropods, and foraminiferans; some
species eat small fish
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spawning peaks in
late spring and fall
most abundant in
the open ocean,
though still <25km
from reefs
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans,
rarely in brackish waters
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans,
rarely in brackish waters; may have
seasonal spawning aggregations at
prominent reef features
Location
released several
meters from the
bottom
most abundant in
the open ocean,
though still <25km
from reefs
pelagic for some species (Caldwell
1962), but coral reef and sand flat
otherwise
coral reef or soft-bottom habitat
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef, rock, sand, mud, crevices,
ledges
coral reef, rock, sand, mud, crevices,
ledges
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
unknown
spawning aggregations near channels
with heavy tidal flow
A-256
4.2.1.33 Kyphosidae (rudderfishes)
Rudderfishes, or sea chubs, are shore fishes of rocky bottoms or coral reefs of exposed
coasts. They have deep oval bodies, a continuous dorsal fin, a forked caudal fin and a small
mouth with close-set incisiform teeth. They are benthic herbivores and the species of
Kyphosus often occur in large groups that may overwhelm the defenses of territorial
herbivorous fish, such as damselfishes and surgeonfishes. Juveniles often occur far out at sea
beneath floating debris. Adults typically swim in schools several meters above the bottom,
where they may feed on planktonic algae. Three species occur in Hawaii, Micronesia and
Samoa: Kyphosus bigibbus, K. cinerascens and K. vaigiensis. Another species Sectator
ocyurus has been reported in Hawaii but is rare and may be a waif from the tropical eastern
Pacific.
Very little is known about reproduction in the kyphosids. The eggs are spherical, pelagic and
1.0B1.1 mm in diameter (Watson and Leis 1974). The larvae hatch at 2.4B2.9 mm. The
largest pelagic specimen, a juvenile, examined by Leis and Rennis (1983) was 56 mm.
Juvenile individuals may be carnivorous for a while before becoming herbivorous (Rimmer
1986).
Bibliography
Rimmer DW. 1986. Changes in diet and the development of microbial digestion in juvenile
buffalo bream Kyphosus cornellii. Mar Biol 93:443B8.
Randall JE and HA Randall. 1960. Examples of mimicry and protective resemblance in
tropical marine fishes. Bull Mar Sci 10:444B80.
Watson W and JM Leis. 1974. Ichthyoplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: A one-year study
of fish eggs and larvae. Tech Rep, Univ Hawaii Sea Grant Program TR-75-01:1B178.
A-257
Table 59. Management Unit Species: Kyphosidae (rudderfishes)
Egg
Juvenile
Adult
may be carnivorous
for a while, such as
Kyphosus cornelii
(Rimmer 1986)
herbivorous on benthic and planktonic algae
prejuveniles
commonly collected
far out at sea under
floating debris
Duration
Diet
Larvae
N/A
zooplankton
circumtropical; 3 species in Hawaii, Micronesia,
and Samoa: Kyphosus bigibbus, K. cinerascens,
and K. vaigiensis
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
exposed seaward reefs
exposed seaward reefs
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
same as adults
benthic and pelagic, may school in the water
column
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
rocky bottoms or coral
reefs
rocky bottoms or coral reefs
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-258
4.2.1.34 Monodactylidae (monos)
Monos are a small family of highly compressed silvery fishes with small oblique mouths,
brush-like teeth in the jaws, viliform teeth on the vomer and palatines, vestigial pelvic fins
and a continuous unnotched dorsal fin. They occur primarily in estuarine habitats and can
live in freshwater. No monos are recorded for the Hawaiian Islands. The family occurs off
West Africa and in the Indo-Pacific, and one species, Monadactylus argenteus, occurs in
Micronesia and Samoa. It is an active schooling fish that occurs primarily in estuaries but
may venture over silty coastal reefs. It is valued as an aquarium fish.
M. argenteus spawns demersal, adhesive eggs, at least in freshwater (Breder and Rosen
1966). The eggs of Psettus sebae, a tropical Atlantic species, are small (0.6B0.7 mm),
spherical and pelagic in seawater but demersal in freshwater (Akatsu et al. 1977). Larvae of
P. sebae hatch at 1.8 mm. The largest size of a pelagic larval specimen of M. argenteus was
14.5 mm (Leis and Trnski 1989).
Bibliography
Akatsu S, Y Ogasawara and F Yasuda. 1977. Spawning behavior and development of eggs
and larvae of the striped fingerfish, Monodactylus sebae. Japan J Ichthyol 23(4):208B14.
Breder CM and DE Rosen. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. Jersey City, NJ: TFH Pub.
Heemstra PC. 1984. Monodactylidae. In: W Fischer and G Bianchi, eds. FAO species
identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol.
3. Rome: FAO.
Leis JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
A-259
Table 60. Management Unit Species: Monodactylidae (monos)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
from <1 mm to 14.5 mm
Duration
Diet
N/A
probably similar to adults
small benthic and planktonic
invertebrates
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spring or summer
spawning peak
likely
similar to adults
West Africa and Indo-Pacific;
not in Hawaii, Monadactylus
argenteus only species in
Micronesia
similar to adults
primarily in estuaries, but may
venture over silty coastal reefs
pelagic
pelagic
silt, mud, sand, coral
silt, mud, sand, coral
Location
Water column
pelagic in seawater,
demersal in
freshwater
pelagic in seawater,
demersal in freshwater
Bottom type
Oceanic features
pelagic larvae
subject to dispersal
by ocean currents
pelagic larvae subject to
dispersal by ocean
currents
A-260
4.2.1.35 Ephippidae (batfishes, spadefishes)
Batfishes have deep, highly compressed bodies, a small terminal mouth with brushlike teeth,
a continuous dorsal fin and small ctenoid scales extending to the basal portions of the median
fins. They are schooling, semi-pelagic fishes often associated with reefs. Juveniles have very
deep bodies and greatly elevated dorsal, anal and pelvic fins that shorten with age. Juveniles
occur singly or in small groups among mangroves and in inner sheltered lagoons or reefs.
Adults migrate to deeper channels and lagoons where they aggregate in small schools,
although larger adults may be solitary. They are omnivores that feed on algae, invertebrates
and small fishes. In Micronesian waters, 3 species occur: Platax orbicularis, P. pinnatus and
P. teira. In Samoan waters, 2 species have been recorded.
There is little information on the spawning or egg characteristics of Indo-Pacific ephippidids,
but there is some information for the Atlantic genus Chaetodipterus, which has pelagic eggs
of about 1 mm diameter (Johnson 1984). Spawning for C. faber was observed near floating
objects about 40 m offshore. Two small schools were present, but spawning occured
between pairs (Chapman 1978). This observation suggests that ephippids migrate offshore to
spawn. Spadefish larvae hatch in 24 hours and are about 2.5 mm long. By a length of 10
mm, the larvae are recognizable as spadefish and are ready to settle.
Bibliography
Chapman RW. 1978. Observations of spawning behavior in Atlantic spadefish,
Chaetodipterus faber. Copeia 1978:336.
Johnson GD. 1984. Percoidei: Development and relationships. pp 464B99 in ASIH Spec Publ
1.
Leis JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu: Univ of
Hawaii Pr.
A-261
Table 61. Management Unit Species: Ephippidae (batfishes, spadefishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
24 hrs
hatch at 2.5 mm,
ready to settle at 10
mm
Diet
N/A
similar to adults
algae, invertebrates, small fishes
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spring or summer
spawning (Munro et
al. 1973)
similar to adults
the family is found in tropical and
temperate seas worldwide; the genus Platax
is found in Micronesia, not in Hawaii
Location
offshore
offshore
mangroves, sheltered lagoons
and reefs
deeper channels, lagoons, seaward reefs
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
semi-pelagic
semi-pelagic
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
sand, mud, silt, and coral reefs
reef-associated, but also mud and sand
bottoms in mangroves and lagoons
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-262
4.2.1.36 Chaetodontidae (butterflyfishes)
Butterflyfishes are colorful, conspicuous fishes with deep, highly compressed, ovate bodies,
small mouths and a band of brush-like teeth in the jaws. They have a single continuous
dorsal fin with anterior interspinous membranes deeply incised and a caudal fin varying from
slightly rounded to slightly emarginate. They are diurnal predators with diets that vary
significantly between species. Many specialize on polyps of corals and other coelenterates.
The corallivores tend to be territorial and limited to the shallower depth ranges of the corals,
such as Pocillopora meandrina, upon which they feed. Others feed heavily on benthic algae
and small benthic invertebrates. Some species, including those of Hemitaurichthys, are
primarily zooplanktivores. The zooplankton feeders often occur in mid-water aggregations
and range into relatively deep water. Most butterflyfishes are solitary or occur in pairs, but a
few form aggregations. Butterflyfishes appear to be gonochorists, with sex remaining the
same throughout life, and often form heterosexual pairs that stay together for many years and
possibly their whole life.
Spawning generally occurs in pairs at the top of an ascent in which the male nudges the
abdomen of the female. Eggs are planktonic and hatch within 2 days. The larval stage lasts
from several weeks to a few months, with a distinctive late larval stage called the tholichthys
larva when large bony plates cover the head and front of the body. Settlement occurs at
night, and juveniles tend to occur in shallower, more sheltered habitats than adults.
Coloration typically changes little with growth, although butterflyfish do exhibit slightly
different, more subdued color patterns at night when they shelter in the reef. Because of their
specialized feeding habits, butterflyfishes do not tend to do well in aquariums, although some
of the generalists and planktivores are collected for the aquarium trade. The family is
represented in Hawaiian waters by 24 species; Chaetodon fremblii, C. miliaris, and C
multicinctus are endemic to Hawaii; and C. tinkeri is found only in Hawaii and the Marshall
Islands. The family is represented in Micronesian waters by at least 40 species. It is
represented in Samoan waters by 30 species. The yellow-crowned butterflyfish C.
flavocoronatus is listed as a vulnerable species in Guam on the 1996 IUCN Red List.
Chaetodontid eggs are buoyant, transparent and spherical. They typically range from 0.6 to
0.74 mm in diameter and contain a single oil droplet. The eggs hatch in 1B2 days. The larvae
typically have a preopercular spine and a bony sheath around the head. The tholichthys stage
of development is unique to the butterflyfishes and is characterized by a series of thin
transparent bony plates that completely encase the head of the larva and extend dorsally and
ventrally to form bony spines. The plates remain until after the fish have settled on the
bottom. The duration of the planktonic stage is not well studied, but Burgess (1978) suggests
it is likely to be at least several months.
The Hawaiian endemic C. miliaris reaches reproductive maturity at a size of about 90 mm
SL, or about 1 year old (Ralston 1976). Spawning occurs between December and April but
peaks around the end of February or the beginning of March.
A-263
Bibliography
Aiken K. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the butterfly and angelfishes,
Chaetodontidae. ICLARM Stud Rev 7:166B77.
Allen GR, R Steene and M Allen. 1998. A guide to angelfishes & butterflyfishes. Perth, WA:
Vanguard Pr.
Burgess WE. 1978. Butterflyfishes of the world. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub..
Colin PL. 1989. Aspects of the spawning of western Atlantic butterflyfishes (Pisces:
Chaetodontidae). Env Biol Fishes 25:131B41.
Cox EF. 1986. The effects of a selective corallivore on growth rates and competition for
space between two species of Hawaiian corals. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 101:161B74.
Leis JM. 1989. Larval biology of butterflyfishes (Pisces, Chaetodontidae): What do we really
know? Environ Biol 25(1-3):87B100.
Motta PJ. 1989. The butterflyfishes: success on the coral reef. The Netherlands: Kluwer Acad
Pub. 256 pp.
Ralston S. 1976a. Age determination of a tropical reef butterflyfish utilising daily growth
rings of otoliths. Fish Bull 74:990B4.
Ralston S. 1976b. Anomalous growth and reproductive patterns in populations of Chaetodon
miliaris (Pisces, Chaetodontidae) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci
30(4):395B403.
Reese ES. 1973. Duration of residence by coral reef fishes on [email protected] reefs. Copeia, No.
1:145B9.
Reese ES. 1977. Coevolution of corals and coral feeding fishes of the family Chaetodontidae.
Proc Int Coral Reef Symp, 3rd 2:268B74.
Reese ES. 1991. How behavior influences community structure of butterflyfishes (family
Chaetodontidae) on Pacific coral reefs. Ecol Int Bull 19:29B41.
Sano M. 1989. Feeding habits of Japanese butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae). Env Biol Fish
25(1-3):195B203.
Yabuta S. 1997. Spawning migrations in the monagamous butterflyfish, Chaetodon
trifasciatus. Ichthyol Res 44(2):177B82.
A-264
Table 62. Management Unit Species: Chaetodontidae (butterflyfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
2 days
several weeks to a few
months
1B2 yrs; approximately one year for C. miliaris
(Ralston 1976), two years for C. rainfordi
(Fowler 1991); size at settlement for
Hemitaurichthys polylepis is 60 mm (Burgess
1978)
10B25 yrs in captivity (Allen et al. 1998)
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
some are obligate corallivores (C. trifascialis
and C. trifasciatus); some are planktivores;
others consumea variety of benthic algae, small
benthic invertebrates, fish eggs, coelenterate
tentacles or polyps
some are obligate corallivores (C.
trifascialis and C. trifasciatus); some are
planktivores; others consumea variety of
benthic algae, small benthic invertebrates,
fish eggs, coelenterate tentacles or polyps
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spawning peaks in late winter
through early summer
CJanuary to March for C.
miliaris in Hawaii (Ralston
1981), with another smaller
peak in early fall for some
species
typically more abundant
in offshore waters in the
summer months in
Hawaii
primarily Indo-West-Pacific, but also tropical to
temperate Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans;
settlement of juvenile C. lunula and C.
multicinctus peaked in Hawaii in May-July
(Walsh 1987)
primarily Indo-West-Pacific, but also
tropical to temperate Atlantic, Pacific, and
Indian Oceans
Location
waters above coral reefs and
nearshore waters
offshore waters
coral reef ecosystems
coral reef ecosystems
Water column
eggs released at the height of
spawning rushes
pelagic
demersal and mid-water column; 1B100 m, as
deep as 172 m
demersal and mid-water column; 1B100 m,
as deep as 172 m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef; obligate corallivores may be
restricted to distributions of corals they feed
upon- C. trifascialis and Acropora for example
(Reese 1981)
coral reef; obligate corallivores may be
restricted to distributions of corals they
feed uponBC. trifascialis and Acropora,
for example (Reese 1981)
Oceanic features
subject to dispersal by
currents
subject to dispersal by
currents
A-265
4.2.1.37 Pomacanthidae (angelfishes)
Angelfishes are similar to butterflyfishes and at one time were grouped in the same family.
They differ mainly in having a strong spine on the cheek at the corner of the preopercle, in
the presence of strongly ctenoid scales and in lacking the distinctive chaetodontid tholichthys
larval stage. They are diurnal, spectacularly colored and territorial. Many of the large
species, including those of Pomacanthus, are primarily spongivores with a small amount of
feeding on other soft-bodied invertebrates, algae and fish eggs. Smaller species such as those
of Centropyge feed on benthic algae and detritus. Species of Genicanthus feed primarily on
zooplankton but also a little on benthic invertebrates and algae. Juveniles of some species
are cleaners of external parasites from larger fishes.
Most, and possibly all, of the angelfishes are protogynous hermaphrodites that change from
male to female and frequently have different color patterns depending on their sexual
development. Males frequently maintain a harem of 2B5 females and defend a territory
ranging from a few square meters for some species of Centropyge to well over 1 km for some
Pomacanthus species. Angelfish spawn in pairs, typically near dusk, at the apex of a
spawning rush after courtship and nuzzling by the male. Eggs hatch within 24 hours and
undergo a pelagic larval stage of 3B4 weeks. They are popular aquarium fish. Six species are
found in Hawaiian waters, and 4 of them are endemic: Centropyge fisheri, C. potteri,
Desmoholacanthus arcuatus and Genicanthus personatus At least 26 species occur in
Micronesia. At least 11 species occur in Samoa.
Pomacanthid eggs are small, spherical and nearly transparent and contain from one to several
oil droplets. Egg diameter ranges from 0.6 to 1.05 mm depending on the species. Hatching
occurs from 15 to 23 hours after release (Thresher 1984). Feeding by the larva begins within
2B3 days and settlement to the bottom occurs between 17 and days (Moe 1977, Allen et al.
1998). Juveniles seek shelter in reef crevices. Juveniles frequently exhibit dramatically
different color patterns from adults and may inhabit shallower habitats. Juveniles of
Pomacanthus may maintain cleaning stations on or near the reef (Brockmann and Hailman
1976). There is little information on the age at sexual maturity, but most angelfishes
probably become mature at between 1 and 2 years of age (Allen et al. 1998).
Adult angelfishes require suitable shelter in the form of boulders, caves and coral crevices.
Most species occur from 2 to 30 m depth, but a few, such as C. narcosis, are found over 100
m deep. Adults forage throughout territories that vary in size with the size of the species.
Generally Pomacanthus are spongivores; Genicanthus are zooplanktivores, especially on
pelagic tunicates; and Centropyge are herbivores. Small amounts of zoantharians, tunicates,
gorgonians, fish and invertebrate eggs, hydroids and seagrasses may supplement the diet of
any of the angelfish species. Hybridization is common amongst the angelfish species (Pyle
and Randall 1994).
Bibliography
Allen GR, R Steene and M Allen. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Perth,
WA: Vanguard Pr.
A-266
Aiken K. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the butterfly and angelfishes,
Chaetodontidae. ICLARM Stud Rev 7:166B 77.
Hioki S, K Suzuki, and Y Tanaka. 1990. Development of eggs and larvae in the angelfish,
Centropyge ferrugatus. Japan J Ichthyolo 37(1):34B8.
Lobel PS. 1978. Diel, lunar and seasonal periodicity in the reproductive behavior of the
pomacanthid fish, Centropyge potteri, and some other reef fishes in Hawaii. Pac. Sci
32:193B207.
Moyer JT and A Nakazono. 1978. Population structure, reproductive behavior, and
protogynous hermaphroditism in the angelfish Centropyge interruptus at Miyake-jima,
Japan. Japan J Ichthyol 25(1):25B39.
Neudecker S and PS Lobel. 1982. Mating systems of chaetodontid and pomacanthid fishes at
St. Croix. Z Tierpsychol 59:299B318.
Pyle RL and JE Randall. 1994. A review of hybridization in marine angelfishes (Perciformes:
Pomacanthidae). Env Biol Fishes 41:127B45.
Thresher RE. 1982. Courtship and spawning in the emperor angelfish Pomacanthus
imperator, with comments on reproduction by other pomacanthid fishes. Mar Biol
70:149B56.
Thresher RE and EB Brothers. 1985. Reproductive ecology and biogeography of Indo-West
Pacific angelfishes (Pisces: Pomacanthidae). Evolution 39(4):878B87.
A-267
Table 63. Management Unit Species: Pomacanthidae (angelfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
12B24 hrs
17B39 days
1B2 yrs
10B26 yrs in captivity
Diet
N/A
plankton
diet similar to adults,
although some species may
be cleaners as juveniles
Pomacanthus-sponges; Genicanthus zooplankton, especially pelagic tunicates;
Centropyge - benthic algae;
all may take small amounts of zoantharians,
tunicates, gorgonians, fish and invertebrate
eggs, hydroids, algae and seagrasses
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spawning peak for
C. miliaris in
Hawaii from Jan. to
Mar. (Ralston 1981)
more abundant in
offshore samples
circumtropical, with greatest
number of species in IndoPacific; seasonal peak of
recruitment for Hawaii in the
summer (Walsh 1987)
circumtropical, with greatest number of
species in Indo-Pacific
Location
eggs released at
apex of spawning
rush of 3B9 m above
the bottom
more abuundant in
offshore samples
coral reef ecosystems
coral reef ecosystems
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal and mid-water
column, mostly 2B30 m but
some species over 100 m
deep
demersal and mid-water column, mostly 2B30
m but some species over 100 m deep
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
refugia on the reef such as
cracks, crevices, boulders
home ranges encompass a wide variety of
bottom types on coral reefs and flats;
rubble/coral
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by currents
subject to advection
by currents
A-268
4.2.1.38 Genicanthus personatus (masked angelfish)
The masked angelfish is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and is highly valued for the
aquarium trade, despite doing very poorly in captivity. They are typically found on seaward
reef slopes below 23 m deep. In the main Hawaiian Islands, they are seldom seen within safe
diving depth limits, but, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, they are more common in
shallower water. The population starts at Necker Island and increases in density toward
Midway, where it is common at diveable depths and probably extends into undiveable depths
(Pyle, pers. comm.). They are often found near ledges and dropoffs and on bottoms or walls
of coral reef, rock or sand and rubble.
First collected in 1972, the females of the species were described in Randall (1975) from 3
specimens collected off Oahu and one off the Kona coast of Hawaii. Almost all the
specimens from the main Hawaiian Islands have been females, including individuals seen
from submersibles greater than 100 m deep (Chave and Mundy 1994). Soon after the
original description, 2 males were trawled from a depth of 51 m near Nihoa Island and
described by Randall (1976). The stomach of one of the males was full of the green alga
Codium, as well as planktonic organisms and fish eggs. Though members of Genicanthus
are generally zooplanktivores, the guts of several G. personatus contained a majority of algae
but also copepods, diatoms, fish eggs and sponge spicules (Howe 1993). Howe (1193) notes
that the presence of oesophageal papillae may allow for a different feeding mode from other
pomacanthids.
Like other members of the genus, G. personatus is sexually dichromatic. It most likely forms
harems and is hermaphroditic. Like other angelfish species, it releases pelagic eggs at the
end of a short spawning ascent, with eggs hatching within 12B24 hours and larvae remaining
adrift for 17B39 days before settlement (Allen et al. 1998). In a study of the reproductive
behaviour of another endemic Hawaiian angelfish, Centropyge potteri, Lobel (1978) found a
peak in spawning from January to April and a peak in juvenile recruitment from May to July.
Juvenile and adult angelfishes are highly dependent on the availability of shelter in the form
of boulders, caves and coral crevices.
Bibliography
Allen GR, R Steene and M Allen. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Perth,
WA: Vanguard Pr.
Carlson BA. 1982. The masked angelfish, Genicanthus personatus Randall 1974. Fresh and
Mar Aquar 5:31B2.
Chave EH and BC Mundy. 1994. Deep-sea benthic fishes of the Hawaiian archipelago, Cross
Seamount, and Johnson Atoll. Pac Sci 48:367B409.
Howe JC. 1993. A comparative analysis of the feeding apparatus in pomacanthids, with
special emphasis on oesophageal papillae in Genicanthus personatus. J Fish Biol
43:593B602.
A-269
Lobel PS. 1978. Diel, lunar and seasonal periodicity in the reproductive behavior of the
pomacanthid fish, Centropyge potteri, and some other reef fishes in Hawaii. Pac. Sci
32:193B207.
Pyle RL. 1990. Rare and unusual marines: the masked angelfish Genicanthus personatus
Randall. Freshw and Mar Aquar 13(10):112, 114, 116, 118.
Randall JE. 1975. A revision of the Indo-Pacific angelfish genus Genicanthus with
descriptions of three new species. Bull Mar Sci 25:393B421.
Randall JE. 1976. Description of the male of the Hawaiian angelfish Genicanthus
personatus. Bull Mar Sci 26:414B6.
Severns M and PF Fiene-Severns. 1993. Molokini Island, Hawaii=s premier marine preserve.
Hawaii: Pac Isl Pub.
Toyama D. 1988. The angelfish of Midway Island. Freshw and Mar Aquar 11(11):104B6.
A-270
Table 64. Management Unit Species: Genicanthus personatus (masked angelfish)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
angelfish in general: 12B24
hrs (Allen et al. 1998)
angelfish in
general:
17B39 days
(Allen et al.
1998)
angelfish in general:
likely 1B2 yrs (Allen et
al. 1998)
Diet
N/A
likely small
zooplankton
no information that it is
different from adult
the genus is considered zooplanktivorous, but
gut samples of G. personatus show a majority
of algae, with some copepods, diatoms, fish
eggs, and sponge spicules (Howe 1993,
Randall 1976)
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Lobel (1978) found a
spawning peak from Jan to
April for another endemic
Hawaiian angelfish,
Centropyge potteri
Lobel (1978) found a
recruitment peak from
May through July for
another endemic
Hawaiian angelfish,
Centropyge potteri
endemic to Hawaii; rare in main Hawaiian
Islands within diving depths, but more
common shallower in Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands
Location
typically released 3B9 m from
the bottom after a spawning
ascent
offshore
waters
no information that it is
different from adult
seaward reef slope, often near vertical
discontinuities
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef, rock, sand
and rubble
coral reef, rock, sand and rubble
Oceanic features
subject to advection by ocean
currents
subject to
advection
by ocean
currents
N/A
N/A
A-271
Adult
4.2.1.39 Pomacentridae (damselfishes)
The damselfishes are one of the most abundant fishes on coral reefs. They are seldom larger
than 10B15 cm and are moderately deep-bodied, with a small mouth and conical or incisiform
teeth. They have a continuous dorsal fin and a caudal fin that varies from truncate to lunate
but is usually forked. Juveniles frequently have very different and brighter colors than
adults. Males tend to have a distinct, darker color pattern during spawning times. Most
damselfishes occur in shallow water on coral reefs or rocky substrata, wherever there is
shelter. The species of Chromis, Dascyllus, Lepidozygus, Amblyglyphidodon,
Neopomacentrus and Pomachromis are aggregating planktivores, which often form large
schools in the water column.
Most members of Abudefduf, Chrysiptera and Pomacentrus are omnivores that feed on
benthic algae, small invertebrates or zooplankton. Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus feeds
on coral polyps. Other members of Plectroglyphidodon, as well as members of Stegastes, are
aggressively territorial herbivores. Algal feeders frequently cultivate algal mats, which they
weed of undesirable algae and aggressively defend from other reef inhabitants. Spawning for
damselfishes usually occurs in the morning. The eggs, are elliptical and demersal and are
guarded by the male until hatching. Predators on the eggs such as wrasses and
butterflyfishes, quickly consume the eggs if the male is removed from the nest. In Hawaiian
waters, there are 17 species of pomacentrids; 6 are endemic: Abudefduf abdominalis,
Chromis hanui, C. ovalis, C. verater, Dascyllus albisella and Plectroglyphidodon sindonis.
At least 89 species occur in Micronesian waters. At least 47 species occur in Samoan waters.
The anemonefishes, subfamily Amphiprioninae, live in a symbiotic relationship with large
sea anemones. They are protandrous hermaphrodites; all females start out as males before
sex reversal. Amphiprion and Premnas are unique among the damselfishes in forming
permanent pair bonds (Fautin and Allen 1992). Spawning typically occurs near the time of a
full moon most often during morning hours and involves the laying of several hundred
adhesive eggs on a hard surface near the base of the anemone. Within the tropics, spawning
occurs throughout the year although there may be seasonal peaks of activity. The male
guards the eggs until hatching after about a week. A short planktonic larval stage lasts from
8 to16 days before settlement. New recruits must locate a suitable anemone, as anemonefish
do not survive without a host. No anemonefish are found in Hawaii because of both the
absence of host anemones and the short larval duration. Anemonefishes feed primarily on
copepods, larval tunicates and filamentous algae. They have been recorded to live at least
6B10 years in nature (Fautin and Allen 1992).
Pomacentrid eggs are demersal, elliptical and adhesive by means of a cluster of fine threads
at one end of the egg. Egg diameters range from 0.49 to 2.3 mm. Hatching occurs in 2B4
days for most species but up to 2 weeks for anemonefish eggs. The planktonic larval stage
typically lasts 2B3 weeks but may be longer. Thresher, Colin and Bell (1989) found larval
durations for the following families: Amphiprion and Premnas: 7B14 days; Chromis and
Dascyllus: 17B47 days with most between 20 and 30 days; and genera in the subfamily
Pomacentrinae: 13B42 days. Size at settlement ranges from 7 to 15 mm, and several studies
suggest that settlement occurs mainly at dusk and at night (Williams 1980, Nolan 1975).
A-272
Bibliography
Allen GR. 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Hong Kong: Mergus Pr.
Fautin DG and GR Allen. 1992. Field guide to anemonefishes and their host sea anemones.
Perth, WA: Western Australian Museum. 160 pp.
Hixon MA and WN Brostoff. 1983. Damselfish as keystone species in reverse: Intermediate
disturbance and diversity of reef algae. Science 220:511B3.
Nolan RS. 1975. The ecology of patch reef fishes. Unpub PhD dissertation, Univ of Cal. San
Diego, CA.
Ross RM. 1978. Territorial behavior and ecology of the anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus
on Guam. Z Tierpsychol 46:71B83.
Thresher RE, PL Colin and LJ Bell. 1989. Planktonic duration, distribution and population
structure of western and central Pacific damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Copeia 1989
(2):420B34.
Waldner RE and DR Robertson. 1980. Patterns of habitat partitioning by eight species of
territorial Caribbean damselfishes (Pisces: Pomacentridae). Bull Mar Sci 30:171B86.
Wellington GM and BC Victor. 1989. Planktonic larval duration of one hundred species of
Pacific and Atlantic damselfish. Mar Biol 101:557B67.
Williams DB. 1980. Dynamics of the pomacentrid community on small patch reefs in One
Tree Lagoon (Great Barrier Reef). Bull Mar Sci 30:159B70.
A-273
Table 65. Management Unit Species: Pomacentridae (damselfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
2B4 days for most
species, but up to 14
days for anemonefish
2B3 weeks for most
species, but ranging
from 7-47 days
1B2 years
6B8 years, but up to 10 years or more
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
planktivores: Chromis, Dascyllus,
Lepidozygus, Amblyglyphidodon,
Neopomacentrus and Pomachromis;
omnivores: Abudefduf, Chrysiptera
and Pomacentrus;
herbivores: Stegastes and
Plectroglyphidodon, except P.
johnstonianus that feeds on corals
planktivores: Chromis, Dascyllus,
Lepidozygus, Amblyglyphidodon,
Neopomacentrus and Pomachromis;
omnivores: Abudefduf, Chrysiptera
and Pomacentrus;
herbivores: Stegastes and
Plectroglyphidodon, except P.
johnstonianus that feeds on corals
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
peak spawning in
Mar./Ap. and another
in Sept./Oct. (Watson
and Leis 1974)
more abundant in
offshore waters
circumtropical and warm temperate
with 84% of species in the Indo-West
Pacific; peak in recruitment in spring
or summer (Walsh 1987)
circumtropical and warm temperate
with 84% of species in the IndoWest Pacific
Location
on hard substrate
cleared and protected
by the male
more abundant in
offshore waters
coral reef-associated
coral reef-associated
Water column
demersal
pelagic
demersal and mid-water column, most
within 0B20 m, but some deeper than
100 m
demersal and mid-water column,
most within 0B20 m, but some deeper
than 100 m
Bottom type
cleared surface of rock
or coral
N/A
all hard substrate in coral reef habitats
all hard substrate in coral reef
habitats
Oceanic
features
N/A
subject to advection
by ocean currents
A-274
4.2.1.40 Labridae (wrasses)
Labridae is a large family, second only to Gobiidae for number of species in the Western
Pacific. It is a very diverse family in size and body shape, with adult sizes ranging from less
than 5 cm in Wetmorella albofasciata to greater than 229 cm in the humphead wrasse,
Cheilinus undulatus (this species is rare and heavily fished in Guam and is treated as a
separate management unit). Labrid body shapes vary from elongate and cigar-shaped in
many species to deep and compressed in others (Myers 1991). Most wrasses are brilliantly
and complexly colored, with juveniles frequently having a different color pattern from adults.
Color changes may also be associated with protogynous hermaphroditism, sex reversal from
female to male that has been described for many labrids and may be true for all species in the
family (Randall 1996). Wrasses swim mainly with their pectoral fins, using their tail only
when quick bursts are necessary. They have a terminal mouth usually with thick lips,
protruding front canine teeth and nodular to molariform pharyngeal teeth. Scales are cycloid.
Important summary documents are Randall (1996) and Myers (1991).
The wide variety of color phases in the labrids has created significant taxonomic confusion.
Some new species have proven to be a different color phase of an existing species, resulting
in a general shrinking of the number of species listed in the family. Still, the family has over
600 species (Hoover 1993). There are 96 known species of labrids in Micronesia (Myers
1991), 43 species in Hawaii (Randall 1996) and 68 species in American Samoa (Wass 1984).
Labrids are shallow-water fishes closely associated with coral reefs or rocky substrate,
though some species of Bodianus occur deeper than 200 m (Smith 1986, Chave and Mundy
1994), and the razorfishes Xyrichtys and Cymolutes spp. occur on sand flats. Labrids are
diurnal, and at night many bury into the sand, seek refuge in holes and cracks of the reef or
lie motionless on the bottom. During the day, labrids keep close to coral or rocky cover,
darting into refugia in the reef or burying themselves in the sand when danger approaches.
Labrids can be found in virtually all coral reef habitats from inner lagoons and subtidal reef
flats to deep seaward reefs (Myers 1991, Green 1996).
Schooling behavior and excursions away from the reef into the water column are usually
associated with reproduction (Thresher 1984). Many labrid species are solitary inhabitants of
the reef, though many members of the family have large home ranges encompassing a wide
variety of habitats (Green 1996). The geographic range of Labridae as a family is shallow,
tropical and temperate seas of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Labrids are found
throughout shallow areas in the Western Pacific Region, including 96 known species in
Micronesia (Myers 1991), and 43 species in Hawaii, 14 of them endemic (Randall 1996).
There is generally a dearth of information on the life history parameters of age, growth and
mortality of many coral reef fishes, including labrids, and what information exists cannot
realistically be applied to the whole family. Reef fish guides for Pacific coral reef fishes
(Myers 1991, Hoover 1993, Randall 1996) include maximum sizes in the species description.
Few correlations have been made between size and age for wrasses.
Sexual dimorphism is a characteristic of all labrids. Every species studied thus far has proven
to be a protogynous hermaphrodite (Myers 1991, Randall 1996). Most species have a drab
initial phase consisting of all females or a combination of females and non-sex-reversing
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males and a gaudier terminal phase consisting of males that were formerly females. Species
vary as to the ratio of initial phase and terminal phase fishes (Thresher 1984).
Spawning usually occurs along the outer edge of a patch reef or along the outer slope of more
extensive reefs. Two types of spawning are characteristics of the labrids: aggregate
spawning of large groups of a dozen to several hundred initial-phase males and females and
pair spawning of a terminal-phase male and an initial-phase female (Thresher 1984). Both
types of spawning involve a sudden upward rush of the participants 0.1 to 2 m into the water
column, where milt and eggs are released before the fish return to the bottom. The entire
sequence often takes less than a second (Thresher 1984). Colin and Bell (1991) described
polygonous haremic, lek-like and promiscuous mating systems for labrids in the Marshall
Islands. Spawning season for many tropical wrasses is year-round, and some species
perform spawning rituals daily. In Hawaii, the saddle wrasse Thalassoma duperrey had a
peak in spawning from November to February (Ross 1983) and a peak in juvenile
recruitment from January to March (Walsh 1987). Many species migrate to prominent coral
or rock outcrops for spawning, including species of Thalassoma, Halichoeres, Choereodon,
Bodianus and Hemigymnus (various references in Thresher 1984).
Fourteen species of wrasses are endemic to Hawaii: Anampses chrysocephalus, A. cuvier,
Bodianus sanguineus, Cirrhilabrus jordani, Coris ballieui, Coris flavovittata, Coris venusta,
Cymolutes lecluse, Labroides phthirophagus, Macropharyngodon geoffroy, Stethojulis
balteata, Thalassoma ballieui, T. duperrey and Xyrichtys umbrilatus (Randall 1996). The
Hawaiian population of another species, Bodianus bilunulatus albotaeniatus, is recognized as
a subspecies (Randall 1996). No wrasse species are reported to be endemic to American
Samoa (Wass 1984). There are no important species of introduced wrasses to the Western
Pacific Region.
Schooling behavior is common among the wrasses, particularly group spawning aggregations
and haremic systems of certain wrasse species. Aggregations of spawning labrids sampled
by Robertson and Choat (1974) consisted of mostly males, although initial-phase females
typically outnumber initial-phase males in the general population (Thresher 1984).
The majority of labrids are benthic carnivores, feeding on a wide variety of invertebrates or
fishes, although some are planktivores, corallivores or cleaners.
The following carnivores feed on benthic invertebrates, including molluscs,
crustaceans, polychaetes, sea urchins, brittle stars, tunicates and foraminiferans. Many
species also feed on fishes or fish eggs.
Bodianus spp.
Pseudodax moluccanus
Wetmorella spp.
Cymolutes spp.
Xyrichtys spp.
Pterogogus spp.
Cheilio inermis
Choerodon anchorago
Cheilinus spp.
Epibulis insidiator
Novaculichthys spp.
Pseudocheilinus spp.
Anampses spp.
Coris spp.
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Gomphosus varius
Hemigymnus spp.
Macropharyngdon spp.
Stethojulis spp.
Halichoeres spp.
Hologymnosus spp.
Pseudojuloides spp.
Thalassoma spp. (except T.
amblycephalum)
The following small planktivore (usually < 100 mm) feed on zooplankton such as copepods,
fish eggs, and larval fish and invertebrates in the water column.
Cirrhilabrus spp.
Pseudocoris yamashiroi
Paracheilinus spp.
Thalassoma amblycephalum
The following corallivores feed on live coral polyps.
Labropsis xanthonata (adults)
Diproctacanthus xanthurus (plus cleaning)
Labrichthys unilineatus
The following cleaners feed on external parasites or damaged tissue of other fishes. They are
frequently territorial around a cleaning station, although some species roam larger areas to
find fishes to clean. Larger fishes often travel long distances seeking the services of a
cleaner, and removal of cleaners has led to abandonment of the area by larger fishes.
Labroides spp.
Labropsis xanthonata (juvenile)
Labropsis micronesica
Diproctacanthus xanthurus
Labrids are found in large numbers in a wide variety of habitats associated with reefs in the
Western Pacific Region. Green (1996) measured the density of the 10 most abundant fish
families in each of 5 coral reef habitat types in American Samoa. Labridae were the third
most abundant fish family in the reef flat, shallow lagoon, reef crest and reef front at 20 m
depth, with densities ranging from 719 to 1,123 fish per hectare. Wrasses were the fourth
most abundant family on the reef front at 10 m depth with 858 fish per hectare (Table 11 in
Green 1997). The great majority of Labridae are found in depths from 1 to 100 m of water,
in close association with coral or rocky substrate, although species of Bodianus, Polylepion
and Suezichthys were seen well below 150 m during submersible cruises on seamounts near
Hawaii (Chave and Mundy 1994). Prominent outcroppings of rock or coral are important as
sites for spawning aggregation in some species (Thresher 1984). Sandy areas are necessary
for the sand-dwelling labrids, Xyrichtys spp. and Cymolutes spp.
Migration patterns have not been documented for the labrids. Many of the smaller species
stay confined to very small areas of the reef, while larger species have bigger home ranges
(Green 1996). Even very large species, such as Cheilinus undulatus, return to a favored hole
or crevice to spend the night or to escape danger (Myers 1991).
In the main Hawaiian Islands, wrasses are a minor portion of the commercial catch,
according to Division of Aquatic Resources catch statistics from 1991 to 1995. Two species
are present in the top 25 inshore fish species by weightC4,159 lbs of Bodianus bilunulatus and
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3,955 lbs of Xyrichthys pavo (Table 15 in Friedlander 1996). Some wrasse species are
caught for the aquarium trade, including Pseudocheilinus octotaenia, Cirrhilabrus jordani,
Thalassoma spp., Anampses chrysocephalus, Macropharyngodon geoffroy and
Novaculichthys taeniourus, but wrasses are a small portion of the trade in numbers and value
(Pyle, pers. comm). A report on commercial collection of aquarium fish by Forum Fisheries
Agency countriesC which did not include Hawaii, Guam or the Philippines but did include
exporters from Belau, Christmas Island, Fiji, Kwajalein, Majuro, Pohnpei, Rarotonga,
Tarawa and AustraliaCindicate that wrasses made up 7% of the catch by number of fish and
12% by value of catch, with an approximate selling price between US $3 and $15 per fish
(Pyle 1993).
No fisheries target wrasses in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Labrids do form a
substantial component of coral reef systems in these areas (Hobson 1983, Parrish 1989,
Randall et al. 1993, Demartini et al. 1994).
The coral reef fishery in American Samoa has two components: the shoreline subsistence and
the boat-based artisanal fishery (Green 1997). Labrids comprise less than 3% of the reef fish
catch throughout American Samoa (Dalzell et al. 1996) and were not listed in the catch
composition of the shoreline fishery on Tutuila Island in 1991 (from Craig et al. 1993 in
Green 1997). Green (1997) reports no commercial aquarium trade in American Samoa.
There is little information on the biological resources of the coral reefs in the federal waters
surrounding Guam. Fisheries data is limited to unprocessed catch reports and anecdotal
collection data (Myers 1996). Inshore, Labridae made up 7.3% of total landings by weight of
the small-boat based spearfishing landings on Guam between 1985 and 1991 (Table 63 in
Green 1997). In a study by Katnik (1982), wrasses composed 4.4% of the total catch weight
on heavily fished reefs and 4.0% of total catch weight on lightly fished reefs. Similarly,
Dalzell et al. (1996) reported that labrids composed 4.31% of the reef fish catch in Guam.
Studies detailing overfishing of reefs near Guam are discussed in Green (1997).
There is very little information on the catch of wrasses in the Northern Marianas. For
example, data collection in Saipan from 1992 to 1994 assigned 87B91% of annual landings to
an unidentified reef fish category (Gourley 1997). Hamm et al. (1994, 1995, 1996) reported
catches of 44, 346 and 206 lbs of wrasses in NMI reef-associated commercial fisheries in
1992, 1993 and 1994, respectively. As of 1997, NMI Division of Fish and Wildlife
regulations prohibited the commercial export of live fish for the aquarium trade (Gourley
1997).
Labrid eggs are pelagic, spherical, 0.45 to 1.2 mm in diameter and lightly pigmented if at all
and usually contain a single oil droplet (Leis and Rennis 1983, Thresher 1984, Colin and Bell
1991). Colin and Bell (1991) measured oil globule diameter for 21 species of labrids in
Enewetak Atoll and found a range of 0.10 to 0.24 mm. Colin and Bell documented spawning
mostly on a reef bisecting a main channel with strong tidal currents but also on lagoon reefs
and in Halimeda beds. Most labrids spawned at or slightly after high tide (Colins and Bell
1991), which is in agreement with similar findings for Indo-Pacific labrids (Ross 1983).
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Larvae hatch at 1.5B2.7 mm and have a large yolk sac, unformed mouth and unpigmented
eyes (Leis and Rennis 1983). Victor (1986) measured the duration of the larval phase of 24
species of wrasses in Hawaii and found a range of 29.5 days (Anampses chrysocephalus) to
89.2 days (Thalassoma duperrey), although he noted substantial variability within species, up
to a standard deviation of 11 days for some wrasses. Victor (1986) and other authors (Miller
1973, Leis and Miller 1976) have noted that despite their abundance as adults in the
nearshore fauna of coral reef habitats, labrid larvae are conspicuosly absent from nearshore
samples and common in offshore samples. Some labrid larvae are routinely found in the
open ocean (Leis and Rennis 1983).
Like adult wrasses, juvenile labrids inhabit a wide variety of habitats from shallow lagoon
flats to deep reef slopes. Green (1996) reported that Labroides dimidiatus and Thalassoma
lunare use deeper reef slope and reef base habitats as recruits and shallower habitats as
adults. Examples of ontogenetic shifts in habitat use are not widely reported for the family,
although relatively few studies have examined the topic.
Labrids are found in most any habitat associated with a coral reef, including rubble, sand,
algae, seaweeds, rocks, flats, tidepools, crevices, caves, fringing reefs, patch reefs, lagoons
and reef slopes (Myers 1991, Randall 1993). Most species of Labridae show similar patterns
of habitat use as adults and recruits, aside from 2 species reported by Green (1996). Spatial
and temporal patterns of habitat use by labrids, including descriptions of labrid assemblages
distinct to each depth zone, are further reported in Green (1996).
A study of the fish population of Hanalei Bay, Kauai, found Thalassoma duperrey was the
most numerous species in all habitat types except the deep slope (Friedlander et al. 1997). In
the same study, 3 labrid species, Bodianus biulunulatus, Coris flavovittata and Thalassoma
ballieui, were present in a creel survey of fishers in the bay. Sand-dwelling species, such as
the razorfish Xyrichtys pavo, live in and forage over open sandy areas on crabs, shrimp and
benthic molluscs (Friedlander et al. 1997). Their densities tend to decline with distance from
the reef (Friedlander et al. 1997).
Bibliography
Chave EH and BC Mundy. 1994. Deep-sea benthic fishes of the Hawaiian archipelago, Cross
Seamount, and Johnson Atoll. Pac Sci 48:367B409.
Colin PL and LJ Bell. 1991. Aspects of the spawning of labrid and scarid fishes (Pisces:
Labroidei) at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands with notes on other families. Env Biol of
Fishes 31:229B60.
Dalzell P, TJH Adams and NVC Polunin. 1996. Coastal fisheries in the Pacific islands.
Ocean and Mar Biol: Ann Rev 34:395B531.
Demartini EE, FA Parrish and JD Parrish. 1994. Temporal comparisons of reef fish
populations at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Southwest Fisheries
Science Center administrative report H-94-05.
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Friedlander AM, RC DeFelice, JD Parrish and JL Frederick. 1997. Habitat resources and
recreational fish populations at Hanalei Bay, Kauai. Final report to state of Hawaii,
Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources. Hawaii
Cooperative Fishery Research Unit.
Green AL 1996. Spatial, temporal and ontogenetic patterns of habitat use by coral reef fishes
(Family Labridae). Mar Ecol Prog Series 133:1B11.
Green AL 1997. An assessment of the status of the coral reef resources, and their patterns of
use, in the US Pacific Islands. Report prepared for the Western Pacific Regional Fishery
Management Council. 278 pp.
Hobson EH 1984. The structure of reef fish communities in the Hawaiian archipelago. In
Proceedings of the second symposium on resource investigations in the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands, volume 1, UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-84-01. pp. 101B22.
Hoover JP 1993. Hawaii=s fishes. Honolulu: Mutual Pub.
Johannes RE 1978. Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics. Env Biol
Fish 3(1):65B84.
Leis JM and JM Miller. 1976. Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae. Mar
Biol 36:359B67.
Miller JM. 1973. Nearshore distribution of Hawaiian marine fish larvae: Effects of water
quality, turbidity and currents. In J.H.S. Baxter (ed.) The early life history of fish, NY:
Springer-Verlag. 765 pp.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Myers RF. 1996. Assessment of coral reef resources of Guam with emphasis on waters of
federal jurisdiction. Report prepared for the Western Pacific Regional Fishery
Management Council.
Parrish JD. 1989. Fish communities of interacting shallow-water habitats in tropical oceanic
regions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 58(1-2):143B60.
Randall JE. 1996. Shore fishes of Hawaii. Vida, OR: Natural World Pr.
Randall JE, JL Earle, RL Pyle, JD Parrish and T Hayes. 1993. Annotated checklist of the
fishes of Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci 47(4):356B400.
Ross RM. 1983. Annual, semilunar, and diel reproductive rhythms in the Hawaiian labrid
Thalassoma duperrey. Mar Biol 72:311B8.
Thresher RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Pub.
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Victor BC. 1986. Duration of the planktonic larval stage of one hundred species of Pacific
and Atlantic wrasses (family Labridae). Mar Biol 90:317B26.
Walsh WJ. 1987. Patterns of recruitment and spawning in Hawaiian reef fishes. Env Biol of
Fishes 18(4):257B76.
Westneat MW. 1997. Labridae. Wrasses, hogfishes, razorfishes, corises, tuskfishes. In: KE
Carpenter and V Niem, eds. FAO identification guide for fishery purposes: The Western
Central Pacific.
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Table 66. Management Unit Species: Labridae (wrasses)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
approximately 24 hours
29.5 to 89.2 days for 24
species in Hawaii (Victor
1986)
Diet
N/A
likely small zooplankton
some species have ontogenetic
shifts CLabropsis xanthonata
from cleaner to corallivore, for
exampleCbut most have similar
diets as adults
1) most are carnivores of benthic
invertebrates and fishes; some are
2)corallivores, 3)planktivores, and
4)cleanersCsee text for species list
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
year-round spawning
common, although Miller
(1973) and others have
documented spring and fall
peaks in spawning;
Thalassoma duperrey has a
winter spawning peak
(Ross 1983)
more abundant in offshore
samples
coral reef habitats throughout the
Western Pacific; seasonal peak in
recruitment for T. duperrey from
January to May (Walsh 1987)
coral reef habitats throughout the
Western Pacific
Location
released from <1 up to 5 m
from the bottom
more abundant in offshore
samples (Miller 1973, Leis
and Miller 1976)
closely associated with reef
substrate or sand flats; 1-200m
closely associated with reef substrate
or sand flats; 1B200 m
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
wide variety from shallow lagoon
sand flats to deep reef slopes
(Green 1996)
wide variety from shallow lagoon sand
flats to deep reef slopes (Green 1996)
Oceanic features
subject to ocean currents
subject to ocean currents
A-282
prominent points or outcroppings are
important for spawning aggregations;
gyres associated with these points may
serve to take larvae temporarily away
from reef predators (Johannes 1978)
4.2.1.41 Cheilinus undulatus (humphead wrasse)
Cheilinus undulatus is treated as a separate management unit because spear fishing has
brought the species to very low population levels, particularly around Guam (Dalzell et al.
1996). Because the species is not present in Hawaii, a description follows from Micronesia
(Myers 1991).
The humphead wrasse is among the largest of reef fishes. Adults develop a prominent
bulbous hump on the forehead and amazingly thick fleshy lips. Adults occur along steep
outer reef slopes, channel slopes, and occasionally on lagoon reefs, at depths of 2 to at least
60 m. They often have a home cave or crevice within which they sleep or enter when
pursued. Juveniles occur in coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs, particularly among thickets of
staghorn Acropora corals. The humphead wrasse is usually solitary, but occasionally occurs
in pairs. It feeds primarily on mollusks and a wide variety of other well-armored
invertebrates including crustaceans, echinoids, brittle stars, and starfish, as well as on fishes.
It is one of the few predators of toxic animals such as the crown-of-thorns starfish, boxfishes,
and sea hares. The thick fleshy lips appear to absorb sea urchin spines, and the pharyngeal
teeth easily crush heavy-shelled gastropods like Trochus and Turbo. Much of its prey comes
from sand or rubble.
The range of Cheilinus undulatus is Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Tuamotus, north to the
Ryukyus, south to New Caledonia. Though rare, they can be found throughout Micronesia
and also in American Samoa.
Humphead, or Napoleon, wrasse reach sizes of 229 cm TL and weights of 191 kg. Kitalong
and Dalzell (1994) estimate growth and mortality parameters from length frequency data for
humpheads in Belau. Studies of humphead wrasse otoliths from the Great Barrier Reef
indicate an expected life span of about 25 years (in Dalzell et al. 1996). New research on the
life history of C. undulatus indicates that it may grow and mature much faster than
previously thought (C. Birkeland, pers. comm.).
Once an economically important species in Guam, C. undulatus is now rarely seen on the
reefs, much less reported on the inshore survey catch results (Hensley and Sherwood 1993).
Similar declines in the number of sightings are reported from Saipan (Green 1997).
Spearfishing, particularly at night when wrasses are inactive near the reef surface or in caves,
has significantly decreased the numbers of this very large reef fish. They are sought after
despite accounts of ciguaterra poisoning (Myers 1991).
Bibliography
Dalzell P, TJH Adams and NVC Polunin. 1996. Coastal fisheries in the Pacific islands.
Ocean and Mar Biol: Ann Rev 34:395B531.
Green A. 1997. An assessment of the status of the coral reef resources, and their patterns of
use, in the US Pacific Islands. Report prepared for the Western Pacific Regional Fisheries
Management Council, Honolulu, HI.
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Hensley RA and TS Sherwood. 1993. An overview of Guam=s Inshore Fisheries. Mar Fish
Rev 55(2):129B38.
Kitalong A and P Dalzell. 1994. A preliminary assessment of the status of inshore coral reef
fish stocks in Palau. Inshore Fisheries Research Technical Document, No. 6, South
Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
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Table 67. Management Unit Species: Cheilinus undulatus (humphead wrasse)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
Diet
N/A
Juvenile
Adult
research underway by Dr. Howard
Choat
at least 25 years (in Dalzell et al.
1996)
likely to be similar to adult
carnivore; primarily on mollusks
and a wide variety of well-armored
invertebrates including crustaceans,
echinoids, brittle stars, and starfish,
as well as on fishes; also eats toxic
animals such as crown-of-thorns
starfish, boxfishes, and sea hares
Indo-Pacific, though not found in
Hawaii
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs; among
thickets of staghorn Acropora corals
steep outer reef slopes, channel
slopes, and occasionally on lagoon
reefs
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal; 2 to at least 60 m depth
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral, sand, rubble
coral, sand, rubble
Oceanic features
subject to ocean
currents
subject to ocean
currents
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4.2.1.42 Scaridae (parrotfishes)
Parrotfishes get their name from the beak-like dentition and brightly colored appearance of
mature adults. Like the wrasses from which they evolved, scarids are protogynous
hermaphrodites that change color in relation to changes in growth and sex. Unlike wrasses,
parrotfishes have a characteristic pharyngeal dentition, a digestive system lacking a true
stomach but with a very long intestine, and a diet of mostly algae with some ingestion of live
coral. Most scarids feed by scraping algae and bits of coral from the surface of coral rock,
grinding the material with their pharyngeal mill into a slurry of calcium carbonate and algae,
digesting the slurry and excreting grains of calcium carbonate [email protected] that make up a large
portion of the sediment on most coral reefs. A few species feed heavily on live coral, on
large leafy algae or seagrasses or on sand to extract algae from between the grains.
Parrotfishes are diurnal, sleeping under ledges or wedged against coral or rock at night, often
surrounded by a mucus cocoon that may serve to mask their scent from detection by
nocturnal predators. Small juveniles are frequently drab with white stripes. Some species
are diandric, with both male and female juveniles, while others are monandric, with only
females in the initial phase. Terminal males, usually formed from sex-reversal of a female,
frequently maintain a harem of females, though they perform pair-spawning with each
female individually. Initial phase males spawn in groups. Parrotfishes often occur in large,
mixed-species schools which rove long distances while feeding on reefs. Some species are
territorial and occur in small groups. Important summary documents are Myers (1991) and
Randall (1996).
Scarids inhabit a wide variety of coral reef habitats including seagrass beds, coral-rich areas,
sand patches, rubble or pavement fields, lagoons, reef flats and upper reef slopes (Myers
1991). They are prominent members in numbers and biomass of shallow reef environments.
Scarids are chiefly distributed in tropical regions of the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Among scarid species, adult sizes range from 110 to 1,000 mm SL, but most are between 200
to 500 mm. Warner and Downs (1977) suggested a maximum age of 6 years for Scarus
iserti. Choat et al. (1996) found life spans ranging from 5 years (S. psittacus) to 20 years (S.
frenatus). Coutures (1994) used annular marks on scales to age Bolbometopon muricatum
and found a life span of about 25 years.
Parrotfishes generally have complex socio-sexual systems based on protogynous
hermaphroditism, drab initial phase coloration, gaudy terminal phase color patterns and
dualistic reproduction. Males can either be primary, in which they are born male, or
secondarily derived from females. Most species of Scarus are diandric. The relative
proportion of primary males, terminal males and females vary widely between and within
species.
Scarids spawn in both pairs and groups. Group spawning frequently occurs on the outer
slope of the reef in areas with high current speeds. Pair spawnings are frequently observed at
the reef crest or reef slope at peak or falling tide. Scarids have been observed to undergo
spawning migrations within lagoons and to the outer reef slope (Randall and Randall 1963,
Yogo et al. 1980, Johannes 1981, Choat and Randall 1986, Colin and Bell 1991). Some
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species are diandric, forming schools and spawning in groups often after migration to
specific sites, while others are monandric, at times being strongly site-attached with haremic,
pair-spawning (Choat and Randall 1986).
A few species are territorial, but the most are roving herbivores, with the size of the home
range increasing with the size of the fish. Choat and Robertson (1975) found that smaller,
less mobile scarids are usually associated with cover such as Acropora growth. Open areas
with large amounts of grazing surface harbour larger, more mobile and school-forming
scarids. Schooling behavior is common among the scarids, both for feeding and spawning.
Species endemic to Hawaii are Calotomus zonarchus, Chlorurus perspicillatus, Scarus
dubius. Seven species of scarids can typically be found in Hawaii, 33 species in Micronesia,
and 23 species in Samoa.
Most scarids are herbivores, although a few feed on live coral (most notably Bolbometopon
muricatum) and a few have been reported to feed on newly exposed cryptic sponges (Bakus
1964, Dunlap and Pawlik 1996). The majority graze turf algae from hard substrata, some
ingest algal filaments with sand grains, and some feed on seagrasses and leafy algae, such as
Padina. Friedlander et al. (1997) found high counts of scarids in back reef and reef slope
habitats of Hanalei Bay.
Bibliography
Bakus GJ. 1964. The effects of fish-grazing on invertebrate evolution in shallow tropical
waters. Allan Hancock Found Pub 27:1B29.
Bellwood DR. 1997. Scaridae. Parrotfishes. In: KE Carpenter and V Niem, eds. FAO
Identification guide for fishery purposes: The Western Central Pacific.
Brock RE. 1979. An experimental study on the effects of grazing by parrotfishes and role of
refuges in benthic community structure. Mar Biol 51:381B8.
Choat JH, LM Axe and DC Lou. 1996. Growth and longevity in fishes of the family
Scaridae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 145:33B41.
Choat JH and JE Randall. 1986. A review of the parrotfishes (Family Scaridae) of the Great
Barrier Reef of Australia with description of a new species. Rec Aust Mus 38:175B228.
Choat JH and DR Robertson. 1975. Protogynous hermaphroditism in fishes of the family
scaridae. pp. 263-283. In: R Reinboth, ed. Intersexuality in the Animal Kingdom.
Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag.
Colin PL and LJ Bell. 1991. Aspects of the spawning of labrid and scarid fishes
(Pisces:Labroidei) at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands with notes on other families. Env
Biol of Fishes 31:229B60.
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Coutures E. 1994. La pêcherie néo-calédonienne de Perroquet à bosse (Bolbometopon
muricatum, Valenciennes 1840): préliminaires à l=étude de la biologie de pêches.
Nouméa: Université Française du Pacifique.
Dunlap MJ and JR Pawlik. 1996. Video-monitored predation by Caribbean reef fishes on an
array of mangrove and reef sponges. Mar Biol 126:117B23.
Friedlander AM, RC DeFelice, JD Parrish and JL Frederick. 1997. Habitat resources and
recreational fish populations at Hanalei Bay, Kauai. Final report to state of Hawaii,
Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources. Hawaii
Cooperative Fishery Research Unit.
Johannes RE. 1978. Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics. Env Biol
Fishes 3:65B84.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon. Fishing and marine law in the Palau district of
Micronesia. Berkeley: Univ of Calif Pr. 245 pp.
Lou DC 1993. Growth in juvenile Scarus rivulatus and Ctenochaetus binotatus: a
comparison of families Scaridae and Acanthuridae. J of Fish Biol 42:15B23.
Lou DC and NA Moltschanowskyj. 1992. Daily otolith increments in juvenile tropical
parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. Aust J of Mar and Freshw Research 43:973B81.
Randall JE and HA Randall. 1963. The spawning and early development of the Atlantic
parrotfish, Sparisoma rubripinna, with notes on other scarid and labrid fishes. Zoologica
48:49B60.
Reeson PH. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the parrotfishes, Scaridae. In: JL
Munro, ed. Caribbean Coral Reef Fishery Resources. ICLARM Stud Rev 7:166B77.
Watson W and JM Leis. 1974. Ichthyoplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Sea Grant Tech
Rept TR-75-01.
Yogo Y, A Nakazono and H Tsukahara. 1980. Ecological studies on the spawning of the
parrotfish, Scarus sordidus Forsskal. Sci Bull Fac Agric, Kyushu Univ 34:105B14.
A-288
Table 68. Management Unit Species: Scaridae (parrotfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
25 hours
30B50 days
3B5 years (Sale 1991)
average as a family is 8B12
years, medium size-6B9 years,
large size-20B25+years
Diet
N/A
copepods, nauplii,
bivalve larvae
(Houde and Lovdal
1984)
carniverous for 1 month, gradually
becoming herbivorous (Horn 1989,
Bellwood 1988)
algaeCusually thin algal film on
coral or rock, but some feed on
seagrasses, macroalgae, or
graze over sand; a few species
feed on live coral
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
year round, but
peak spawning may
occur in the
summer
higher
concentrations in
offshore water
samples
abundant year round in many coral reef
systems
abundant year round in many
coral reef systems
Location
spawning
aggregation sites
frequently on the
outer edge of the
reef
0B100 m; peak
density between
40B80 m in the
Caribbean (Hess et
al. 1986)
all coral reef habitats, plus seagrass beds,
mangroves, lagoons
all coral reef habitats, plus
seagrass beds, mangroves,
lagoons
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef, sand patches, rubble, pavement
coral reef, sand patches, rubble,
pavement
Oceanic features
advection by ocean
currents
advection by ocean
currents
seagrass beds and mangroves may be
important nursery areas
channels with high relief
habitat nearby are important
spawning aggregation sites
A-289
4.2.1.43 Bolbometopon muricatum (bumphead parrotfish)
The bumphead is a very large parrotfish (to 120 cm and 75 kg) with a vertical head profile, a
uniform dark green color except for the front of the head which is often light green to pink
and a nodular outer surface to its beak. It typically occurs in schools on clear outer lagoon
and seaward reefs at depths from 1 to 30 m. They are often located on reef crests and fronts.
In unfished areas it may enter outer reef flats at low tide. In addition to algae, it feeds
substantially on live coral, using its large foreheads to ram coral and break it into smaller
pieces for ingestion. It is very wary in the daytime but sleeps in groups on the reef surface at
night, making it an easy target for spearfishers. As a result, it has nearly disappeared from
most of Guam=s reefs and is rapidly declining in Belau. Johannes (1981) cites an example of
bumpheads changing the location of their sleeping site away from the shallow reef flat to the
deeper reef slope in Belau in response to increasing nighttime spearfishing. Its range is IndoPacific, although it is not found in the Hawaiian Islands.
B. muricatum on the Great Barrier Reef exhibits a gradual approach to the asymptotic length.
On the Northern Great Barrier Reef, most schools are composed of fish 12B20 years old. The
oldest bumphead maximum age identified is a 3- year-old fish with a standard length of 770
mm (Howard Choat, pers. comm.). Younger fishes appear to have different habitat
requirements, as fish of SL less than 400 mm are not seen on outer reefs.
Bibliography
Couture E and C Chauvet. 1994. Croissance du perroquet à bosse (Bolbometopon muricatum)
et son exploitation en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Information paper No. 4, 25th Regional
Technical Meeting on Fisheries, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 4
pp.
Dalzell P, TJH Adams and NVC Polunin. 1996. Coastal fisheries in the Pacific islands.
Ocean and Mar Biol: Ann Rev 34:395B531.
Green A. 1997. An assessment of the status of the coral reef resources, and their patterns of
use, in the U.S. Pacific Islands. Report prepared for the Western Pacific Regional
Fisheries Management Council; Honolulu, HI.
Hensley RA and TS Sherwood. 1993. An overview of Guam=s Inshore Fisheries. Mar Fish
Rev 55(2):129B38.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon: fishing and marine lore in the Palau district of
Micronesia. Berkeley, CA: Univ of Cal Pr.
Kitalong A and P Dalzell. 1994. A preliminary assessment of the status of inshore coral reef
fish stocks in Palau. Inshore Fisheries Research Technical Document, No. 6, South
Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
A-290
Table 69. Management Unit Species: Bolbometopon muricatum (bumphead parrotfish)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
25 hours
30B50 days
Diet
N/A
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Spawning aggregations
reported in barrier reef
channels of Palau on the
8th and 9th days of the
lunar month (Johannes
1981)
Juvenile
Adult
20B25+years, up to 34 years
herbivore/coralivore
herbivore/ coralivore; eats a
substantial amount of live
coral; in Palau, stomachs were
often full of sea urchins
(Johannes 1981)
Indo-Pacific; not found in
Hawaii
Location
fish < 400 mm not seen on
outer reefs of the Great
Barrier Reef
typically occurs in schools on
clear outer lagoon and
seaward reefs at depths of 1 to
at least 30 m; may enter outer
reef flats at low tide in
unfished areas
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral reef, rubble, pavement
coral reef, rubble, pavement
Oceanic features
advection by ocean
currents
advection by ocean currents
A-291
4.2.1.44 Polynemidae (threadfins)
Threadfins are relatives of the mullets with silvery bodies, an inferior mouth with villiform
teeth, two widely-spaced dorsal fins, a deeply forked caudal fin and moderately large scales.
Thread-like lower pectoral rays are used as feelers and become relatively shorter with
growth. Threadfins typically occur over shallow sandy to muddy bottoms, occasionally in
fresh or brackish water. One species, Polydactylus sexfilis, occurs in Hawaii where it is
highly valued as a food fish. The species, called moi in Hawaii, was historically reserved for
royal people, or alii. It has become rare as a result of intense fishing pressure, and is
currently being propagated in hatcheries for use in stock enhancement projects. The same
species occurs in Micronesia. Two species occur in Samoa, P. sexfilis and P. plebeius. The
family Polynemidae is distributed throughout the tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Ocean.
P. sexfilis is a fast-growing species that inhabits turbid waters and can be found in large
schools in sandy holes along rocky shoals and high energy surf zones. Spawning takes place
for 3B6 days per month and has been observed in Hawaii from June to September, with a
peak in July and August (Ostrowski and Molnar 1997). Spawning may be year-round in very
warm locations. Spawning occurs inshore and eggs hatch offshore within 14B24 hours
depending on water temperature (May 1979). Eggs are small, averaging 0.75 mm in
diameter with a large oil globule.
Larvae are pelagic, but after metamorphosis they enter nearshore habitats such as surf zones,
reefs and stream entrances (Ostrowski and Molnar 1997). Larvae and pre-settlement
juveniles feed on zooplankton in the water column, mainly mysids, euphausiids, crab zoeae
and amphipods.
Inshore juveniles have distinct dark vertical bars and feed on benthic crustaceans, mostly
penaeid and caridean shrimps, as well as zooplankton. Young moi, from 150 to 250 mm
long, are found from shoreline breakers to 100 m depth (Lowell 1971). Fishing for juvenile
P. sexfilis, or moilii, has historically been an important recreational and subsistence seasonal
fishery in Hawaii.
P. sexfilis is a protandrous hermaphrodite, with individuals first maturing as males within 5B7
months at a fork length of 20B29 cm. After mating at least once as a male, fish have a
hermaphroditic stage of about 8 months when they have both male and female
characteristics. By an age of about 1.5 years and a fork length of 30B40 cm, fish become
mature females. The sexes are monomorphic.
Adults feed throughout the day on benthic crustaceans as well as fish. In Kaneohe Bay,
adults could be found on reef faces, in the depths of the inner bay and in shallow (2B4 m)
areas with muddy sand bottoms (Lowell 1971). When moi were more abundant in Hawaii,
airplane spotters used to locate large schools and direct net fishers to the catch.
A-292
Bibliography
Kanayama RK. 1973. Life history aspects of the moi Polydactylus sexfilis (Cuvier and
Valenciennes) in Hawaii. Report to the State of Hawaii, DLNR, Div. Fish and Game,
Honolulu, HI. IV +50 pp.
Lowell NE. 1971. Some aspects of the life history and spawning of the moi (Polydactylus
sexfilis). MS thesis, Univ. Hawaii. V +45 pp.
May RC, ed. 1979. Papers on culture of the moi, Polydactylus sexfilis. UNIHI-Seagrant-TP79-03.
Myers RF. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Guam: Coral Graphics.
Ostrowski AC and A Molnar. 1997. Pacific threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis (moi), hatchery
manual. Ctr for Trop and Subtrop Aquacult Pub. #132.
A-293
Table 70. Management Unit Species: Polynemidae (threadfins)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
14B24 hours depending on
the temperature
weeks to months
5B7 months
Diet
N/A
zooplankton, mainly
mysids, uphausiids, crab
zoeae, and amphipods
benthic crustaceans (mainly
penaeid and caridean shrimps)
and zooplankton
benthic crustaceans (mainly penaeid and
caridean shrimps) and fish
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spawning 3B6 days per
month from June to
September in Hawaii,
with a peak in
July/August; may be yearround in very warm
locations
largest numbers in late
summer
largest numbers in late summer
and fall in Hawaii
Polydactylus sexfilis only species in Hawaii,
also found in Micronesia and Samoa; P.
plebeius recorded in Samoa
Location
inshore
offshore
from shoreline breakers to
offshore reefs; also near stream
entrances in sheltered bays
sandy holes along rocky shoals and high
energy surf zones
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
0B100 m depth
0B100 m depth
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
sand, mud, rock, coral reef
sand, mud, rock, coral reef
Oceanic features
subject to advection by
ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-294
Adult
4.2.1.45 Sphyraenidae (barracudas)
The barracudas are a single genus of top-level carnivorous fishes that feed mainly on other
fishes. They have a very elongate body, a large mouth with protruding pointed lower jaw,
very large compressed teeth and two widely separated dorsal fins. They have small cycloid
scales and a well-developed lateral line. Some species are primarily diurnal, while others are
nocturnal. Species such as Sphyraena helleri school in large groups during the day but
disperse at night to feed. S. barracuda is typically a solitary diurnal predator. In Hawaiian
waters, these are the only 2 species positively recorded. In Micronesian waters, at least 6
species occur. In Samoan waters, at least 5 species occur.
Juvenile S. barracuda occur among mangroves and in shallow sheltered inner reef areas.
Adults occur in a wide range of habitats ranging from murky inner harbors to the open sea.
Ciguaterra is widely reported for large S. barracuda, and has caused deaths in the West
Indies where it is now banned from sale. S. forsteri, S. acutipinnis, S. novaehollandiae and S.
obtusata are all schooling barracudas that occur over lagoon and seaward reefs. S. genie is a
larger schooling barracuda that frequently schools at the same sites on submarine terraces
and is most often caught at night by trollers in Micronesia.
There is no evident external sexual dimorphism among sphyraenids, although males reach
sexual maturity at a smaller size than females. Male S. barracuda reach maturity in 2 years,
but females take about 4 years. Barracudas migrate to specific spawning areas, often in very
large numbers at reef edges or in deeper water. Spawning typically takes place in warmer
months, and may last extended periods of time in which individual females spawn
repeatedly.
The eggs are pelagic, spherical, and range in diameter from 0.7B1.5 mm with a single clear or
yellow oil droplet. Eggs hatch within 24B30 hours. Larvae begin to feed within 3 days on
small copepods. Larger larvae voraciously feed on zooplankton and other fish larvae.
Settlement typically occurs at a length of 18 mm but may be larger. S. barracuda larvae
occasionally drift in the ocean for an indefinite period of time, usually associated with
floating debris or algae, developing all the characteristics of juveniles and sometimes
attaining large sizes before being delivered inshore. Newly settled juveniles are piscivorous.
Bibliography
Abe T. 1974. Sphyraenidae. In: W Fischer and PJP Whitehead, eds. FAO species
identification sheets for fishery purposes: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Central
Pacific, vol. 4. Rome: FAO.
Au KC. 1979. Systematic study on the barracudas (Pisces: Sphyraenidae) from a northern
sector of the South China Sea. J Nat Hist 13:619B49.
de Silva DP. 1963. Systematics and life history of the Great Barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda
(Walbaum). Stud Trop Oceanog 1:179.
A-295
Edwards RRC, A Bakhader and S Shaher. 1985. Growth, mortality, age composition and
fishery yields of fish from the Gulf of Aden. J Fish Biol 27:13B21.
Senou H. 1997. Sphyraenidae. Barricudas. In: KE Carpenter and V Niem, eds. FAO
identification guide for fishery purposes: The Western Central Pacific.
Schultz LP. 1953. In: Schultz et al. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Bull US Nat
Mus 202:279B87.
A-296
Table 71. Management Unit Species: Sphyraenidae (barracudas)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
24B30 hours for S.
pinguis
the time it takes to grow from
1B2 mm to 18 mm
2 years for male S. barracuda,
4 years for females
Diet
N/A
zooplankton, copepods, fish
eggs
mostly fish
mostly fish
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spring spawning
aggregation sites
may be important
for some species
typically more abundant in
offshore waters
circumtropical and subtropical
circumtropical and subtropical;
seasonal spawning aggregations
may be important for some species
Location
reef edge or
interface of pelagic
and coastal currents
coastal offshore waters
mangroves, shallow lagoons,
estuaries
from shallow turbid inner harbors
to reefs, as well as coastal offshore
waters
Water column
pelagic
pelagic; within 0B100 m
depth
from reef-associated to surface
from reef-associated to surface
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
mud, sand, reef
all bottom types
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by currents
subject to advection by
currents
A-297
Adult
4.2.1.46 Pinguipedidae (sandperches)
The sandperches are represented in the Indo-Pacific by only one genus, Parapercis. The
genus is characterized by an elongate, nearly cylindrical body, eyes on the top of the head
and oriented upwards and a terminal protractile mouth. All are benthic carnivores of small
invertebrates and fishes. They are usually found on rubble or sand bottoms near reefs, where
they typically rest on the bottom by propping on well-separated pectoral fins. Adults are
typically found in depths from 1 to 50 m, but some occur deeper. Most species are sexually
dichromatic. Hermaphroditism has been demonstrated for some species and may be true for
all. Males are territorial and haremic. Spawning occurs year round in the tropics, typically
just before sunset. Eggs are pelagic and the larval period lasts for 1B2 months. In Hawaiian
waters, 2 species occur. In Micronesia, 4 shallow water species occur. In Samoan waters, 3
species are recorded.
P. cylindrica males defend an area that includes 2B5 females who are defending smaller
territories from each other. The male initiates courtship with one of the females about 40
minutes prior to sunset, and eventually the pair makes a short spawning ascent of 60B70 cm
before releasing gametes. The eggs are spherical and pelagic, with a diameter ranging from
0.63 to 0.99 mm. Hatching occurs in 22B24 hours. Duration of the planktonic larval stage is
estimated to be 1B2 months (Stroud 1981).
Bibliography
Marshall NB. 1950. Fishes from the Cocos-Keeling Islands. Bull Raffles Mus 22:166B205.
Mito S. 1965. On the development of the eggs and hatched larvae of a trachinoid fish,
Neopercis sexfasciata (Temminck et Schlegel). Sci Bull Fac Agric, Kyushu Univ
15:507B12.
Stroud G. 1981. Aspects of the biology and ecology of weever-fishes (Mugiloididae) in
northern Great Barrier Reef waters. PhD diss., James Cook Univ, Townsville, Australia.
A-298
Table 72. Management Unit Species: Pinguipedidae (sandperches)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
22B24 hours
1B2 months
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
small invertebrates and fishes
small invertebrates and fishes
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
year-round
spawning, but late
spring/summer peak
year-round, with summer
peak
one Indo-Pacific genus
Parapercis
one Indo-Pacific genus Parapercis
Location
released near
parents home; no
evidence of
spawning
migrations
offshore of reefs and
soft-bottom habitats
coral reefs and associated
soft-bottom communities
coral reefs and associated soft-bottom
communities
Water column
pelagic
pelagic, although Leis
(1989) found them
concentrated in the
epibenthos over soft
bottoms on the GBR
demersal; most within 1B50 m,
but some deeper
demersal; most within 1B50 m, but some
deeper
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
sand, mud, rubble and
occasionally coral
sand, mud, rubble and occasionally
coral
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-299
4.2.1.47 Blenniidae (blennies)
Blennies are small, elongate, agile, scaleless fishes with blunt heads and a long continuous
dorsal fin. They are a large family of more than 300 species, most of which are bottomdwelling territorial fishes that lay adhesive demersal eggs that are guarded by the male. The
family may be divided into two subfamilies primarily based on dentition and diet. The
sabretooth blennies, subfamily Salariinae, typically have small mouths and large fangs. They
are carnivores and some feed on the scales, skin or mucus of larger fishes. Some species are
mimics of cleaner wrasses or other blennies. They are active swimmers that rapidly
approach larger fish, while other members of Salariinae are sedentary.
The combtooth blennies, subfamily Blenniinae, typically have wide mouths, feeble teeth and
feed on benthic algae. An exception is the leopard blenny Exalias brevis, which feeds
primarily on coral polyps of Acropora, Pocillopora, Seriatopora, Porites and Millepora.
Most combtooth blennies are sedentary inhabitants of rocky shorelines, reef flats or shallow
seaward reefs. In Hawaiian waters, 14 species of blennies have been recorded; 7 are
endemic: Cirripectes obscurus, C. vanderbilti, Entomacrodus marmoratus, E. strasburgi,
Istiblennius zebra, Plagiotremus ewaensis and P. goslinei. The mangrove blenny
Omobranchus rotundiceps obliquus was introduced to the Hawaiian and Line Islands, and
the tasseled blenny Pablennius thysanius was probably introduced to Hawaii by ballast
water. At least 59 species occur in Micronesia. At least 47 species occur in Samoa.
The blennies have very complex color patterns and are often well camouflaged to the
surrounding habitat. Blennies tend to shelter in small holes in the reef or sand by backing
into them tail-first. Some blennies, including those of the genera Istiblennius and
Entomacrodus, live inshore on rocky bottom exposed to surge. They are called rockskippers
for their ability to leap from pool to pool.
In addition to their unique feeding strategy, Exalias brevis has unusual reproductive
characteristics. Males prepare a nesting site by clearing a patch of coral near a crevice.
Females make the rounds of up to 10 different male=s nests, depositing bright yellow eggs in
each of them. Nests may contain more than one female’s eggs, and both males and females
occasionally cannibalize eggs. Spawning occurs throughout the year with a peak from
January to April.
The reproductive biology of blennies has been studied extensively. There are many
variations, but all appear to produce relatively large demersal eggs which are deposited in or
near a shelter hole and defended by the male. Eggs are characteristically flattened ovals,
usually brightly colored, and about 1.0 mm in the longest dimension. Hatching typically
occurs in 9B11 days. In the Red Sea species M. nigrolineatus, the larvae develop juvenile
colors in 20 days and settle to the bottom by 30 days.
Bibliography
Carlson BA. 1978. A contribution to the biology of the spotted blenny, Exallias brevis
(Pisces; Blenniidae). Pac Sci 32:96.
A-300
Dotsu Y and T Oota. 1973. The life history of the blenniid fish, Omobranchus loxozonus.
Bull Fac Fish Nagasaki Univ 36:13B22.
Randall JE and HA Randall. 1960. Examples of mimicry and protective resemblance in
tropical marine fishes. Bull Mar Sci 10:444B80.
Smith-Vaniz WF. 1976. The sabre-toothed blennies, tribe Nemophini (Pisces: Blenniidae).
Acad Natur Sci, Phila, Monogr 19:1B196.
Thresher RE. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. Neptune, NJ: TFH Pub.
A-301
Table 73. Management Unit Species: Blenniidae (blennies)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
9B11 days
20B30 days
Diet
N/A
copepods, nauplii,
bivalve larvae (Watson
1974, Houde and
Lovdal 1984)
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Juvenile
Adult
most graze on benthic algae; some
feed on zooplankton; some prey on
minute invertebrates such as
foraminiferans, ostracods,
copepods and gastropods;
fangblennies of Plagiotremus eat
mucus and skin tissue from fishes;
at least one species, Exallias
brevis, feeds on coral polyps
most graze on benthic algae; some
feed on zooplankton; some prey on
minute invertebrates such as
foraminiferans, ostracods, copepods
and gastropods; fangblennies of
Plagiotremus eat mucus and skin
tissue from fishes; at least one
species, Exallias brevis, feeds on
coral polyps
worldwide in tropical and
temperate seas
worldwide in tropical and temperate
seas
rocky shorelines, coral reefs, reef
flats, shallow seaward reefs, sand
flats, lagoons
rocky shorelines, coral reefs, reef
flats, shallow seaward reefs, sand
flats, lagoons
Location
near the adults
shelter hole
Water column
demersal
pelagic
demersal; a few feed on
zooplankton in the water column,
and many of the fangtooths are
active swimmers that pursue larger
fish; many found in very shallow
depths, and some rockskippers
found above sealevel
demersal; a few feed on zooplankton
in the water column, and many of the
fangtooths are active swimmers that
pursue larger fish; many found in very
shallow depths, and some
rockskippers found above sealevel
Bottom type
coral or rock
N/A
rock, coral reef, sand
rock, coral reef, sand
Oceanic features
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-302
4.2.1.48 Gobiidae (gobies)
The gobies are the largest family of marine fishes, with about 1000 Indo-Pacific species and
at least 1900 marine and freshwater species worldwide. They are typically small, elongate,
blunt-headed fishes with a relatively large mouth with conical teeth, pelvic fins close together
and usually fused to form a sucking disk, and two dorsal fins. Gobies are primarily shallowwater species. All are carnivorous and bottom-dwelling, although a few swim a short
distance above the bottom to feed on plankton (Ioglossus, Nemateleotris). They inhabit a
variety of habitats such as coral reef, sand, mud, rubble or seagrass. The majority of gobies
occur on coral reefs, where they typically have unsurpassed diversity and abundance, but
many occur in adjacent coastal and estuarine waters.
Many live in close association with other animals such as sponges, gorgonians, and snapping
shrimps. Several species have a symbiotic relationship with one or more species of Alpheid
snapping shrimp in which the gobies share a burrow. The shrimp digs the burrow while one
or more gobies keeps watch for predators. Nearly all gobies are gonochorists that lay a small
mass of demersal eggs which are guarded by the male. A few have been shown to be
protogynous hermaphrodites. There are 31 marine species of gobies in Hawaiian waters.
Five of them are endemic to Hawaii: the noble goby Priolepis eugenius, the rimmed-scale
goby Priolepis limbatosquamis, the Hawaiian shrimp goby Psilogobius mainlandi, plus two
new species described recently in Copeia. In Micronesian waters, at least 159 species occur.
At least 100 species are recorded for Samoan waters.
Most reef-associated gobies are sexually monomorphic, although gobies in other habitats do
have color and size differences between the sexes. Protogynous hermaphroditism was
documented for gobies of the genus Paragobiodon, in which the largest individual present
was always male, the second largest was the functional female, and the smaller individuals
were non-spawning females (Lassig 1977). In most cases gobies appear to spawn
promiscuously with many individuals loosely organized into a social hierarchy or with
individuals maintaining small contiguous territories, although pairing and apparent
monogamy have been documented for a number of gobies, including Ioglossus spp. (Colin
1972), Gobodion spp. (Tyler 1971), and Valencienna spp. (Hiatt & Strasburg 1960), among
others.
Gobies lay demersal adhesive eggs in a burrow, on the underside of a rock or shell, or in
cavities within the body of a sponge. Males tend and guard the eggs, which are attached to
the substrate by a tuft of adhesive filaments at one end. Most goby eggs are elongate,
smoothly round-ended and range in length from 1.1 to 3.3 mm and in diameter from 0.5 to
1.0 mm, although the eggs of fresh water and anadramous species may be as large as 8 mm.
Some species, such as those of Elacatinus, have distinctive protuberances from the eggs.
Incubation typically lasts 5-6 days depending on temperature. The size at hatching ranges
from less than 2 mm to 4mm. The majority of the gobies leave the plankton at a size less
than 10 mm. The planktonic larval duration is known for a few species. Lassig (1976)
estimated a duration of about 6 weeks for Paragobiodon spp. at Heron Island. Moe (1975)
reported a planktonic larval duration of from 18-40 days for Gobiosoma oceanops. Colin
(1975) reported metamorphosis at 26 days for neon gobies, which grew quickly to subadult
A-303
size in 3 months and spawned as soon as 5 months. He suggested neon gobies were [email protected]
fishes that mature quickly and may only live one or two years.
Species of Amblyeleotris, Cryptocentroides, Cryptocentrus, Ctenogobiops, Vanderhorstia,
Lotilia, and Mahidolia live in burrows constructed by alpheid prawns. At least 20 species of
gobies share burrows with at least 7 species of prawns in Micronesia. The gobies, either
singly or in pairs, act as sentinels for the alpheid shrimps who maintain the burrows. The
gobies benefit from the use of the burrow, and also from feeding on the invertebrates
excavated by the shrimp. The shrimps benefit from having a wary sentinel with better
eyesight to warn them of approaching danger.
Some gobies have specific habitat requirements. The gorgonian goby Bryaninops amplus is
usually found on gorgonians. The whip coral goby Bryaninops yongei is usually found on
the antipatharian seawhip Cirrhipathes anguina. The Hawaiian shrimp goby Psilogobius
mainlandi lives in burrows built and maintained by the snapping shrimp Alpheus rapax. The
translucent coral goby Bryaninops erythrops lives on certain branching forms of fire corals
Millepora spp. and other branching or massive corals such as Porites cylindrica and P. lutea.
The hovering goby Bryaninops natans occurs in groups that hover just above or within the
branches of Acropora corals. Members of Paragobiodon and Gobiodon are obligate coraldwellers. Mudskippers of the genus Periophthalmus are essentially amphibious and are
typically found resting on mud, rocks, or mangrove roots.
Bibliography
Böhlke JE and CR Robins. 1969. Western Atlantic sponge-dwelling gobies of the genus
Evermannichthys: their taxonomy, habits, and relationships. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 121(1):
1-24.
Colin PL. 1972. Daily activity patterns and effects of environmental conditions on the
behavior of the yellowhead jawfish, Opistognathus aurifrons, with notes on its ecology.
Zoologica 57: 137-169.
Colin PL. 1975. Neon gobies. T.F.H. Publ., Neptune City, New Jersey. 304 pp.
Davis WP, JE Randall and DO French. 1977. The systematics, biology, and zoogeography of
Ptereleotris heteropterus, pisces:Gobiidae. Proc. Third Internat. Coral Reef Symp.,
1:261-266.
Hiatt RW and DW Strasburg. 1960. Ecological relationships of the fish fauna on coral reefs
of the Marshall Islands. Ecol. Monogr. 30: 65-127.
Houde ED and JA Lovdal. 1984. Seasonality of occurrence, foods and food preferences of
ichthyoplankton in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 18: 403-419.
Lassig B. 1977. Socioecological strategies adopted by obligate coral-dwelling fishes. Proc.
Thir Internat. Coral Reef Symp. 1:56-570.
A-304
Randall JE. 1968. Ioglossus helenae, a new gobiid fish from the West Indies. Ichthyologica
39(3&4): 107-116.
Tyler JC. 1971. Habitat preferences of the fishes that dwell in shrub corals on the Great
Barrier Reef. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 123: 1-26.
Watson W. 1974. Diel changes in the vertical distributions of some common fish larvae in
southern Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Unpublished M.S. thesi, University of Hawaii,
Honolulu, Hawaii.
A-305
Table 74. Management Unit Species: Gobiidae (gobies)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
5-6 days
18-42 days
as soon as 5 months
for neon gobies
(Colin 1975)
smaller gobies may only live 1-2 years; others
much longer
Diet
N/A
copepods, nauplii,
tintinnids, mollusc
larvae (Watson 1974,
Houde and Lovdal
1984)
similar to adults
most are carnivorous on a wide variety of benthic
invertebrates (copepods, amphipods, ostracods,
nematodes, foraminiferans), fishes, and fish eggs;
some semi-pelagic species are planktivorous
worldwide in tropical and temperate seas; 28
marine species of gobies in Hawaiian waters,
with 3 endemic; at least 159 Micronesian species
and at least 100 species in Samoa
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
rocky shorelines,
coral reefs, reef
flats, shallow
seaward reefs, sand
flats, lagoons
rocky shorelines, coral reefs, reef flats, shallow
seaward reefs, sand flats, lagoons
Water column
demersal
pelagic
same as adults
demersal; species of Ioglossus and Nemateleotris
are semi-pelagic, hovering a short distance above
the reef
Bottom type
coral, rock, sponge
N/A
coral reef, sand,
mud, rubble or
seagrass
coral reef, sand, mud, rubble or seagrass
Oceanic features
subject to advection by
ocean currents
A-306
4.2.1.49 Zebrasoma flavescens (yellow tang)
The yellow tang is a popular aquarium fish that is the top marine fish export from Hawaii,
representing more than 75% of all animals caught statewide (Clark and Gulko 1999). They
occur singly or in loose groups on coral-rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs from below
the surge zone to at least 46 m. Juveniles tend to hide among branches of finger coral, while
adults graze near the shore in calm areas. They are diurnal herbivores of filamentous algae
from hard surfaces. The genus is characterized by an unusually deep body with tall dorsal
and anal fins and an elongate tubular snout. The yellow tang is moderately common at some
locations in the Marianas, but is most abundant in Hawaii.
Group spawning (Lobel 1978) as well as pair spawning by territorial males that court passing
females (in Thresher 1984) has been observed. Spawning occurs a few meters above the
bottom or the depth of the spawning aggregation, usually at dusk. Pelagic eggs likely hatch
within 1 to 2 days, and a pelagic larval stage lasts for up to a few months.
Z. flavescens tends to prefer the leeward sides of islands (Brock 1954), particularly areas of
dense coral growth of Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. It feeds on algae
growing exposed on basalt and dead coral heads, as well as in crevices and interstices of the
reef that it can reach with its long, thin snout (Jones 1968). The majority of yellow tang in
Hawaii are collected off West Hawai=i, Kawaihae, Kona and Miloli=i (Clark and Gulko
1999).
Bibliography
Brock VE. 1954. A preliminary report on a method of estimating reef fish populations. J.
Wildlife Mngmt. 18: 289-308.
Clark AM. and D Gulko. 1999. Hawaii=s state of the reef report, 1998. Dept. of Land and
Nat. Res., Honolulu, HI. 41pp.
Jones RS. 1968. Ecological relationships in Hawaiian and Johnston Island Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes). Micronesica 4: 309-361.
Lobel PS. 1978. Diel, lunar, and seasonal periodicity in the reproductive behavior of the
pomacanthid fish, Centropyge potteri, and some other reef fishes in Hawaii. Pac. Sci. 32:
193-207.
Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Pub., Neptune City, NJ.
Walsh WJ. 1987. Patterns of recruitment and spawning in Hawaiian reef fishes. Env. Biol. of
Fishes 18(4): 257-276.
A-307
Table 75. Management Unit Species: Zebrasoma flavescens (yellow tang)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
approximately 24 hours
up to a few
months
Diet
N/A
various
zooplankters
similar to adults
herbivores on filamentous algae
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
late winter, spring peak in
spawning
highest recruitment
in the summer, May
to August, in Hawaii
(Walsh 1987)
Pacific Plate; abundant only in Hawaii,
found uncommonly at some locations in
the Marianas; not recorded from Samoa
Location
eggs released after short
spawning ascent from the
bottom or the depth of a
spawning aggregation
0-100m, larvae
typically are more
common in
offshore waters
than in water over
reefs
often hide within the
branches of finger
coral
coral-rich areas of lagoon and seaward
reefs from below the surge zone to at
least 46 m; adults may feed very near the
shore in calm areas
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal and midwater
demersal and mid-water
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
coral, rock, rubble,
pavement
coral, rock, rubble, pavement
Oceanic features
subject to ocean currents
subject to ocean
currents
A-308
4.2.1.50 Zanclidae (Moorish idol)
This family consists of one species, Zanclus cornutus. It has a strongly compressed discoid
body, tubular snout with a small mouth and many bristle-like teeth, and dorsal spines
elongated into a whip-like filament. Moorish idols have a long larval stage and settle at a
large size, >6cm SL for some individuals. As a result, they are ubiquitous in areas of hard
substrate from turbid inner harbors to clear seaward reefs. They feed mainly on sponges, but
will also take other invertebrates and algae. They usually are found in small groups of 2-5
individuals but may occur in large schools of well over 100 individuals. Their range is IndoPacific and tropical eastern Pacific, and they are found throughout the management area.
They are a popular aquarium fish.
There is little information on Moorish idol reproduction, but they have been observed to
spawn in pairs at dusk on outer reef slopes, producing pelagic eggs that are capable of long
planktonic existence. Their wide distribution and length at settlement as large as 7.5cm are
good indicators of long larval stages. The larval phase is similar to acunthurid larval phases.
Moorish idols inhabit all types of hard substrate in the tropical Pacific. They are present in
very shallow habitats < 1m deep and have also been sighted as deep as 180m. They are
diurnal predators that feed mainly on sponges, but also on small benthic crustaceans and
algal film on rocks and coral.
Bibliography
Debelius H and HA Baensch. 1994. Baensch Marine Atlas. Tetra Press: Blacksburg, VA.
Johnson GD and BB Washington. 1987. Larvae of the Moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus,
including a comparison with other larval acanthuroids. Bull. Mar. Sci. 40(3): 494-511.
Strasburg DW. 1962. Pelagic stages of Zanclus canescens from Hawaii. Copeia, 1962: 844845.
Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Pub., Neptune City, NJ.
A-309
Table 76. Management Unit Species: Zanclidae (Moorish idol)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
unknown
relatively long; several
months, ranging in size from a
few millimeters to 7.5 cm
Diet
N/A
zooplankton
mostly sponges, some small
benthic crustaceans and algae
mostly sponges, some small
benthic crustaceans and algae
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
little known
predominantly offshore
Indo-Pacific and tropical
Eastern Pacific
Indo-Pacific and tropical Eastern
Pacific
Location
released near the
surface on outer
reef slope
predominantly offshore
from turbid inshore harbors to
clear outer reef slopes
from turbid inshore harbors to
clear outer reef slopes
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
all hard substrates, including
coral reef, rocks, rubble, reef
flats, wrecks
all hard substrates including coral
reef, rocks, rubble, reef flats,
wrecks
Oceanic features
A-310
4.2.1.51 Siganidae (rabbitfishes)
Siganids are small (from 20 -50 cm), essentially marine tropical Indo-West Pacific fishes.
They have venomous dorsal, anal and pelvic spines. With a single row of flattened, close-set
teeth, rabbitfishes feed primarily on algae and seagrasses, although some may occasionally
feed on tunicates or sponges. Because of their herbivorous diet, most species live at depths
less than 15 m, but some are trawled from as deep as 50m. Half the species live as pairs on
coral reefs, the others usually gather in small schools. One species, Siganus vermiculatus, is
almost exclusively estuarine; the rest move between estuaries, coral reefs, rocky shores, and
other habitats. Rabbitfishes generally spawn on a lunar cycle with peak activity during the
spring and early summer. Spawning occurs in pairs or groups on outgoing tides either at
night or early in the morning. Juveniles of some species are estuarine. Rabbitfishes are
highly esteemed foodfishes. Some of the colorful ones are popular aquarium fishes. None
are found in Hawaii. Approximately 16 species are found in Micronesia, and at least 4
species in Samoa.
Spawning by rabbitfishes is typically preceded by a migration to specific and traditional
spawning sites. The location varies from near mangrove stands (S. lineatus, Drew 1971), to
shallow reef flats (S. canaliculatus, Manacop 1937, Johannes 1981), the outer reef crest
(several spp. at Palau, Mcvey 1972; Johannes 1978), and even the deeper reef (S. lineatus,
Johannes 1981). Sites are usually characterized by easy access to the ocean via channels, and
large areas of sea grass flats nearby.
Reproduction in the schooling species has been studied in some detail, and in general the
eggs are adhesive and demersal (with a few exceptions such as the pelagic eggs of S.
argenteus); hatching occurs within 1-3 days and yolk sac absorption is completed in about 3
or 4 days (Lam 1974). Fecundity is high: 250,000-500,000 eggs per spawning season (Lam
1974, Gunderman et al. 1983). Larvae are pelagic and feed on phytoplankton and
zooplankton. The duration of the larval stage is about 3 weeks in S. fuscescens (Hasse et al.
1977) and 3-4 weeks in S. vermiculatus (Gunderman et al. 1983). Popper et al. (1976)
reported that siganid larvae follow a lunar rhythm in appearing on the reef, typically arriving
inshore 3-5 days after a new moon. Fish are 15-20 cm long and sexually mature after one
year. Judging by maximum size, some species survive from 2-4 years. S. argenteus is unique
amongst the Siganidae in having a prejuvenile stage which is distinct from the larval and
juvenile stages and is specially adapted for a pelagic life (Hubbs 1958). They can reach sizes
of 6-8 cm SL before settling. Not surprisingly, S. argenteus has the widest distribution of all
rabbitfishes.
The rabbitfishes vary widely in their habitat uses. The schooling species typically move
between a wide range of habitats, whereas the pairing species tend to lead a sedentary
existence among the branches of hard corals. Rabbitfishes are common on reef flats, around
scattered small coral heads, and near grass flats. Gundermann et al. (1983) divided the
siganids into two groups on the basis of habitat, behavioral characteristics and coloraton.
One group includes species (S. corallinus, S. puellus, and Lo vulpinnus) that live in pairs,
have limited home-ranges on reefs and are brightly colored. The remaining group, including
S. rivulatus and S. canaliculatus, form schools at some stage of their life cycle, may
undertake substantial migrations, and assume coloration similar to their preferred habitat.
A-311
Schools of juvenile S. rostratus and S. spinus swarm on the reef flats of Guam each year
during April and May, and occasionally during June and October. Tsuda et al. (1976) studied
the feeding and habitat requirements for these fish to determine the likelihood of mariculture
of the rabbitfishes, which are highly esteemed for gastronomic and cultural reasons in Guam.
Bibliography
Drew AW. 1971. Preliminary report on klsebuul and meyas, two fish of Palau Islands. 20 pp.
(unpublished report, Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration Center, Belau).
Gunderman N, DM Popper and T Lichatowich. 1983. Biology and life cycle of Siganus
vermiculatus (Siganidae, Pisces). Pac. Sci. 37: 165-180.
Hasse JJ, BB Madraisau and JP McVey. 1977. Some aspects of the life history of Siganus
canaliculatus in Palau. Micronesica 13(2): 297-312.
Hubbs CL. 1958. Dikellorhynchus and kanazawichthys: nominal fish genera interpreted as
based on prejuveniles of Malacanthus and Antennarius, respectively. Copeia 4: 282-285.
Johannes RE. 1978. Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics. Env. Biol.
Fishes 3: 65-84.
Johannes RE. 1981. Words of the lagoon. Univ. Calif. Press, Los Angeles, CA: 320pp.
Kami HT and II Ikehar. 1976. Notes on the annual juvenile siganid harvest in Guam.
Micronesica 12(2): 323-325.
Lam TJ. 1974. Siganids: their biology and mariculture potential. Aquacult. 3: 325-354.
Manacop PR. 1937. The artificial fertilization of dangit, Amphacanthus oramin (Bloch and
Schneider). Philippine J. Sci. 62: 229-237.
Mcvey JP. 1972. Observations on the early-stage formation of rabbit fish, Siganus
fuscescens, at Palau Mariculture Demonstration Centre. South Pacific Isl. Fish.
Newsletter 6: 11-12.
Popper D, RC May and T Lichatowich. 1976. An experiment inrearing larval Siganus
vermiculatus (Valenciennes) and some observations on its spawning cycle. Aquacult. 7:
281-290.
Tsuda RT, Tobias WJ, Bryan PG, Fitzgerald WJ, Kami HT, and II Ikehara. 1976. Studies on
the genus Siganus (rabbitfish) in Guam waters. Sea Grant Publ. UGSG-76-05. University
of Guam Mar. Lab., tech. rept. #29.
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Table 77. Management Unit Species: Siganidae (rabbitfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
1-3 days
3-4 weeks
1 year
2-4 years
Diet
N/A
phytoplankton
and zooplankton
herbivores
herbivores, though some may feed on tunicates and
sponges; they will assume a carnivorous diet in captivity
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
spawning in Guam in April and
May, and occasionally in June
and October
some species estuarine
as juveniles before
moving offshore
throughout the shelf waters of the Indo-West Pacific,
except for the Hawaiian and Easter Island provinces
Location
mangrove stands (S. lineatus,
Drew 1971), to shallow reef
flats (S. canaliculatus,
Manacop 1937, Johannes
1981), the outer reef crest
(several spp. at Palau, Mcvey
1972; Johannes 1978), and
even the deeper reef (S.
lineatus, Johannes 1981). Sites
are usually characterized by
easy access to the ocean via
channels, and large areas of sea
grass flats nearby
more abundant
offshore
estuaries for some
species
most wide-ranging over many habitats. Siganus
vermiculatus, is almost exclusively estuarine; the rest
tend to move between estuaries, seagrass beds, coral
reefs, rocky shores
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal or reefassociated
demersal or reef associated
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
silt, sand, and mud for
estuarine species
some pair-forming species are sedentary in the branches
of Acropora corals; most range over many bottom types
Oceanic features
ocean currents
ocean currents
A-313
4.2.1.52 Gymnosarda unicolor (dogtooth tuna)
Very little is known about the biology of the dogtooth tuna (Gymnosarda unicolor), although
it is widely distributed throughout much of the Indo-Pacific faunal region, from the Red Sea
eastward to French Polynesia (Collette and Nauen 1983). This species is not found in the
Hawaiian Islands, although fishermen do refer to catches of the meso-pelagic snake mackerel
(Gempylidae) as [email protected]
G. unicolor is an epipelagic species, usually found individually or in small schools of 6 or
less (Lewis et al. 1983). Dogtooth tuna are found in deep lagoons and passes, shallow
pinnacles and off outer reef slopes (Collette and Nauen 1983). It occurs in mid-water, from
the surface to depths of approximately 100m, and has a preference for water temperatures
ranging from 20-28 degrees Celsius.
G. unicolor is one of the few tuna species found primarily in association with coral reefs
(Amesbury and Myers 1982) and probably occupies a niche similar to other reef-associated
pelagic predators such as Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus spp.) and queenfish
(Scomberoides spp). Like the Spanish mackerels, large dogtooths can become ciguatoxic
from preying on coral reef herbivores, which themselves have become toxic through
ingestion of the dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus (Myers 1991).
A positive correlation between size and depth has been observed in the distribution of this
species based on limited information from Tuvalu, with larger individuals being found at
greater depths (Haight 1998). This species reportedly reaches a maximum size of 150cm FL
and 80kg (Lewis et al. 1983).
Observations from Fiji suggest that dogtooth tuna obtain sexual maturity at approximately 65
cm (Lewis et al. 1983), while Silas (1963) reported a partially spent 68.5 cm male dogtooth
tuna from the Andaman Islands. Females outnumbered males by nearly 2:1 in Fiji, and all
fish larger than 100cm were females, suggesting sexual dimorphism in this species (Lewis et
al. 1983). Lewis et al. (1983) suggest that the vulnerrability of female dogtooth tuna to
trolling declines as the fish approach spawning condition.
In Fiji, spawning reportedly occurs during the summer months - between October and March
(Lewis et al. 1983). Dunstan (1961) observed spawning dogtooth tuna in Papua New Guinea
during March, August and December, and various other authors (Silas 1963) have provided
some evidence of summer spawning for this species. Okiyama and Ueyangi (1977) note that
the larvae of dogtooth tuna occur over a wide area of the tropical and subtropical Pacific
Ocean, between 10N and 20S, with concentrations along the shallow coastal waters of
islands, such as the Caroline Islands, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Dogtooth larvae were
collected in surface and subsurface tows, with greater numbers in the sub-surface tows at
depths between 20-30m. Older larvae appear to make diurnal vertical migrations, rising to
the surface during the night. On the basis of larval occurrence throughout the year, Okiyama
and Ueyangi (1977) postulate year round spawning in tropical areas.
There are no fisheries specifically directed at dogtooth tuna in the western Pacific region.
The primary means of capture include pole and line, handlines and surface trolling
A-314
(Severance 1998, pers. comm; Collette and Nauen 1983). Dogtooth tuna have been sold in
local markets in American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands, but currently have little
market value (Severance 1998, pers. comm.).
Dogtooth tuna are voracious predators, feeding on a variety of squids, reef herbivores such as
tangs and unicorn fish (Acanthuridae), and small schooling pelagic species including fusiliers
(Caesio spp) and roundscads (Decapterus) (Myers 1989).
Dogtooth tuna are unique among the family Scombridae in having such a close association
with coral reefs, although they are also found around rocky reefs in higher latitudes such as
in Korea and Japan (Myers 1989). Within the western Pacific region, waters on and adjacent
to coral reefs down to a depth of about 100m should be designated EFH for this specis.
Bibliography
Amesbury SS, Myers RF. 1982. Guide to the Coastal Resources of Guam. Volume 1, The
fishes. University of Guam Marine Laboratory. Contribution # 173.
Collette BB, Nauen CE. 1983. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels,
bonitos, and related species known to date. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2, Scombrids of
the world. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. 118pp.
Dunstan DJ. 1961. Trolling results of F/RV Tagula in Papua waters. Papua New Guin Agric
J 13(4):148-156.
Haight WR. 1998. NMFS/JIMAR, Honolulu Laboratory. Unpublished data.
Lewis AD, Chapman LB, Sesewa A. 1983. Biological notes on coastal pelagic fishes in Fiji.
Suva, Fiji: Fisheries Division (MAF). Technical report #4.
Myers RF. 1989. Micronesian reef fishes. Coral Graphics. 298pp.
Okiyama M, Ueyangi S. 1977. Larvae and juvenile of the Indo-Pacific dogtooth tuna,
Gymnodarda unicolor (Ruppell). Bull Far Seas Fish Lab 15:35-49.
A-315
Table 78. Management Unit Species: Gymnosarda unicolor (dogtooth tuna)
Egg
Larvae
Duration
Juvenile
Adult
sexually mature at approximately
65cm
unknown
Diet
N/A
unknown
unlikely to be different from adult
a variety of squids, reef herbivores
such as tangs and unicornfish
(Acanthuridae), and small schooling
pelagic species such as fusiliers
(Caesio spp)and roundscads
(Decapterus)
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
unknown
tropical and subtropical
Pacific Ocean between
10N and 20S, with
greater concentrations
along shallow coastal
waters of islands such as
the Caroline Isl., Solomon
Isl. and Vanuatu
unlikely to be different from adult
widely distributed throughout much
of Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea
eastward to French Polynesia. Not
found in the Hawaiian islands
unlikely to be different from adults
deep lagoons and passes, shallow
pinnacles and off outer reef slopes
Location
Water column
epipelagic
epipelagic; greater
numbers in subsurface
tows at depths between 2030m
epipelagic
epipelagic; occurs in mid-water,
from the surface to approximately
100m
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Oceanic features
subject to
advection by
prevailing
currents
subject to advection by
prevailing currents
unknown
unknown
A-316
4.2.1.53 Bothidae/Soleidae/Pleuronectidae (flounder and soles)
Flatfishes have both eyes on one side of the body and a greatly compressed body suited for
lying flat on the bottom. The eyes are situated on both sides of the head in the larvae, but
migrate to one side as the larvae transforms into a benthic juvenile. The eyes migrate onto
the left side for members of the family Bothidae, and onto the right side for members of the
family Pleurnectidae and Soleidae. The side with no eyes settles on the bottom and remains
unpigmented, while the top side can change color patterns to match the surrounding bottom.
They are ambush carnivores of small fishes and crustaceans that live on silt, sand or gravel
bottoms. They are important foodfishes worldwide, where they inhabit continental shelves of
tropical and temperate seas. A few species are found on shallow coral reefs: in Hawaiian
waters, there are 13 species of Bothidae but only 2 common shallow species, 2 species of the
genus Samariscus that formerly were considered a part of Pleuronectidae but now are in their
own family Samaridae, and 2 species of Soleidae. In Micronesian waters, there are at least 3
species of Bothidae, one species of Pleuronectidae, and at least 5 species of Soleidae found
on shallow reefs. Two sole species, Aseraggodes borehami and Aseraggodes theres, are
recently described species found only in the Hawaiian Islands. Three species are recorded
from Samoan waters.
Bothid eggs are pelagic, spherical, and small, with a diameter of 0.6-0.9mm. The larvae
hatch at 1.6-2.6mm. Soleid eggs are pelagic, spherical and moderate in size, with a diameter
of 0.9-18mm. The larvae range from 1.7 to 4.1mm at hatching. Larval pleuronectiform fish
have symmetrical eyes, but many remain pelagic for some time after the eyes migrate. Some
become quite large before settling, and often possess highly ornamented spines, elongate fin
rays, or protruding guts as larval specializations (Leis & Trnski 1989). Larvae are found in
the upper 100m of the water column.
Habitat for most flatfishes is soft bottoms such as sand, mud, or silt that are often found in
association with coral reef habitats. Some species are found directly on the reef or within the
reef framework. Many species are found in water deeper than 100m, but some are common
in shallow habitats.
Bibliography
Ahlstrom EH, Amaoka K, Hensley DA, HG Moser and BY Sumida. 1984.
Pleuronectiformes: development. pp 640-670 in ASIH Spec Publ 1.
Boehlert GW. 1986. An approach to recruitment research in insular ecosystems. In
AIOC/FAO Workshop on Recruitment in Tropical Coastal Demersal [email protected] (D
Pauly and A Yanez-Arancibia, eds), IOC Workshop rep. 40: 15-32. UNESCO, Paris.
Brownell CL. 1979. Stages in the early development of 40 marine fish species with pelagic
eggs from the Cape of Good Hope. Icthyol Bull JLB Smith Inst No. 40. 84 pp.
Hensley DA and EH Ahlstrom. 1984. Pleuronectiformes: relationships. pp. 670-68 in ASIH
Spec. Publ. 1.
A-317
Houde ED and JA Lovdal. 1984. Seasonality of occurrence, foods and food preferences of
ichthyoplankton in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 18: 403-419.
Houde ED and RC Schekter. 1981. Growth rates, rations, and cohort consumption of marine
fish larvae in relation to prey concentrations. Rapp. P.-V. Reun., Cons. Int. Explor. Mer
178: 441-453.
Leis JM and T Trnski. 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. U. of Hawaii Press:
Honolulu, HI.
Liew HC. 1983. Studies on flatfish larvae (Fam. Psettodidae, and Bothidae,
Pleuronectiformes) in the shelf waters of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Unpublished M.S. thesis, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
Ozawa T and A Fukui. 1986. Studies on the development and distribution of the bothid
larvae in the western north Pacific. pp 322-420 plus 23 plates in Ozawa T (ed) Studies on
the oceanic icthyoplankton in the Western North Pacific. Kyushu Univ Press: Fukuoka.
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Table 79. Management Unit Species: Bothidae/Soleidae/Pleurnectidae (flounder and soles)
Egg
Juvenile
Adult
similar to adult
ambush carnivores of fishes and
invertebrates
similar to adult
tropical and temperate continental shelves
worldwide; some species associated with
coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific
1.6 to 4.1mm at hatching
Duration
Diet
Larvae
N/A
the sole Achirus lineatus eats
copepods, mollusc larvae,
rotifers, dinoflagellates
(Houde & Lovdal 1984);
other species eat larvaceans,
chaetognaths and copepods
(Liew 1983)
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
spawning
aggregations
not recorded
offshore waters
lagoons, caves, flats, reefs
lagoons, caves, flats, reefs
Water column
pelagic
pelagic; from 0-100m depth
demersal
demersal
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
similar to adult
soft bottoms such as sand, gravel, mud,
and silt; some species found on reef
surface or within reef framework
Oceanic features
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4.2.1.54 Balistidae/Monocanthidae (triggerfishes/filefishes)
The triggerfishes are named for an ability to lock their large, thickened first dorsal spine in an
upright position, which can be released only by pressing down on the second dorsal spine
(the trigger). They are deep-bodied fish with eyes high on the head, a long snout, a small
terminal mouth, and tough skin with armor-like non-overlapping scales. Triggerfishes are
usually solitary except when they form pairs at spawning time, although the black durgon
Melichthys niger may form large aggregations. When alarmed, or at night, they wedge
themselves into a hole in the reef or rocks by erecting the first dorsal spine and pelvic girdle.
During the day, most are carnivores of a wide variety or benthic animals including
crustaceans, mollusks, sea urchins, other echinoderms, coral, tunicates, and fishes. Some
feed largely on benthic algae and zooplankton, including M. niger and M. vidua, while
Xanthichthys auromarginatus and X. mento feed mainly on zooplankton. Eleven species are
known from the Hawaiian Islands. At least 20 species occur in Micronesia. At least 16
species occur in Samoa. Many species are collected for aquariums. The clown triggerfish
Balistoides conspicillum is among the most highly prized aquarium fishes, although like most
triggerfishes it is very aggressive to other fish in a tank and tends to eat all the invertebrates.
The filefishes are closely related to the triggerfishes, differing by having more compressed
bodies, a longer and thinner first dorsal spine, a more pointed snout, a very small or absent
second dorsal spine, and no third dorsal spine. Unlike the triggerfishes, many filefish are
able to change their coloration to match their surroundings, and are frequently secretive.
Some filefishes are sexually dimorphic, not in coloration so much as the size of the spines or
setae posteriorly on the body. Filefishes are mostly omnivorous, feeding on a wide variety of
benthic plant and animal life. Some species eat noxious sponges and stinging coelenterates
that most fish avoid. Eight species occur in Hawaii, at least 17 in Micronesia, and at least 7
species occur in Samoa. Three species are endemic to Hawaii: the squaretail filefish
Cantherhines sandwichiensis, the shy filefish C. verecundus, and the fantail filefish Pervagor
spilosoma.
Sexual dimorphism is widespread, though not universal, in the triggerfishes. The male is
typically more brightly colored and larger, as in X. auromarginatus, X. mento, B. undulatus,
B. vetula, Odonus niger, Pseudobalistes fuscus, Hemibalistes chrysopterus, and M. niger
(Berry & Baldwin 1966, Randall et al. 1978, Matsuura 1976, Breder & Rosen 1966, Aiken
1975, Fricke 1980). Sexual dimorphism is less common in the filefishes, in which males and
females tend to be drabber. There is some evidence of lunar spawning periodicity for
balistids. At Belau, the yellowmargin triggerfish Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus spawns in
nests in sand-bottom channels within a few days before both new and full moons during the
months of November, December, March, April, and May, if not throughout the year (Myers
1989). Balistids produce demersal eggs that may or may not be tended by a parent, usually
the female. They are one of the, if not the only, reef fish families that have extensive
maternal care. This could be related to a harem-based social structure that requires the male
to vigorously defend his territory from other males. Balistid eggs are spherical, slightly over
0.5 mm in diameter, and translucent. Eggs are typically deposited in shallow pits excavated
by the parents as an adhesive egg mass containing bits of sand and rubble. Triggerfish eggs
hatch in as little as 12 hours and no more than 24 hours. Filefish eggs may take longer to
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hatch, up to 58 hours. The pelagic larval stage can last for quite a while, and some species
reach a large size before settling to the bottom. Several species of Melichthys can reach as
much as 144 mm before settling (Randall 1971, Randall & Klausewitz 1973). Prejuveniles
are often associated with floating algae, and may be cryptically colored. Berry and Baldwin
(1966) suggested that sexual maturity of Sufflamen verres and Melichthys niger occurs at
approximately half maximum size, at an age of a year or more. Smaller filefishes may
mature within a few months after hatching.
Bibliography
Aiken KA. 1983. The biology, ecology, and bionomics of the triggerfishes, Balistidae.
ICLARM Stud. Rev. 7: 191-205.
Baldwin. 1966. Triggerfishes of the eastern Pacific. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th Ser. 34: 429474.
Breder CM and DE Rosen. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. Natural History Press,
Garden City, NY. 941 pp.
Fricke HW. 1980. Mating systems, maternal and biparental care in triggerfish. Z.
Tierpsychol. 53: 105-122.
Matsuura K. 1976. Sexual dimorphism in a triggerfish, Balistipus undulatus. Japan J.
Ichthyol. 23: 171-174.
Myers, R.F. 1989. Micronesian reef fishes. Coral Graphics, Guam.
Randall JE. 1971. The nominal triggerfishes Pachynatus nycteris and Oncobalistes
erythropterus, junior synonyms of Melichthys vidua. Copeia, 1971: 462-469.
Randall JE, K Matsuura and A Zama. 1978. A revision of the triggerfish genus Xanthichthys,
with description of a new species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 28: 688-706.
Randall JE and W Klausewitz. 1973. A review of the triggerfish genus Melichthys, with
description of a new species from the Indian Ocean. Senckenberg. biol. 54: 57-69.
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Table 80. Management Unit Species: Balistidae/Monacanthidae (triggerfishes/filefishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
12-24 hours for triggerfish, up to 58
hours for filefish
several months, can
grow up to 144 mm
before settling
(Randall &
Klausewitz 1973)
one or more years
Diet
N/A
various plankton
similar to adult
carnivores of a wide variety or benthic
animals including crustaceans,
mollusks, sea urchins, other
echinoderms, coral, tunicates, and
fishes. Some feed largely on benthic
algae and zooplankton
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
At Belau, the yellowmargin triggerfish
Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus
spawns within a few days before both
new and full moons during the months
of November, December, March,
April, and May, if not throughout the
year (Myers 1989)
similar to adult
tropical and temperate seas worldwide;
11 species are known from the Hawaiian
Islands. At least 20 species occur in
Micronesia. At least 16 species occur in
Samoa.
Location
many spawn on sand or other softbottom habitats
Juvenile B. conspicillum
usually occur in or near
ledges and caves of steep
dropoffs below 20m (Myers
1989)
lagoon and seaward reefs; many prefer
steeply sloping areas with high coral
cover and a lot of caves and crevices;
zooplanktivores spend day in the water
column
Water column
demersal
pelagic
demersal and pelagic
some species in very shallow water, 220m while others as deeper than 100m
Bottom type
sand, mud, rubble
N/A
similar to adults
coral reef, rock, sand
subject to advection
by ocean currents
Oceanic
features
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Adult
4.2.1.55 Ostraciidae (trunkfish)
The trunkfishes, or boxfishes, possess a bony carapace of polygonal plates that encase the
head and body. The bony shell may be triangular, quadrangular, pentagonal, hexagonal, or
nearly round in cross-section. Some species have stout spines projecting from the rough
surface of the plates. The mouth is small and low with thick lips and a row of conical to
incisiform teeth with rounded tips. Trunkfishes are slow swimming diurnal predators that
feed on a wide variety of small sessile invertebrates, especially tunicates and sponges, and
algae. Some species, and perhaps all, secrete a skin toxin when under stress. Some species,
and perhaps all, are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual dichromatism is common in the
family. The species studied thus far are haremic with males defending a large territory with
non-territorial females and subordinate males. Spawning in pairs occurs at dusk, usually
above a conspicuous outcrop. In Hawaiian waters, 6 species are recorded and the spotted
boxfish Ostracion meleagris camurum is recognized as a subspecies. In Micronesian waters,
6 species are recorded. In Samoan waters, 3 species are recorded.
Leis (1978) described the eggs of Hawaiian ostraciids as slightly oblong, with less than 10 oil
droplets, and a patch of [email protected] at one end. However, Mito (1962) described eggs from
Japanese waters as 1.62-1.96mm in diameter with a single oil droplet. A western Atlantic
species Acanthostracion quadricornis had spherical eggs, 1.4 to 1.6mm in diameter that
hatched in about 48 hours at 27.5C. About 114 hours after hatching, it reaches a distinctive
square armor-plated postlarval stage. Postlarvae and juveniles are commonly collected in
grassbeds and other shallow areas and are rarely seen on the reef (Thresher 1984). Juveniles
of Ostracion, on the other hand, are commonly seen on shallow reefs, especially in late
summer.
The longhorn cowfish, Lactoria cornuta, occurs over sand and rubble bottoms of subtidal
reef flats, lagoons, and bays to a depth of 50m. It feeds on polychaetes and other benthic
invertebrates, often [email protected] sand off the bottom to expose the prey. The thornback cowfish
Lactoria fornasini inhabits sandy areas with rubble, algae, or corals of clear outer lagoon and
seaward reefs. The spotted trunkfish Ostracion meleagris occurs on clear lagoon and
seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to 30m, where it feeds on didemnid tunicates as
well as smaller amounts of polychaetes, algae, sponges, mollusks, and copepods. They are
sexually dimorphic, with males taking a bright blue and yellow form upon sex-reversal from
a female to male.
Bibliography
Leis JM. 1978. Systematics and zoogeography of the porcupinefishes (Diodon, Diodontidae,
Tetraodontiformes) with comments on egg and larval development. Fish. Bull. 76: 535567.
Leis JM and JT Moyer. 1985. Development of eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles of three
Indo-Pacific ostraciid fishes (Tetraodontiformes): Ostracion meleagris, Lactoria
fornasini, and L. diaphana. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 32(2): 189-202.
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Mito S. 1962. Pelagic fish eggs from Japanese waters. 8. Chaetodontina, Balistina and
Ostraciontina. Sci. Bull., Fac. Agric. Kyushu U. 19: 503-506.
Moyer JT. 1979. Mating strategies and reproductive behavior of ostraciid fishes at Miyakejima, Japan. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 26: 148-160.
Randall JE. 1972. The Hawaiian trunkfishes of the genus Ostracion. Copeia, 1972: 756-768.
Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Pub., Neptune City, NJ.
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Table 81. Management Unit Species: Ostraciidae (trunkfishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
48 hrs for A.
quadricornis
(Thresher 1984)
fairly short in general; 114
hrs in A. quadricornis in the
Caribbean (Thresher 1984),
but Moyer (1980) reported
much older pelagic larvae,
up to 90mm long
Diet
N/A
similar to adults
small sessile invertebrates, especially
didemnid tunicates and sponges, but also
polychaetes, algae, sponges, mollusks, and
copepods;
also algae
offshore
grassbeds and other
shallow areas
coral reefs, lagoon and seaward reefs
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Location
Water column
pelagic
pelagic
demersal and midwater column
demersal and mid-water column, well
defended from predators
Bottom type
N/A
N/A
similar to adults;
sandy areas with rubble, algae, or corals
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by prevailing
currents
subject to advection by
prevailing currents
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4.2.1.56 Tetradontidae/Diodontidae (puffers/porcupinefishes)
Puffers are named for their ability to enlarge their bodies by drawing water into a highly
distensible ventral diverticulum of the stomach. That feature, prickly skin, and a powerful
toxin concentrated in their viscera, gonads, and skin helps them deter predators. Toxicity
varies greatly with species, area, and season. Puffers have the teeth in their jaws fused to
beak-like dental plates with a median suture. Most are slow swimmers that feed on a wide
variety of algae and benthic invertebrates, including fleshy, calcareous or coralline algae and
detritus, sponges, mollusks, tunicates, corals, zoanthid anemones, crabs, hermit crabs, tube
worms, sea urchins, brittle stars, starfishes, hydroids, bryozoans and foraminifera. All
species known to date lay demersal eggs. At least one species of Canthigaster, C. valentini,
is haremic with males controlling a territory containing 1-7 females. The males spawn at
mid-morning with a different female each day, and the eggs are deposited in a tuft of algae.
Most puffers are solitary but a few form small aggregations. In Hawaiian waters, there are
14 species recorded, with 2 endemics: Canthigaster jactator and Torquigener randalli. In
Micronesian waters, there are at least 17 species. In Samoan waters, 18 species are recorded.
Much of the information on puffer reproduction has been completed in temperate locations,
but some reasonable assumptions can made about tropical species. Puffers lay demersal
adhesive eggs, although courtship is often observed near the surface. The eggs are typically
on their own after being deposited, and take approximately 4 days to hatch in C. valentini
(Gladstone 1985). Newly hatched larvae range in size from 1.9 to 2.4mm. Settlement to the
bottom can occur in a little over 30 days, but some species have a much longer pelagic
existence.
Porcupinefishes are similar to puffers in many ways, but differ primarily in having prominent
spines on the head and body. They also have larger eyes, broader pectoral fins, and lack a
median suture on the dental plates. Hard, beak-like jaws allow them to crush the hard shells
of mollusks or crustaceans, or tests of sea urchins. They appear to be nocturnal. Spawning
has been observed in Diodon holacanthus, which spawns at the surface at dawn or dusk as
pairs or groups of males with a single female. In Hawaiian waters, 3 species have been
recorded. In Micronesian waters, 3 species are known, although one, Diodon eydouxii, is
entirely pelagic. The juveniles of D. hystrix and D. liturosus are pelagic as well.
Porcupinefish in Hawaii have a peak in spawning in the late spring, with some spawning
from January to September (Leis 1978). Courtship and spawning by Diodon holacanthus has
been observed in a large public aquarium (Sakamoto & Suzuki 1978) and in the Gulf of
California (Thresher 1984). Diodontid eggs are spherical, 1.62 to 2.1 mm in diameter, and
may be demersal or pelagic. Hatching occurs in 4-5 days. Leis (1987) reported
metamorphosis at a length of 3 mm and an age of 3 weeks to a postlarval stage similar in
appearance to the adult. The duration of the larval stage may be several months. Very large
prejuveniles (up to 86 mm for D. holacanthus and 180 mm for D. hystrix) are common in
plankton tows.
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Bibliography
Allen GR and JE Randall. 1977. Review of the sharpnose pufferfishes (subfamily
Canthigasterinae) of the Indo-Pacific. Rec. Aust. Mus 30: 475-517.
Fujita S. 1956. On the development of the egg and prelarval stages of the puffer, Fugu
(Shosaifugu) stictonotus (Temminck et Schlegel). Sci. Bull. Fac. Agri., Kyushu Univ. 15:
525-530.
Gladstone W. 1985. Behavioral ecology of the sharpnose pufferfish, Canthigaster valentini
(Bleeker), at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Unpub. PhD thesis, Macquarie U., North
Ryde, Australia.
Kuthalingham MDK, G Luther and JJ Joel. 1973. On some growth stages and food of
Arothron stellatus (Bloch)(Tetraodontidae:Pisces). Indian J. Zool. 20: 240-243.
Leis JM. 1978. Systematics and zoogeography of the porcupinefishes (Diodon, Diodontidae,
Tetraodontiformes) with comments on egg and larval development. Fish. Bull. 76: 535567.
Sakamoto T and K Suzuki. 1978. Spawning behavior and early life history of the porcupine
puffer, Diodon holacanthus, in aquaria. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 24: 261-270.
Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Pub., Neptune City, NJ.
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Table 82. Management Unit Species: Tetradontidae/Diodontidae (Puffers/Porcupinefishes)
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
4-5 days
several months or
longer
size at settlement of 180-191mm
(Leis 1987)
Diet
N/A
various zooplankton
similar to adult
wide variety of algae and benthic
invertebrates, including fleshy,
calcareous or coralline algae and
detritus, sponges, mollusks, tunicates,
corals, zoanthid anemones, crabs,
hermit crabs, tube worms, sea urchins,
brittle stars, starfishes, hydroids,
bryozoans and foraminifera
same as adults
worldwide throughout tropical and
temperate seas
Distribution,
general and
seasonal
Adult
Location
pelagic or demersal
depending on
species
pelagic
estuaries, mangroves, lagoons, coral
reefs
estuaries, mangroves, lagoons, coral
reefs
Water column
puffers are
demersal spawners,
porcupinefish may
spawn pelagic or
demersal eggs
pelagic; 0-100m
reef-associated and pelagic
reef-associated and pelagic
Bottom type
reef, sand, or algae
tufts
N/A
sand, silt, coral, rock
sand, silt, coral, rock
Oceanic features
subject to advection
by ocean currents
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4.2.2 EFH for Management Unit Species B Invertebrates
4.2.2.1 Cephalopods
General Description of the Taxoni
The cephalopods (Class Cephalopoda of the Phylum Mollusca) comprise a relatively small
group of organisms that includes squid, octopods, cuttlefish, and nautilus. Although certain
members of the class (e.g., the octopods) are for the most part bottom-dwellers, the majority
are adapted for a free-swimming lifestyle. The head projects into a circle of large prehensile
tentacles or arms, which are homologous to the anterior of the foot of other mollusks. The
tentacles are used for various functions, including seizing prey, grasping the substrate, and
for copulation and fertilization. Most cephalopods swim by jet propulsion, rapidly expelling
water from the mantle cavity through a ventral tubular funnel. The funnel is highly mobile
and can be directed either anteriorly or posteriorly. The force of water leaving the funnel
propels the animal in the opposite direction, enabling both backward and forward swimming.
Certain species of squid have attained the highest speed of movement through water
observed for any marine invertebrate (up to 40 km per hour). (Barnes 1987; Nesis 1987).
Within the class, only members of the genus Nautilus (in Subclass Nautiloidea) have a true
external shell. All other cephalopods belong to the subclass Coleoidea, in which the shell is
reduced and internal, or lacking altogether. In squids, for example, the shell is reduced to a
long, flattened chitinous [email protected] or gladius, while in cuttlefish the internal shell, the sepion, is
thicker and calcareous. In certain generaCNautilus, Spirula, and SepiaCthe gas-filled
chambers of their shells allow for maintenance of neutral buoyancy within the water column.
Many species exhibit diurnal vertical migration, moving upward to feed during the night and
into deeper water during the day (Barnes 1987; Nesis 1987).
Reproduction and Life History
Cephalopods are dioecious, with a single gonad positioned at the posterior end of the body.
Sperm are conducted through the vas deferens to a ciliated seminal vesicle, where the sperm
are rolled together and encased in spermatophores. The spermatophores are then transported
to a storage sac which opens into the mantle cavity. In females, the oviduct terminates in an
oviductal gland. Octopods and some squid may have two oviducts.
Fertilization may occur within the mantle cavity or outside. One of the arms of the male is
highly modified into a copulatory organ, the hectocotylus. During copulation, while the male
grasps the female with the regular arms, the hectocotylus receives spermatophores from the
funnel (opening of the vas deferens), or plucks them from the storage sac. The hectocotylus
may be inserted into the mantle cavity, and spermatophores are deposited on the mantle wall
of the female, near the openings of the oviducts. In Octopus, the hectocotylus is inserted into
the genital duct. In some squid, the hectocotylus may be inserted into a seminal receptacle
located in a fold beneath the mouth for deposition of spermatophores.
Eggs are discharged from the oviduct, then surrounded by a paired membrane or capsule. In
some genera eggs may be surrounded by a gelatinous mass. In most cases, eggs are either
attached by the female to a stable substrate, or shed into the seawater. Sepioids may attach
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the single eggs by means of a flexible threadlike stalk, which the female wraps around the
blades of seagrasses or seaweeds (Pearse et al. 1987).
Embryonic development is considered Adirect,@ that is, there is no trochophore or larval
phase. However, newly-hatched cephalopods may remain planktonic for a time. In the
octopods, those species in which hatchlings are less-developed may first go through a
planktonic phase and then settle down to a benthic existence, while those species in which
the newly-hatched offspring are well-developed may immediately take up a benthic lifestyle
(Pearse et al. 1987). The degree of development at hatching may be related to the size of the
egg, since Young and Harman (1989) noted that species with small eggs include a paralarval
(planktonic) phase, while those with larger eggs, do not.
Most cephalopods are relatively short-lived (typically one- to two-year lifespan), dying after
a single spawning, while certain members such as Nautilus, may live longer (up to twenty
years; Barnes 1987).
Habitat and Ecological Requirements for Various Life History Stages
Substrate and Depth Preferences
Nautilus occur in waters down to 500 m depth, but generally occur at depths from 200-300m.
The few observations made of nautiluses in the ocean suggest that they spend the day resting
in coral crevices on deep reefs, attached by their tentacles, and swim out at night to feed
(Pearse et al. 1987). They may rise to within 60-100m during nighttime (B. Carlson, Waikiki
Aquarium, pers. comm., 27 Aug 99).
Cuttlefishes are generally found in shallow waters of seagrass beds and nearby reefs. Some
species may bury themselves in the sand during the day, and emerge at night to hunt for the
small fishes and crustaceans that are their preferred prey.
Octopods generally inhabit crevices in rocks or coral areas. In sandy areas, they may dig
burrows or construct shelters built from scattered rocks.
Substrates utilized for the deposition of eggs may vary for different taxa, but it appears that
there is some correlation with the habitats utilized for shelter by the species in question.
Thus octopods may attach egg clusters within rocky recesses on the reef, while cuttlefish
may attach their eggs to seaweeds or seagrasses.
The reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, uses corals and rocks of reef areas for egg-laying,
and swims over the reef in shallow areas to feed. The reef cuttlefish, Sepia latimanus,
deposits its eggs deep among the branches of heads of finger coral (B. Carlson, pers. comm.
27 Aug 99).
Feeding
Within the cephalopod group are found a range of feeding habits and food preferences. Freeswimming squids typically hunt for fish, crustaceans, and other squids in open water.
Cuttlefish swim near the bottom in shallow water, stir up sand with jets from their siphons,
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and feed on benthic and infaunal invertebrates, including crustaceans such as shrimps and
crabs. Octopods venture out of their dens in search of food, and may swim and crawl more
than 100m from their holes. Octopods often hunt by jumping to ambush their prey, which
include principally crabs and shrimps. In Hawaii, one of the most common species, Octopus
cyanea, forages during the day (hence the name Aday [email protected]), while another O. ornatus (the
Anight [email protected]), forages after dark (Kay 1979). Squid bite and tear prey organisms with their
jaws; cuttlefish first immobilize prey by injecting salivary toxins, and then chew their prey;
while octopods, which also first paralyze their prey with salivary toxins, release enzymes
that start to digest the tissue of the target prey prior to ingestion. It is thought that nautiluses
scavenge on such food items as crab and lobster molts; it is not known whether they also
prey on live organisms (B. Carlson, pers. comm. 27 Aug 99).
Economic Importance and Utilization of the Resource
Within the region, cephalopods, especially squid, cuttlefish, and octopus, have some
economic importance as food items in the subsistence fishery. Octopus are a component of
the incidental catch of the lobster-trap fishery in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI;
WPRFMC 25 May 99). In addition, shells of Nautilus may be used for ornamental purposes
on a small scale, either by utilizing the whole or cut shell, or processing for production of
mother-of-pearl. The meat is also occasionally sold in markets (Roper et al. 1984). The
internal shells (cuttlebones) of sepioids may also have limited commercial value for use in
the pet supply industry.
Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units (FMUs)
The following is an account of those cephalopod species reported in the literature that may
occur on reef areas within the jurisdictional waters of WPRFMC.
American Samoa
On Tutuila Island, it was reported that octopus accounted for approximately five percent of
the catch composition for the shoreline subsistence fishery (Craig et al. 1993).
Nautilus pompilius is known to occur in American Samoa. This may represent the
easternmost extension of its range (B. Carlson, pers. comm. 27 Aug 99).
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Octopus (Octopus cyanea and O. ornatus), squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana), and cuttlefish
(Sepia latimanus) are reef-associated species3 commonly taken as food in the Marianas
(Myers 1997 in Green October 1997). Octopus cyanea was identified as a species found on
the reef slope at Rota, and targeted for capture in the local fishery (Smith et al 1989).
1
The octopods are well-known reef-dwellers. The common names for Sepioteuthis lessoniana and
Sepia latimanus, bigfin reef squid and reef cuttlefish, respectively, reflect their assocation with reef
areas (Allen and Steene 1996).
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Guam
It is reported that on Guam, the octopus is the most sought-after unshelled mollusk, while
squid and cuttlefish form a part of the incidental catch of the inshore fisheries (Hensley and
Sherwood 1993). Octopus and squid are reported to contribute to the importance of mollusks
as a food source (Amesbury et al. 1986 in Green October 1997). Sepia latimanus is reported
from Guam (B. Carlson, pers. comm. 27 Aug 99). Presumably, other cephalopod species
reported in the Northern Marianas (i.e., Octopus cyanea, O. ornatus, Sepioteuthis
lessoniana) would be expected to occur in Guam, as well.
Hawaii (MHI and NWHI)
The following octopod species are known from Hawaiian waters: Octopus cyanea, O.
ornatus, Berrya hoylei and Scaeurgus patagiatus. An additional three unnamed species are
believed present (Young and Harman 1989). Octopus are a component of the incidental
catch of the lobster-trap fishery in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (WPRFMC 25 May 99).
An unnamed species of octopus is known from Waianae, Oahu. It occupies burrows in sandy
areas. The burrows have openings about the diameter of a thumb. It is not known whether
the octopus digs the burrow, or simply occupies a burrow already dug by another animal
(e.g., mantis shrimp). This octopus emerges from its burrow and mimics a flatfish (B.
Carlson, pers. comm. 27 Aug 99).
While more than a dozen species of squids and cuttlefishes are recorded from Hawaiian
waters (Matsumoto and Suzuki October 1988), most of these are pelagic. Euprymna
scolopes, an endemic cuttlefish, is typically associated with a benthic existence in shallowwater areas. The species is common in the sand and mud flats of Kaneohe Bay, where it
forages to feed on shrimp (Leander debilis) at depths of less than 0.5m (Kay 1979).
In Hawaii, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, the bigfin reef squid, was previously common, but may
now be nearly extirpated. It had been known from Waianae, Oahu. A recent sighting of the
species was made on Molokini Island, Maui (B. Carlson, pers. comm. 27 Aug 99).
Other Sites
No reports.
4.2.2.2 Tunicates
General Description of the Taxon
The tunicates, or sea squirts, are an unusual group of sessile marine organisms within the
Phylum Chordata. While vertebrates comprise the most conspicuous and well-known species
in the phylum, species in two subphyla (the Urochordata and Cephalochordata) lack
backbones. Nonetheless, they possess the three traits diagnostic for chordates--presence of a
notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, and pharyngeal clefts at some point in the life cycle.
The Urochordata, which comprise the tunicates, are further divided into three classes, the
Ascidiacea, the Larvacea, and the Thaliacea, the latter two being specialized planktonic
forms (Abbott et al. 1977). The discussion in this section therefore refers to members of the
Class Ascidiacea.
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The ascidians are common marine invertebrates worldwide. Most inhabit shallow waters,
where they attach to rocks, shells, pilings, or ship bottoms, or grow epizoically on other
sessile organisms. Some forms anchor in sand or mud, though the species inhabiting
sediments occur more generally in deeper waters.
The tunicate animal is sheathed in an outer covering, the tunic that is distinctive for the
group. The tunic in most cases contains cellulose, a rare instance of the substance being
produced by an animal. Calcareous spicules may also be present. The consistency of the
tunic varies from soft and gelatinous to fleshy, tough, leathery, cartilaginous, or fibrous.
Tunicates are attached to the substrate at their proximal end, and have two openings at the
opposite pole, the buccal and atrial siphons. The organisms filter plankton by drawing water
into a pharyngeal [email protected] through the buccal siphon (ICLARM 1998).
The pharyngeal basket is the most prominent internal organ in most tunicates. Rows of
perforations in the basket, the stigmata, are fringed with beating cilia that circulate water
through the basket, with plankton filtered out in the process. A single tunicate a few
centimeters long can filter about 173 liters of seawater in a 24-hour period (Barnes 1987).
The filtered water is ultimately discharged through the atrial siphon. In addition to obtaining
nutrition through filter-feeding, some tunicates possess within their tissues (in the tunic or
cloacal region) endosymbiotic algae of the genus Prochloron. In certain ascidians, another
algal endosymbiont, Synechocystis, occurs. This alga imparts a pink or red color to the
appearance of the tunicate Monniot et al. 1991). Presumably, excess photosynthate produced
by Prochloron or Synechocystis cells provides an accessory food source for the tunicate host.
While some of the largest species are solitary (or simple) ascidians, many are colonial.
Colonies may be organized along several different lines. In the simplest colonies (e.g.,
Perophora), the bodies of individual zooids are almost completely separated but are
connected by a stolon. In other types, the stolons are short, and the individuals form tuftlike
groups (e.g., Clavelina). In the most specialized colonial types (e.g., Botryllus), individual
animals are minute, and completely embedded in a common tunic. The buccal siphons of
each zooid open separately to the environment. The atrial siphons may also, but in many
cases the apertures of the atrial siphons open into a common cloacal chamber, which has one
large opening in the middle of the colony (Barnes 1987; Abbott et al. 1977).
Reproduction and Life History
Patterns of sexual reproduction vary from one family to another, and sometimes from one
genus to another, within the class. For the most part, solitary and colonial ascidians are
simultaneous hermaphrodites (Abbott et al. 1977). The degree to which self-fertilization
occurs is not well known. Typically, solitary ascidians release both eggs and sperm into
open water, where fertilization occurs. The embryo develops into a non-feeding, swimming
larva, or [email protected] It is in the tadpole phase (which superficially resembles a typical frog
tadpole) that the notochord and dorsal nerve cord, which characterize these organisms as
chordates, are present. However, these features are lost during metamorphosis, and are
absent in the adult phase. Colonial forms are ovoviviparous: sperm are shed to the sea, but
not eggs. Fertilization in these types occurs within the oviduct or peribranchial cavity of the
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female parent, and the tadpole larvae emerge swimming, following development inside the
parent body (Monniot et al. 1991). The larvae are completely encased in a tunic, and the
buccal and atrial siphons are not functional. Thus the larvae are unable to feed; their prime
function is to quickly find a suitable substrate to settle on. Therefore, tadpole larvae may
only swim for a few minutes to a few days (Pearse et al. 1987). Following settlement,
metamorphosis to the adult phase generally entails resorption of the tail and other larval
structures, 180-degree rotation of the body to its adult posture, opening of the siphons,
development of the brancial sac, and formation of the adult nervous system (Monniot et al.
1991).
In addition to sexual reproduction, the tunicates can reproduce asexually by budding.
Budding individuals, or blastozooids, originate in different parts of the ascidian body,
depending on the species. Individuals produced by primary buds are eventually freed from
the parent colony (Barnes 1987). In addition to budding, colonial forms may undergo
continuous divisions into smaller units termed cormomeres. The division entails rapid and
dynamic movement of the colonies over the substrate. In addition to accomplishing the
actual physical separation of the colony fragments, it is thought that this form of division
may serve some other purposes as well, including maximizing periphery to area (which may
improve efficiency of feeding or growth), excluding competitors by the dynamic movement
involved; and mingling clones to facilitate cross-fertilzation (Ryland et al., 1984).
Typically, tunicates may live for 1-3 years, but some colonies may have a somewhat longer
life span (Barnes 1987).
Habitat and Ecological Factors
Finding a stable substrate is critical for the survival of settling tunicates. Thus, inert surfaces
of rocks, corals or pilings may be preferable to the less durable surfaces of seaweeds,
mangrove roots, or other sessile invertebrates (soft corals, sponges, other tunicates), though
all of these may provide surfaces for tunicates to grow on. Many tunicates (especially the
more delicate soft-bodied forms) also show a marked preference for growth in protected
pockets or crevices, as opposed to exposed areas of the reef crest or face, where they would
be subject to extreme variations in water movement, and possibly, greater predation by
grazing animals. When they do occur in such places, tunicates are often covered by epibionts
that may afford some camouflage and physical protection (Monniot et al. 1991).
Light and color of the substrate may be physical cues that influence larval settling, with
darker, less illuminated surfaces being the preferred substrates. However, some forms,
especially didemnids containing the endosymbiotic alga, Prochloron, can grow as high up as
the intertidal zone, where light is most intense (Ryland et al. 1984). In addition, it is believed
that certain chemicals may trigger initiation of various processes, including spawning,
metamorphosis, larval attraction, and repulsion of predators or epibionts. For example,
chemicals exuded by parent zooids may cause larvae to settle nearby, increasing the
likelihood that larvae will find a suitable settlement substrate (Monniot et al. 1991).
As filter-feeders, tunicates are dependent upon the availability of adequate suspended food
particles in the water column. Tunicate growth on outer reef slopes may be relatively more
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limited than within enclosed bays or lagoons, since phytoplankton may be less abundant
there. Ovoviviparous colonial types are better suited to growth on outer slopes than are
solitary forms, since larvae are protected during development and the free-swimming stage is
very brief. By contrast, within lagoons, both solitary and colonial types are fairly abundant.
Solitary forms seem to dominate in colonizing newly-available surfaces in disturbed areas
(for example, in harbors), but typically species diversity in such settings is low (Monniot et
al. 1991). Dominance of the solitary forms may be due to the fact that their larvae are
released in greater numbers, and spend a longer time in the free-swimming phase, than larvae
of colonial types.
Tunicates are not selective about the types of particles that are ingested in filter-feeding, and
in waters with a high sediment load, silt and other mineral particles may accumulate in the
pharyngeal basket and the digestive tract. If excessive, the silt may clog the pharynx and
suffocate the animal.
Economic Importance
With minor exceptions,4 ascidians are not presently utilized for any economic purposes.
However, over the last twenty years or so, considerable research efforts have been directed at
isolating and identifying compounds from tunicates that may have some cytotoxic activity,
and thus some future medical value. For example, didemnines extracted from Trididemnum
solidum are effective anti-cancer agents and may also have anti-viral properties (Monniot et
al. 1991). Alkaloids and peptides, derivatives of amino acids, have also been isolated from
tunicates. Some of these have antimicrobial properties (Lee et al., 1997; Zhao et al., 1997).
Other proteinaceous compounds derived from tunicates may play a role in mediating
responses in the immune system (Pancer et al., 1997; Pancer et al., 1993). Lissoclinum
bistratum, a tunicate from New Caledonia that contains within its tissues endosymbiotic
Prochloron algae, has been the source of polyethers that have strong effects on the nervous
system. It remains to be determined whether the embedded Prochloron algal cells, rather
than the tissues of the tunicate animal itself, are the source of these compounds (Monniot et
al., 1991). It is speculated that in life, tunicates may utilize cytotoxic compounds to ward off
predators or repel epibionts (Muller et al., 1994).
The ascidians are important members of the community of marine fouling organisms. The
solitary tunicates seem to be especially opportunistic in colonizing freshly-exposed surfaces
of pilings, docks, other harbor structures, and boat hulls. Ascidians and other fouling
organisms interfere with boat operations and normal function such equipment as cooling
water intakes. On hulls, fouling organisms cause additional drag of vessels as they move
through the water. Significant effort and money are spent in developing effective means for
deterring the growth of fouling organisms, and for eliminating them from boat hulls and
other structures. Recently, great concern has developed about the transoceanic transport of
tunicate species to areas where they are not indigenous, typically by attachment to boat hulls
or being carried in bilge water. Introduction of exotic species transported in this manner can
4
In some countries, certain larger species are consumed as a food item.
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be disruptive of the balance of species in natural communities.5 Among the Hawaiian
species discussed by Abbott (1977), many are potential fouling organisms, with Polyclinum
constellatum, Diplosoma listerianum, Ciona intestinalis, Corella minuta, Ascidia sydneiensis
Phallusia nigra, Symplegma oceania, Polyandrocarpa zorritensis, Styela canopus,
Herdmania momus being the most prevalent.
While ascidians typically will settle only on dead parts of coral, once established they may
overgrow and smother adjacent living coral tissue (Monniot et al. 1991). The encrusting
colonial tunicate, Diplosoma similis, has an extremely wide range in the tropical Western
Pacific, and is known to overgrow large areas of living Acropora coral and the coralline alga,
Hydrolithon (Littler and Littler 1995). This can cause indirect economic consequences, since
such overgrowth of living coral areas can reduce the productivity of the reef, reducing the
potential for fisheries.
Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units (FMUs)
Little information is available on occurrence of ascidians in the Pacific Islands. Data from
the few citations located are presented here.
American Samoa
No reports.
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Abbott et al. (1977) mention that Polyclinum vasculosum, has been reported widely in the
Pacific, including from the Marianas.
Guam
The ascidian fauna of Guam is not well-known. As the result of some recent surveys, work
is in progress to more accurately assess and describe the fauna (pers. comm. Gretchen
Lambert, California State University, Fullerton 19 Aug 99).
Hawaii (MHI and NWHI)
Eldredge and Miller (1995) report a total of 45 species from Hawaii, but give no firm
indications about how many might be endemic or introduced species. Abbott et al. (1977)
report species from Hawaii in the following families: Polyclinidae (4 species); Polycitoridae
(4); Didemnidae (11); Cionidae (1); Perophoridae (4); Corellidae (1); Ascidiidae (6);
Styelidae (10); Pyuridae (3). All the growth forms discussed above are represented, and
these taxa occupy a corresponding range of substrates. Diplosoma similis, the species that
overgrows live reefs, is among the tunicates reported from Hawaii.
5
Biological Resources Division, US Geological Service, Nonindigenous Tunicate Information
Website.
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Other Sites
No reports.
4.2.2.3 Bryozoans
General Description of the Taxon
The Phylum Bryozoa is a taxonomically problematic group. While authorities have
variously regarded them as including (Ehrenberg [1831]) or excluding (Hyman [1959]) the
Entoprocta (a group of sessile organisms that superficially resemble hydroids), the Bryozoa
as considered here refer only to the Ectoprocta. This group is comprised of colonial, sessile
animals, with the vast majority occurring in marine environments. They have formed an
important component of the fossil record since the Ordovician period. Though widespread on
tropical reefs, bryozoans are often not recognized because they occur in mixed associations
with algae, hydroids, sponges, and tunicates, especially on older portions of coral reefs
(Soule et al. 1987).
The Bryozoa comprise the largest of four phyla of invertebrates that possess a lophophore.
The lophophore is a fold of the body wall that encircles the mouth and bears numerous
ciliated tentacles. Through the movement of the cilia, a water current is generated that drives
plankton into the mouth of the bryozoan animal. The individual animals of the colony, or
zooids, have a large coelom and a [email protected] digestive tract, with the anus opening to the
outside of the lophophore tentacle circle (hence, [email protected]). Organs for gas exchange,
circulation, and excretion are absent, probably owing mostly to the small size of the animals,
which would allow for direct exchange of nutrients and wastes.
The phylum is divided into three classes, with Class Gymnolaemata containing most of the
living marine species. Other marine types are contained within the order Cyclostomata in
Class Stenolaemata (Ryland 1970). While some Bryozoa occur at great depths, the majority
are found in shallower coastal waters, where they grow attached to rocks, corals, shells, other
animals, wood (e.g., mangrove roots), or algae. Growth habit may be stoloniferous, foliose,
branching, or encrusting. Large colonies may consist of more than two million individual
zooids, and may reach up to 24 cm in height for erect species, and up to 50 cm diameter for
encrusting forms (Barnes 1987). While various species are recognized on a gross level by
their growth habit, to some degree, growth form is mediated by environmental conditions, so
that within any given taxon, a range of variation in the form of the colony may occur (Soule
et al. 1987).
The Gymnolaemata are divided into two distinct orders. The Ctenostomata, or ctenostomes,
contain stoloniferous or compact colonies in which the exoskeleton is membranous,
chitinous, or gelatinous. Usually, the terminal aperture of the zooid is open (i.e., lacks an
operculum). In contrast, the Cheilostomata, or cheilostomes, have boxlike calcareous walls.
A hinged, moveable operculum covers the aperture of the zooid in most cheilostome species.
The operculum opens when the lophophore is extended for feeding, and shuts when the
animal withdraws into the calcareous chamber of the zooecium (the colonial skeleton).
Specially modified zooids are the avicularia, with movable jaw-like parts that serve to repel
predators, and vibracula, with setae or bristles that are used to prevent accumulations of silt.
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The marine Stenolaemata, the cyclostomes, are considered more primitive in organization
than the Gymnolaemata (Ryland 1970). In the cyclostomes, the zooids are tubular and
calcified, and the orifice is distally or anteriorly located, without an operculum (Barnes
1987).
Reproduction and Life History
The reproductive process in the Gymnolaemata is representative for the majority of marine
species. Most marine bryozoans are hermaphroditic. However, the details of this
arrangement may vary, with individual bryozoans being sequentially or simultaneously
hermaphroditic, or unisexual. In some cases, permanently unisexual colonies may form
(Soule et al. 1987). Sperm are shed through terminal pores of two or more tentacles of the
lophophore, and released into seawater. Sperm are captured in the currents generated by the
action of the lophophores of other nearby zooids. Fertilization between zooids of the same
colony is probably common, but sufficient cross-fertilization likely occurs between colonies
to assure outbreeding. In certain non-brooding species, fertilized eggs are shed directly into
the seawater. Eggs of other species may be brooded in the coelomic cavity, or outside it.
One specialized structure for brooding is a hood-like outgrowth of the body wall and coelom
called the ovicell. In many species, the developing embryo receives its nutrition from a
contained yolk, but in others, placenta-like connections to the ovicell from the mother zooid
may provide food material.
For the Cyclostomata, specialized individuals, the gonozooids, may be modified for
reproduction, or the colony may form a centralized chamber as a brooding structure (Soule
1987).
Bilateral cleavage leads to the development of a larva that has a locomotory ciliated girdle, or
corona, an anterior tuft of long cilia, and a posterior adhesive sac. In certain genera of nonbrooding bryozoans (e.g., Membranipora) a specialized feeding larva, the cyphonautes larva,
develops. These are the only larvae that possess a functional digestive tract, and feed during
the larval stage, a phase which may last several months. In brooding species, larvae are nonfeeding, and the larval phase lasts only for a brief period before settlement.
During settling, the vibratile plume, a sensory tuft of cilia, is used in selecting a suitable site
for attachment. The adhesive sac is everted and attaches the larva to the selected site. After
settlement, the larva undergoes a marked metamorposis to form the ancestrula, the first
zooid. Subsequent zooids in the colony are formed by asexual budding. The zooids formed
by budding can themselves bud in various arrangements, giving rise to the form that
characterizes each species (Meglitsch and Schram 1991).
Habitat and Ecological Requirements for Various Life History Stages
Preferences and Other Physical Parameters
Rather than being a primary structural reef-builder, bryozoans generally function as Ahidden
[email protected] that grow on the undersides of coral heads, rock ledges, and rubble, and may also
partially fill cavities deep within the reef (Cuffey 1972). In this capacity, to a limited degree,
bryozoans may reinforce the structural strength and stability of the reef.
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A correlation has been noted between growth form and the depth at which various types
occur (Ryland 1970). Generally, encrusting forms may be associated with intertidal areas or
other sites subject to strong waves. Such forms would also be more resistant to grazing by
predators. Less sturdy types, including erect branching and foliose forms, are found in areas
not subject to strong surge or heavy pressure from grazing predators. For example, reticulate
to fenestrate reteporids are typically confined to deeper, more stable marine habitats (Dade
and Honkalehto 1986).
On modern tropical reefs, encrusting cheilostomes are the most abundant and diversified
bryozoans. Encrusting cheilostomes comprise from 50 to 70 percent of the colonies observed
in various reef environments in Kaneohe Bay (Dade and Honkalehto 1986). It appears that in
depths below 5 to 7 m, bryozoans become more abundant and more diverse than in shallower
areas (Cuffey 1972). In surveys conducted to depths of approximately 20 m in Kaneohe Bay
(Dade and Honkalehto 1986), a similar trend was observed toward conditions that appear to
favor more abundant and diverse growth in deeper water. Among the possible contributing
factors cited were environmental stability (e.g., less water movement, fewer grazers);
availability of substrate (as competition with corals and encrusting algae decreases); and
decrease in ambient light.
It is known that bryozoan larvae actively search for suitable substrates for settlement. It has
been observed that bryozoan larvae are able to persist in the plankton for many days longer
than expected when conditions are not favorable for settling (Soule et al. 1987). Different
species settle variously on rocks, shells, corals, or algae. The length of time over which
larvae settle for a given species within a given area is thought to be dependent on a number
of environmental factors, including day length and temperature. Day length may be both a
direct influencing factor, and an indirect influence, since phytoplankton, presumed to be the
preferred food source for many bryozoans, would be available in larger quantities during
days with longer daylight hours. In Hawaii, larvae of Bugula neritina settled almost yearround (March to December). This also may indicate that B. neritina has an extended
spawning season in Hawaii (Ryland 1970).
In many species, larvae first exhibit a positive phototropic reaction, but then become
negatively phototropic before metamorphosis, eventually settling in dark places on the reef,
such as the undersides of stones or flat coral plates (Soule et al. 1987). Generally, high light
intensity environments do not support the growth of bryozoans (Soule et al. 1987). Empirical
observation suggests that heavily-silted environments generally deter successful settlement;
few bryozoans are found growing in areas where rapid deposition of fine sediments occurs,
or where water is frequently muddy or turbid (Soule et al. 1987).
Strong correlations were observed between various growth form groups and their position on
the reef. So-called lagoon reef areas (fringing and patch reefs, 1-8m depth) were dominated
by encrusting cheilostomes (Celleporaria vagens, Rynchozoon sp., Coscinopsis fusca,
Cleidochasma sp.) and mat-like, tuft-like, and disk-like cheilostomes, as well as lichenoporid
and tubuliporid cyclostomes. The barrier reef coral-algal flat breaker zone (1-2.5m depth)
portion of the study site was dominated by the encrusting cheilostomes, Thallamoporella
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stapifera and Rhynchozoon sp. The ocean slope bench (15-20m depth) provided habitat for a
wider variety of species, including encrusting cheilostomes (especially Steginoporella
magnilabris, Parasmittina parsevaliformis, and Schizoporella decorata), as well as an
assortment of reteporid cheilostomes, tuft-like cheilostomes, and lichenoporid and
tubuliporid cyclostomes.
Idmidronea, a genus of highly-branched cyclostomatous bryozoans, is reported to occur on
the surface of living corals and sponges in Hawaii (Gossliner et al. 1996).
Reteporellina and Reteporella sp. occur in areas with fairly strong currents at 10-20m depth
(Gossliner et al. 1996).
Another interesting occurrence is the association of bryozoans with black corals (Antipathes
dichotoma) growing at around 50m depth in the Auau Channel off Maui. About thirty species
were found attached to the bases of the corals, and to mollusks attached to the lower coral
branches. Haloporella vaganas and Reteporellina denticulata were the most common
members of these assemblages (Soule et al. 1986).
In another study, encrusting and erect cheilostome bryozoans were found to grow on an
artificial reef positioned in 20m of water in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Bryozoans grew rapidly on
introduced substrates after two months. Two encrusting species, Celloporaria vagans and
Thalamoporella spp., competed vigorously for space on an artificial substrate (Bailey-Brock
1987). In a similar manner, fouling organisms also appear to opportunistically colonize
available surfaces. Thirteen species6 were found to occur regularly on harbor and bay
structures and boat hulls around Oahu (Soule et al. 1987).
Feeding
Bryozoans are suspension-feeders that capture plankton from the water. Gut contents show
the presence of diatoms, detritus, bacteria, silicoflagellates, peridinians, coccolithophores,
algal cysts, and flagellates. Unicellular algal cultures (Dunaliella tertiolecta and
Gymnodinium simplex) have been used to successfully rear bryozoans in the laboratory
(Soule et al. 1987).
While not an obvious food source for other animals, bryozoans are utilized by a variety of
grazers, including echinoids, labrid fishes, and nudibranchs (Soule et al. 1987).
Economic Significance
Despite their widespread occurrence, bryozoans are generally not directly utilized for any
applied purposes. However, they are being thoroughly investigated for the presence of
biochemically active compounds that may ultimately prove useful for treatment of disease.
Bryostatin 1, a compound isolated from a common marine bryozoan, is currently being tested
6
Aetea recta, Bowerbankia gracilis, B. imbricata, Bugula stolonifera, B. neritina, Hippopodina feegeensis,
Savignyella lafonti, Schizoporella unicornis, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Scrupocellaria sinuosa, Cryptosula
pallasiana, Tryptostega venusta, and Watersipora edmondsoni.
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as an anti-cancer drug.7 Bryozoans are recognized for producing a range of other
compounds, particularly alkaloids that may ultimately be shown to have pharmaceutical
applications (Van Alstyne and Paul 1988).
Many bryozoan species also have economic importance because of their action as fouling
organisms. Bryozoa, along with other common sessile invertebrates and algae, attach to boat
hulls, making their movement in the water less efficient. Among the common bryozoan
fouling species in warm-water areas are Bugula neritina, Schizoporella errata, Watersipora
subovoidea, and Zoobotryon verticillatum (Ryland 1970). These and other species can also
clog industrial water intakes and conduits. Significant effort and money are spent in
developing effective means for deterring the growth of fouling organisms, and for
eliminating them from boat hulls and other structures. The growth of fouling organisms,
besides being of economic significance, also has ecological implications--species growing on
ship hulls are readily transported great distances beyond their natural range, and may be
introduced into new areas, thus having an impact on the natural balance of species in
established ecosystems.
Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units (FMUs)
American Samoa
No reports.
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
No reports.
Guam
No reports.
Hawaii (MHI and NWHI)
Surveys in Kaneohe Bay (Dade and Honkalehto 1986) yielded a total of 57 species of
ectoproct bryozoans, including 45 cheilostomes, 13 cyclostomes, and 1 ctenostome. Many of
these are cosmopolitan, capable of being dispersed over great distances, often by rafting on
algae, logs, or artificial substrates. However, owing to the isolation of the archipelago,
significant speciation has occurred, with the result that of the species recorded in Kaneohe
Bay, 23 percent were believed to be endemic to Hawaii. It is estimated that over 150 species
of bryozoans occur in Hawaii; however the total number of endemic species for Hawaii is not
known (Eldredge and Miller 1985).
Other Sites
With the exception of Hawaii, little published information is available for the other U.S.
Pacific Islands. Because the shallow sublittoral bryozoan fauna for the Indo-Pacific is not
7
U. of California, Berkeley: Bryozoan Internet website.
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well known, it is difficult at present to establish with any certainty the degree of endemism of
specific taxa within any given island or archipelago (Soule et al. 1987).
4.2.2.4 Crustaceans
Introduction
The arthropod subphylum Crustacea is one of the most diverse and widespread groups of
invertebrates. Within the subphylum, the Class Malacostraca contains such familiar types as
mantis shrimps, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp, as well as less conspicuous, but ecologically
important organisms, the isopods and amphipods.
Crustaceans cannot grow as many other animals do, because the hard exoskeleton does not
stretch. Therefore, they periodically shed the outer skeleton, grow rapidly for a period of
time, then re-grow a new exoskelteton. The molting process involves many complex
physiological changes, including reduction of the lime content in the exoskeleton to weaken
it prior to molting; rapid absorption of water after molting to expand the body size; and
redeposition of lime to again strengthen the exoskeleton (Tinker 1965). During molting, the
animal is in a weakened and vulnerable condition, and must seek shelter to avoid being
preyed upon by other animals. Thus the molting process strongly influences the habitat
requirements of these animals.
The malacostracan body is typically composed of 14 segments, plus the telson, with the first
8 segments forming the thorax and the last 6, the abdomen. The thorax may or may not be
covered by a carapace. All segments bear appendages, with the first antennae usually being
biramous, the exopodite (outer branch) of the second antennae often in the form of a flattened
scale, and the mandibles usually bearing palps. In the primitive condition, the thoracic
appendages are similar, with the endopodite (inner branch) being more developed for use in
crawling or grasping. In most species, the first one, two, or three pairs of thoracic legs have
been turned forward and modified to form maxillipeds. The anterior abdominal legs are
similar, and are called pleopods. They are used for swimming, burrowing, ventilating, gas
exchange, and carrying eggs in females. In males, the first one or two pleopods are modified
to form copulatory organs. The sixth abdominal appendages, or uropods, are flattened, and
together with the telson, form a tail fan used in escape swimming.
The present discussion is confined to those larger forms that are of concern from a
management standpoint. These belong to the order Stomatopoda (mantis shrimps), and order
Decapoda (shrimps, lobsters, and crabs). As part of Amendment 10 to the Crustacean
Fisheries Management Plan, (WPRFMC September 1998) background information has been
presented, and EFH has already been defined, for certain economically-important decapod
taxa (i.e., spiny lobsters, Panulirus marginatus and P. penicillatus, and kona crab, Ranina
ranina) (Table 88). The present discussion will provide further information on other decapod
taxa, and summarize the information contained in Amendment 10 on lobsters and Kona crab.
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Stomatopoda (Mantis Shrimps)
Description
Several hundred marine species constitute the order Stomatopoda, the mantis shrimps. These
organisms live in rock or coral crevices or in burrows excavated in sand. They are
dorsoventrally flattened with a small, shield-like carapace and a large segmented abdomen
that widens toward the posterior end. Characteristic of the group is the possession of a
highly developed, powerful pair of second-segment raptorial appendages that are used either
for spearing or smashing prey.
Reproduction and Life History
In stomatopods, as many as 50,000 eggs (e.g., genus Squilla) are joined together by an
adhesive secretion to form a globular mass. The mass is held by the female in small
subchelate appendages and constantly turned and cleaned. The female does not feed while
brooding. Depending on the species, the egg mass may be left in the burrow, or the female
may carry the egg mass with the thoracic legs (Meglitsch and Schram 1991). The eggs hatch
into zoea larvae that have carapaces that are much larger than in the adult, relative to total
body size. The larvae may appear in very large numbers in the plankton community in
tropical waters. Two types of larvae are recognized, an erichthus and an alima. The larvae
pass through a prolonged phase during which the last three thoracic somites have no
appendages, a feature also observed in zoea larvae of decapods (Meglitsch and Schram
1991). The planktonic larval phase lasts for up to three months (Barnes 1987).
Habitat and Ecological Requirements for Various Life History Stages
Most stomatopods live in pockets or crevices on the reef, or in burrows in sand. They may
dig their own burrows or occupy burrows excavated by other animals. A variety of
mechanisms are used to close the burrow entrance for protection; the animal may plug the
hole with its telson, or gather shells and other debris to close the entrance at night, and block
it during the day with the raptorial appendages.
Mantis shrimps may leave the burrows to feed, either crawling or swimming over the bottom.
Some types (Aspearers,@ e.g., Lysiosquilla maculata) are equipped with raptorial appendages
that have sharp barbs that pierce soft-bodied prey animals, such as shrimps or fishes. In
others ([email protected] such as Gonodactylus spp.) the raptorial appendages have a sharp, heavy
heel that can crack the shells of crabs, snails, and clams.
Economic Importance
Mantis shrimps are part of the incidental catch of subsistence fisheries, and may be captured
in crab nets that are placed near their burrows (Tinker 1965). Their use as a food source is
generally limited. Some species, especially brightly-colored ones (e.g., Gonodactylus sp.),
may have some minor value in the aquarium trade (?-confirm). Limited use is made of the
ivory-like raptorial appendages of some species in the small-scale manufacture of jewelry
(Tinker 1965).
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Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units
American Samoa
No reports.
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Two stomatopods found in the Northern Marianas, Mesacturus dicrurus and Gonodactylus
sp., were reported by Hamano (1994). Both species, in the Gonodactylidae, occur in rocky
intertidal areas.
Guam
Lysiosquilla spp. (Green October 1997) and Mesacturus dicrurus (Gonodactylidae; Hamano
1994) are known from Guam. Mesacturus dicrurus is associated with rocky intertidal
environments (Hamano 1994).
Gossliner et al. (1996) report on the following species:
Gonodactylellus affinis (Stomatopodidae), a species that is highly polymorphic in color,
occurs here, usually below 20m depth. By contrast, Gonodactylus chiragra is an inhabitant
of shallow intertidal reef flats and rocky outcrops, and forages in low tide in a few
centimeters of water. Gonodactylaceus mutatus occurs on reef flats to 5m depth, and also
forages at extreme low tide. Mesacturoides spinosocarinatus may be found at depths ranging
from 5 to 50 m. The animals stay close to their burrows, but dart about nearby.
Pseudosquilla ciliata burrows in sand and gravel on reefs and sand flats, to 30m depth.
Hawaii (MHI and NWHI)
Eldredge and Miller (1995) list a total of approximately 17 stomatopods from Hawaii. Of
these, 11 are considered endemic.
Lysiosquilla maculata and Squilla (Oratosquilla) oratoria are reported to occur in Hawaii.
Both are found in mud-bottom areas suitable for burrows (Tinker 1965).
Gossliner et al. (1996) report the occurrence of the following Hawaiian species:
Odontodactylus brevirostris is found in burrows of small rubble pieces at 10-50m depth. O.
scyallarus is a night-feeding carnivore that preys on crustaceans, worms, mollusks, fish. It is
found on sand and rubble bottoms to 70m. Oratosquilla oratoria, another nocturnal species,
is reported in muddy estuaries and on reefs, in U-shaped burrows up to 1m long.
Pseudosquilla ciliata burrows in sand and gravel on reefs and sand flats, and is found to 30m
depth.
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Other Sites
A single specimen of Pseudosquilla ciliata was encountered at Palmyra Island (Edmondson
1923).
Decapoda: Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs
Introduction
With approximately 10,000 species, decapods represent about one fourth of all known
crustaceans (Barnes 1987). They are among the most diverse and successful crustacean
groups, having exploited virtually all available niches in the marine habitat, as well as having
developed specialized strategies for nutrition and reproduction.
The generalized decapod life cycle is characterized by the nauplius and protozoea stages
being passed inside the egg. However, some primitive forms (e.g., penaeids) pass the earlier
developmental stages outside of the egg. Transition from protozoea to the next stage (zoea)
involves the addition of thoracic limbs and dependence on the thoracic appendages for
locomotion. The carapace fuses to the thorax, and pleopods and stalked eyes appear. The
zoea is typically the stage at which the larva emerges from the egg. From the zoea phase,
further transformations occur, making the postlarval or juvenile phase more closely resemble
the adult (Meglitsch and Schram 1991).
In the adult phase, decapods are distinguished by having the first three pairs of thoracic
appendages modified into maxillipeds. The remaining five pairs are the legs. The first or
second pair of legs may be chelipeds (pincer-like claws) that are used for seizing prey or for
defense (Barnes 1987).
Decapods exhibit a wide range of feeding behaviors, but most combine predation with
scavenging, with large invertebrates being typical prey items (Barnes 1987). Others may be
detritus or filter feeders. The form of the body, especially the appendages, is often modified
for more effective functioning in acquiring food. Thus, box crabs such as Calappa calappa
have powerful chelae used to crush mollusks; sand-burrowing mole crabs (e.g., Emerita
pacifica) use long fringed antennae to filter plankton and detritus; and banded coral shrimp
(Stenopus hispidus) use thin pincers to delicately pick ectoparasites from the scales of fishes=
bodies (Gossliner et al. 1996).
Shrimps: Infraorders Penaeidea, Stenopodidea, Caridea
General Description and Morpohology
The shrimps are found in several different decapod infraorders, and this taxonomic disunity
reflects the wide range of forms and lifestyles that are represented in this large but artificial
grouping. The penaeids are considered the most primitive decapods, while other types, such
as the alpheids and palaemonids, represent more advanced forms. The features that generally
characterize shrimps are bodies that are laterally compressed or more or less cylindrical, with
well-developed abdomens, and a cephalothorax that often has a keel-shaped, serrated
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rostrum. Legs are usually slender, and chelipeds may be present or absent. The exoskeleton
is usually relatively thin and flexible (Barnes 1987).
Reproduction and Life History
In most shrimps, copulation takes place with the adults pair oriented at right angles to each
other. The male uses the modified first and second pair of pleopods to transfer a
spermatophore to a median receptacle between the thoracic legs of the female. The penaeids
are the only decapod group in which eggs are shed directly into the water and hatch as
naupliar or metanaupliar larvae. In all other decapods, females carry the eggs on the
pleopods, and hatching takes place at the protozoea or zoea stage (Barnes 1987). The various
larval schemes in decapods are summarized in Table 83.
Habitat and Ecological Requirements for Various Life History Stages
Most shrimps are bottom-dwellers. Thoracic appendages are used for crawling, while
pleopods are used for swimming, and also to fan sediments during excavation of burrows.
Many penaeids construct burrows in sand or other soft-bottom material, or simply bury
themselves in sediment during daytime, emerging at night to feed (Gossliner et al. 1996).
Other types, such as snapping or pistol shrimp (Alpheidae), live in holes and crevices beneath
rocks and coral rubble, or may construct burrows. Certain alpheids are also closely
associated with corals, especially in the genus Pocillopora (Hayashi et al. 1994; see notes in
section IV.C.4.e, below) Other genera also may live inside or in close association with a
variety of other living organisms, including sponges, tunicates, mollusks, corals,
echinoderms, or anemones (Tables 84-87).
Many of the commensal associations between shrimps and other organisms are quite
specialized. The Acleaner shrimps,@ an artificial grouping of species distributed among
several families, play an important role in reef ecology by reducing ectoparasites on reef
fishes. Through complex behavioral cues and signals, the fishes approach well-defined
Acleaning [email protected] on the reef and allow the shrimps to climb over their bodies and even
insert their chelipeds into the gill region to pick off parasites. Anemone shrimps in the genus
Periclimenes may also clean fish, and spend most of their time living among the stinging
tentacles of sea anemones. Many snapping shrimps of the family Alpheidae typically share
their burrows in a close relationship with fish of the family Gobiidae, presumably to the
mutual benefit of both partners.
Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units
American Samoa
No reports.
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Hayashi et al (1994) surveyed the crustacean fauna on Anatahan, Sarigan, Guguan,
Alamagan, Pagan, Agrihan, Asuncion, Maug (East, West and North), and Uracas. Their
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collections were made at depths ranging from 3-14 meters. The findings included reports of
the following species of shrimps:
Stenopodidae:
Stenopus hispidus (found in the rocky subtidal zone; known from a wide geographic range
where it occurs from the intertidal to depths of 210m); Rhyncocinetidae: Rhyncocinetes sp.;
Palaemonidae: Brachycarpus biunguiculatus, Harpiliopsis beaupresii (on coral), H.depressa,
Ichnopontonia lophos, Jocaste japonica, Onycocaris quadratophthalma (on Pocillopora
coral), Palaemonella spinulata; Alpheidae: Alpheopsis sp., Alpheus bidens, A. cf. crinitus, A.
frontalis (under boulders), A. lottini (in somewhat deeper water [14 m]on Pocillopora), A.
obesomanus, A. pacificus, A. pearcyi, Athanas areteformis (on Pocillopora), Automate
dolicognatha, Metalpheus rostratipes (on Pocillopora), Racilius compressus, Syalpheus
charon (on Pocillopora), S. paraneomeris (on Pocillopora), S. tumidomanus (on
Pocillopora); Hippolytidae: Hippolyte edmondsoni (on algae; known otherwise only from
Oahu, Hawaii)
Guam
Several species of snapping shrimp (Alpheidae) were found in Guam. One species, Alpheus
obesomanus, occupied extensive tunnels in Millepora platyphylla colonies; up to 95 percent
of the colonies surveyed had shrimp tunnels. Another species, A. idiocheles, occupied subhemispherical pockets, called Agalleries,@ in an intertidal erosion bench. Each gallery
typically was inhabited by a male-female pair (Kropp 1987).
Hawaii (MHI and NWHI)
Eldredge and Miller (1995) indicate that there are approximately 200 species of marine
shrimps in Hawaii; of these, 4 stenopodids are believed to be endemic. Endemism of other
types has not been established with certainty.
Tinker (1965) reports the following species of interest: Stenopus hispidus (Stenopodidae), the
banded cleaner shrimp, is or pan-tropical distribution. It is typically found in holes in the
reef. The harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta (Gnathophyllidae), is found from Hawaii
eastward to the Red Sea. This species, relatively uncommon in Hawaii, is occasionally found
in quiet inshore waters on the reef.
Gossliner et al. (1996) report the following shrimps from Hawaii:
Stenopodidae:
Stenopus hispidus, S. pyrosonotus (cleaner shrimp found in crevices to 15 m depth; eggs are
light blue color); Pontoniidae: Periclimenes soror (on sea stars), P. imperator (on
nudibranch [Hexabranchus], holothurians [Stichopus, Bohadschia, Synapta], and sea star
[Gomophia]), Pontonides unciger (mimics polyps of black coral [Cirripathes] on which it
lives), Stegopontonia commensalis (on sea urchin spines); Lysmata amboinensis (cleaner
shrimp); Hippolytidae: Parhippolyte uveae (in anchialine ponds), Saron marmoratus
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(nocturnal in protected lagoons); Gnathophyllidae: Gnathophylloides mineri (on sea urchins),
Gnathophyllum americanum (associated with echinoderms), Hymenocera picta (preys on sea
stars); Rhinchocinetidae:Rhinchocinetes rugulosus.
Hayashi et al (1994) indicate that the following species are known from Hawaii:
Palaemonidae:
Brachycarpus biunguiculatus; Alpheidae: Alpheus pearcyi, Metalpheus rostratipes,
Syalpheus paraneomeris; Hippolytidae: Hippolyte edmondsoni (on algae; known only from,
Oahu, Hawaii and CNMI).
Other Sites
For each of the following families of shrimps, Edmondson (1923) lists the following number
of species (in parentheses) represented at Palmyra Atoll and/or Fanning Island:8 Alpheidae
(10); Hippolytidae (1); Gnathophyllidae (2); Palaemonidae (5); Stenopodidae (1);
Sergestidae (1).
Lobsters, Spiny Lobsters, Slipper Lobsters: Infraorders Astacidea, Palinura
General Description and Morpohology
Lobsters are heavy-bodied decapods that generally inhabit holes and crevices of rocky and
coralline bottoms. They have extended abdomens that bear a full complement of appendages,
and the carapace is always longer than it is broad. The infraorder Astacidea includes largeclawed lobsters, while the Palinura include the spiny lobsters (Palinuridae), slipper lobsters
(Scyllaridae), and coral lobsters (Synaxidae)(Barnes 1987; Pitcher 1993). Spiny lobsters are
non-clawed, decapod crustaceans with slender walking legs of roughly equal size (Uchida
1986, FAO 1991). In spiny lobsters, the carapace is large and spiny. Two horns and antennae
project forward of the eyes and the abdomen terminates in a flexible tailfan (FAO 1991).
The slipper lobster, while in many respects quite similar to the spiny lobster, has its second
antennae modified into broad, platelike structures (Pearse et al.1987). The body is more
flattened dorsiventally than the body of spiny lobsters. Large-clawed, or true lobsters are
more widespread and abundant in temperate areas, but of limited occurrence in the tropical
and sub-tropical Western Pacific. They differ from palinurids in having large, heavy
chelipeds.
Reproduction and Life History
The developmental history of the spiny lobster is covered at length in Amendment 10 of the
Crustacean Fisheries Management Plan, (WPRFMC September 1998). Key points are
excerpted here.
8
Family name nomenclature is updated.
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Spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) are dioecious (Uchida 1986). Generally, the different species
within the genus have the same reproductive behavior and life cycle (Pitcher 1993). The
male spiny lobster deposits a spermatophore or sperm packet on the female=s abdomen
(WPRFMC 1983, Uchida 1986). The fertilization of the eggs occurs externally (Uchida
1986a). The female lobster scratches and breaks the mass, releasing the spermatozoa
(WPRFMC 1983). Simultaneously, ova are released from the female=s oviduct and are then
fertilized and attached to the setae of the female=s pleopods (WPRFMC 1983, Pitcher 1993).
At this point the female lobster is ovigerous, or [email protected] (WPRFMC 1983).
The fertilized eggs hatch into leaf-like zoea larvae (the phyllosoma larvae) after 30B40 days
(MacDonald 1986, Uchida 1986), and enter a planktonic phase (WPRFMC 1983). The
duration of this planktonic phase varies, depending on the species and geographic region, and
may last from 6 months to 1 year from the time of hatching (WPRFMC 1983, MacDonald
1986). There are 11 dissimilar morphological stages of development that the phyllosoma
larvae pass through before they transform into the postlarval puelurus phase (Johnson 1986,
MacDonald 1986). The relatively long pelagic phase for palinurid larvae results in very wide
dispersal; palinurid larvae are transported up to 2,000 miles by prevailing ocean currents
(Johnston 1973, MacDonald 1986).
There is a lack of published data pertaining to the preferred depth distribution of phyllosoma
larvae in Hawaii. However, the depth distribution of phyllosoma larvae of other species of
Panulirus common in the Indo-Pacific region has been documented. Newly hatched larvae of
the western rock lobster (P. cygnus) are typically found within 60 m of the surface. Later
stages of the phyllosoma larvae are found at depths between 80B120 m. P. cygnus undergoes
a diurnal vertical migration, ascending to the surface at night, descending to lower depths
during the day, the authors add. Research has shown that early phyllosoma larvae display a
photopositive reaction to dim light. In the Gulf of Mexico, the depth to which Panulirus
larvae descend is restricted by the depth of the thermocline (Phillips and Sastry 1980).
The puelurus stage for spiny lobster lasts 6 months or less (WPRFMC 1983). The pueruli are
free-swimming and actively return to shallow, nearshore waters in preparation for settlement
(WPRFMC 1983, MacDonald 1986). MacDonald and Stimson (1980) found pueruli
settlement to occur at approximately 1 cm in length.
MacDonald (1986) states that after settlement the pueruli molt and transform into postpueruli, a transitional phase between the pelagic phyllosoma phase and the juvenile stage.
Pitcher (1993) states that the post-pueruli of Panulirus penicillatus have been observed
inhabiting the same Ahigh-energy reef-front [email protected] as adults of the species. Yoshimura and
Yamakawa (1988) conclude that small holes in rocks, boulders and algae provide important
habitat for the newly settled pueruli and juvenile lobsters.
The other palinuroids (coral and slipper lobsters) also have the unique phyllasoma larval
phase (Pitcher 1993). Johnston (1973) reports that the phyllosoma phase of some species of
slipper lobster (genus Scyllarides) is somewhat shorter than that of the spiny lobster.
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Habitat and Ecological Requirements
Adult spiny lobsters are typically found on rocky substrate in well-protected areas, in
crevices and under rocks (Pitcher 1993, FAO 1991), down to a depth of around 110m (Brock
1973). Unlike many other species of Panulirus, the juveniles and adults of P. marginatus are
not found in separate habitat apart from one another (MacDonald and Stimson 1980, Pitcher
1993, Parrish and Polovina 1994). Juvenile P. marginatus recruit directly to adult habitat;
they do not utilize separate shallow water nursery habitat apart from the adults as do many
Palinurid lobsters (MacDonald and Stimson 1980, Parrish and Polovina 1994). Juvenile and
adult P. marginatus do utilize shelter differently from one another (MacDonald and Stimson
1980). Similarly, juvenile and adult P. pencillatus also share the same habitat (Pitcher
1993).
In the NWHI, P. marginatus is found seaward of the reefs and within the lagoons and atolls
of the islands (WPRFMC 1983). Uchida (1986) reports that P. penicillatus rarely occur in
the commercial catches of the NWHI lobster fishery. In the NWHI, P. pencillatus is found
inhabiting shallow waters (<18 m) (Uchida and Tagami 1984).
In the NWHI, the relative proportion of slipper lobsters to spiny lobsters varies between
banks; several banks produce relatively higher catch rates of slipper lobster than total spiny
lobster (Uchida 1986; Clarke et al. 1987, WPRFMC 1986). The slipper lobster is taken in
deeper waters than the spiny lobster (Clarke et al., 1987, WPRFMC 1986). Uchida (1986)
reports that the highest catch rates for slipper lobster in the NWHI occur between the depths
of 20B55 m.
Pitcher (1993) observes that, in the southwestern Pacific, spiny lobsters are typically found in
association with coral reefs. Coral reefs provide shelter as well as a diverse and abundant
supply of food items, he notes. Pitcher also states that in this region, P. pencillatus inhabits
the rocky shelters in the windward surf zones of oceanic reefs, an observation also noted by
Kanciruk (1980). Other species of Panulirus show more general patterns of habitat
utilization, Pitcher continues. At night, P. penicillatus moves on to reef flat to forage, Pitcher
continues. Spiny lobsters are nocturnal predators (FAO 1991).
P. marginatus is typically found on rocky substrate in well-protected areas such as crevices
and under rocks (FAO 1991). During the day, spiny lobsters are found in dens or crevices in
the company of one or more other lobsters (WPRFMC 1983). MacDonald and Stimson
(1980), studying the population biology of spiny lobsters at Kure Atoll in the NWHI, found
that 57% of the dens examined were inhabited by solitary lobsters. The remaining 43% were
occupied by more than one lobster, with adult and juvenile lobsters of both sexes often found
sharing the same dens. However, the authors note, adult and juvenile spiny lobsters exhibit
distinctly different den occupancy patterns, with juveniles (less than 6 cm in carapace length)
typically in multiple occupancy dens with other lobsters. Adult and juvenile spiny lobsters
are not segregated by geographic area or habitat type at Kure Atoll, MacDonald and Stimson
observe. They found that juvenile spiny lobsters do not utilize separate nursery habitats apart
from the adult lobsters. The larval spiny lobster puerulus recruits directly to the adult habitat
(Parrish and Polovina 1994). This is in contrast to the juveniles of other species of spiny
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lobsters that tend to reside in shallow water and migrate to deeper, offshore waters as they
mature (MacDonald and Stimson 1980).
There are limited data available concerning growth rates, reproductive potentials and natural
mortality rates at the various life history stages (WPRFMC 1983). The relationships between
egg production, larval settlement, and stock recruitment are poorly understood (WPRFMC
1983).
Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units
American Samoa
The only species of Panulirus reported from American Samoa is P. penicillatus (Pitcher
1993).
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
P. penicillatus is the most common species of the genus encountered in the CNMI. P.
longipes and P. versicolor are also found in significant numbers. Regulations prohibit
capture of individuals less than 76 mm carapace length and of egg-bearing females (Pitcher
1993).
Guam
P. penicillatus is the most common species of spiny lobster on Guam, and is caught by
islanders spearfishing at night. P. longipes and P. ornatus are also caught occasionally.
Regulations are in effect that protect small (<0.45 kg) lobsters (Pitcher 1993).
Of the several hundred species of crustaceans that likely occur on Guam, lobsters of various
types are among the most sought-after by local fishermen. They include spiny lobsters
(Panulirus longipes, P. ornatus, P. penicillatus, and P. versicolor); a homarid; and a slipper
lobster (Scyllarus squamosus)(Green October 1997).
Crabs (True Crabs and Hermit Crabs): Infraorders Brachyura and Anomura
Description
The Brachyura, the so-called true crabs, are one of the largest and most successful groups of
decapods. The body form is short and wide, and the abdomen is flexed to fit tightly beneath
the cephalothorax. Uropods are generally lacking. Pleopods are retained in females for
brooding of eggs, and in males only the anterior two pairs of copulatory pleopods are present.
The carapace is typically wider than long. The broad body form, while allowing for crawling
in the forward direction, is better suited for sideways movement. Most crabs are poor
swimmers, but in the Portunidae (swimming crabs), the last pair of legs are modified into
broad paddles, enabling them to swim rapidly (Barnes 1987).
The Anomura contain the hermit crabs and several other interesting groups, such as the
Porcellanidae (porcelain crabs). In the Anomura, the fifth pair of legs is reduced. However,
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the abdomen is not reduced (as in brachyurans) and uropods are generally present. The
anomuran superfamily Pagurolidea, the hermit crabs, have adapted to living the majority of
their adult life with their abdomens protected in abandoned shells of gastropods. In these
types, the abdomen is modified to fit inside the spiral chamber of the gastrpopod shell. The
porcelain crabs, often found in commensal relationships with sea anemones, resemble true
crabs in having symmetrical, flexed abdomens, but the abdomens are longer than in typical
brachyurans (Barnes 1987).
Reproduction and Life History
When brachyurans copulate, the female lies under the male facing in the same position or
with ventral surfaces opposed. The male inserts the first pair of pleopods into the openings
on the female=s abdomen. Fertilization is internal. The abdomen, which is normally in a
tightly flexed position, is lifted to a considerable degree to permit brooding. The egg mass,
often orange in color is called a sponge. Eggs hatch out into a zoea larval stage, easily
recognized by the presence of a long rostral spine, and sometimes a pair of lateral spines that
project from the posterior of the carapace. The postlarval megalops is also quite distinctive,
already possessing the flexed abdomen and the full complement of appendages found in the
adult (Barnes 1987).
Hermit crabs partially emerge from their gastropod shell shelters to mate. The mating pair
appress their ventral surfaces, and eggs and spermatophores are released simultaneously.
Eggs hatch into a zoea larval phase, and metamorphose into glaucothoë postlarvae (Barnes
1987).
Habitat and Ecological Requirements
Crabs exhibit an astonishing array of structural and behavioral adaptations that enable them
to occupy a wide range of niches within the coral reef habitat and associated environs. They
may bury themselves in high littoral sands, occupy crevices or burrows among subtidal rocks
and coral heads, or live on the surfaces of marine plants or other invertebrates. Their
commensal associations include living in the mantle cavities of bivalves (pea crabs,
Pinnotheridae); living among the tentacles of sea cucumbers (sea cucumber crab,
Portunidae), attaching varied invertebrates to their carapaces for camouflage (sponge crabs,
Dromiidae; decorator crabs, Majidae); or holding anemones in their chelipeds for defense
(boxer crabs, genus Lybia). Additional ecological and habitat notes, where available, are
provided in Section IV.C.4.e., below.
Occurrence of the Taxon Within WPRFMC Fishery Management Units
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Asakura et al. (1994) collected 27 species of anomurans in the Northern Marianas. Among
these was the coconut crab, Birgus latro (Coenobitidae). Its distribution includes most
islands of the Marianas, including Guam, Saipan and Tinian.
Takeda et al. (1994) reported on the results of collections of crustaceans made during a
survey of the remote islands of the Northern Marianas in 1992. The majority of the
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collections were from the rocky intertidal and high subtidal zones. Subtidal collections were
from the 3m depth zone, usually on coral. The following families and genera of crabs, and
number of species (in parentheses) were recorded:
Dromiidae: Cryptodromia (1); Dynomenidae: Dynomene (1); Majidae: Menaethius (1),
Perinea (1), Tiarinia (1); Parthenopidae: Daira (1); Atelecyclidae: Kraussia (1); Portunidae:
Charybdis (1), Thalamita (2); Xanthidae: Chlorodiaella (1), Forestia (1), Lachnopus (1),
Leptodius (1), Liomera (1), Lophozozymus (1), Lybia (1), Macromedaeus (1), Paraxanthias
(1), Phymodius (1), Pilodius (2), Pseudoliomera (4), Xanthias (2); Menippidae:
Dacryopilumnus (1), Epixanthus (1), Eriphia (1), Lydia (1), Ozius (1), Pseudozius (1);
Pilumnidae: Nanopilumnus (1), Parapilumnus (1); Trapeziidae: Domecia (2), Tetralia (2),
Trapezia (9); Ocypodidae: Ocypode (2); Grapsidae: Grapsus (2), Geograpsus (3),
Pachygrapsus (2), Cyclograpsus (1), Plagusia (1), Percnon (1); Gecarcinidae: Cardisoma (1).
Guam
Several crabs (Carpilius maculatus, Etisus dentatus, E. utilis, Calappa calappa and C.
hepatica) are among the species of shellfish sought by local fishermen (Green October 1997).
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Table 83. Summary of post-embryonic development and larval types in Decapoda.9
Group
Postembryonic
Development
Larvae
Suborder Dendrobranchiata
Family Penaeidae
slightly metamorphic
nauplius > protozoea > mysis (zoea) > mastigopus (postlarva)
Family Sergestidae
metamorphic
nauplius > elaphocaris (protozoea) > acanthosoma (zoea) >mastigopus (postlarva)
Infraorder Caridea
metamorphic
protozoea > zoea > parva (postlarva)
Infraorder Stenopodidea
metamorphic
protozoea > zoea > parva (postlarva)
Infraorder Palinura
metamorphic
phyllosoma (zoea) > puerulus, nisto, or pseudibaccus (postlarva)
Infraorder Astacidea
slightly metamorphic
mysis (zoea) > postlarva
Infraorder Anomura
metamorphic
zoea > glaucothoë [in pagurids], or grimothea (postlarva)
Infraorder Brachyura
metamorphic
zoea > megalopa (postlarva)
Suborder Pleocyemata
9
After Waterman and Chace (T. H. Waterman [ed.]: Physiology of Crustacea, Vol. 1) in Barnes 1987.
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Table 84. Habitat description for Cephalopods (Class Cephalopoda).
Egg
Larvae
Duration
Juvenile
Adult
N/A (no larval phase)
unknown
in many cases, cephalopods die shortly after spawning; 1-2
year life span is typical (e.g., 12-15 months after settling
from planktonic juvenile phase in Octopus cyanea); Nautilus
may live up to 10 years
Diet
yolk
N/A
in Nautilus, eggs hatch directly to juvenile
phase; juveniles believed to start
immediately scavenging and grazing
generally predators on fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks;
Nautilus may scavenge upon crab and lobster molts
Distribution
!Nautilus may have a single annual egg laying season,
N/A
Euprymna scolopes goes through a short
(<1 week) planktonic juvenile phase
nautiloids may migrate into deeper waters in daytime, rise to
shallower reef flats at night to feed
Location
octopods attach eggs to rocky recesses on the reef
reef cuttlefish deposits eggs among branches of finger
coral; other cuttlefish may attach eggs to seagrasses;
Euprymna scolopes attaches eggs to dead coral
reef squid attach eggs to rocks and coral
Nautilus attaches egg capsules to hard substrate
peaking around October; a few (10-15) large (mean
29mm) eggs are produced by each female
!Euprymna scolopes may have two reproductive
periods per year
!in other taxa (e.g., Octopus cyanea) no seasonality
noted
N/A
Octopus spp. in American Samoa, CNMI, Guam, NWHI,
MHI Nautilus pompilius is found in American Samoa,
perhaps the easternmnost extension of its range
reef squid and cuttlefish in CNMI, Guam
Euprymna scolopes cuttlefish endemic to Hawaii
Sepioteuthis lessoniana believed nearly extirpated in Hawaii
Water Column
N/A
Bottom Type
N/A
octopods mostly in holes and crevices in rocky or coral
areas, but some types in burrows in sand; squid and
cuttlefish over reefs or seagrass areas; Euprymna scolopes
burrows in sand on shallow sand and mud flats
N/A
some reef-associated squids semi-pelagic
Oceanic
Features
N/A
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in octopod species with smaller, less
developed eggs, juveniles may be
planktonic and then settle to benthic
existence; other octopod species may not
have planktonic phase
juveniles of other cephalopods generally
have a planktonic phase
interidal, high subtidal (e.g., octopods, Euprymna);
mesopelagic (squids, cuttlefishes);
60-500m (nautiloids) nautiloids may migrate into deeper
waters in daytime, rise to shallower reef flats at night to feed
Table 85. Habitat description for Tunicates (Class Ascideacea).
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Duration
solitary forms release eggs to the water; in
colonial forms, fertilization is internal and
larvae, not eggs are released
[email protected] larvae are non-feeding,
and thus short-lived; larval phase
may last from several minutes to a
few days
rapid transition from larval to adult
zooid phase, with no marked juvenile
phase
typically 1-3 year life span
Diet
N/A
nutrition derived from yolk sac;
some forms have endosymbionts
that may contribute photosynthate
product to the ascidian host as a
food source
N/A
adults filter-feed non-selectively on
phytoplankton and other suspended
food particles and nutrients
Distribution
egg production occurs year-round
in some species studied
(e.g.,
Diplosoma similis), larvae are
released year-round
Location
eggs may be found in peribranchial cavity
during embryonic development; in solitary
forms, fertilization and subsequent
development occurs outside the parent
body
in colonial forms, larvae are
typically held in the peribranchial
cavity, or may be in a brood pouch
or the basal test
N/A
range from high-light and highenergy environments (especially
those forms with photosynthetic
endosymbionts),
to
protected
deeper-water areas
Water Column
N/A
larvae generally in same depth
range as adults, approx. 0-100 m (or
deeper);
larvae in Diplosoma
similis first swim up to enter layers
with faster current, then swim down
to settle on substrate
N/A
intertidal to 120 m depth or greater
Bottom Type
N/A
attach to dead corals, seaweeds,
mangrove roots, other sessile
invertebrates; favor attachment to
darker
surfaces
with
lower
illumination
N/A
dead corals, seaweeds, mangrove
roots, other sessile invertebrates;
may also overgrow live coral
Oceanic Features
N/A
larvae in Diplosoma similis first
swim up to enter layers with faster
current, then swim down to settle on
substrate
N/A
N/A (sessile attached organisms)
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Adult
wide range of species known from
most locations in the region; many
species dispersed as fouling
organisms transported on boat hulls
Table 86. Habitat description for Bryozoans (Phylum Bryozoa or Ectoprocta).
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
Duration
approximately two weeks from fertilization to
development and release of larva
two types:
!non-feeding coronate larvae: planktonic
for a few hours
!feeding (cyphonautes) larvae develop in
those forms that shed eggs directly to the
sea
(e.g.,
in
Membranipora):
cyphonautes may last several months
no distinct juvenile phase; following
adhesion of larva to substrate, all larval
organs undergo histolysis within approx.
one hour from the onset of metamorphosis,
forming ancestrula (first zooid of colony)
large colonies may add 2-4 cm growth
annually and believed to live for ten
years or more
Diet
in some species, developing embryo receives its
nutrition from a contained yolk, but in others,
placenta-like connections to the ovicell from
the mother zooid may provide food material
cyphonautes larvae are planktotrophic;
[email protected] types may take up
dissolved organic nutrients (e.g., amino
acids)
selective
suspension-feeders
that
consume diatoms, bacteria, flagellates,
and phytoplankton
adult colonies may be transported as
fouling organisms on ships= hulls;
various species found throughout all
sites in the region
Distribution
may develop internal or external to
parent zooid
usually found on shaded surfaces (e.g.,
undersides of coral tables)
Water Column
larvae
are
initially
positively
phototropic, and move upward in water
column; later become negatively
phototropic and move toward shaded
areas (e.g., under stones or coral plates)
prior to settlement
benthic sessile organisms occurring from
intertidal to abyssal depths, but majority
associated with substrates at 20-80m
depth; preference for clear water free of
suspended silt and sediment
Bottom Type
larvae highly selective in choosing
attachment site; usually settle on rock,
dead coral, seaweeds or wood
adults attached to rock, dead coral,
seaweeds or wood
Oceanic Features
January thermal boundaries (e.g. 27
degree C isotherm may act as filtering
mechanisms that determine larval
distribution
steady water currents essential for
successful
filter-feeding
function;
however, waves may be destructive of
delicate erect, branching or foliose
colonies
Location
eggs may variously be:
!small sized, fertilized at the time of discharge
into seawater (e.g., Membranipora);
!larger, brooded internally in coelomic cavity
during embryonic development;
!brooded in specialized ovicells
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Table 87. Habitat description for Crustaceans (Class Malacostraca [in part]).10
Egg
Larvae
Juvenile
Adult
up to six years
(in coconut crab)
most species several years; up to 50 years in
coconut crab
Duration
30-40 days in lobster; 29 days in kona crab
!zoea larvae last up to 3 months in
stomatopods
!in penaeids, eggs hatch to the nauplius or
metanauplius stage, last for a few weeks
!in spiny lobster phyllosomae may last approx.
6 months to 1 year (shorter in other lobsters),
metamorphose into pueruli which last 6
months, and after settling, post pueruli
!brachyurans and anomurans hatch to zoea
phase, develop into megalops and glaucothöe
postlarvae, respectively
Diet
N/A
generally planktivorous
Distribution
in spiny lobster spawning continuous
throughout the year, with individual females
spawning up to 4 times each year, producing up
to 0.5 million eggs each spawning; other
species may have more defined spawning
seasons
Location
in penaeid shrimps, eggs are shed directly to the
water; in other decapod groups and in
stomatopods eggs carried on the pleopods of the
female
all major groups known or assumed to be
well-represented at all locations in the region
(e.g., around 2,000 species of crabs are known
from the region)
in lobsters, newly-hatched larvae may occur in
upper 60m, but later larval stages may occur
in deeper water (80-120m)
Water Column
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various, but typically carnivorous or
omnivorous predators or scavengers, with
preferred food items being mollusks, other
crustaceans, and small fish; some taxa are
specialized cleaners that feed on ectoparasites,
while others are filter feeders
!stomatopods are generally subtidal from 570m depth
!coral associated shrimps generally found in
depths from 3-15m but may be found much
deeper
!lobsters generally occur in depths between
20-55m, but may occur to at least 110m
!crabs may be terrestrial, intertidal, or subtidal
to depths of at least 115m
Egg
Larvae
Bottom Type
palinurid larvae may be transported up to
2,000 miles by prevailing ocean currents
Oceanic Features
8
Juvenile
Adult
juvenile
spiny
lobsters occupy
habitat similar to
that of adults
!stomatopods typically in burrows, either in
sand or rubble
!shrimp may stay buried in sand or live in
pockets in coral or among rubble
!lobsters typically in subtidal holes or crevices
on reefs
!crabs may occupy mud or sand bottom,
corals, or rocky areas
while some taxa are pelagic, these are
generally not reef-associated
The MUS as defined here includes mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda), as well as shrimps, lobsters, and crabs (various taxa
within the Order Decapoda). The taxa not already addressed under Amendment 10 of the Crustacean Fisheries Management
Plan (which covers spiny lobsters and kona crab) are the primary emphasis here.
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Table 88. Economic importance of invertebrates.
Economic Importance
FMU
Food
Ornamental
octopus
!
L
squid and
cuttlefish
!
nautilus
L
Bioprospecting
Distribution
Fouling
Organism
AS
CNMI
GU
MHI
NWHI
Other
!
!
!
!R
!R
A
A
!
!
!
A
A
CEPHALOPODS:
!
!
TUNICATES
!
!
A
!
!
!
!
!
BRYOZOANS
!
!
A
A
A
!
A
A
CRUSTACEANS:
stomatopods
L
L
A
! R11
!
!
A
!
shrimps
!
!
A
! R1
!
!
!
!
lobsters
!
L
!
!R
!R
!R
!R
!
crabs
!
L
!
! R1
! R12
! R13
!R
!
L = Limited Use
11
12
13
A = Assumed to be Present; R = Regulated
all invertebrates regulated (for export)
coconut crab
blue crab, Samoan crab
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Ward, P. D. 1983. Nautilus macromphalus. In Boyle, P. R. (ed.) Cephalopod Lif Cycles.
Volume I: Special Accounts. Academic Press, London: 11-28.
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council 1983.
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. September 1998. MagnusonStevens Act Definitions and Required Provisions: Amendment 6 to the Bottomfish and
Seamount Groundfish Fisheries Management Plan; Amendment 8 to the Pelagic
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Fisheries Management Plan; Amendment 10 to the Crustaceans Fisheries Management
Plan; Amendment 4 to the Precious Corals Fisheries Management Plan.
Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 25 May 1999. Draft Fishery
Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western Pacific Region. (working
draft by CRE Plan team).
Williamson, D. I. 1982. Alarval morphology and [email protected] In Abele, Lawrence G. (ed.) The
biology of Crustacea. Vol. 2: Embryology, Morphology, and Genetics. Academic Press,
New York: 43-110.
Yoshimura T., and H. Yamakawa 1988. Microhabitat and behavior of settled pueruli and
juveniles of Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus at Kominato, Japan. J. Crust.
Biol. 8(4):524-531.
Young, Richard Edward, and Robert F. Harman 1989. Octopodid paralarvae from Hawaiian
waters. The Veliger 32(2):152-165.
Zhao, C., et al. 1997. cDNA cloning of three cecropin-like antimicrobial peptides (Styelins)
from the tunicate, Styela clava. FEBS Lett. 412 (1): 144-148.
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4.2.3 EFH for Management Unit Species B Sessile Benthos
The concept of essential fish habitat (EFH) is of obvious value when used as a tool to protect
individual fisheries. It is defined as that habitat necessary for their various stages of managed
species life histories to perpetuate. To consider the sessile benthos (SB) as required by the
Interim Final Rule (IFR) for EFH, the concept must be qualified. This is because it is applied
to broad groups of organisms, many of which form the habitat upon which all other species
depend. Due to the large numbers of species of coral, algae and other sessile benthos (450
spp algae; 99 Scleractinia and 150 spp. of the other groups considered in Hawaii (Eldredge
and Miller, 1995) and a total of approximately 1200 spp of the combined groups in the total
AFPI), the concept loses definition and becomes too generalized to be of value. The vast
numbers of SB do not represent a managed fishery. This is particularly the case when
considering the benthos of coral and algae. Tables 89 to 92 summarize the various aspects of
EFH for algae in the Western Pacific Region.
The fauna and flora, generally, lack mobility in the adult stages with the intermediate stages
are transported in the water column until settlement. Once they have settled they largely
become habitat. They are instrumental in the ecosystems primary production and are largely
responsible for supporting the higher trophic levels, many with predator-prey relationships.
The high degree of symbiosis begins with the zooxanthellate associations and encompasses a
wide degree of associations involving all groups of the fauna and flora. Much of the physical
relief of the reef is the result of the living environment as is the deposition of the coral reef
itself. An overly simplistic assessment of the habitat requirements for the sessile benthos
includes suitable substrate, water quality and light. This, however, negates the history of the
substrate development and the myriad of biological interactions, which qualify as a coral
reef. Due to these considerations, the species and their fundamental roles in the ecosystem
define the EFH as the coral reefs themselves. As such, all coral reefs in the AFPI should be
designated EFH for the sessile benthos. This is because all of the coral reef associated
fisheries for which the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act was
designed to protect and conserve depend on the coral reef ecosystem.
As there is no fisheries extraction of the sessile benthos in the AFPI, the objective of the
concept discussion shifts to the life history characteristics of the fauna and flora of the coral
reef environment. It is the life history stages of the selected benthic groups that comprise the
discussion of their importance in the EFH description. It is important in the consideration of
the management unit species (MUS).
Life histories and habitat requirements rely on an understanding that the coral reef is a
variable and dynamic entity. The composition of the reefs responds to environmental
parameters such as temperature, dilution and sedimentation. Regionally, their composition
varies in response to temperature by virtue of latitude, current regimes and events brought on
by unique climatic events such as El Nino hot spots. Such major discontinuities in taxa
occurrence such as the absence of the genus Acropora in Hawaii or reef cementing coralline
alga in extra-tropical areas, require that we consider reefs on a regional basis, as well as,
locally. The history of a particular area is as important as short-term community cycles and
is often seen to be decadal in time frame, and most probably represents longer cycles. The
fossil record of reefs shows a process of progressive change in the nature of reefs. Current
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concern for global warming and the effects of some of the hotspots may require this to be
added to the equation, when human induced impacts are considered.
The interconnectivity of the coral reef, in terms of potential recruitment, provide us with an
understanding of the reef environment that is at once very robust and able to restore itself
after the most destructive natural events. The coral reef is fragile, in that, if the composition
of a reef is changed then the effect is likely to be manifest down current as well. A chronic
change in the environmental parameters of an area is likely to result in a permanent change in
the community composition. In summary, EFHs are not a useful concept for the numerous
sessile benthos at the species level but rather a conformation of the importance of the many
non-commercial species that comprise the coral reef ecosystem. In developing this as an
operational framework, Conservation of these broad groups may be accomplished in two
ways. 1) It may be appropriate to establish criteria for the amount of reef that is allowed to be
affected by development, fishing practices or tourism. This quantity would be established in
relation to the amount of area of unaffected reef, within the range of the ocean currents that
would allow restoration or maintenance of this area through recruitment. 2) Equally useful is
the concept of the management unit species (MUS) in making the description of the
ecosystem more manageable with better resolution in its definition. Here generic
assemblages or their interactions are considered entities, which allow a more categorical
method of management.
The Management Unit Species (MUS): An Ecosystem Approach
The concept of the management unit species (MUS) is a useful concept when considering a
resource composed of species or higher taxa who share the same habitat, have the same
trophic ecology or respond to changing environmental variables in a predictable way. Coral
reef zonation, as the result of an environmental regime, reflects a natural MUS organization.
Whether through tolerance or requirement, benthos is sorted into a zonation with respect to
the proximity to land, depth or wave action. Impacts which add nutrients, as the result of
some human activity, to a naturally low-nutrient coral reef and the community changes from
being micro-algal and coral dominated, to being macro-algal and with a great reduction in the
hard coral component. In the case of increases in sediments and freshwater, there is a
reduction in species numbers in both groups to those which are resistant to such effects.
Tidal influences of periodic exposure, ponded waters or exposure to wave action have a
dramatic effect in conditioning species compliments.
The MUS may be defined in relation to the environmental variables, be it natural or induced.
With respect to this, taxonomic classification does not conform to groupings by
environmental tolerances. As a result, a wide range of taxonomic groups is considered
depending on the type of organism. This section describes these groups as general
taxonomic entities. Depending on the availability of information or scale of consideration, in
an operational sense, the appropriate taxonomic level should be used. As an example,
Porites/Favid assemblages are characteristic of areas of periodic flooding. Acropora
assemblages and a micro-algal assemblage are characteristic of normal seawater salinity with
clear, flowing aerated water. Add wave action to this and the coral assemblages become
reduced in diversity and morphology characterized by robust or encrusting forms. Coralline
alga dominated. The dynamic potential inherent in coral reef communities becomes apparent
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with a change in the environment as the result of some change in a natural parameter
resulting from development or terrestrial activity.
In conforming to the MUS approach, using the general taxonomic groupings of sessile
benthos was considered for designations of the MUS. Within these groups species can be
clumped based on selection by environmental parameters. Suggested divisions are the hard
and soft coral and the micro and macro-alga. Other benthic groups of reef associated
organisms (Porifera, Actinaria, Hydroidea, Gorgonacea and Zooanthidea), generally, are
less dominate in reef communities and more liable to conform, in terms of abundance, to the
dominance exhibited by the primary groupings. In terms of the reef community composition,
these more minor groups are largely coral or algal associated with the type and abundance of
coral or alga conditioning their occurrence. It is useful to consider the light limited
environments of depth or caves where the groups such as the Gorgonacea and Porifera may
be dominant.
It would be in error not to emphasize considering the regionality of such a framework. The
Caribbean and Florida seaboard are very different than the Indo-Pacific. Within the
Indo-Pacific, species occurrence, generally, winnows from west to east and is limited when
approaching the temperate boundaries. As a result, geographic locations may vary in terms
of their species complements. This gives rise to variability in dominance but does not change
the relationship within the four major groupings. The species within the groupings become
less consequential, varying in dominance depending on the region.
Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC)
Habitat areas of particular concern for the benthos of coral reefs may include a variety of
situations. These may be the same as those which give rise to marine protected areas or
where a conservation area has been set aside to protect organisms which may have been
depleted through fishery harvest. Particular concern may be for an area where coastal
development has adversely impacted near shore areas. With respect to this, it may be that
areas within ocean current range should be protected to conserve areas which are
unprotectable due to a requirement for subsistence fishing, recreational usage, damage done
by circumstances of coastal development or activities inland such as agriculture. It may be
that an area is of concern due to the long history of research at a particular site or area and the
encroachment of development (e.g. Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa). Reserves,
national parks, wildlife refuges and other protected areas are existing operational areas of
particular concern.
4.2.3.1 Algae
Algal Life Cycles
Both sexual and asexual reproduction are widespread in algae, and the predominance of one
or the other is mainly linked to the class of algae in question (Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta,
Phaeophyta or Rhodophyta) and the predominant geographical and environmental conditions
affecting the algal populations (Bold and Wynne, 1985). Unicellular algae reproduce mainly
asexually, while multicellular algae have asexual or sexual life cycles of varying complexity.
Sexual life cycles are classified into four basic types, according to the site of meiosis or
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reduction-division of the algal genome (table I). By far the most common type is the sporic
life cycle, in which a usually diploid sporophyte stage alternates with a usually haploid
gametophyte stage. The recurring sequence of these two stages is called alternation of
generations, which can be either isomorphic (when both generations are morphologically
similar) or heteromorphic (where one generation can differ markedly in morphology from the
other).
Table 89. Classification of sexual algal life cycles (after South and Whittick, 1987)
Life cycle type
Site of meiosis
Main algal groups concerned
Zygotic
zygote
Unicellular algae (Chrysophyceae)
Sporic
sporangia
Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta,
Chlorophyta
Gametic
gametangia
Chlorophyta
Somatic
thallus cells
Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta
Cyanophyta
In the Cyanophyta, reproduction is primarily by the production of asexual spores, which are
released into the environment and grow into new individuals. These spores can be produced
by budding from the free ends of the filaments, or by the fission of large vegetative cells
within the thallus.
Phaeophyta
In most members of the Phaeophyta, sexual reproduction is sporic, with the alternation of a
haploid gametophyte generation with a diploid sporophyte generation; both generations may
or may not be morphologically similar. Spores are usually numerous and motile, being
produced in unilocular sporangia.
Chlorophyta
The Chlorophyta life cycle is variable, but a typical case can be demonstrated in the common
genera Ulva, where zoospores are produced in the thallus which are released and fuse to
produce a new individual.
Rhodophyta
Most members of the Rhodophyta exhibit a sporic life cycle, a majority of which are of the
triphasic Polysiphonia-type. The gametophytes and the tetrasporophyte are often isomorphic
(although in some algae the tetrasporophyte can be crustose and alternate with large fleshy
gametophytes). The Carposporophyte is reduced, and attached to the female gametophyte.
The gametes are non-motile.
Distribution patterns of algae amongst the American Flag Pacific Islands (AFPI) (with
nomenclature updated (following taxonomy in Silva et al. 1996), from available literature;
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excludes varietal status of species). The attached AFPI algae distribution table lists 815 taxa
of marine algae, statistically broken down as follows:
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Table 90. Algae distribution in the American Affiliated Pacific Islands (AFPI)
AFPI locality
1
2
Cyanophyta
Chlorophyta
Phaeophyta
Rhodophyta
Total
American Samoa
15
31
14
68
128
Baker Is.
1
6
3
6
16
Howland Is.
0
5
1
3
9
Jarvis Is. 1
-
-
-
-
-
Palmyra Is.
19
39
11
64
133
Kingman Reef 1
-
-
-
-
-
Johnston Atoll
19
24
9
40
92
Hawaii 2
3
48
29
343
423
NWHI
0
43
32
121
196
Wake Island
2
8
10
3
23
CNMI
5
55
20
57
137
Guam
16
58
29
98
201
Total
52
142
70
333
no data available at this time
Abbott (1995) estimates the total Hawaiian flora at about 400 species
Comments
Because the reported distribution is related to the sampling effort in each particular locality,
the comparisons are largely artificial at this stage. For instance, the Guam and North West
Hawaiian floras are fairly well-known, while the Jarvis Is., Kingman Reef, Wake Is, Baker
and Howland Islands floras are seriously under-collected or unknown. For the Hawaiian
flora, there is a large amount of as yet unpublished material which will drastically increase
the number of known species in the near future (Abbott 1995).
The most comparable groups of algae are the Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta, because they are
mostly intertidal in habitat and thus most easily collected and inventoried, and there is a
relatively constant number of common species across the AFPI islands for the better
investigated localities.
Distribution Among Islands
From an examination of the species distribution table, the most commonly reported species
(those which occur in 50% or more of the localities under study) for the islands of the AFPI
are as follows, according to class:
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Table 91. Most commonly reported algal species for the islands of the AFPI
Class
Most common species
Typical reef habitat
Cyanophyta
Lyngbya majuscula
Schizothrix calcicola
inner reef flat
inner reef flat
Chlorophyta
Boodlea spp.
Bryopsis pennata
Caulerpa racemosa
Caulerpa serrulata
Dictyosphaeria spp.
Halimeda discoidea
Halimeda opuntia
Neomeris annulata
Ventricaria ventricosa
inner / outer reef flat
inner reef flat / lagoon
inner / outer reef flat
inner reef flat / lagoon
inner reef flat / lagoon
inner reef flat
inner reef flat
inner reef flat
reef flat / outer reef slope
Phaeophyta
Dictyota friabilis
Feldmannia indica
Hincksia breviarticulata
Lobophora variegata
Sphacelaria spp.
Turbinaria ornata
reef flat
reef flat
reef crest / exposed shoreline
reef flat / lagoon
reef flat / epiphytic
reef flat / bommies in lagoon
Rhodophyta
Amphiroa fragilissima
Asparagopsis taxiformis
Centroceras clavulatum
Gelidiopsis intricata
Gelidium pusillum
Hydrolithon reinboldii
Hypnea esperi
Jania capillacea
Martensia fragilis
Neogoniolithon brassica-florida
Polysiphonia spp.
Porolithon onkodes
Portieria hornemanni
inner reef flat
reef crest / outer reef slope
reef flat / epiphytic
inner reef flat / lagoon
inner reef flat
reef crest
inner reef flat
reef flat
outer reef slope
reef crest
reef flat
reef crest
outer reef slope
Habitat distribution of the common algal species in the AFPI (After N' Yeurt, 1999)
The Flora of Fringing Reefs
In shallow, calm fringing areas where sediment accumulations are predominant, green and
brown algae are most abundant with the most characteristic species being Caulerpa spp.,
Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Halimeda spp., Neomeris spp., Ventricaria ventricosa and Boodlea
spp. for the greens, and Padina spp. and Dictyota spp. for the browns. Common red algae
include Galaxaura spp. and Laurencia spp. When water depth and movement are more
important, hard substrata (coral colonies and rubble) are more numerous and ubiquitous
species such as Turbinaria spp. and Sargassum spp. thrive. In very exposed places, the
marine scenery is generally rocky or limited to small shelves below the border road. The
violent wave action increases sea spray and enables the rise of certain species notably the two
brown algae Chnoospora minima and Hincksia breviarticulata. On this type of shelf we
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generally find the flora of external reef shelves described later, confined to a few square
meters owing to the intensity of the hydrodynamic factors such as wave action.
The Flora of the Barrier Reef
On barrier reefs, coral bommies are generally dominant, between which are spread out well
sorted-out sediments. The pavement of the lagoon floor is visible in areas of strong
hydrodynamism. Water level rarely exceeds 2.5 m. The flora is essentially one of hard
substrata, and species exist in close link with the coral colonies, resulting in a mosaic pattern
of species distribution. The summit of coral bommies skimming the water surface are
generally colonised by the large brown algae Turbinaria ornata and Sargassum spp., that
form an elevated layer under which grow species such as Amansia sp., and coralline algae. In
areas where grazing by herbivores is more important, the bommies are covered by a fine tuft
where a great number of discrete species belonging to the Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae
intermingle. In areas where hydrodynamism is more important, the encrusting coralline algae
form pinkish, yellowish and bluish blotches on the upper parts of the substratum.
At the base of bommies, it is common to see large bunches of brown algae such as Dictyota
bartayresiana, intermingled to the spread-out thalli of Halimeda opuntia and tufts of the red
algae Galaxaura fasciculata and G. filamentosa. Most crevices are colonised by Ventricaria
ventricosa, Valonia fastigiata, and Dictyosphaeria spp. Finally, where direct sunlight does
not reach, live a range of encrusting coralline algae whose pink, violet and purple hues
mingle with the soft green colours of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp.
The Flora of the Outer Reef Flats
It is probably the richest and most diversified flora of the reef complex. On high islands, it is
represented by a belt of the brown algae Turbinaria ornata and Sargassum spp.. We find in
particular the erect and stiff tufts of Laurencia spp. and Gelidiella spp., to which are attached
the little bright green balls of Chlorodesmis fastigiata, or the light pink hemispherical
cushions of the articulated Corallinaceae Amphiroa spp. and the opportunistic Jania spp. It is
here that the encrusting calcified algae form the most important growths, with notably
Hydrolithon spp. However, it is on the reef flats of atolls that Corallinaceae formations are
the most exuberant. They form a compact pad of a beautiful brick-red colour, and in very
exposed places even construct spectacular corbellings several tens of centimetres thick. The
dominant species is Hydrolithon onkodes with a rather smooth texture. On atolls, large brown
algae are absent and the fleshy species are limited to yellowish-brown rosettes of Lobophora
variegata and Turbinaria spp.
The Flora of the Lagoons of Atolls
The sandy bottoms of the lagoons are often in deeper parts, covered with a mucous film rich
in bacteria or of a carpet of Cyanobacteria where mingle tufts of filamentous red algae such
as Polysiphonia, Ceramium. The hard substrata are always much richer in various green
algae such as Caulerpa and Halimeda. Bommies in the lagoon offer a habitat for green
genera such as Cladophoropsis spp. and very large varieties of Dictyosphaeria cavernosa.
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The Flora of the Outer Reef Slope
It extends beyond 10 meters depth. The red algae are most abundant and diversified. It is the
main area of encrusting coralline algae (mainly in the atolls), but also of elegant and fleshy
forms such as Gibsmithia hawaiiensis and Asparagopsis taxiformis. As one goes deeper,
coralline algae become the dominant species, although occasionally species of the green algal
genus Halimeda and the brown algal genus Lobophora have been found up to depths of 130
metres (Littler et al. 1985) while the green alga Caulerpa bikinensis has been reported
beyond depths of 70 metres (Meinesz et al. 1981).
The Ecological Role of Algae in the Coral Reef Ecosystem
Benthic algae are a very important, yet often overlooked component of any reef biome.
Marine plants are responsible for the primary productivity of the reef ecosystem, owing to
their photosynthetic ability which inputs solar-derived energy into the reef community. This
energy is made available to other reef organisms in a variety of forms, ranging from direct
input (grazing by hervibores; symbiotic relationships with invertebrates and fungi) or
indirectly by the breaking down of plant products and detrital residues after death.
Algae play an important role in organic and inorganic material cycles within the reef
community, by being able to retain and uptake key elements such as nitrogen and carbon.
The primary role of marine algae in the carbon and nutrient cycles of coral reef ecosystems
cannot be underestimated and has been the focus of much research (Dahl 1974; Wanders
1976; Hillis-Colinvaux 1980; Payri 1988; Charpy and Charpy-Roubaud 1990;
Charpy-Roubaud and Sournia 1990; Charpy-Roubaud et al. 1990, Charpy et al. 1992;
Gattuso et al. 1996).
Calcified (Halimeda and Amphiroa spp.) and crustose coralline algae play a major but easily
overlooked role in coral reef construction and consolidation, and contribute a major part of
reef carbonate sediments (Payri 1988). These organisms lay down calcium carbonate as
calcite, which is much stronger than the brittle aragonite produced by corals, thus cementing
and consolidating the reef structure. In particular, coralline algae are of primary importance
in constructing the algal ridge that is characteristic of exposed Indo-Pacific reefs, which
prevent oceanic waves from striking and eroding coastal areas (Nunn 1993; Keats 1996). At
the other extreme, penetrating or boring algae such as Cyanophyta are important contributors
to bioerosion and breakdown of dead reef structures (Littler and Littler 1994).
Marine macroalgae contribute significantly to organism interrelationships in reef ecosystems,
either by the production of chemical or structural by-products on which other organisms
depend, the providing of protective micro-habitats for other species of algae or marine
invertebrates, or by offering surfaces promoting the settlement and growth of other algal
species or the larvae of some herbivorous invertebrates such as abalone (Dahl 1974; Keats
1996). Symbiosis is also an important aspect of algal interrelationships in reef communities,
with hermatypic corals relying on photosynthetic zooxanthellae for food. Marine plants thus
offer a remarkable potential as experimenting organisms in the elucidation of the complex
chemical and biological interactions that make up the fragile, closed ecosystems of tropical
coral reefs (Littler and Littler 1994).
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The Effects of Human Activities on Coral Reefs, in Relation to Algae
The impact of human habitation, and activities linked to industries and waste processing and
disposal have proven negative impacts on coral reef ecology. An "healthy ecosystem" is a
self-regulating unit where ecological productivity and capacity is maintained, with a diversity
of flora and fauna present (Federal Register 1997: 66551). Some reef organisms are very
sensitive to disruptions, and can act as timely indicators of changes in the natural balance of
the ecosystem. For instance, the absence of Acropora coral on the backreef areas could
indicate polluted waters with high levels of siltation, a situation reported from the stressed
Aua Reef on Tutuila Island, American Samoa (Dahl and Lamberts 1977). The green algae
Enteromorpha spp. and Ulva spp. thrive in high-nutrient areas, acting as bio-indicators of
organic pollution linked to sewage outfalls, and also accumulate heavy metals present in
industrial effluents (Tabudravu 1996). Dredging and increasing reclamation of coastal
mangrove for industrial and urban use further contribute to siltation of the lagoon and the
destruction of algal habitats and marine nursery areas. In this respect, algae can be classified
as essential fish habitats (EFH) as they are direct contributors to the well-being and
protection of fish species, both as a source of food and offering protection to larvae and small
fish species. Overfishing in the lagoon reduces the number of herbivorous fishes, destroying
the fragile equilibrium between reef organisms, while the input of excess nutrients via
sewage and domestic effluents into the lagoon contributes to algal blooms. This can lead to
the ecosystem shifting from coral dominance to algal dominance, and abnormal blooms of
turf algae have been known to overgrow and kill healthy coral (Dahl 1974; Littler and Littler
1994) while >red tide= dinoflagellate blooms lead to anoxic conditions killing a wide range
of marine organisms (Horiguchi and Sotto 1994). Increased chemical pollution of the lagoon
could also lead to a bloom of reef-destroying organisms such as the crown-of-thorn starfish
(Randall 1972).
Coral reefs have been known to recover relatively well if the stressing factors are removed
soon enough before permanent damage is done (Dahl and Lamberts 1977). A strong and
healthy barrier reef, in particular the Porolithon algal ridge of atolls, acts as a natural
breakwater offering protection to coastal areas in the event of cyclones and such natural
disasters, which are frequent in the region (Nunn 1993). However, the coral structure can be
severely damaged and weakened as a result of siltation, eutrophication and the overgrowing
of coral colonies by opportunistic filamentous algae (such as for instance happened in
Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii; see Smith 1981), necessitating the construction of artificial barriers.
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A-380
Table 92. Algal species occurrence in the AFPI.
AS: American Samoa; PA: Palmyra Atoll; JA: Johnston Atoll; MHI: Main Hawaiian Islands; NWHI: Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands; WA: Wake Atoll; CNMI: Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; GU: Guam
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
Division Cyanophyta (Blue-green)
Anacystis dimidiata
Aphanocapsa grevillei
X
X
Arthrospira brevis
Arthrospira laxissima
X
X
Calothrix aeruginosa
X
Calothrix confervicola
X
Calothrix crustacea
X
X
Calothrix pilosa
X
X
Calothrix scopulorum
X
Chroococcus turgidus
X
Entophysalis conferta
X
X
Entophysalis deusta
X
Hormothamnion enteromorphoides
X
Hormothamnion solutum
X
A-381
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum
Hyella caespitosa
KG
JS
HI
MR
X
X
GU
X
X
Lyngbya aestuarii
X
X
Lyngbya confervoides
X
X
Lyngbya gracilis
X
Lyngbya infixa
X
Lyngbya lutea
X
Lyngbya majuscula
X
Lyngbya pygmaea
X
X
Lyngbya rivulariarum
X
Lyngbya semiplana
X
Lyngbya sordida
X
X
X
X
Microcoleus chthonoplastes
Microcoleus lyngbyaceus
WK
X
Isactis plana
Microchaete vitiensis
NWHI
X
X
X
X
Microcoleus tenerrimus
X
Microcoleus vaginatus
X
Oscillatoria bonnemaisonii
X
A-382
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
Oscillatoria lutea
X
Oscillatoria nigro-viridis
X
Oscillatoria submembranacea
X
Phormidium corium
X
Phormidium crosbyanum
X
Phormidium penicillatum
X
Phormidium submembranaceum
X
X
Porphyrosiphon notarisii
X
Radaisea sp.
X
Schizothrix calcicola
X
Schizothrix mexicana
X
Scytonema figuratum
X
Scytonema hofmannii
X
Scytonema stuposum
X
Spirulina major
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Spirulina subsalsa
X
Spirulina tenerrima
X
Symploca atlantica
X
Symploca hydnoides
GU
X
A-383
X
X
Algae species
Symploca muscorum
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
Division Chlorophyta (Green)
Acetabularia clavata
X
X
Acetabularia exigua
X
Acetabularia moebii
X
Acetabularia tsengiana
X
Acetabularia sp.
X
Anadyomene wrightii
X
X
X
X
X
Avrainvillea erecta
X
X
Avrainvillea lacerata
X
Avrainvillea obscura
X
Avrainvillea pacifica
X
X
Boergesenia forbesii
X
X
Boodlea coacta
X
X
Boodlea composita
Boodlea vanbosseae
X
X
Bornetella oligospora
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A-384
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Bornetella sphaerica
Bryopsis harveyana
X
WK
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Bryopsis plumosa
Bryopsis pottsii
MR
X
Bryopsis hypnoides
Bryopsis pennata
NWHI
X
Bryopsis sp.
X
Caulerpa ambigua
X
X
X
X
Caulerpa cupressoides
X
X
X
Caulerpa elongata
X
Caulerpa fastigiata
X
Caulerpa filicoides
X
Caulerpa lentillifera
X
X
Caulerpa okamurai
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Caulerpa plumaris
Caulerpa racemosa
X
X
Caulerpa lessonii
Caulerpa peltata
X
X
X
Caulerpa serrulata
X
X
A-385
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Caulerpa sertularioides
X
Caulerpa taxifolia
X
Caulerpa urvilliana
X
Caulerpa vickersiae
X
NWHI
X
X
X
Caulerpa webbiana
X
X
X
X
X
Chaetomorpha indica
Chaetomorpha restricta
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Caulerpa verticillata
Chaetomorpha antennina
WK
X
X
X
X
X
Chamaedoris orientalis
Chlorodesmis fastigiata
X
X
X
Chlorodesmis hildebrandtii
X
Cladophora crystallina
X
Cladophora fascicularis
Cladophora glomerata
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Cladophora inserta
X
Cladophora patentiramea
X
Cladophora patula
Cladophora pinniger
X
X
X
X
A-386
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
Cladophora socialis
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
X
NWHI
MR
GU
X
Cladophora vagabunda
X
Cladophora sp.
X
X
X
X
Cladophoropsis fascicularis
X
X
Cladophoropsis gracillima
X
Cladophoropsis infestans
X
Cladophoropsis limicola
X
X
X
Cladophoropsis luxurians
X
Cladophoropsis membranacea
X
Cladophoropsis sundanensis
X
X
X
Cladophoropsis sp.
X
Codium arabicum
X
X
X
Codium dichotomum
X
Codium edule
X
X
X
X
Codium geppiorum
WK
X
Codium mamillosum
X
Codium ovale
Codium phasmaticum
X
Codium reediae
X
A-387
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Codium spongiosum
NWHI
WK
MR
X
Codium tomentosa
X
Codium sp.
X
Derbesia attenuata
X
Derbesia marina
X
Derbesia ryukiuensis
X
Derbesia sp.
X
X
X
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa
X
Dictyosphaeria versluysii
X
Enteromorpha clathrata
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Enteromorpha compressa
X
Enteromorpha flexuosa
X
Enteromorpha intestinalis
X
Enteromorpha kylinii
Enteromorpha prolifera
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Enteromorpha tubulosa
X
X
Enteromorpha sp. 1
X
Enteromorpha sp. 2
X
Enteromorpha sp. 3
X
A-388
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Enteromorpha sp.
NWHI
WK
MR
X
Halimeda copiosa
X
X
Halimeda cuneata
X
Halimeda cylindracea
X
Halimeda discoidea
X
X
Halimeda fragilis
X
X
X
X
X
X
Halimeda lacunalis
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Halimeda macrophysa
Halimeda opuntia
X
X
Halimeda gracilis
Halimeda macroloba
X
X
Halimeda gigas
Halimeda incrassata
GU
X
X
X
X
Halimeda tuna
X
X
X
Halimeda velasquezii
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Halimeda spp.
X
Microdictyon japonicum
X
Microdictyon pseudohaptera
X
X
Microdictyon setchellianum
X
A-389
X
X
Algae species
Neomeris annulata
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
X
Neomeris bilimbata
X
NWHI
X
WK
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
Neomeris dumetosa
Neomeris vanbosseae
Ostreobium quekettii
X
X
X
Palmogloea protuberans
X
X
Phaeophila dendroides
X
Phaeophila engleri
X
Phyllodictyon anastomosans
X
Pseudobryopsis oahuensis
X
X
X
Pseudochlorodesmis furcellata
X
Pseudochlorodesmis parva
X
X
Rhipidosiphon javensis
X
Rhipilia geppii
X
X
X
Rhipilia orientalis
X
Rhipilia sinuosa
X
Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum
X
Rhizoclonium implexum
X
Rhizoclonium samoense
X
A-390
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
Rhizoclonium tortuosum
GU
X
Siphonocladus tropicus
X
Spongocladia vaucheriaeformis
X
Struvea delicatula
X
Struvea tenuis
X
X
X
X
Udotea argentea
X
X
Udotea indica
X
Tydemannia expeditionis
X
Ulva fasciata
X
X
X
Ulva reticulata
X
X
Ulva rigida
X
Ulva sp.
X
Valonia aegagropila
Valonia fastigiata
X
X
X
X
X
X
Valonia trabeculata
X
Valonia utricularis
Ventricaria ventricosa
X
X
X
Zygomitis sp.
X
X
A-391
X
X
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
Division Phaeophyta (Brown)
Chnoospora implexa
Chnoospora minima
X
X
X
X
Colpomenia sinuosa
X
X
X
Dictyopteris australis
X
X
Dictyopteris plagiogramma
X
X
X
X
X
Dictyopteris repens
X
X
X
Dictyota acutiloba
X
Dictyota bartayresiana
X
X
X
X
X
X
Dictyota cervicornis
X
Dictyota crenulata
X
Dictyota divaricata
Dictyota friabilis
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Dictyota hamifera
Dictyota lata
X
X
X
X
X
Dictyota patens
X
Dictyota sandvicensis
X
Dictyota sp.
X
A-392
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
Dictyota sp. 1
X
Dictyota sp. 2
X
MR
Dilophus radicans
Ectocarpus vanbosseae
X
X
Ectocarpus sp.
X
X
Endarachne binghamiae
Feldmannia indica
GU
X
X
Feldmannia irregularis
Hapalospongidion pangoense
X
Hincksia breviarticulata
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Hincksia conifera
X
Hincksia mitchelliae
X
X
X
Homoeostrichus flabellatus
X
Hormophysa triquetra
X
Hydroclathrus clathratus
Lobophora papenfussii
X
Lobophora variegata
X
X
X
X
X
X
Nemacystus decipiens
X
Padina australis
X
A-393
X
X
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
Padina boergesenii
X
Padina crassa
X
WK
MR
Padina gymnospora
X
Padina japonica
X
X
Padina jonesii
X
Padina pavonia
X
X
Padina tenuis
Padina thivyi
X
X
X
X
X
X
Ralfsia occidentalis
X
Rosenvingea intricata
X
X
Sargassum crassifolium
X
Sargassum cristaefolium
X
Sargassum echinocarpum
Sargassum fonanonense
X
X
Padina sp.
Sargassum anapense
GU
X
X
X
Sargassum hawaiiensis
X
Sargassum microphyllum
X
Sargassum obtusifolium
X
A-394
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Sargassum piluliferum
NWHI
WK
MR
X
Sargassum polycystum
X
Sargassum polyphyllum
X
X
Sargassum tenerrimum
X
Sargassum sp.
X
Spatoglossum solierii
X
Sphacelaria ceylanica
X
Sphacelaria cornuta
X
Sphacelaria furcigera
X
Sphacelaria novae-hollandiae
X
X
X
X
X
X
Sphacelaria rigidula
X
X
X
X
Sphacelaria tribuloides
X
Sphacelaria sp.
X
X
X
X
X
Sporochnus dotyi
X
Stypopodium hawaiiensis
X
X
X
Turbinaria condensata
Turbinaria ornata
GU
X
X
Turbinaria trialata
X
X
X
Zonaria hawaiiensis
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A-395
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
X
Division Rhodophyta (Red)
Acanthophora pacifica
X
Acanthophora spicifera
X
Acrochaetium actinocladium
X
Acrochaetium barbadense
X
Acrochaetium butleriae
X
Acrochaetium corymbifera
X
Acrochaetium dotyi
X
Acrochaetium gracile
X
Acrochaetium imitator
X
Acrochaetium liagorae
X
Acrochaetium microscopicum
X
Acrochaetium nemalionis
X
Acrochaetium robustum
X
X
Acrochaetium seriatum
X
Acrochaetium trichogloeae
X
Acrochaetium sp.
X
A-396
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
Acrosymphyton taylorii
Actinotrichia fragilis
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
Actinotrichia robusta
X
Aglaothamnion boergesenii
X
Aglaothamnion cordatum
X
Ahnfeltiopsis concinna
X
X
X
Ahnfeltiopsis divaricata
Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis
Ahnfeltiopsis pygmaea
Alsidium cymatophilum
X
Alsidium pacificum
X
Amansia glomerata
Amphiroa anceps
X
X
X
Amphiroa beauvoisii
X
Amphiroa crassa
X
Amphiroa foliacea
X
X
Amphiroa fragilissima
X
X
Amphiroa rigida
X
Amphiroa valonioides
X
A-397
X
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
Amphiroa sp.
Anotrichum secundum
KG
JS
HI
WK
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
Anotrichum tenue
X
Antithamnion antillanum
X
X
X
Antithamnion decipiens
X
Antithamnion erucacladellum
X
Antithamnion nipponicum
X
Antithamnion palmyrense
X
X
Antithamnion percurrens
X
Antithamnion sp.
X
Antithamnionella breviramosa
X
Antithamnionella graeffei
X
Apoglossum gregarium
X
Ardreanema seriospora
X
Arthrocardia sp.
X
Asparagopsis taxiformis
NWHI
X
Asterocystis ornata
X
X
X
X
X
Balliella repens
X
Bangia atropurpurea
X
A-398
X
X
Algae species
Bostrychia tenella
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
WK
MR
GU
X
Botryocladia skottsbergii
X
Botryocladia tenuissima
X
Branchioglossum prostratum
X
Callidictyon abyssorum
X
Callithamniella pacifica
X
Callithamnion marshallensis
X
Callithamnion sp.
X
Calloglossa leprieurii
Calloglossa viellardii
NWHI
X
X
X
X
X
Caulacanthus ustulatus
X
Carpopeltis bushiae
Centroceras clavulatum
X
X
X
Centroceras corallophilloides
X
X
X
X
Centroceras minutum
X
X
Ceramium aduncum
X
X
Ceramium affine
X
Ceramium borneense
Ceramium byssoideum
X
X
X
X
A-399
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Ceramium cingulum
NWHI
X
X
Ceramium codii
X
X
Ceramium dumosertum
X
X
Ceramium fimbriatum
X
Ceramium flaccidum
X
X
X
Ceramium hamatispinum
X
X
Ceramium hanaense
X
Ceramium jolyi
X
Ceramium gracillimum
X
Ceramium masonii
X
X
X
Ceramium maryae
X
X
X
Ceramium paniculatum
Ceramium punctiforme
MR
X
Ceramium clarionense
Ceramium mazatlanense
WK
X
X
X
Ceramium serpens
X
Ceramium taylori
X
X
Ceramium tenuissimum
X
Ceramium tranquillum
X
A-400
X
X
GU
Algae species
AS
BK
Ceramium vagans
HL
JV
PY
X
KG
JS
HI
X
Ceramium womersleyi
NWHI
MR
X
GU
X
X
Ceramium zacae
X
Ceramium sp.
X
X
X
X
Ceratodictyon spongiosum
X
Chamaebotrys boergesenii
Champia compressa
WK
X
X
X
Champia parvula
X
Champia vieillardii
X
X
X
Cheilosporum acutilobum
X
Cheilosporum spectabile
X
Chondracanthus acicularis
X
Chondracanthus tenellus
X
Chondria arcuata
X
Chondria dangeardii
X
Chondria minutula
X
Chondria polyrhiza
X
Chondria simpliciuscula
X
Chondria repens
X
A-401
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
Chondria sp.
X
Chondria sp. 1
X
Chondria sp. 2
X
Chondrus ocellatus
X
Chroodactylon ornatum
X
Chrysymenia kairnbachii
X
Chrysymenia okamurae
X
Chrysymenia procumbens
X
Coelarthrum albertisii
X
Coelarthrum boergesenii
X
Coelothrix irregularis
X
Corallina elongata
X
Corallophila apiculata
X
Corallophila huysmansii
X
X
X
X
Corallophila ptilocladioides
X
Crouania mageshimensis
X
X
X
X
Crouania sp.
X
A-402
GU
X
X
X
MR
X
Corallophila itonoi
Crouania minutissima
WK
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
Cruoriella dubyi
X
Cruoriopsis mexicana
X
Cryptonemia decumbens
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
Cryptonemia umbraticola
X
X
Cryptonemia yendoi
Cryptopleura corallinara
X
Cubiculosporum koronicarpus
X
Dasya adhaerens
X
Dasya bailouvianna
X
Dasya corymbifera
X
Dasya kristeniae
X
Dasya murrayana
X
Dasya pilosa
X
Dasya sinicola
X
Dasya villosa
X
Dasya sp.
X
Dasyopsis sp.
X
X
Dasyphila plumarioides
X
Delesseriopsis elegans
X
A-403
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Dermocorynus occidentalis
NWHI
WK
MR
X
Dermonema virens
X
Dermonema pulvinatum
X
Diplothamnion jolyi
X
Ditria reptans
X
Dotyophycus pacificum
X
Dotyophycus yamadae
X
Dotyella hawaiiensis
X
Dotyella irregularis
X
Dudresnaya hawaiiensis
X
Dudresnaya littleri
X
Dudresnaya sp.
X
X
X
Erythrocladia irregularis
X
Erythrocolon podagricum
X
Erythrotrichia carnea
X
Erythrotrichia parietalis
X
X
Erythrotrichia sp.
X
Eucheuma denticulatum
X
Eupogodon sp.
X
A-404
GU
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Euptilocladia magruderi
X
Exophyllum wentii
X
Fernandosiphonia ecorticata
X
Fernandosiphonia nana
X
NWHI
WK
MR
Fosliella farinosa
X
Galaxaura elongata
X
Galaxaura fasciculata
X
Galaxaura fastigiata
X
Galaxaura filamentosa
X
X
X
Galaxaura glabriuscula
Galaxaura marginata
X
X
X
Galaxaura obtusata
X
X
X
X
Galaxaura pacifica
Galaxaura rugosa
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
Galaxaura subfructiculosa
X
X
Galaxaura subverticillata
X
Galaxaura sp.
X
Ganonema farinosum
X
Gelidiella acerosa
X
A-405
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Gelidiella antipai
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
Gelidiella bornetii
X
Gelidiella machrisiana
X
Gelidiella myrioclada
X
Gelidiella stichidiospora
X
X
Gelidiella womersleyana
Gelidiella sp.
X
Gelidiocolax mammillata
X
Gelidiopsis acrocarpa
Gelidiopsis intricata
X
X
X
X
Gelidiopsis pannosa
Gelidiopsis repens
X
X
X
X
Gelidiopsis scoparia
X
Gelidiopsis variabilis
X
Gelidiopsis sp.
X
X
Gelidium crinale
Gelidium delicatulum
X
X
Gelidiopsis rigida
Gelidium abbotiorum
X
X
X
A-406
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Gelidium pluma
Gelidium pusillum
X
X
X
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
Gibsmithia dotyi
Gibsmithia hawaiiensis
WK
X
Gelidium reediae
Gelidium samoense
NWHI
X
X
X
Gloiocladia iyoensis
X
Goniolithon frutescens
X
Goniotrichum alsidii
X
Goniotrichum elegans
X
Gracilaria abbottiana
X
Gracilaria arcuata
X
Gracilaria bursapastoris
X
Gracilaria cacalia
X
Gracilaria coronopifolia
X
Gracilaria dawsonii
X
Gracilaria dotyi
X
Gracilaria edulis
X
X
Gracilaria epihippisora
X
A-407
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Gracilaria filiformis
X
Gracilaria lemaneiformis
X
Gracilaria lichenoides
X
Gracilaria minor
NWHI
WK
MR
X
X
Gracilaria radicans
GU
X
X
Gracilaria parvispora
X
Gracilaria salicornia
X
Gracilaria tikvahiae
X
Gracilaria verrucosa
X
X
Grateloupia filicina
X
Grateloupia hawaiiana
X
Grateloupia phuquocensis
X
Griffithsia heteromorpha
X
Griffithsia metcalfii
X
Griffithsia ovalis
X
X
Griffithsia schousboei
X
Griffithsia subcylindrica
X
Griffithsia tenuis
X
Griffithsia sp.
X
A-408
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Gymnogongrus sp.
X
Gymnothamnion elegans
X
NWHI
WK
MR
Halarachnion calcareum
X
Halichrysis coalescens
X
Haliptilon subulatum
X
X
X
X
Haloplegma duperreyi
GU
X
Halymenia actinophysa
X
Halymenia chiangiana
X
Halymenia cromwellii
X
Halymenia durvillaei
X
Halymenia formosa
X
Halymenia lacerata
X
Halymenia stipitata
X
Hawaiia trichia
X
Helminthocladia rhizoidea
X
Helminthocladia simplex
X
Herposiphonia arcuata
X
Herposiphonia crassa
X
Herposiphonia delicatula
X
A-409
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Herposiphonia dendroidea
NWHI
X
X
Herposiphonia nuda
X
X
Herposiphonia obscura
X
Herposiphonia pacifica
X
X
Herposiphonia parca
X
X
X
X
X
X
Herposiphonia variabilis
X
Heterosiphonia crispella
X
Heteroderma subtilissima
X
Heteroderma sp.
X
X
Hydrolithon breviclavium
GU
X
X
X
X
X
Herposiphonia sp.
Hydrolithon reinboldii
MR
X
Herposiphonia dubia
Herposiphonia secunda
WK
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Hypnea cervicornis
X
X
Hypnea chloroides
X
Hypnea chordacea
X
Hypnea esperi
X
Hypnea musciformis
X
X
X
A-410
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
Hypnea nidulans
X
Hypnea pannosa
X
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
MR
GU
X
X
Hypnea rugulosa
X
X
X
Hypnea spinella
X
X
Hypnea valentiae
X
X
Hypnea sp.
X
Hypnea sp. 1
X
Hypnea sp. 2
X
Hypneocolax stellaris
Hypoglossum attenuatum
WK
X
X
X
Hypoglossum barbatum
X
Hypoglossum caloglossoides
X
Hypoglossum minimum
X
Hypoglossum rhizophorum
X
Hypoglossum simulans
X
Hypoglossum sp.
X
Janczewskia hawaiiana
X
Jania adhaerens
X
Jania capillacea
X
A-411
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
Jania decussato-dichotoma
JV
PY
X
KG
JS
HI
X
NWHI
WK
X
Jania mexicana
MR
X
X
Jania microarthrodia
X
X
Jania natalensis
X
X
X
Jania pumila
X
Jania radiata
X
Jania tenella
X
Jania ungulata
X
X
X
X
X
Jania verrucosa
X
Jania sp.
X
Kallymenia sessilis
X
Kappaphycus alvarezii
X
Kappaphycus striatum
X
Laurencia brachyclados
X
Laurencia cartilaginea
X
Laurencia ceylanica
GU
X
Laurencia corymbosa
X
Laurencia crustiformans
X
Laurencia decumbens
X
A-412
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Laurencia dotyi
X
Laurencia forsteri
X
Laurencia galtsoffii
X
Laurencia glandulifera
X
NWHI
X
Laurencia mariannensis
X
Laurencia mcdermidiae
X
Laurencia nana
Laurencia nidifica
X
X
Laurencia obtusa
Laurencia papillosa
MR
GU
X
X
X
Laurencia intricata
Laurencia majuscula
WK
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Laurencia parvipapillata
Laurencia perforata
X
Laurencia pygmaea
X
Laurencia rigida
X
X
Laurencia succisa
X
Laurencia surculigera
X
X
Laurencia tenera
X
A-413
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
Laurencia tropica
WK
MR
GU
X
Laurencia undulata
X
Laurencia yamadana
X
Laurencia sp.
X
X
X
Laurencia sp. 1
X
Laurencia sp. 2
X
Laurencia sp. 3
X
Laurencia sp. 4
X
Laurencia sp. 5
X
Lejolisia colombiana
X
X
Lejolisea pacifica
X
Leveillea jungermannioides
X
Liagora albicans
X
Liagora boergesenii
X
Liagora ceranoides
X
Liagora coarctata
X
X
X
Liagora divaricata
X
Liagora farinosa
X
Liagora hawaiiana
X
A-414
X
X
Algae species
Liagora hirta
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
X
X
GU
X
Liagora kahukuana
X
Liagora orientalis
X
X
Liagora papenfussii
X
X
Liagora perennis
Liagora pinnata
X
Liagora samaensis
X
Liagora robusta
X
Liagora setchellii
X
Liagora tetrasporifera
X
Liagora valida
X
Liagora sp.
X
Liagorophyla endophytica
Lithophyllum kaiserii
X
X
X
Lithophyllum kotschyanum
Lithophyllum moluccense
X
X
X
Lithophyllum sp.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lithoporella melobesioides
Lithoporella pacifica
X
A-415
Algae species
Lithoporella sp.
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
Lithothamnion asperulum
X
Lithothamnion byssoides
X
Lithothamnion funafutiense
X
Lithothamnion philippii
X
Lithothamnion spp.
X
Lomentaria hakodatensis
X
Lomentaria sp.
X
X
X
X
Lophocladia kipukaia
X
Lophocladia trichoclados
X
Lophosiphonia bermudensis
X
Lophosiphonia cristata
Lophosiphonia obscura
X
X
Lophosiphonia prostrata
X
Lophosiphonia scopulorum
X
Lophosiphonia sp.
X
Martensia fragilis
X
X
X
X
X
X
Mastophora lamourouxii
X
Mastophora macrocarpa
X
A-416
Algae species
Mastophora melobesoides
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
X
Mastophora plana
X
Mastophora rosea
X
Mazzaella volans
X
Malaconema minimum
X
Melanamansia daemelii
X
Melanamansia fimbrifolia
X
Melanamansia glomerata
X
Mesophyllum erubescens
X
Mesophyllum mesomorphum
X
Mesophyllum simulans
X
X
X
X
X
Micropeuce setosus
X
Monosporus indicus
X
Murrayella periclados
X
Myriogramme bombayensis
X
Naccaria hawaiiana
X
Neogoniolithon brasica-florida
X
Neogoniolithon fosliei
X
X
X
X
X
Neogoniolithon medioramus
A-417
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
Neogoniolithon pacificum
GU
X
Neogoniolithon reinboldii
X
Neomartensia flabelliformis
X
Nitophyllum adhaerens
X
Osmundaria obtusiloba
X
Ossiella pacifica
X
Peleophycus multiprocarpium
X
Peyssonelia conchicola
X
Peyssonelia corallis
X
Peyssonelia delicata
X
Peyssonelia foveolata
X
Peyssonelia inamoena
X
Peyssonelia mariti
X
Peyssonelia rubra
X
X
X
Peyssonelia sp.
X
Phaeocolax kajimurai
X
Platoma ardreanum
X
Pleonosporium caribaeum
X
Peonosporium intricatum
X
A-418
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Plocamium sandwicense
X
Polyopes hakalauensis
X
Polysiphonia anomala
X
Polysiphonia apiculata
X
Polysiphonia beaudettei
X
Polysiphonia delicatula
X
Polysiphonia exilis
X
Polysiphonia flaccidissima
X
Polysiphonia hancockii
X
Polysiphonia hawaiiensis
X
Polysiphonia herpa
X
Polysiphonia homoia
X
Polysiphonia howei
X
Polysiphonia pentamera
X
Polysiphonia poko
X
Polysiphonia polyphysa
NWHI
X
Polysiphonia profunda
X
Polysiphonia pseudovillum
X
A-419
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Polysiphonia poko
WK
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
GU
Polysiphonia rubrorhiza
X
X
Polysiphonia saccorhiza
X
X
Polysiphonia savatieri
X
X
X
X
X
X
Polysiphonia scopulorum
X
X
Polysiphonia setacea
X
Polysiphonia simplex
X
Polysiphonia sparsa
X
Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa
X
Polysiphonia subtilissima
X
Polysiphonia tepida
X
Polysiphonia tongatensis
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Polysiphonia triton
X
Polysiphonia tsudana
X
Polysiphonia tuberosa
Polysiphonia upolensis
X
Polysiphonia sp.
X
Polystrata dura
X
X
Porolithon craspedium
X
Porolithon gardineri
X
A-420
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
Porolithon marshallense
Porolithon onkodes
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
X
X
MR
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
Porphyra vietnamensis
X
X
X
Predaea laciniosa
X
Predaea weldii
X
Prionitis corymbifera
X
Prionitis obtusa
WK
X
Porolithon sp.
Portieria hornemanni
NWHI
X
X
Pterocladia capillacea
X
Pterocladia musiformis
X
Pterocladia parva
X
Pterocladia tropica
X
Pterocladia sp.
X
Pterocladiella bulbosa
X
Pterocladiella caerulescens
X
Pterocladiella caloglossoides
X
Pterocladiella capillacea
X
Pterosiphonia pennata
X
A-421
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Ptilocladia yuenii
X
Ptilothamnion cladophorae
X
Pugetia sp.
X
Rhodolachne decussata
X
MR
GU
X
Rhodymenia leptophylla
X
Scinaia furcata
X
Scinaia hormoides
X
Spermothamnion sp.
X
X
Spirocladia barodensis
X
Spirocladia hodgsoniae
X
Sporolithon erythraeum
WK
X
Reticulocaulis mucosissimus
Rhodymenia sp.
NWHI
X
X
X
Sporolithon schmidtii
X
Sporolithon sibogae
X
Spyridia filamentosa
X
X
Stenopeltis gracilis
X
Stenopeltis liagoroides
X
Stenopeltis setchelliae
X
A-422
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
NWHI
WK
MR
Stictosiphonia kelanensis
Stylonema alsidii
X
X
X
Stylonema cornu-cervi
X
Symphyocladia marchantioides
X
Taenioma macrourum
X
X
Taenioma perpusillum
X
Tayloriella dictyurus
X
Tenarea tessellatum
X
Tiffaniella codicola
X
X
Tiffaniella saccorhiza
X
X
Titanophora marianensis
X
Titanophora pikeana
Tolypiocladia glomerulata
GU
X
X
X
Trichogloea lubrica
X
Trichogloea requienii
X
X
Trichogloeopsis hawaiiana
X
X
Irichogloeopsis mucosissima
X
Tricleocarpa cylindrica
X
X
Tricleocarpa fragilis
X
X
A-423
X
X
X
X
Algae species
AS
BK
HL
JV
PY
KG
JS
HI
Ululania stellata
X
Vanvoorstia coccinea
X
Vanvoorstia spectabilis
X
Womersleyella pacifica
X
NWHI
Wrangelia anastomosans
WK
MR
GU
X
Wrangelia dumontii
X
Wrangelia elegantissima
X
Wrangelia penicillata
X
Wrangelia tenuis
X
Wurdemannia miniata
X
Wurdemannia sp.
X
X
X
X
Yamadaella coenomyce
X
*References Used: Birkland et al. 1994; Setchell 1924; Tsuda and Trono 1968; Dawson 1959; Dawson et al. 1955; Hillis- Colinvaux 1959; Buggeln and Tsuda
1969; Vernon et al. 1966; Abbott 1988; 1999; Bailey and Harvey 1862; Egerod 1952; Eldredge and Paulay 1996; Magruder and Hunt 1979; Abbott 1989; Anon
1999; Bailey and Harvey 1862; Eldredge et al. 1977; Tsuda 1981; Tsuda and Wray 1977; Eldredge and Paulay 1996; Gilbert 1978; Gordon 1976; Itono and
Tsuda 1980; King and Puttock 1989; Nam and Saito 1991; Tsuda 1981; Tsuda and Wray 1977
A-424
4.2.3.2 Porifera (sponges)
Important Summary Documents
Moore (1955) described the paleosponges and their dominance in ancient reefs.
Early records of Pacific sponges Bowerbank (1873) and Agassiz (1906). Bergquist
(1965,1967, and 1977) catalogued sponges in Micronesia and Hawaii. Kelly-Borges and
Valentine (1995) have reviewed the status of the sponges of Hawaii.
Taxonomic Issues
No overall classification of the Porifera exists. Calcarea: Burton (1963); Vacelet (1970).
Demospongiae Levi (1973) and Bergquist (1978). Sclerospongiae: Hartman & Goreau
(1970, 1975) Hexactinellida: Ijima (1927). De Laubenfels (1950a,b 1951, 1954; 1957)
recorded the sponges from Hawaii. Species numbers: 84 species in Hawaii Berquist (1977);
Chave and Jones (1991); 5000-9000 spp. (Colin and Arneson, 1991) and 10,000 spp. George
and George (1979) world-wide.
Habitat Utilization
Use of chemical agents in competing for substrate. Often found at depth, in caves, and
vertical areas where not colonized by hard coral. Rutzler and Rieger (1973) described the
burrowing sponge Cliona into a calcareous substrate.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Vary greatly in size. Most are irregular and exhibit massive, erect, encrusting, or branching
growth pattern. Many are brightly colored. The body of the sponge is a system of water
canals, where with incurrent pores allow water to flow into the atrium and out through the
osculum (asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid plans). The skeleton may be composed of
calcareous and silaceous spicules, protein spongin fibers. The spicules exist in a variety of
forms and are important in the identification and classification of species.
Of pharmaceutical interest due to the biologically active compounds, most probably used in
defense. Some compounds affective against certain tumors and potential effective in treating
other diseases.
Reproductive Strategies
Sexual (viviparous and oviparous), asexual and hermaphroditic. Synchronous release of
gametes triggered by lunar or daily cycles. Eggs develop into larvae which swim or creep
along the bottom. Asexual reproduction is through budding, fragmentation and gemmules
(Barnes, 1987, Fromont, 1994). Recruitment may occur by fragmentation from predation
(Kelly-Borges and Berguist, 1988).
Distribution
Table 93 shows the distribution of the sponges in some of the AFPI. In Guam and Mariana
Islands Bryan(1973). Briggs (1974) provided information on broad distributions as did
A-425
Hooper and Levi, 1994. In Hawaii, biological interactions affect the occurrence of the
sponge Damiriana hawaiiana Casper (1981). Encrusting sponges may kill corals
(Plucer-Rosario, 1987).
Feeding and Food
Particle feeding and ingestion of plankton and bacteria (Reiswig 1971,1975a)
Utilization of DOM, directly or indirectly, by symbiotic cyanobacteria (Barnes 1987;
Wilkinson, 1979, 1983).
Behavior
Symbiosis common which includes shrimps, crabs, barnacles, worms, brittlestars,
holothurians, and other sponges (Colin and Arneson, 1991). Tethya sp. produces filamentous
extensions for mobility. Placospongia rapidly closes its plate-like surface when touched.
Tedania (fire sponge) causes burning due to spicules and chemicals. Hippospongia and
Spongia are used as bath sponges.
Diurnal rhythm in the active flow of water (Reiswig, 1971)
Spawning: Spatial and Temporal Distribution
Lunar and diurnal periodicity
Appearance and Physical Characteristics of Eggs (size, shape, color, etc) and Duration
of Phase
During mass spawning events (Reiswig, 1971), sperm appears as clouds of smoke. In some
cases, release of eggs causes appearance of opaque mucous covering sponge (Colin and
Arneson, 1995).
Larvae: Appearance and Physical Characteristics of Larvae
The larval metamorphosis is described by Simpson (1986).
Bibliography
Agassiz, A. 1906. General Report of the Expedition. Report on the scientific results of the
expedition to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, in charge of A. Agassiz, by the U.S. Fisheries
Commission Steamer Albatross,1904-1905 and 1888-1904. 21:Memoirs of the Museum
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Collection 41:261-323.
Barnes, R. D. 1987: Invertebrate Zoology, Fifth Edition. Saunders College Publ.,
International Edition.
Bergquist, P. R. 1965. The Sponges of Micronesia. I. The Palau Archipelago. Pacific
Science 3(2): 123-204.
Bergquist, P. R. 1967. Additions to the sponge fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Micronesica
3:159-173.
A-426
Bergquist, P.R. 1978. Sponges. 268 pp. London: Hutchinson.
Bergquist, P.R. 1979. Porifera. In Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Section 1. Protozoa
through Ctenophora, ed. D. M. Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Bernice P. Bishop Museum
Special Publications 64(1): 53-70.
Bowerbank, J. S. 1873. Contributions to a general history of the Spongidae. Part IV.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 4:3-25.
Briggs, J. C. 1974. Marine Zoogeography. New York: McGraw Hill.
Bryan, P. G. 1973. Growth rate, toxicity and distribution of the encrusting sponge Terpios sp.
(Hadromerida, Suberitidae) in Guam, Mariana Islands. Micronesica 9(2): 237-242.
Burton, M. 1963. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. 693 pp. London:
British Museum (Natural History).
Chave, E. H., & A. T. Jones. 1991. Deep-water megafauna of the Kohala and Haleakala
slopes, Alenuihaha Channel, Hawaii. Deep-Sea Research 38, no. 7:781-803.
Colin, P. L. & Arneson, C., 1995: A Field Guide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on
Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. Tropical Pacific
Invertebrates.
Colin, P. L., and C. Arneson. In press. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. San Diego: Coral Reef
Press.
de Laubenfels, M. W. 1950a. The sponges of Kaneohe Bay. Pacific Science 4(1): 3-36.
de Laubenfels, M. W. 1950b. Sponges in Hawaii. Cooperative Fishery Investigations
Circular 9 (June):1-2.
de Laubenfels, M. W. 1951. The sponges of the islands of Hawaii. Pacific Science 5(3):
256-271.
de Laubenfels, M. W. 1954. The sponges of the West Central Pacific. Oregon State
Monographs in Zoology 7:1-306.
de Laubenfels, M. W. 1957. New species and records of Hawaiian sponges. Pacific Science
11:236-251.
Fromont, P. J. 1994. Reproductive development and timing of tropical sponges (Order
Haplosclerida) from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 13:127-133.
George, D. & J. George, 1979: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Invertebrates in the Sea,
Marine Life.
A-427
Hartman, W. D., & Goreau, T. F. 1970. Jamaican coralline sponges: their morphology,
ecology, and fossil relatives. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond., No. 25, 205-43.
Hartman, W. D., & Goreau, T. F. 1975. A Pacific tabulate sponge, living representative of a
new order of sclerosponges. Postilla, 167, 1-14.
Hooper, J. N. A., and C. Levi. 1994. Biogeography of Indo-Pacific Sponges: Microcionidae,
Raspailiidae, Axinellidae. In Sponges in Time and Space, ed. R. W. M. van Soest, Th. M.
G. van Kempen, and J. C. Braekman, 191-212. Rotterdam: Balkema.
Ijima, I. 1927. The Hexactinellida of the Siboga expedition. Siboga Exped., 6, 1-383.
Kelly-Borges, M. and C. Valentine 1995 The sponges of the tropical island region of
Oceania: a taxonomic status review. In: Maragos, J.E. Peterson, M.N.A., Eldredge, L.G.,
Bardach, J.E. and H.F. Takeuchi (eds.) Proceedings of the Workshop on Marine/Coastal
Biodiversity in the Tropical Island Pacific Region (November 2-4, 1994), Volume I, pp.
83-120. East-West Center and Pacific Science Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Kelly-Borges, M., and P. R. Bergquist. 1988. Success in a shallow reef environment, sponge
recruitment by fragmentation through predation. Proceedings of the 6th International
Coral Reef Symposium, Townsville, Australia, 2:757-762.
Levi, C. 1973. Systematique de la Classe des Demospongiaria (Demosponges), 37-631. In:
Grasse P.-P. (ed.). Traite de Zoologie, III, Spongiaires. Paris: Masson.
Moore, R. D. (Ed.), 1955: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Arcaeocyatha, Polifera.
Vol. E. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kans.
No. 25., 189-203.
Plucer-Rosario, G. 1987. The effect of substratum on the growth of Terpios, an encrusting
sponge which kills coral. Coral Reefs 5(4): 197-200.
Reiswig, H. M., 1971: In Situ pumping activities of tropical Damospongiae. Mar. Biol., 9(1):
38-50.
Reiswig, H. M., 1971: Particle feeding in natural populations of three marine damosponges.
Biol. Bull., 141(3): 568-591.
Reiswig, H. M., 1975a: Bacteria as food for temperate-water marine sponges. Can. J. Zool.,
53(5): 582-589.
Rutzler, K., and Reiger, G., 1973: Sponge burrowing: fine structure of Cliona lampa
penetrating calcareous substrata. Mar. Biol., 21:144-162.
A-428
Simpson, T. L., 1968: The biology of the marine sponge Microciona prolifera.. Temperature
related, annual changes in functional and reproductive elements with a description of
larval metamorphosis. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 2:252-277.
Vacelet, J. 1970. Les eponges Pharetronides actuelles. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond.,
Wilkinson, C. R., 1979: Nutrient translocation from symbiotic cyanobacteria to coral reef
sponges. See Levi and Boury-Esnault, pp. 373-380.
Wilkinson, C. R., 1983: Net primary productivity in coral reef sponges. Science,
219:410-411.
A-429
Table 93. Distribution of sponges within the American Affiliated Pacific Islands (AFPI) (after
Kelly-Borges and Valentine, 1995)
AS: American Samoa; HI: Hawaiian Islands; NMI: Commonwealth of Northern Mariana
Islands; GU: Guam
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
HI
CNMI
GU
DEMOSPONGIAE
Homosclerophorida
Oscarella tenuis
X
Plakina monolopha
X
Plakortis simplex
X
Astrophorida
Ancorina acervus
X
Asteropus kaena
X
Dorypleres splendens
X
Erylus caliculatus
X
Erylus proximus
X
Erylus rotundus
X
Erylus sollasi
X
Geodia gibberella
X
Jaspis stellifera
X
Melophlus sarasinorum
X
Rhabdastrella pleopora
X
Stelletta debilis
X
Zaplethes digonoxea
X
Lithistida
Aciculites papillata
X
Leidermatium sp
X
Spirophorida
Cinachyra porosa
X
Paratetilla bacca
X
Hadromerida
A-430
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
HI
Anthosigmella valentis
X
Chondrosia chucalla
X
Chondrosia corticata
CNMI
GU
X
Chondrosia sp
X
Cliona vastifica
X
Diplastrella spiniglobata
X
Kotimea tethya
X
Placospongia carinata
X
Prosuberites oleteira
X
Spheciospongia aurivilla
X
Spheciospongia purpurea
X
Spheciospongia vagabunda
X
Spirastrella coccinea
X
Spirastrella keaukaha
X
X
Terpios aploos
X
Terpios granulosa
X
Terpios hoshinoto
X
Terpios sp
X
Terpios zeteki
X
Tethya coccinea
X
Tethya diploderma
X
Tethya robusta
X
Timea xena
X
Halichondrida
Axechina lissa
X
Axinella solenoides
X
Axinyssa aplysinoides
X
Axinyssa pitys
X
Axinyssa terpnis
X
A-431
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
HI
Axinyssa xutha
CNMI
GU
X
Ciocalypta pencillus
X
Cymbastella cantherella
X
Densa mollis
X
Eurypon distincta
X
Eurypon nigra
X
Halichondria coerulea
X
Halichondria dura
X
Halichondria melanadocia
X
Higginsia anfractuosa
X
Higginsia mixta
X
Homaxinella anamesa
X
Hymeniacidon chloris
X
Myrmekioderma granulata
X
Myrmekioderma sp.
X
Phycopsis aculeata
X
Pseudaxinella australis
X
Raphisia myxa
X
Rhabderemia sorokinae
X
Stylotella aldis
X
Stylotella aurantium
X
Ulosa rhoda
X
X
Haplosclerida
Adocia gellindra
X
Adocia turquosia
X
Adocia viola
X
Aka mucosa
X
Amphimedon sp
X
Callyspongia aerizusa
X
A-432
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
Callyspongia diffusa
HI
CNMI
X
X
Callyspongia parva
X
Gellius gracilis
X
Haliclona acoroides
X
Haliclona aquaeducta
X
Haliclona flabellodigitata
X
Haliclona koremella
GU
X
Haliclona lingulata
X
Haliclona pellasarca
X
Haliclona permollis
X
Haliclona streble
X
Haliclona viridis
X
Niphates cavernosa
X
Niphates spinosella
X
Sigmadocia amboinensis
X
Sigmadocia symbiotica
X
Toxadocia violacea
X
Petrosida
Pellina eusiphonia
X
X
Pellina pulvilla
X
Pellina sitiens
X
Petrosia puna
X
Xestospongia sp
X
Poecilosclerida
Acamas caledoniensis
X
Amphinomia sulphurea
X
Axociella kilauea
X
Biemna fortis
X
Clathria frondifera
X
A-433
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
Clathria procera
HI
CNMI
GU
X
Clathria vulpina
X
Coelocartaria singaporense
X
Crella spinulata
X
Damiriana hawaiiana
X
Desmacella lampra
X
Echinodictyum antrodes
X
Esperiopsis anomala
X
Iotrochota baculifera
X
Iotrochota protea
X
Kaneohea poni
X
Lissodendoryx calypta
X
Lissodendoryx oxytes
X
Microciona eurypa
X
Microciona cecile
X
Microciona haematodes
X
Microciona maunaloa
X
Mycale cecilia
X
Mycale contarenii
X
Mycale maunakea
X
Myxilla rosacea
X
Naniupi ula
X
Prianos phlox
X
Strongylacidon sp.
X
Tedania ignis
X
Tedania macrodactyla
X
Xytopsiphum kaneohe
X
Xytopsiphum meganese
X
Xytopsues zukerani
X
A-434
X
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
Zygomycale parishii
HI
CNMI
GU
X
Dictyoceratida
Coscinoderma denticulatum
X
Fasciospongia chondrodes
X
Hippospongia densa
X
Hippospongia metachromia
X
Hyrtios erecta
X
Lendenfeldia dendyi
X
Lufferiella sp
X
Lufferiella variabilis
X
Spongia irregularis dura
X
Spongia irregularis lutea
X
Spongia irregularis mollior
X
Spongia irregularis tenuis
X
Spongia denticulata
X
Spongia oceania
X
Stelospongia lordii
X
Strepsichordaia lendenfeldi
X
Verongida
Aplysinella strongylata
X
Aplysinella tyroeis
X
Ianthella basta
X
Psammaplysilla purpurea
X
Psammaplysilla verongiformis
X
Dendroceratida
Aplysilla rosea
X
Aplysilla sulphurea
X
Aplysilla violacea
X
Dendrilla cactus
X
A-435
X
Taxonomy/occurrence
AS
HI
Dendrilla nigra
CNMI
GU
X
Dysidea avara
X
Dysidea fragilis
X
X
X
Dysidea herbacea
X
Dysidea sp
X
Euryspongia lobata
X
X
Pleraplysilla hyalina
X
Slerosponges
Acanthochaetetes wellsi
X
Astrosclera willeyana
X
X
Stromatospongia micronesica
X
X
CALCAREA
Clathrina sp
X
Leucetta avacado
X
Leucetta solida
X
Leuconia kaiana
X
Leucosolenia eleanor
X
Leucosolenia vesicula
X
Murrayona phanolepis
X
Sycandra coronata
X
Sycandra parvula
X
Sycandra staurifera
X
HEXACTINELLIDA
Euplectella sp
X
Stylocalyx elegans
X
A-436
4.2.3.3 Millepora sp. (Linnaeus, 1758) (stinging or fire coral)
Important Summary Documents
Lewis (1989) discussed the ecology of Millepora. Growth and age were investigated (Lewis,
1991).
Taxonomic Issues
Class Hydrozoa: Order Milleporina (Hydroidea): Family Milleporidae: 48 species
The history of Millepora taxonomy has been the opposite of scleractinian taxonomy where
each minor growth form was often described as a new species (Veron, 1986).
Habitat Utilization
Found on projecting parts of the reef where tidal currents are strong. They are also abundant
on upper reef slopes and in lagoons and may be a dominant component of some coral
communities (Veron, 1986).
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Colonial and hermatypic. Arborescent, plate-like, columnar or encrusting with a smooth
surface perforated by near-microscopic pores. These are of two sizes: the larger are the
gastropores, with each surrounded by five to seven smaller dactylopores. Fine straight hairs,
visible under water, project from the colony surface. The growth variation is often based on
environmental influences. Colors are green, cream or yellow. May be tan-coloured
antler-like sheets with branch ends whitish.
Distribution
Globally, the genus is distributed from as far south as South Africa and southern Western
Australia to the Kyushu Islands. From the African coast of western Indian Ocean and the
Red Sea and the Marquesas in the east. The genus also occurs in the Central and Eastern
Pacific and the Caribbean Sea.
Table 94 summarizes some Indo-Pacific species (adapted from Lewis 1989): their
morphology, depth and reef zone and water circulation requirements.
A-437
Table 94. Species summary of the genus Millepora (Lewis 1989).
Species
Form
Location on reef
Habitat type
Millepora
dichotoma
Fan, branches, vertical
sheets and walls
0-5m, reef edge
Turbulent, area of the
surf
M. exaesa
Robust branches or
solid and round
0-10m, reef edge,
outer reef slope
Moderate to turbulent
M. platyphylla
Sheets, leaves fans
branches
0-10m, reef edge,
reef flat
Strong to powerful,
turbulent
M. tenella
Fans, branches, sheets
0-10m, reef edge,
outer reef slope
medium to strong
Feeding and Food
Gastrozoiids consume food and are the colony polyps have tentacles and a gastrovascular
cavity. The dactylozoiids are used for prey capture and have numerous tentacles, which
convey a fuzzy appearance. They have a potent sting. Autotrophic due to zooxanthellae but
may rely on small plankton and dissolved nutrients.
Reproductive Strategies
Alternation of generations: a sessile, asexual polyp stage and a free-living, sexual medusa
stage. Medusa are reproduced by asexual division or budding. The medusa has separate
sexes and produce eggs or sperm, which unite and develop into free-swimming planula
larvae. Planula larvae are able to swim freely, though largely planktonic.
Bibliography
Lewis J.B. (1989). The ecology of Millepora. Coral Reefs 8 (3): 99-107.
Lewis J.B. (1991). Banding age and growth in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora
complanata Lamark. Coral Reefs 9 (4): 209-214
Veron J. E. N. 1986: Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0
207 15116 4.
A-438
4.2.3.4 Stylasteridae (Gray, 1847) (Stylasterines; lace corals)
Important Summary Documents
Veron (1986) Colin and Arneson (1995) and Fossa and Nilsen (1998) provide description of
the family.
Taxonomic Issues
Class Hydrozoa; Class Stylasterina; Family Stylasteridae
Approximately 15 genera. Two are common reef genera: Stylaster Gray 1831 (48 species);
Distichopora Lamarck 1816 (34 species) (Veron, 1986).
Taxonomy at the species level poorly known.
Habitat Utilization
With in the reef, sciaphilic or low light, often abundant under overhangs or on the roof of
caves. Also found in deep reef conditions particularly if swept by tidal currents (Colin and
Arneson, 1995)
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Colonial, ahermatypic, usually arborescent, with tubular gastropores surrounded by smaller
dactylopores and usually forming cyclosystems (Veron, 1986). Colour is bright and may be
red, pink, orange, purple or white.
Stylaster spp.: Colonies are arborescent with fine branches, growing in one plane, which
seldom anastomose. Cyclosystems alternate left and right side of branches.
Distichopora spp.: Colonies are arborescent with flattened, blunt-ended, non-anastomosing
branches of uniform width, growing in one plane. There are no cyclosystems: gastropores
are aligned along the lateral margins of branches with rows of dactylopores on either side
(Veron, 1986; Sheer and Obrist, 1986).
Distribution
Stylaster spp.: Worldwide, extending to the Arctic and Antarctic.
Distichopora spp.: Circum-Australia, Central and the Indo-Pacific.
Feeding and Food
No zooxanthellae so heterotrophic, feeding presumably on small plankton. Dissolved
nutrient absorption must be important.
Reproductive Strategies
Sexual individuals, the gonophores, develop in ampullae between the gastropores and release
planula larvae.
A-439
Bibliography
Colin, P. L., and C. Arneson. 1995. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. San Diego: Coral Reef
Press, California, USA.
Fossa and Nilsen 1998. The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium, Vol. 2. Birget Schmettkamp
Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.
Sheer, G. and Obrist K. 1986. Distichopora nitida Verrill (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the
Maldives, a new record from the Indian Ocean. Coral Reefs 5: 151-154.
Veron J. E. N. 1986. Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0
207 15116 4.
A-440
4.2.3.5 Solanderidae (Gray) (hydroid fans)
Important Summary Documents
Cooke (1977) described Hawaiian fauna all, of which, have a wider distribution.
Taxonomic Issues
Class Hydrozoa; Order Hydroida; Suborder Athecata (=Anthomedusa; Gymnoblastea);
Family Solanderiidae (George and George, 1977; Barnes, 1987).
Habitat Utilization
Shallow water to 100 metres (Colin and Arneson, 1995).
Often found in deeper water ore cave or overhang environment (Cooke, 1977).
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Similar in appearance to gorgonians and other sea fans. May be branching, ramose or
encrusting. Branching in one plane, perpendicular to the current or wave action. Commonly
found in exposed areas on wave swept shallow outer reefs (Colin and Arneson, 1995).
Solanderia spp. is branching and may be 30cm high. Family is characterized by the presence
of a perisarc composed of anastomosing chitinous fibers with scattered capitate tentacles
(Cooke, 1977).
Defense is accomplished by the specialized tentacle the dactylozooids.
Colour species dependent: dark brown to yellow brown, red with white tentacle.
Distribution
Occur from western Africa through the central Indo-Pacific. Northerly limit Japan and
Hawaii.
From Cooke (1977):
Solanderia minima: Zanzibar, Africa; Hawaii.
S. secunda: Central Pacific
S. misakinensis: Japan; Hawaii
S. sp.: New Guinea (Colin and Arneson 1995)
Feeding and Food
Gastrozooids capture and ingest zooplankton that is small enough to be handled.
Extra-cellular digestion takes place in the gastrozooid. The partially digested broth the
passes into the common gastrovascular cavity where intracellular digestion occurs.
Reproductive Strategies
Reproduction is by means of fixed gonophores or gonozooids. Applying generalized hydroid
reproduction, the gonophores bud off both male and female, mobile medusae, which develop
A-441
gonads and reproduce. The fertilized egg divides and develops into free-swimming larvae
that attach to substrate to form a new hydroid.
Bibliography
Barnes, R. D. 1987. Invertebrate zoology. Saunders College, Philadelphia.
Colin, P. L., and C. Arneson. 1995. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. San Diego: Coral Reef
Press.
Cooke, J. 1977. Order Hydroida. In Devany D. M. & L. G. Eldredge (eds.) 1977. Reef and
Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 64 (1).
George, D. & J. George, 1979. An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Invertebrates in the Sea
Marine Life.
A-442
4.2.3.6 Scleractinia (stony corals)
Important Summary Documents
Veron (1986) provides a popular taxonomic guide for stony corals and their biology.
Birkeland (1997) is a modern synthesis of coral reef dynamics.
Fadlallah, (1983), Harrison and Wallace (1990) reviewed coral reproduction. Richmond and
Hunter (1990) compared coral reproduction geographically. Table 96 summarizes the
Scleractinia in the US Flag Pacific Islands, while Table 97 includes a summary of the likely
zooxaznthellate corals to be found in the Western Pacific Region. .
Taxonomic Issues
Veron and Pichon (1976); Veron, Pichon and Wijsman-Best (1977); Veron and Pichon
(1979); Veron and Pichon (1982); Veron and Wallace (1984) have revised the taxonomy of
the order Scleractinia in the AIMS Monograph series. Many of the earlier checklists require
revision for comparison. References for description and checklists of the AFPI are: Hawaii
-Maragos (1977, 1992,1995); Guam - Jones and Randall (1973); CNMI - Randall (1995);
American Samoa - Birkeland,, Randall and Amesbury (1994); Lamberts (1980); Wake I. Anon. (1999); Midway Atoll, Northern Hawaiian Islands - DeFelice, Coles, Muir, Eldredge
(1998); Johnston Atoll - Maragos and Jokiel (1986); Jokiel and Tyler (1992); Palmyra Atoll
- Maragos (1979, 1988, in prep.)
Habitat Utilization
Stony coral attach to the reef substrate creating a variety of biological habitats on which
many other groups rely for shelter and symbiosis. Coral skeletons with the aid of coralline
algae create the reef structure.
The distribution of hard coral over the reef is the result of fortuitous settlement and
environmental sorting. The history of disturbance in an area plays a large role in the nature
of the coral assemblage. Generally, there is a near shore assemblage which is dominated by
genera resistant to the influence of the terrestrial factors and tidal variation. (eg. siltation,
flooding, and variation in temperature). The genus Porites, Montipora and Pavona, in that
order to dominate the reef seleractinians in Hawaii. In Hawaii, the predominantly branching
coral genus Acropora is rare and generally confined to several areas in the NWHI.
Elsewhere in the region, Acropora, faviids and Millepora are dominant or very common
along with the other genera mentioned above. In permanently sub-tidal areas and further
offshore the Acropora dominate but often in association by substantial growths of a variety
of other species. In Hawaii, this dominance is replaced by Montipora and Pocillopora. Stony
coral are limited by light (depth), wave action and disturbance.
The AFPI span a broad biogeographic realm from Guam (1440 45=E long.) to Hawaii (1550
W. Long) and from American Samoa (150 S latitude) to the northern Hawaii Islands (280 40=
N. Lat). In terms of coral development, the tropical/temperature gradient gives rise to a
range of reef types and species assemblages. The luxuriance of the high island reefs of
American Samoan, Guam are in contrast to the variety of reefs which occur in Hawaii. The
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Jarvis, Baker, Howland, Palmyra Johnston and Wake reefs are atolls as are some of the reefs
northern Hawaiian Islands. For most of these areas, varying degrees of information is
available, though being generally scant.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Corals are similar to anemones in having a polyp form which may be colonial or solitary.
They are characterized by a hard skeleton of aragonite (calcium carbonate). The colonial
form may manifest a variety of forms: branching, tabulate, massive or encrusting. Some
forms are species specific while some species respond to environmental influences which
condition the colonial morphology. Polyps have tentacle though these are absent in some
genera. They are often a crown, in multiples of six, (Hexacorallia) encircling the mouth
though these may be manifest in furrows or over the surface as in the solitary Fungia. They
possess nematocysts. Internally, the mouth opens into a gastrovascular cavity with
mensentaries and mesentarial filaments. The mesentaries extend from the scleroseptum.
The skeleton has a thecal wall, sclosepta and a basal plate (Barnes, 1987).
The colony expands by budding of new polyps from the bases of old polyps or from the oral
discs of old polyps through intra-tentacular or extra-tentacular budding. Polyps of meandroid
colonies share a common oral disc bearing many mouths (Barnes, 1987).
Age, Growth, Longevity
Corals can be very long lived for massive species. An estimated 1000 years has been
estimated for some massive Porites, colonial sizes representing 300 is reasonably common.
Growth rates have been recorded by Buddemeir and Kinzie (1976).
Corals as a group have a wide range of growth rates. The rate variable between 0.4 and 22.5
cm per year. The massive corals grow more slowly with a range of 0.4 to 1.8cm. (DeVantier,
1993). Growth also includes fusion of colonies (Table 95).
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Table 95. Growth rates among some scleractinian coral.
Species
Growth (cm/yr)
Faviidae
Favia, Favites
Goniastrea,
Montastrea
Platygyra
0-1.38
Mean range
0.07-1.25
Poritidae
Porites
Goniopora
0-1.88
Mean range
0.13-0.97
Mussidae
Lobophyllia
Symphyllia
Acanthastrea
0-1.65
Mean range
0.38-0.94
Oculinidae
Galaxea
0.67-1.18
Mean range
0.54-0.93
Merulinidae
Hydnophora
.56-1.15
Mean 0.86
Caryophylliidae
Physogyra
Euphyllia
Plerogyra
0.5-0.75
Mean range
0.5-0.75
Acroporiidae
Acropora
10.17-22.58
Pocilloporiidae
Pocillopora
0.4-3.59
Reproductive Strategies
Corals reproduce by both sexual (external fertilization and development and brooded
planulae) and asexual development (brooded planulae, polyp-balls, polyp bail-out, fission,
fragmentation and re-cementation). May be bisexual or hermaphroditic (protandric,
protogynous or synchronous) (Chorneski and Peters, 1987). Self fertilisation occurs
(Heyward and Babcock, 1986).
Asexual modes of reproduction:
brooded planulae
polyp-balls: Goniopora spp. (Sammarco 1986)
polyp bail-out: Seriatopora spp. (Sammarco 1981,1982)
reversible metamorphosis: Pocillopora damicornis (Richmond 1985)
fission: Fungiidae
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fragmentation and re-cementation: Acropora spp and others (Tunnicliffe, 1981)
Corals may be free spawners or brooders depending on their geographic distribution. In
Hawaii , Tubastrea is a brooder but in Australia is a brooder and free spawner.(Harrison and
Wallace, 1990)
Sexual maturity depends, on growth as well as colony age (Kojis and Quinn, 1985)
Brooders reach maturity a few years earlier than free spawners. Ahermatypic corals reach
sexual maturity earlier than hermatypic corals (Harriot, 1983). Fecundity increases with age.
(Soong and Lang, 1992). Availability of light influences fecundity whether through depth or
an increase in suspended particles in the water ( Kojis and Quinn, 1984) or the reduction of
UV light (Jokiel and York, 1982).
Distribution
Table 96 details the occurrence of Scleractinia in the AFPI. Veron (1993b) detailed the
global distribution of coral genera and regionally with species. Regional variation in generic
occurrence has been documented with latitudinal gradients (Wells 1956).
Zonation within reefs due to environmental influences is well known.( In American Samoa:
Birkeland et al. 1994, 1996; In Hawaii: Palmyra Atoll: Maragos 1977, 1988, 1992; In Guam:
Jones and Randall).
Discrete coral populations may result from asexual reproduction and possess the same
genotype (Hunter, 1985; Willis and Ayre, 1985; Ayre and Resing, 1986) though many
appear heterogenous.
Feeding and Food
Stony coral s feed on planktonic organisms or dissolved organic matter (DOM). Capture of
prey is by tentacles, suspension feeding occurs and some use mesenterial filaments. Most
prey capture at night though some feed during the day.
The presence of symbiotic zooxanthellae makes some corals functional autotrophs
(Muscatine et al. 1981) and contribute to all hermatypes nutrition. Muscatine and Porter
(1977) determined plankton comprise approx. 20% of coral required nutrition. Franzisket
(1970) showed coral could live without plankton, but additional nutrition was required from
this source (Johannes et al. 1970). The relative dependance on heterotrophy varies with
species and with environment. Sorokin (1973, 1995) described the relative dependence on
predation, bacteria and DOM. The zooxanthellae receive elements from predation (i.e.
nitrogen, iron, and vitamine B12). Recycling of nutrients between corals and zooxanthellae is
well known (Johannes 1974; Muscatine 1973; Porter, 1976).
Behavior
Competition for space is achieved by direct tentacular competition; mesenterial filaments,
sweeper tentacles, allopathy, over-growth, shading.
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Spawning: Spatial and Temporal Distribution
Mass spawning has been described by Babcock et al. (1986) and follows a lunar periodicity
(Richmond and Hunter, 1990). Geographic variation introduces the effects of temperature
and other climatic factors. In Australia, (GBR), A .palifera spawns only once per year at
230S latitude and through out the year at 140S lat.(Kojis and Quinn, 1984, 1986a).
Appearance and Physical Characteristics of Eggs (size, shape, color, etc) and Duration
of Phase
Eggs are round and may be pink, orange, blue, purple or white. Pigmentation may be UV
protection. White eggs are non-fertile in Galaxea fascicularis. Maturation of eggs and
ejection may be controlled by the hormone Estradiol-17b (Atkinson and Atkinson, 1992).
Form into egg sperm bundles. Some eggs contain zooxanthellae. Eggs range in size from
1.5 x 1.00mm (Flabellum rubrum) to Acorporidae and Mussidae 0.4-0.8mm; Faviidae and
Pectiniidae 0.3- 0.5mm, Portitidae, Agariciidae, Fungiidae and Pocilloporidae 0.05-0.25mm.
The total length of sperm is <0.005mm. Eggs and sperm production is cyclic and maturity is
reached at the same time for most corals. For Stylophora pistillata (Rinkevich and Loya,
1979), the time is different for different colonies. Acropora palifera spawning may take
place in several stages in synchrony with moon phases with six reproductive cycles per year
(Kojis, 1986a, b). Free spawners have a 12 month maturation cycle but brooders have
several cycles per year.
Spawning is in synchrony with the lunar cycle beginning on the 15th to the 24th night of the
lunar cycle. Spawning starts at dusk and continues until midnight. It may vary
geographically. A slick is often observed as the gammetes are brought together by currents.
Likelihood of fertilization is increased and the abundance of material means predation is
decreased through satiation.
Duration of gamete development after spawning is 30 minutes until the ability to fertilise,
first cell division 1-2 hours, to planula stage 6-24 hours (Szmant-Froelich et al. 1980; Kojis
and Quinn 1982, Bull 1986, Heyward 1986)
Larvae: Appearance and Physical Characteristics of Larvae
It is covered with cilia which provide locomotion. In Porites porites, 200 planula may be
released from a section of colony (2cm2) (Fadallah, 1983). They are ciliated, spherical
initially and oval or pear-like when mobile.
Age, Growth and Duration of Larval Phase
Initially, they move to the surface of the water and drift as a ciliated ball. In 3-7 days they
elongate into a conical shape. They have a cavity and mouth and are 1.5mm long with
mesenteries developed. They then move to deeper water and seek substrate (Babcock and
Heyward, 1986).
Coral with long lived larvae are: Galaxea aspera 49 days; Cyphastrea ocellina (Hawaii) 60
days; Acropora spp. 91 days; Pocillopora damicornis (Hawaii) 103 days (Gulko,1999).
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Larval Feeding and Food
Nutrition in planulae is achieved as the result of energy reserves transferred from the
embryonic cells. Zooxanthellae, most probably, provide nutrition through nutrient
translocation. Some planula feed actively.
Habitat Utilization
Some planula have zooxanthallae and may exist for longer in the plankton and disperse
further. Most settle with the proximity of the parent <1km. Discussion of factors in
dispersal have been reviewed by Harrison and Wallace (1990). Currents must play a major
role in the transport of the larvae. Longevity in the plankton will determine the potential
distance of dispersal (Richmond, 1987).
Settlement sites are often cryptic. Clumping of planula may give rise to fusion into a single
colony.
Habitat Features Affecting the Abundance and Density of Eggs and Larvae
Currents affect the abundance of eggs and larvae, often concentrating them into a dense mass
and dispersing them with the flow. Rain storms may cause mass mortality at this stage as
does grounding of the slick at low tide or along the shore. After settlement, the planulae
develop primary polyps. The settlement site is important. If inshore, large amounts of
organic particular matter and sediment will increase mortality. Wave action may destroy the
primary polyps. Young polyps may abandon primary calyx, and relocate planktonically
(Richmond, 1985) or through bailout responses.
There is the potential for rafting of coral polyps on driftwood or other current borne objects
which would allow for the settlement by larvae and polyp growth (Jokiel, 1984).
Abundance and distribution of coral planulae was investigated in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu
(Hodgson, 1985) and Bull (1986) for Australia.
Settlement occurs by finding a suitable location. The size of the new polyp is <2mm.
Mortality at this stage is high. Both the environmental and biological environment affect the
potential for coral development (Goreau, et al. 1981).
In Western Australia, large numbers of fish and coral died as the result of a coral spawn slick
being embayed and using up the oxygen and then decaying (Simson 1993).
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4.2.3.7 Fungiidae (Dana, 1846) (mushroom corals)
Important Summary Documents
Veron (1986) provides a species summary of the systematics, anatomy and distribution in
Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Veron (1993b) the family Fungiidae is discussed with respect
to its global distribution.
Taxonomic Issues
Veron & Pichon (1979) revised the taxonomy of the family Fungiidae.
Has 11 extant genera: Cycloseris (7 spp.), Diaseris (4 nominal spp.), Heliofungia, Fungia (25
spp.), Herpolitha (2 spp.), Polyphyllia (3 spp.), Halomitra (1 spp.), Sandalolitha (2 spp.),
Lithophyllon (2 spp.), Podabacia (1 spp.) and Zoopilus (1 spp.).
Habitat Utilization
Begin life as anthocauli attached to a hard substrate. Detach to continue life as a free-living
colony inhabiting reef areas unsuitable for permanently attached corals such as sand or
rubble.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
All shallow water with the exception of the Fungiacyathus (not occur AFPI). The majority
are hermatypic, solitary, and free living (not Lithophyllum or Podabacia) with attached
juvenile stage. They may be individual with one mouth or colonial with many mouths and
other anatomy characteristic of a colonial form.
From Veron (1986):
Cycloseris (Edwards & Haime, 1849): Solitary, free-living, flat or dome-shaped, circular or
slightly oval in outline with a central mouth. Fine tentacles cover the upper surface of the
disc. Pale brown to cream with a darker margin.
Diaseris (Edwards & Haime, 1849): Circular though with an irregular margin and segments.
Colour is brown to green.
Heliofungia (Wells, 1966): Solitary, free-living, flat with central mouth. Septa have large
lobed teeth. Polyps are extended day and night, and as a single polyp are the largest of all
corals. Tentacles are longest of the stony corals and dark purple or green tentacle with pale
tips. The oral disc is striped and the single mouth is 30mm wide.
Fungia (Lamarck, 1801): Free-living, circular or elongate
Herpolitha (Eschscholtz, 1825): Free-living, elongate with and axial furrow that may extend
to the corallum ends. Several centers or mouths occur in the furrow. Colonies may be
heavily calcified and >1m in length. Tentacles are short and widely spaced.
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Polyphyllia (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833): Free-living, elongate with many mouths and
tentacles over the upper surface. Larger mouths are down the axial furrow. Long tentacles,
which are always extended.
Halomitra (Dana, 1846): Colonies are large and free-living, circular and dome or bell
shaped, thin and delicate and without an axial furrow. Corallites widely spaced. Tentacles
are small and widely spaced and extended at night.
Sandalolitha (Quelch, 1884): Colonies are large, free-living, and circular to oval,
dome-shaped, heavily constructed and without an axial furrow. Corallites are compacted.
Pale or darks brown, sometimes with purple margins and white centers.
Lithophyllon (Rehberg, 1892): Colonies are attached, encrusting or laminar, unifacial.
Colonies may be large, up to several metres. Polyps extended at night. Dull green, grey or
brown with white margins or white centers.
Podabacia (Edwards and Haime, 1849): Colonies are attached, encrusting or laminar,
unifacial and up to 1.5m in diameter.
Their coloration may be frown, green, red or pink. They may have contrasting stripped
design.
Distribution
Cycloseris: Extends from southern Africa to the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf through the
Indo- Pacific ranging from south Western Australia, Lord Howe I. and Easter I. in the south
to southern Japan in the north. It occurs in the Hawaiian Islands, though not in Midway. It is
present in the eastern Pacific from Baja California, northern Mexico to Columbia. The
recorded occurrence in the AFPI is Johnston Atoll, Hawaii and Guam
Diaseris: Similar to Cycloseris though narrower, extending from southern Madagascar and
the Red Sea. Across the Pacific at varying latitude in the north to include Japan and in the
south of New Caledonia and the Tuamotus Is. The recorded occurrence in the AFPI is
Hawaii.
Heliofungia: Indonesia, Australia, Philippines, Ryukyu Is. east to the Caroline and
Solomon Is and south to New Caledonia. The genus does not occur in the AFPI.
Fungia: South of Madagascar, to the Red Sea, Northern Australia, the Great Barrier Reef,
south to Lord Howe I. and across to Pitcairn I. Its northerly extent is southern India,
Southeast Asia, southern Japan, Midway I., Hawaiian Is. Its easterly extent is the Marquesas
Is. The recorded occurrence by virtue of Fungia scutaria is present in all AFPI where
checklists have been made. Considering the other species of the genus, occurrence is limited
to American Samoa, Palmyra Atoll, and Guam.
Herpolitha: South of Madagascar to the Red Sea, Northern Australia, the Great Barrier
Reef, south to New Caledonia and across to Pitcairn I. Its northerly extent is southern India,
A-456
Philippines, and Ryukyu Is., Japan. Its easterly extent is the Tuamotus Is. The AFPI that this
species is found in is American Samoa, Palmyra Atoll and Guam.
Polyphyllia: Central Indo-Pacific: Northern Madagascar and the Seychelles Is in the west.
Northern Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga in the south. American Samoa (only AFPI
occurrence) in the east and Ryukyu Is, Japan in the north.
Halomitra: West Africa Madagascar in the west through Indonesia to the Line Is in the east.
South to New Caledonia and Tonga and north to the Ryukyu I in the north. Present in the
AFPI in American Samoa and Palmyra.
Sandalolitha: Occurs in Indonesia and Southeast Asia in the west to the Kyushu Is. in the
north. Extends to Northern Australia and New Caledonia and Tubuai Is in the south. Also
extends to the Tubuai Is and Line Is in the east. AFPI occurrence limited to American Samoa
and Palmyra Atoll.
Lithophyllon: Similar to Sandalolitha, occurring to Indonesia in the west and the Malay
Peninsula. Its southerly extent is northern Australia, New Caledonia, and Fiji to the east. It
is confined to the western Pacific to include the Philippines and north to southern Japan.
There are no occurrences in the AFPI.
Podobacia: Indo-Pacific: Occurs from west Africa and the Red Sea south to Madagascar,
Northern Australia, New Caledonia to Tahiti. Range extends to the Fiji in the east. In the
north, it extends along Southeast Asia to Japan. There are no occurrences in the AFPI.
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic: prominent tentacles indicate prey capture. Autotrophic: abundant
zooxanthellae.
Behavior
Are partially mobile. May free themselves if buried and some are capable of lateral
movement, ability to right themselves, and able to climb over obstacles by using their
tentacles and inflating their body cavities.
Mobility in Cycloseris by ciliary hairs, by inflation of the body cavity or use of tentacles.
Tentacle extended at night.
Fungia and Herpolitha: Polyps are extended only at night.
Reproductive Strategies
Asexual: Fragmentation or natural regeneration through fracture. Many develop attached
daughter polyps (acanthocauli) from the parent colony.
Sexual: Dioecious or hermaphroditic. Planula larvae settle to form the attached
acanthocauli, which may grow to several centimeters before detaching due to degeneration of
the stalk. Heliofungia has been reported as hermaphroditic while Fungia has separate sexes.
A-457
It is likely the family has separate sexes, the females either brood planulae or release gametes
(Veron, 1986).
Bibliography
Veron J. E. N. 1986: Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0
207 15116 4.
Veron, J. E. N. (1993b): A Biogeographic Database of Hermatypic Corals. Species of the
Central Indo-Pacific. Genera of the World. AIMS Monograph Series Volume 10,
Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS), Townsville, Australia.
Veron J. E. N. & Pichon M. 1979: Scleractinia of eastern Australia, Part 3: Families
Agariciidae, Siderastreidae, Fungiidae, Oculinidae, Merulinidae, Mussidae, Pectinidae,
Caryophyllidae, Dendrophylliidae. Aust. Inst. Mar. Sci., Monogr. Ser. 4, 422pp.
A-458
Table 96. Distribution of Scleractinia (hard coral) in the American Flag Pacific Islands (AFPI).
AS: American Samoa; PA: Palmyra Atoll; JA: Johnston Atoll; MHI: Main Hawaiian Islands; NWHI: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands;
WA: Wake Atoll; CNMI: Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; GU: Guam
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
Site
Record
X
X
3
X
X
2
X
2
X
2
Order SCLERACTINIA
Family ASTROCOENIIDAE
Stylocoeniella armata (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
Stylocoeniella guentheri (Bassett-Smith, 1890)
Family THAMNASTERIIDAE
Psammocora contigua (Esper, 1797)
X
Psammocora digitata Edward & Haime, 1851
X
Psammocora explanulata van der Horst, 1922
X
Psammocora folium (Syn)
X
Psammocora (P.) haimeana Edwards and Haime,
1851
X
Psammocora nierstraszi van der Horst,1921
X
1
1
X
X
Psammocora profundacella Gardiner,1898
X
Psammocora stellata (Verril,1866)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
3
X
5
X
2
X
5
Psammocora superficiales Gardiner,1898
X
1
Psammocora (V.) tutuilensis (Syn)
X
1
Psammocora verrilli Vaughan
X
A-459
X
2
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
Site
Record
Family POCILLOPORIDAE
Pocillopora ankeli Sheer & Pillai, 1974
X
1
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus,1758)
X
X
X
X
Pocillopora eydouxi Edwards & Haime,1860
X
X
X
X
Pocillopora ligulata Dana, 1846
X
X
X
X
Pocillopora molokensis Vaughan, 1907
X
6
X
6
X
3
X
Pocillopora setchelli Hoffmeister,1929
X
Pocillopora verrucosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
X
Pocillopora woodjonesi Vaughan,1918
X
Seriatopora crassa Quelch, 1886
X
Seriatopora hystrix Dana, 1846
X
Stylophora pistillata Esper, 1797
X
X
X
X
1
X
X
X
X
3
X
X
8
X
2
1
X
X
X
2
X
4
Family ACROPORIDAE
Acropora (A.) aculeus (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) acuminata (Verrill, 1864)
X
X
X
3
Acropora (A.) aspera (Dana, 1846)
X
X
X
3
Acropora (A.) azurea Veron & Wallace, 1984
X
1
Acropora (A.) bushyensis Veron & Wallace, 1984
Acropora (A.) carduus (Dana, 1846)
X
A-460
2
X
1
X
2
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
Acropora (A.) cerealis (Dana, 1846)
X
X
X
Acropora (A.) clathrata (Brook, 1891)
X
1
Acropora (A.) cuspidata Dana
X
1
Acropora (A.) cytherea (Dana,1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) danai (Milne-Edwards & Haime,
1860)
X
X
Acropora (A.) digitifera (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) divaricata (Dana, 1846)
X
X
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
X
X
X
Site
Record
5
X
5
X
X
4
X
X
4
1
Acropora (A.) echinata (Dana, 1846)
X
Acropora (A.) elseyi (Brook, 1892)
X
Acropora (A.) florida (Dana, 1846)
X
X
1
2
1
Acropora (A.) formosa (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) gemmifera (Brook, 1892)
X
X
Acropora (A.) granulosa (Edwards & Haime, 1860)
X
Acropora (A.) horrida (Dana, 1846)
X
Acropora (A.) humilis (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) hyacinthus (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) latistella (Brook, 1892)
X
1
Acropora (A.) listeri (Brook, 1893)
X
1
A-461
X
3
2
X
X
3
1
X
X
X
X
6
X
X
4
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
Acropora (A.) longicyathus (Edwards & Haime,
1860)
X
Acropora (A.) millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
Acropora (A.) monticulosa (Bruggemanni, 1879)
X
Acropora (A.) multiacuta Nemenzo,1967
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
X
GU
Site
Record
1
X
2
X
3
X
1
Acropora (A.) loripes (Brook, 1892)
X
X
Acropora (A.) nana (Studer, 1878)
X
X
Acropora (A.) nasuta (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) nobilis (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (A.) ocellata (Klunzinger, 1897)
X
Acropora (A.) pagoensis Hoffmeister
X
Acropora (A.) palmerae Wells, 1954
X
Acropora (A.) paniculata Verrill,1902
X
Acropora (A.) paxilligera (Dana, 1846)
X
Acropora (A.) polystoma (Brook, 1891)
X
Acropora (A.) pulchra (Brook, 1891)
X
Acropora (A.) rambleri (Bassett-Smith, 1890)
X
X
2
Acropora (A.) robusta (Dana, 1846)
X
X
2
Acropora (A.) samoensis (Brook, 1891)
X
A-462
X
X
X
X
4
X
3
X
5
X
3
X
2
1
X
X
X
2
3
1
X
2
1
X
2
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
Acropora (A.) schmitti
X
Site
Record
1
Acropora (A.) secale (Studer, 1878)
X
1
Acropora (A.) selago (Studer, 1878)
X
X
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
X
Acropora (A.) studeri (Brook, 1893)
Acropora (A.) tenuis (Dana, 1846)
X
Acropora (A.) teres (Verrill, 1866)
X
Acropora (A.) valenciennesi (Edwards & Haime,
1860)
X
Acropora (A.) valida (Dana, 1846)
X
Acropora (A.) vaughani Wells, 1954
X
GU
X
4
X
1
X
3
X
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
6
1
Acropora (A.) yongei Veron & Wallace, 1984
X
Acropora (A.) sp.1
X
Acropora (A.) sp.2
X
1
Acropora (A.) sp.3
X
1
Acropora (I.) brueggemanni (Brook, 1893)
X
X
Acropora (I.) cuneata (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acropora (I.) palifera (Lamarck,
X
X
1816)
Astreopora cucullata Lamberts, 1980
X
X
X
Astreopora explanata
2
X
X
3
3
2
X
X
4
1
X
1
2
A-463
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
Astreopora gracilis Bernard, 1896
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
X
GU
Site
Record
X
Astreopora listeri Bernard, 1896
X
Astreopora myriophthalma (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Astreopora randalli Lamberts,1890
X
Astreopora sp. 1
X
Montipora aequituberculata Bernard, 1897
X
Montipora berryi Hoffmeister, 1925
X
1
Montipora bilaminata
X
1
Montipora caliculata (Dana, 1846)
X
1
X
X
X
X
2
X
5
1
X
X
X
Montipora conicula Wells
Montipora danae Edwards & Haime, 1851
X
Montipora dilatata Struder, 1901
2
3
X
1
X
2
X
1
Montipora efflorescens Bernard, 1897
X
1
Montipora ehrenbergii Verrill, 1875
X
X
2
Montipora elschneri Vaughan, 1918
X
X
2
Montipora eydouxi
X
1
Montipora flabellata Struder, 1901
X
Montipora floweri Wells, 1954
Montipora foliosa (Pallas, 1766)
X
A-464
X
1
X
1
X
3
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
Montipora foveolata (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Montipora granulosa Bernard, 1897
X
Montipora hispida (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Montipora hoffmeisteri Wells, 1954
X
X
Montipora incrassata Dana, 1846
JA
X
Montipora lobulata Bernard, 1897
X
Montipora marshallensis
X
NWHI
WA
NMI
X
X
X
X
X
4
2
2
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
Montipora tuberculosa (Lamarck, 1816)
2
X
Montipora peltiformis Bernard, 1897
X
X
X
X
Montipora spumosa (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Site
Record
4
3
Montipora millepora Crossland, 1952
Montipora monasteriata (Forskal, 1775)
GU
X
X
Montipora informis Bernard, 1897
MHI
X
1
X
6
X
2
1
X
X
X
Montipora turgescens Bernard, 1897
X
X
5
1
Montipora undata Bernard, 1897
X
1
Montipora venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
1
Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Montipora sp.1 (green spine)
X
A-465
X
X
X
X
3
X
4
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
Montipora sp.2 (ramose tuber.)
Montipora sp.3 (Pago)
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
X
X
X
Site
Record
3
X
X
X
3
Montipora sp.4 (Ramose pap.)
X
X
2
Montipora sp.5 (thick branch)
X
X
2
X
X
3
X
X
X
3
X
X
X
4
X
5
Family AGARICIIDAE
Gardineroseris planulata (Dana, 1846)
X
Leptoseris hawaiiensis Vaughan, 1907
Leptoseris incrustans (Quelch, 1886)
X
Leptoseris mycetoseroides Wells, 1954
X
X
X
Leptoseris papyracea (Dana, 1846)
Leptoseris scabra Vaughan, 1907
X
Pachyseris levicollis
X
Pachyseris speciosa (Dana, 1846)
X
Pachyseris rugosa (Lamarck, 1801)
X
Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846)
X
Pavona decussata (Dana, 1846)
X
Pavona diffluens (Lamarck, 1816)
X
A-466
X
X
1
X
2
1
X
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
7
X
2
1
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
Pavona divaricata (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Pavona explanulata (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Pavona frondifera (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Pavona gigantea
X
Pavona maldivensis (Gardiner, 1905)
X
Pavona minuta Wells, 1954
X
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
X
X
X
Pavona (P.) venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
Site
Record
2
2
X
2
1
X
X
X
X
Pavona qardineri van der Horst
Pavona varians Verrill, 1864
GU
X
X
X
X
X
X
6
X
2
X
1
X
7
X
2
Family BALANOPHYLLIDAE
Balanophyllia sp.cf. affinis (Semper, 1872)
X
1
Balanophyllia hawaiiensis Vaughan, 1907
X
1
Family SIDERASTREIDAE
Coscinaraea columna (Dana, 1846)
X
Coscinaraea wellsi Veron & Pichon, 1879
X
2
X
1
X
1
Family FUNGIIDAE
Cycloseris hexagonalis Edwards & Haime, 1848
Cycloseris patelliformis Boschma, 1923
X
A-467
1
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
Cycloseris tenuis Dana, 1846
Cycloseris vaughani (Boschma, 1923)
X
Diaseris distorta Michelin, 1842
Fungia (D.) danai Edwards & Haime, 1851
X
Fungia (D.) valida Verrill, 1864
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
X
Site
Record
1
X
2
X
1
X
2
X
1
Fungia (C.) echinata (Pallas,1766)
X
Fungia (F.) fungites (Linnaeus, 1758)
X
X
X
3
Fungia (P.) paumotensis Stutchbury, 1833
X
X
X
3
Fungia (P.) scutaria Lamarck, 1801
X
X
X
8
Fungia (V.) concinna Verrill, 1864
X
X
X
3
Fungia (V.) granulosa Klunzinger, 1879
X
Fungia (V.) repanda Dana, 1846
X
Fungia (C.) simplex (Gardiner, 1905)
X
Halomitra pileus (Linnaeus, 1758)
X
X
Herpolitha limax (Houttuyn, 1772)
X
X
Polyphyllia talpina (Lamarck, 1801)
X
Sandalolitha robusta (Quelch,1886)
X
Family PORITIDAE
A-468
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
X
2
1
2
X
2
1
X
2
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
Alveopora allingi Hoffmeister, 1925
X
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
Alveopora japonica
Alveopora superficialis Sheer & Pillai, 1976
X
Alveopora verrilliana Dana, 1846
X
Alveopora viridis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
X
GU
Site
Record
1
X
1
1
X
X
3
1
Goniopora arbuscula Umbgrove
X
1
X
2
Goniopora columna Dana, 1846
X
Goniopora parvistella Ortmann, 1888
X
1
Goniopora somaliensis Vaughan, 1907
X
1
Goniopora sp.1
X
Goniopora sp.2
Porites (P.) annae Crossland, 1952
X
Porites (P.) australiensis Vaughan, 1918
X
Porites (P.) cocosensis Wells
Porites (P.) compressa Vaughan
X
Porites (P.) cylindrica Dana, 1846
X
Porites (P.) duerdeni Vaughan
X
Porites (P.) cf. Evermanni Vaughan, 1907
X
X
X
3
X
X
2
X
2
X
2
X
1
X
2
X
2
X
2
1
1
A-469
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
Porites (P.) latistella
X
Porites (P.) lichen Dana, 1846
X
Porites (P.) lobata Dana, 1846
X
X
X
Porites (P.) lutea Edwards & Haime, 1860
X
X
X
Porites (P.) matthaii Wells
X
Porites (P.) murrayensis Vaughan, 1918
X
X
Porites (P.) pukoensis Vaughan, 1907
X
X
Porites (P.) queenslandi septima
X
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
Site
Record
X
3
X
X
7
X
X
6
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
X
1
X
1
Porites (P.) studeri Vaughan, 1907
X
Porites (P.) sp.1(nodular)
X
Porites (S.) horizontalata Hoffmeister, 1925
X
Porites (S.) rus (Forskal, 1775)
X
Porites (N.) vaughani Crossland, 1952
1
X
X
X
3
X
2
X
3
X
Stylaraea punctata (Linnaeus, 1758)
1
X
A-470
3
2
Porites (P.) solida (Forskal, 1775)
Porites (P.) stephensoni Crossland, 1952
2
1
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
Synaraea horizontalata
X
Site
Record
1
X
1
Family FAVIIDAE
Caulastrea furcata Dana, 1846
Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskal, 1775)
X
X
X
X
4
Cyphastrea microphthalma (Lamarck, 1816)
X
X
2
Cyphastrea serailia (Forskal, 1775)
X
X
Diploastrea heliopora (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Echinopora hirsuitissima (Edwards & Haime, 1849)
X
Echinopora lamellosa (Esper, 1795)
X
X
Favia favus (Forskal, 1775)
X
X
Favia helianthoides Wells, 1954
X
1
Favia laxa (Klunzinger, 1879)
X
1
Favia matthaii Vaughan, 1918
X
Favia pallida (Dana, 1846)
X
Favia rotumana (Gardiner, 1899)
X
X
3
X
3
1
X
X
X
X
Favia russelli (Wells)
Favia speciosa (Dana)
X
X
Favia stelligera (Dana, 1846)
X
X
A-471
X
X
X
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
5
X
2
X
1
X
4
X
4
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
Favia sp.1 (small calice)
X
X
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
Favia sp.2
Favites abdita (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
X
Favites chinensis (Verrill, 1866)
X
Favites complanata (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
X
NMI
X
Site
Record
3
X
1
X
X
4
1
Favites favosa (Ellis & Solander)
Favites flexuosa (Dana, 1846)
X
X
X
Favites halicora (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
X
X
Favites pentagona (Esper, 1794)
GU
X
2
X
1
X
4
3
X
1
Favites russelli (Wells, 1954)
X
1
Goniastrea australensis (Edwards & Haime, 1857)
X
1
Goniastrea edwardsi Chevalier, 1971
X
Goniastrea favulus (Dana, 1846)
X
Goniastrea palauensis (Yabe,Sugiyama & Eguchi,
1936)
X
Goniastrea pectinata (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
Goniastrea retiformis (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Hydnophora exesa (Pallas, 1766)
X
Hydnophora microconos (Lamarck, 1816)
X
A-472
X
X
2
2
1
X
X
X
4
X
4
X
X
3
X
X
3
X
X
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
Hydnophora rigida (Dana, 1846)
X
PA
JA
Leptastrea bottae (Edwards & Haime, 1849)
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
X
Leptastrea cf. Immersa Klunzinger, 1879
X
Leptastrea purpurea (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Leptastrea transversa Klunzinger, 1979
X
X
Leptoria phrygia (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
X
Montastrea annuligera (Edwards & Haime, 1849)
X
Montastrea curta (Dana, 1846)
X
GU
Site
Record
1
X
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8
X
2
X
4
1
X
X
Montastrea valenciennesi (Edwards & Haime, 1848)
X
4
X
Oulangia bradleyi (Verrill, 1866)
1
X
Oulophyllia crispa (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Platygyra daedalea (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
X
X
Platygyra lamellina (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
X
Platygyra pini Chevalier, 1975
X
Platygyra sinensis (Edwards & Haime, 1849)
1
X
Family RHIZANGIIDAE
A-473
X
2
X
4
X
X
4
X
X
3
X
2
X
3
X
X
Plesiastrea versipora (Lamarck, 1816)
X
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
Culicia rubeola (Quoy & Gaimard)
NMI
GU
X
Culicia sp.cf. tenella Dana, 1846
X
Site
Record
1
1
Family OCULINIDAE
Acrhelia horrescens (Dana, 1846)
X
X
2
Galaxea cf. astreata (Lamarck, 1816)
X
X
2
Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767)
X
X
3
X
Family MERULINIDAE
Clavarina triangularis Veron & Pichon, 1979
X
Merulina ampliata (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
X
1
X
X
X
4
X
4
X
1
X
3
X
2
Family MUSSIDAE
Acanthastrea echinata (Dana, 1846)
X
X
Acanthastrea sp.1
Lobophyllia corymbosa (Forskal, 1775)
X
Lobophyllia hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834)
X
Symphyllia radians (Edwards & Haime, 1849)
Symphyllia recta (Dana, 1846)
X
Symphyllia valenciennesii Edwards & Haime,
X
A-474
X
X
X
1
X
2
1
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
Site
Record
X
2
1849
Family PECTINIIDAE
Echinophyllia aspera (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
X
Mycedium elephantotos (Pallas, 1766)
X
1
Oxypora lacera (Verrill, 1864)
X
1
Family CARYOPHYLLIIDAE
Euphyllia (E.) glabrescens (Chamisso & Eysenhardt,
1821)
X
Plerogyra simplex Rehberg, 1892
X
X
X
3
1
Plerogyra sinuosa (Dana, 1846)
X
Polycyathus verrilli Duncan
X
2
X
1
Family DENDROPHYLLIIDAE
Tubastrea aurea (Quoy & Gaimard)
X
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1831
X
Turbinaria frondens (Dana, 1846)
X
1
Turbinaria peltata (Esper, 1794)
X
1
Turbinaria reniformis Bernard, 1896
X
1
Order COENOTHECALIA
X
X
X
X
2
4
1
A-475
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
Site
Record
X
X
3
X
1
X
X
3
X
X
3
X
X
3
Family HELIOPORIDAE
Heliopora coerulea (Pallas, 1766)
X
Order STOLONIFERA
Family TUBIPORIDAE
Tubipora musica Linnaeus, 1758
Order MILLEPORINA
Family MILLEPORIDAE
Millepora dichotoma Forskal, 1775
X
Millepora exaesa Forskal, 1775
X
Millepora platyphyllia Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834
X
Millepora tenera Boschma, 1949
X
Millepora tuberosa Boschma, 1966
X
1
Millepora sp.1
X
1
X
1
X
2
Family STYLASTERIDAE
Distochopora gracilis Dana, 1846
Distochopora violacea (Pallas, 1776)
X
Distochopora sp.1
Stylaster gracilis Dana, 1846
X
A-476
X
2
X
1
1
Coral Order, Family and Species
AS
PA
Stylaster sp.
JA
MHI
NWHI
WA
NMI
GU
X
Site
Record
1
Order ALCYONACEA
Family ALCYONIIDAE
Lobophytum sp.1
X
1
Sinularia abrupta Tixier-Durivault, 1970
X
Sinularia sp.1
1
X
Corallimorpharia spp.
X
Palythoa sp.
X
Tethya sp.
X
Zoanthus sp.
X
Number of: Scleractinians
1
X
X
X
4
1
X
222
82
Acyonarians
4
1
Hydrozoans
7
1
Coelothecalia
1
A-477
1
29
51
2
13
39
53
159
1
3
5
1
3
1
Bibliography
American Samoa:
Birkeland, C., Randall, R. and S. Amesbury 1994 Coral and reef-fish assessment of the Fagatele
Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Report to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. 126 pp.
Lamberts, A. 1980. Checklist of Samoan Coral Genera and Species. In: American Samoa Coral
Reef Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for Development Plan Office, American
Samoan Govt..
Palmyra Atoll:
Maragos, J.E. 1979a. Palmyra Atoll: Preliminary environmental survey and assessment. U.S.
Army Corp of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, Fort Shafter, Honolulu Hawaii.
31pp+62pls.
Maragos, J.E. 1988. Notes on the abundance and distribution of reef coral and reef features at
Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands. US Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, Fort
Shafter, Honolulu Hawaii, 18pp+13pls.
Johnston Atoll:
Maragos, J.E. and P. Jokiel 1986 Reef corals of Johnston Atoll: one of the worlds most isolated
reefs. Coral Reefs 4: 141-150.
Hawaii:
Maragos, J.E. 1977 Order Scleractinia: stony corals. In: Devaney, D. and L. Eldredge (eds.) Reef
and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 1: Protozoa through Ctenophora. Bishop Museum Press,
Honolulu, Hawaii. 278 pp.
Maragos, J.E. 1995 Revised checklist of extant Shallow-water stony coral species from Hawaii
(Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 42: 54-55.
Northern Hawaiian Islands:
DeFelice R.C., Coles, S.L., Muir D., Eldredge L.G. 1998. Investigations of the marine
communities of Midway Harbour and adjacent lagoon, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands Area Office, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Wake Atoll:
Anon. (1999). Baseline Marine Biological Survey, Peacock Point Outfall and other Point-Source
Discharges, Wake Atoll, Pacific Ocean. Report to the Department of Army by the
Department of Interior, Fisheries and Wildlife Service (NMFS). Honolulu, Hawaii. 23 p.
Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands:
A-478
Randall, R.H. 1995 Biogeography of reef-building corals in the Mariana and Palau Islands in
relation to back-arc rifting and the formation of the Eastern Philippine Sea. Nat. Hist. Res.
3(2): 193-210.
Guam:
Jones, R.S. and R.H. Randall 1973b. A study of Biological Impact Caused by Natural and
Man-induced Changes on a Tropical Reef. University of Guam, Marine Laboratory
Technical Report No. 7.
Taxonomy conforms to:
Veron J. E. N. 1986: Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0 207
15116 4.
Veron J. E. N. & Pichon, M. 1976: Scleractinia of eastern Australia, Part 1: Families
Thamnasteriidae, Astrocoenidae, Pocilloporidae. Aust. Ins. Mar. Sci., Monogr. Ser. 1, 86pp.
Veron J. E. N., Pichon M. & Wijsman-Best M. 1977: Scleractinia of eastern Australia, Part 2:
Families Faviidae, Trachyphyllidae. Aust. Ins. Mar. Sci., Monogr. Ser. 3, 232pp.
Veron J. E. N. & Pichon M. 1979: Scleractinia of eastern Australia, Part 3 Families Agariciidae,
Siderastreidae, Fungiidae, Oculinidae, Merulinidae, Mussidae, Pectinidae, Caryophyllidae,
Dendrophylliidae. Aust. Inst. Mar. Sci., Monogr. Ser. 4, 422pp.
Veron J. E. N. & Pichon M. 1982: Scleractinia of eastern Australia, Part 4: Family Poritidae,
Aust. Ins. Mar. Sci., Monogr. Ser. 5, 159pp.
Veron J. E. N. & Wallace C. C. 1984: Scleractinia of eastern Australia, Part 5: Families
Acroporidae. Aust. Ins. Mar. Sci., Monogr. Ser. 6, 485pp.
Comment: Oulangia bradleyi (Verrill, 1866): Johnston Atoll. This record does not conform to
the current taxonomy though is included subject to further clarification.
A-479
Table 97. Zooxanthellate corals likely to be found in the American Flag Pacific Islands. (Adapted from Veron
1995.)
Family and genus
Extant species {no.}
Astrocoeniidae
Stylocoeniella
At least 3
Pocilloporidae
Pocillopora
Present distribution
General abundance
Red Sea to central Pacific
Uncommon, cryptic
Approx. 10
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Stylophora
Approx. 5
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Seriatopora
Approx. 5
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common,
conspicuous
Acroporidae
Montipora
At least 80
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Acropora
At least 150
Cosmopolitan in IndoPacific reefs
Extremely common
, some species
inconspicuous
Extremely common,
very conspicuous,
usually dominant
Astreopora
Approx. 15
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
conspicuous
Poritidae
Porites
Approx. 80
Cosmopolitan
Extremely common,
conspicuous at
generic level
Stylaraea
1
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to westernPacific
Rare, occurs only in
shallow,wavewashed biotopes
Goniopora
Approx. 30
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
very conspicuous
Alveopora
Approx. 15
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Sometimes common,
very conspicuous
Siderastreidae
Psammocora
Approx. 15
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Generally common,
sometimes cryptic
Coscinaraea
Approx. 12
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
conspicuous
Agariciidae
Pavona
Approx. 22
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Very common,
conspicuous
Leptoseris
Approx. 14
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
and Caribbean and Gulf of
Mexico
Sometimes common,
mostly conspicuous
At least 2
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Generally
uncommon,
sometimes cryptic
Gardineroseris
A-480
Family and genus
Extant species {no.}
Present distribution
General abundance
Pachyseris
Approx. 4
Fungiidae
Cycloseris
Approx. 16
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to western Pacific
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Generally
uncommon,
non-reefal
Diaseris
At least 3
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Generally
uncommon, nonreefal
Fungia
Approx. 33
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Herpolitha
2
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to western Pacific
Generally common,
very conspicuous
Sandalolitha
2
Central Indian Ocean to
southern Pacific
Sometimes common,
very conspicuous
Halomitra
2
Western Indian Ocean to
southern Pacific
Generally
uncommon, very
conspicuous
Oculinldae
Galaxea
Approx. 5
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Eastern Indian Ocean to
southern Pacific
Generally
uncommon,
conspicuous
Acrhelia
1
Pectiniidae
Echinophyllia
Approx. 8
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common,
conspicuous
Oxypora
At least 3
Western Indian Ocean to
southern Pacific
Generally common,
conspicuous
Mycediurn
At least 2
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
conspicuous
Mussidae
Acanthastrea
Approx. 6
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally
uncommon,
Favites-like
Lobophyllia
Approx. 9
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Symphyllia
Approx. 6
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
very conspicuous
Merulinidae
Hydnophora
Approx. 7
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
very conspicuous
3
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Sometimes common,
conspicuous
Merulina
A-481
Family and genus
Scapophyllia
Faviidae
Favia
Extant species {no.}
Present distribution
1
Eastern Indian Ocean to
southern Pacific
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Cosmopolitan
Generally
uncommon,
conspicuous
Generally common,
very conspicuous
Extremely common,
conspicuous
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common,
conspicuous
Very common,
generally
conspicuous
Approx. 4
At least thirty
General abundance
Favites
Approx. 15
Goniastrea
Approx. 12
Platygyra
Approx. 12
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Extremely common,
conspicuous but may
be confused with
Goniastrea
Leptoria
2
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to western Pacific
Sometimes common,
conspicuous
Sometimes common,
conspicuous
Cosmopolitan
Generally common,
conspicuous
Oulophyllia
Approx. 3
Montastrea
Approx. 13
Plesiastrea
At least 2
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to far eastern Pacific
Sometimes common
Diploastrea
1
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
very conspicuous
Leptastrea
Approx. 8
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
conspicuous
Cyphastrea
Approx. 9
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common,
conspicuous
Echinopora
Approx. 7
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common,
conspicuous
Caryophylliidae
Euphyllia
9
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally common,
very conspicuous
Plerogyra
3
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Generally
uncommon, very
conspicuous
Dendrophylliidae
Turbinaria
Approx. 15
Red Sea and western Indian
Ocean to southern Pacific
Very common, very
conspicuous
Duncanopsammia
1
Central Indo-Pacific
Uncommon, very
A-482
Family and genus
Extant species {no.}
Present distribution
General abundance
conspicuous
A-483
4.2.3.8 Ahermatypic Corals (Azooxanthellate)
Important Summary Documents
Veron (1986) describes the three genera with photos of living and skeletal examples. Table 98
summarizes the ahermatypic corals from Hawaii.
Taxonomic Issues
Order Scleractinia; Family Dendrophylliidae; Genera Dendrophyllia (de Blainville, 1830),
Tubastraea (Lesson. 1829), Balanophyllia spp. (Wood, 1844). Duncanopsammia axifuga is of
the same family and has a skeletal structure and growth form intermediate between hermatypic
and ahermatypic forms. As it is zooxanthellate, it is not described here. Other zooxanthellate
corals such as Heteropsammia and Psammoseris (both Dendrophyllidae), and Heterocyathus
(Caryophylliidae) are they small, single polyp forms and appear as partial ahermatypes (Veron,
1986). Their contribution to reef growth is minor and they occur on sand and rubble substrates.
Heteropsammia spp. doesn=t occur in the AFPI.
Other genera occur in deep water or deep inter-reef areas and are listed with their recorded depth
range (after Veron, 1986): Letepsammia (165-457m); Fungiacyathus (190-600m); Madrepora
(55-450m); Cyathelia (40m); Culicia and Astrangia (inter-tidal to 128m, largely temperate);
Flabellum (10-824m); Placotrochus (to 188m); Monomyces (3-40m); Gardineria (55m);
Anthemiphyllia (to 210m); Caryophyllia (119-1006m); Tethocyathus; Premocyathus (20-230m);
Cythoceras (86-766m); Trochocyathus (86-531m); Deltocyathus (16-531m); Boureotrochus
(210-531m); Sphenotrochus; Polycyathus (>40m); Aulocyathus (163-190m); Conotrochus
(210-365); Stephanocyathus (366-1006m); Oryzotrochus (9-15m); Conocyathus (8-22m);
Trematrochus (>27m); Dunocyathus (100-531m); Paracyathus(>20m); Patytrochus (28-183m);
Cylindrophyllia; Peponocyathus (339-365); Holcotrochus (11-183m); Desmophyllum;
Solenosmilia (860m); Stenocyathus (455-531m); Septosammia (8-86m); Endopachys;
Notophyllia (36-457m); Thecopsammia (270m).
Habitat Utilization
Not dependent on light so able to colonizes overhangs and caves. Competes best in areas of low
scleractinian coral or algal occurrence. T. micrantha competes best due to its erect arborescent
nature and may be dominant below 15m in areas of exposed currents.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Dendrophyllidae :
Solitary and colonial corals with more than two rings of tentacles on the polyps. Numerous
skeletal element of the ridges form an almost continuous sheet and rods connect adjacent ridges.
Dendrophyllia and Tubastrea spp. may appear similar superficially but are separated by
differences in septal plans.
A-484
Dendrophyllia spp.: Often brightly colored (yellow or orange) resulting from the corals own
pigment, as no zooxanthellae are present. Colonies are dendroid and proliferate through
extra-tentacular budding. Generally nocturnal but also diurnal extension.
Tubastraea spp.: Tubular corallites forming hemispherical colonies. Tubastrea aurea forms
domed clumps up to 10cm dia. Polyps protrude for a common encrusting base. Usually found in
low-light conditions in caves and beneath rocky overhangs. Common species T. faulkneri, T.
coccinea, T. diphana and T. micrantha.
Tubastrea micrantha forms tree-like branching colonies to 1m in height. Colour dark brown and
green. Occurs in deeper reef environments.
Balanophyllia spp.: Solitary corals which bud to form closely packed clumps. Clumps may be
50cm diam. Thick walls. Polyps are oval and tapering towards the base, and the septa are fuse.
Color black, bright-orange or yellow polyps.
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic with dependence on the capture of zooplankton. Nocturnal and diurnal feeding.
Reproductive Strategies
Dioecious. Fertilization is internal and larvae are brooded. Asexual larval reported (Richmond
and Hunter, 1990). The larvae are 1mm long and crawl or swim after release before settling.
They may also be free-spawners (Harrison and Wallace, 1990). Planula takes four to seven days
before they settle and form a primary polyp.
Bibliography
Harrison, P. L. & C. C. Wallace (1990): Reproduction, dispersal and Recruitment of
Scleractinian Corals. In: Dubinsky, Z. (ed.) Ecosystems of the World, vol. 25 Coral
Reefs. Elsevier, N.Y. pp 133-208.
Richmond, R. H. & C. L. Hunter (1990): Review B Reproduction and recruitment of corals:
comparison among the Caribbean, the Tropical Pacific, and the Red Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog.
Ser. 1: 145-152.
Veron J. E. N. 1986: Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0 207
15116 4.
A-485
Table 98. Deep-water Ahermatypes from Hawaii. (From Maragos 1977; data Vaughan (1907)).
Species
Shallowest Collection Record
Anisopsammia amphelioides (Alcock)
40 fm
Anthemiphyllia pacifica Vaughan
92 fm
Balanophyllia desmophyllioides Vaughan
78 fm
Balanophyllia diomeseae Vaughan
148 fm
Balanophyllia hawaiiensis Vaughan
190 fm
Balanophyllia laysanensis Vaughan
130 fm
Bathyactis hawaiiensis Vaughan
963 fm
Caryophyllia alcocki Vaughan
876 fm
Caryophyllia hawaiiensis Vaughan
92 fm
Caryophyllia octopali Vaughan
28 fm
Ceratotrochus laxus Vaughan
319 fm
Cyathoceras diomedeae Vaughan
169 fm
Deltosyathus andamanicus Alcock
147 fm
Dendrophyllia oahensis Vaughan
154 fm
Dendrophyllia serpentina Vaughan
147 fm
Desmophyllum cristagalli Milne- Edwards & Haine
Endopachys oahense Vaughan
53 fm
Flabellum deludens v. Marenzeller
670 fm
Flabellum parvoninum Lesson
127 fm
Gardineria hawaiiensis Vaughan
272 fm
Madracis kauaiensis Vaughan
24 fm
Madrepora kauaiensis Vaughan
294 fm
Paracyathus gardineri Vaughan
Paracyathus mauiensis Vaughan
95 fm
Paracyathus molokensisx Vaughan
88 fm
Paracyathus tenuicalyx Vaughan
252 fm
Placotrochus fuscus Vaughan
148 fm
Stephanophyllia formosissima Moseley
66 fm
Trochocyathus oahensis Vaughan
252 fm
A-486
4.2.3.9 Actiniaria (anemones)
Important Summary Documents
Symbiosis between anemones and fish was first noted by Collingwood (1868). Fishelson (1970,
1971) speculated on the ecological role of this association. The taxonomy of symbiotic
anemones was revised by Dunn (1981). The taxonomy of the Hawaiian anemones was described
in Eldredge and Devaney (1977). Chia (1976) has described reproduction in terms of patterns
and adaptive radiation. Fautin and Allen (1992) describe the biology of anemonefish and their
host anemones. Table 99 summarizes the Actinaria from Hawaii.
Taxonomic Issues
Ecotypes are common (e.g. Entacmaea quadricolor) which has given rise to taxonomic
confusion Allen (1975) described the deeper water as Radianthus gelam and the smaller
individuals a Physobranchia douglasi. Their ability to adopt a varied coloration both in terms of
background color and geographic variation has made taxonomy difficult.
Habitat Utilization
Anemones attach to hard substrate by their basal disc, burrow into soft substrate or attach as
symbionts to sessile and mobile reef creatures.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristic
Anemones have a body column and oral disc with tentacles with nematocysts and a central
mouth. They are attached by a basal or pedal disc to the substrate (Barnes, 1980). They are
often associated with symbiotic relationships such as with fish or shrimps (Fautin and Allen,
1992). Heteractis magnifica reaches a diameter of 30-50cm though may reach 1m.
Ten species are recognized as symbiotic anemones (Actiiidae; Thalassianthidae;
Stichodactylidae).
Both Actinodendron plumosum and Phyllodiscus semoni have severe stings if touched.
Some species of anemones can exhibit mimicry appearing like their background or other reef
entities like hard coral or algae.
Age, Growth, Longevity
The growth of tropical anemones is variable being largely dependent on nutrition. Longevity
among tropical anemones is poorly known. Anemones approaching a meter in diameter may
exceed 100 years old (Fautin and Allen, 1992). Actinia tenebrosa requires 8 to 66 years to reach
a column diameter of 40mm and has an average longevity of 50 years (Ottaway, 1980).
Reproductive Strategies
Asexual: Common: Pedal laceration and longitudinal or transverse fission
A-487
Asexual reproduction has been observed as budding (Vine, 1986). Devaney & Eldredge (1977)
describe Boloceroides mcmurrichi as reproducing sexually in spring and asexually in fall when
the asexually young arise as buds on the outer tentacles and are shed when they have developed
10 to 30 tentacles.
Eggs and sperm are produced and host anemones appear to be characterised by separate sexes.
Absence of small individuals is indicative of low fertilization, larval survival or larval settlement
or young have high mortality (Fautin and Allen, 1992).
Most are hermaphroditic but reproduce only one type of gamete per reproductive period. Groups
of clones evident.
Distribution
Anemones are often widely distributed. The common anemone Entacmaea quadricolor is found
from Samoa to East Africa and the Red Sea and from the surface down to 40 metres. Of nearly
1000 species, only 10 species are host to anemone fishes. In Hawaii, There is only one host
species recorded from Hawaii though without commensal fish (Fautin and Allen, 1992).
Feeding and Food
Anemones are polyphagous opportunists (Ayre 1984). Prey is caught by the tentacles, paralyzed
by nematocysts and carried to the mouth. The food consists of plankton borne crustacea but fish
worms, and algal fragments are includes Sand dwelling anemones such as Heteractis malu ingest
gastropods (Shick, 1990) as does Catalophyllia sp. Some anemones are suspension feeders
(Barnes, 1980).
Specialized corallimorpharians such as Rhodactis, Actinodiscus, Discosoma, Amplexidiscus can
capture large prey by enveloping them with the entire disk (Hamna and Dunn, 1980; Elliott and
Cook, 1989).
Anemones which contain symbiotic zooxanthelle but also capture plankton and other detrital or
water borne food. Those without zooxanthella are dependent on plankton and may capture
pother food such as crustaceans or smaller fish.
Absorption of dissolved organic material (DOM) by anemones occurs Schlichter (1980) and
Schlichter et al. (1987). DOM is important in times of no solid food. (Shick, 1975)
Extracellular digestion is achieved by mesenterial filaments (Nicol, 1959)
Some species of anemones extend their tentacles at night and diminutive during the day (Alicia
sp). Others feed during daylight hours.
Behavior
The family Boloceriodidae contains anemones capable of swimming by beating their tentacles.
The Hawaiian species Boloceroides mcmurrichi has a large crown of tentacles compared to a
A-488
relatively small body. They become capable of swimming at the 10 to 30 tentacle stage
(Devaney and Eldredge, 1977).
Edwardsia spp. are found on sandy bottoms and dig themselves into the substrate.
Anemones are basically sedentary but are able to move over the substrate slowly, some can swim
for short distances.
There commensal behavior with fish where it gains protection and food and in turn protects the
anemone from some predators and removes sediment and other material by its swimming motion
(Barnes, 1987).
Spawning: Spatial and Temporal Distribution
Spawning is synchronised with the full moon or low tide (Fautin and Allen, 1992).
Eggs are fertilized in the gastrovascular cavity or occur outside in the seawater (Fautin and
Allen, 1992).
Free swimming planula
Larval Feeding and Food
Ingest copepods, chaetognaths, or larvae of other cnidarians. Unicellullar algae and
dinoflagellates has been observed Widersten, 1968; Siebert, 1974)
The planula may be planktotrophic or lecithotrophic and has a variable larval life span. The
young sea anemone lives as a ciliate ball, unattached and free swimming. The larvae settles,
attaches and forms tentacles.
Habitat Utilization
Asexual of reproduction give rise to many individuals in close proximity, often forming a
continuous surface by adjacent oral discs. Like other sessile benthos, settlement of larval stages
colonizes available substrate.
Bibliography
Allen, G. R. (1975): The Anemonefishes: their Classification and Biology. 2nd edition TFH Publ.
Inc. USA.
Ayre , D. J. (1984) The sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa: an opportunistic insectivore. Ophelia,
23, 149-153.
Barnes, R. D. (1980): Invertebrate zoology. Saunders Colledge, Philadelphia.
Chia, F. S., 1976: Sea anemone reproduction: patterns and adaptive radiation. In Mackie, G. O.
(Ed.): Coelenterate Ecology and Behaviour. Plenum Press, N. Y. pp. 261-270.
A-489
Collingwood, C. (1868): Note on the existence of gigantic sea- anemones in the China Sea,
containing within them quasiparasitic fish. Ann. Mag. Nat. His. Ser. 4, 1 (1): 31-33.
Cutress, C. E. (1977): Order Corallimorpharia. In: Devany & Eldredge (eds.): Reef and Shore
Fauna of Hawaii, section 1: Protozoa through Ctenophora. B. P Bishop Museum Special
Publication 64 (1): I-XII, p.130.
Devaney D. M. & L. G. Eldredge (edts.) 1977. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Bernice P.
Bishop Museum Special Publication 64 (1)
Dunn, D. F. (1981): The Clownfish Sea Anemones: Stichodactilidae (Colenterata: Actinaria) and
Other Sea Anemones Symbiotic with Pomacentrid Fishes. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 71 (1):
1-113.
Elliot, J. and Cook, C. B. (1989) Diel variation in Prey Capture Behavior by the
Corallimorpharian Discosoma Sanctithomae. Mechanical and Chemical Activation of
Feeding. Biol. Bull., 176, 218-228
Fautin, D. G. & G. R. Allen (1992): Field Guide to Anemonefishes and their Host Sea
Anemones. West Australian Museum, Perth.
Fishelson, L. (1970): Littoral fauna of the Red Sea: the population of non scleractinian
anthozoans of shallow waters of the Red Sea (Eilat). Mar. Biol. 6 (2): 106-116.
Fishelson, L. (1971): Ecology and distribution of the benthic fauna in the shallow waters of the
Red Sea. Mar. Biol. 10 (2): 113-133
Grigg R.W. and Opresko D. (1977): Order Antipatharia In: Devany & Eldredge (eds.): Reef and
Shore Fauna of Hawaii, section 1: Protozoa through Ctenophora. B. P Bishop Museum
Special Publication 64 (1): I-XII, p.130.
Hamner, W. M. & D. F. Dunn (1980): Tropical Corallimorpharia (Coelenterata:Anthozoa):
Feeding by Envelopment. Micronesia 16 (1): 37-41.
Nicol, J. A. C. (1959) Digestion in sea anemones. J. Mar. Bio. Ass. UK, 38, 469-476.
Ottaway, J.R., 1980: Population ecology of the intertidal anemone, Actinia tenebrosa: 4. Growth
rates and longevities. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 31(3): 385-396.
Schlichter, D. (1980) Adaptations of cnidarians for itegumentary absorption of dissolved organic
matter. Rev. Can. Biol., 39, 259-282.
Schlichter, D., Bajorat, K. H., Buck, M., Eckes, P., Gutknecht, D., Kraus, P., Krish, H., Schmitz,
B. (1987) Epidermal nutrition of sea anenomies by absorption of organic compounds
dissolved in the oceans. Zool. Beitr. N.F.,30, 29-47.
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Shick, J. M. (1975) Uptake and utilization of dissolved glycine by Aurellia aurita scyphistomae:
Temperature effects on the uptake process: nutritional role of amino acids. Biol. Bull. 148,
117-140.
Shick, J. M. (1990) Diffusion limitation hyperoxic enhancement of oxygen consumption in
zooxanthellate sea anemones, zoanthids and corals. Biol. Bull. 179, 148-158.
Siebert, A. E., Jr. (1974) A description of the embryology, laval development and feeding of the
sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and A xanthogrammica.. Can J. Zool., 52,
1383-1388.
Vine, P. (1986): Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publ., London, UK.
Walsh G. E. and Bowers R.L. (1977): Order Zonthiniaria. In: Devany & Eldredge (eds.): Reef
and Shore Fauna of Hawaii, section 1: Protozoa through Ctenophora. B. P Bishop Museum
Special Publication 64 (1): I-XII, p.130.
Widersten, B. (1968) On the morphology and development in some cnidarin larvae. Zool. Bidr.
Uppsala, 37, 139-179 + 3 plates
A-491
Table 99. Actinaria from Hawaii (Cutress, 1977).
Order ACTINIARIA
Family BOLOCEROIDIDAE
Boloceroides memurrichi (Kwietniewski 1898)
Bunodeopsis medusoides (Fowler 1888)
Family ALICIIDAE
Triactis producta Klunzinger 1877
Family ACTINIIDAE
Anemonia mutabilis Verrill 1928
Anthopleura nidrescens (Verrill 1928)
Anthopleura sp. A
Anthopleura sp. B
Actiniogeton sesere (Haddon & Shackleton 1893)
Cladactella manni (Verrill 1899)
Family STOICHACTINIDAE
Antheopsis papillosa (Kwietniewski 1898)
Stoichactis sp.
Family PHYMANTHIDAE
Heteranthus verruculatus Klunzinger 1877
Family ISOPHELLIDAE
Telmatactis decora (Hemprich and Ehrenberg 1834)
Epiphellia pusilla (Verrill 1928)
Epiphellia humilis (Verrill 1928)
Family HORMATHIIDAE
Calliactis polypus (Forskal 1775)
Family SAGARTIIDAE
Anthothoe sp.
Family AIPTASIIDAE
Aiptasia pulchella Carlgren 1943
Family DIADUMENIDAE
Diadumene leucolena (Verrill 1866)
Family EDWARDSIDAE
Edwardsia sp. A.
Edwardsia sp. B.
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4.2.3.10 Zoanthidae (colonial anemones)
Important Summary Documents
Hyman (1940) details systematics and anatomy. Mather and Bennett (1993) discuss the order
Zoanthidae. Burnett et al. (1997) a good summary of systematics for some central Indo-Pacific
species. Walsh (1967) produced an annotated bibliography for the family. Table 100
summarizes Zoanthiniaria from Hawaii.
Taxonomic Issues
Class Anthozoa; subclass Zoantharia (=Hexacorallia); order Zoanthiniaria (=Zoanthidea);
suborder Brachcnemina; family Zoanthidae; genera Acrozoanthus; Zoanthus; Isaurus;
Protopalythoa; Palythoa; Sphenopus. suborder Macrocnemina; family Epizoanthidae; genera
Epizoanthus; family Epizoanthidae, Thoracactis; genus Parazoanthus, Gerardia, Isozoanthus
(Barnes, 1987; Muirhead and Ryland, 1985).
Poorly known due to reliance on preserved specimens and a high degree of inter-population
variability. Nominal species 300.
Differentiated from the Actinaria by the presence of a fifth cycle of mesenteries.
Zoanthiniarian systematics is discussed by Herberts (1972a; 1987) and Mather and Bennett
(1993).
Habitat Utilization
Often distinct zonation: back reef flats, lagoon floors, reef crests and shallow sublitoral zone.
Palythoa spp.: Growth in large numbers on reef flats immediately behind the reef crest, also
found on lagoon floors and the spur and groove channels of reef slopes. Tide pools in Hawaii.
Parazoanthus ssp., Epizoanthus ssp. , Acrozoanthus spp.: May colonize worm tubes, hydroids,
sponges and gorgonian skeletons. May be epizootic on sponges, or ascideans as ATuff Balls or
providing as protection (Colin and Arneson, 1995).
Protopalythoa spp.: Shallow fore reefs, reef crests or outer reef flat areas. Shallow reef zones
may be dominated by this genus and cover may be >90%. May occur as small assemblages of
polyps or separate individuals.
Zoanthus spp.: They are found in back reef areas and the shallow sub-littoral zone.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Zoanthid anemones are solitary or colonial, zooxanthellate (except Sphenopus). Principal
tropical genera are Palythoa, Protopalythoa and Zoanthus. Generally, discs are 1-2cm in
diameter with tentacles 3-5mm long but may extend to 2-3cm. Coloration varies from red,
A-493
orange, yellow, turquoise, green or brown. The stem (scapus), disc (capitulum), tentacles or
coenenchyma vary in coloration. Zooanthids differ from other Zoantharia in that they don=t
produce skeleton but incorporate sediment into the body wall. As well, they don=t have a pedal
disc and a differing septal arrangement (this forms the basis for the two suborders).
Isaurus spp.: Loosely connected colonies without connecting stolons. Height varies 15- 160cm.
Colonies with < 50 individuals. Taxonomically best known (Muirhead and Ryland, 1985).
Often inconspicuous. Nocturnal tentacular extension.
Palythoa spp.: Growth in massive colonies. Sand particles are encrusted into the coenenchyme.
Colonies are convex and 30cm. Coenenchyme is light brown to yellow.
Often buried in the sand to the level of the disc.
Protopalythoa spp.: Generally in loosely connected colonies. Often the polyps lack contact or
have contact at the base through a stolon. Polyp height is 15-25 mm high and 7-11mm in
diameter. Expanded discs may attain a diameter of 2-3cm. May occur as large areas of
colonization, small assemblages or individual polyps. Polyps are encrusted with sand particles.
For some, full retraction is not possible due to the size of the disc. Colour is uniform on the stem
and disc; brown or green. It may be variable due to the intensity of light.
Zoanthus spp.: Sediments are not incorporated in their tissues but are tolerant of sediment
environments. Most species are brightly coloured, often contrasting disc, tentacles and stem.
Growth
Growth morphology may depend on the environment. Z. pacificus has a lamellar coenenchyme
with crowded polyps and separate bases. In surge pools, the bases are joined and crowding less.
In wave washed area the coenenchyme can be lamellar or stoloniforous with single polyps or
groups of two or three (Walsh and Bowers, 1971).
In Palythoa, growth is by the spreading of the thickened coenenchyme. Yamazato et al. (1973),
found 0.18 new polyps per day increase in Palythoa tubercles. Density of colonies may be 671
polyps/0.1m2 (Zoanthus sociatus) and 302 polyps/ 0.1m2 for Z. solanderi. (Karlson, 1981).
12,000/m2 of Palythoa vestitus where found in Kaneohe Bay.
Distribution
Isaurus spp: Widespread in all tropical seas; present in Hawaii.
Palythoa spp.: Pan-tropical; present in Hawaii.
Protopalythoa spp.: Pan tropical; occurs in Hawaii, American Samoa and Tahiti.
Zoanthus spp.: Pan-tropical; occurs in Hawaii, American Samoa and Tahiti.
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic (zooplankton); autotrophic (zooxanthellae) (Reimer 1971b).
A-494
Muscatine et al. (1983) determined zooxanthellae could provide 48% of the carbon requirement
for Zoanthus sociatus.
Palythoa, Protopalythoa and Zoanthus are diurnal in expansion. Others are nocturnal Isaurus and
Sphenopus. Able to ingest a variety of live and dead crustacea and fish portions (Reimer,
1971a). Crustacean and detrital fragments were found in Zoanthus Sociatus, though few
contained food items with only a greater frequency at night (Sebens, 1977). Azooxanthellate
genera (Epizoanthus and Parazoanthus) rely greatly on feeding to obtain sufficient nutrition.
The uptake of dissolved organic matter may contribute to nutrition (Reimer, 1971; Trench,
1974). The common presence of Zoanthus spp and Protopalythoa in shore may be due to the
higher organic levels. With the reduction in sewage contamination in Kaneohe Bay, zoanthid
population declined.
Isaurus spp: Autotrophic nutrition from the zooxanthellae but also feeds on plankton
nocturnally. Polyps never open in the day.
Palythoa spp.: Generally autotrophic but tentacles and diurnal expansion indicate reliance on
zooplankton.
Protopalythoa spp.: Heterotrophic; autotrophic
Zoanthus spp.: Heterotrophic; autotrophic
Reproductive Strategies
Asexual by the arising of new polyps from a spreading sheet of coenenchyma or stolons or
budding from the parent polyp. Extensive monoclonal colonies occur.
Fragmentation is common.
Sexual reproduction: Both dioecious (gonochoristic) and sequential and simultaneous
hermaphrodites.
Isaurus spp: Unknown.
Palythoa spp.: Readily reproduces asexually. Yamazoto et al. (1973) studied the reproductive
cycle of Palythoa tuberculosa in Okinawa. The oocytes grow from March/April, to a peak in the
middle of the year, which followed by a second peak in October indicative of two spawnings per
year. Mature eggs are rather large with a length of 300-500um.
Protopalythoa spp.: Asexual and sexual. Babcock and Ryland (1990) and Ryland and Babcock
(1991) describe reproduction and larval development.
Zoanthus spp.: Asexual and sexual. Cooke (1976) describes reproduction for Zoanthus
pacificus and for Z. solanderi and Z. sociatus by Fadlallah et al. (1989).
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Spawning: Spatial and Temporal Distribution
Ovaries develop initially in the cycle along the margin of the mesenteries with the testis later in
the cycle. Seasonal free spawning. Report of spawning synchronous with the mass spawning of
the stony coral, on the 4th to 6th nights after full moon in November (Ryland and Babcock, 1991).
In Hawaii, P. versitis was only active May to September while Z. pacificus was bound to be
sexually active all year but greatest during the summer (Cooke, 1976).
Eggs and Larvae
Egg diameter range from 75um to 280 um. Sperm are bell shaped and 50 um long. Egg counts
range from 800 to 2400 (Ryland and Babcock, 1991). Larvae settle in areas of coralline algae
and crawl to find a site. Suitable sites are often shaded. Fecundity is high and settlement rates
are low. Sexual reproduction is therefore thought to allow for dispersal and colonization over
large distances (Karlson, 1981).
The larvae are oval in shape and have a girdle of cilia near the oral end. The Larvae of
Protopalythoa spp. are referred to as zoanthella and are elongate with a ventral band of long cilia
(Hyman, 1940).
Bibliography
Babcock, R. C. & J. S. Ryland (1990). Larval development of a tropical zoanthid (Protopalythoa
sp.) Invert. Reprod. Develop. 17: 229-236.
Barnes, R. D. (1987). Invertebrate zoology. Saunders College, Philadelphia.
Burnett, W. J., J. A. H. Benzie, J. A. Beardmore & J. S. Ryland (1997): Zoanthids (Anthozoa,
Hexacorallia) from the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Street, Australia: systematics,
evolution and a key to species. Coral Reefs 16: 55-68.
Colin, P. L., and C. Arneson. 1995. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. San Diego: Coral Reef Press.
Cooke, W.J. (1976). Reproduction, growth and some tolerances of Zoanthus pacificus and
Palythoa vestitus in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. In G. O. Mackie (Red.): Coelenterate ecology and
behavior. Plenum Press. N.Y., USA: 281-288.
Fadlallah, Y. H., Karlson R. H., and Sebens K.P. (1984). A comparative study of sexual
reproduction in three species of Panamanian zoanthids (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Bull. Mar.
Sci. (35): 80-89.
Herberts, C (1972a): Etude Systematique de Quelques Zoanthaires Tempe et Reopicaux Tethys,
Suppl. E 69-156.
Herberts, C (1987). Orre des Zoanthaires. In: P.P. Grasse and D. Doumenci (Red.) Traite de
Zoologie, anatomie, systematique, biologie. Tome 3: 170-178.
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Hyman, L.H. (1940). Chapter VII. Metazoa of the tissue grade of construction Bthe radiate
phyla-Phylum Cnidaria. In: The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora Vol. 1.
McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 365-696.
Karlson, R.H. 1881. Reproductive patterns in Zoanthus spp. from Discovery Bay Jamaica. Proc.
4th Int. Coral Reef Symp. Vol. 2L 699-704.
Mather, P. and Bennett I. (ed.) 1993. A Coral Reef Handbook 3rd.ed. Surry, Beatty and Sons
PTY Ltd., Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia.
Muirhead, A. and Ryland J. S. (1985). A review of the genus Isaurus Gray, 1828 (Zoanthidea),
including new records from Fiji. Jour. Nat. Hist. (19): 323-335.
Muscatine, L., Falkowski, P.G. and Dubinsky, Z. (1983). Carbon budgets in symbiotic
associations. In E.A. Schenk and W. Schwemmler (eds.) Endocytobiology, Vol 2, Walter de
Gruther, Berlin, pp. 649-658.
Reimer, A. A. (1971a): Feeding Behaviour in the Hawaiian Zoanthids, Palythoa and Zoanthus.
Pacific Science 25 (4): 512-520.
Reimer, A. A. (1971b): Observations on the relationships between several species of tropical
zoanthids (Zoanthidae, Coelenterata) and their zooxanthellae. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. (7):
207-214.
Ryland, J. S. & R. C. Babcock (1991): Annual cycle of gametogenesis and spawning in the
tropical zoanthid, Protopalythoa sp. Hydrobiologia (216/217): 117-123.
Sebens, K.P. 1977. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition of coral reef zoanthids. In: Proc. 3rd
Int. Coral Reef Symp. 397-404.
Trench R.K. (1974) Nutritional potentials in Zoanthus sociatus (Coelenterata, Anthozoa) Helg.
Wiss Meers. 26:174-216.
Walsh G.E. 1967. An Annotated Bibliography of the Families Zoanthidae, Epizoanthidae, and
Parazoanthidae (Coelenterata, Zoantharia). Univ. Hawaii Hawaii Inst. Marine Biology Tech.
Rep. 13. 77pp.
Walsh G.E. and Bowers R.L. 1977. Order Zoanthiniaria. In: Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii.
Section 1. Protozoa through Ctenophora, ed. D. M. Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Bernice P.
Bishop Museum Special Publications 64(1): 148-157.
Yamazato, K., F. Yoshimoto & N. Yoshihara (1973): Reproductive cycle in a zoanthid Palythoa
tuberculosa Esper. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab. (20): 275-283.
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Table 100. Zoanthiniaria from Hawaii: (Walsh and Bowers 1971).
Order ZOANTHINIARIA
Family ZOANTHIDAE
Isaurus elongatus Verrill 1928
Palythoa vestitus (Verrill 1928)
Palythoa tuberculosa (Esper 1791)
Palythoa psammophilia Walsh and Bowers 1971
Palythoa toxica Walsh and Bowers 1971
Zoanthus pacificus Walsh and Bowers 1971
Zoanthus kealakekuaensis Walsh and Bowers 1971
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4.2.3.11 Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); Order Alcyonacea; Suborder Alcyoniina (soft
corals)
Important Summary Documents
Bayer et al. (1983) and Bayer (1981) details anatomical terminology and taxonomy.
Hyman, (1940) describes the anatomy.
Taxonomic Issues
Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); order Alcyonacea; suborder Alcyoniina: families:
Paralcyoniidae; Alcyoniidae; Asterospiculariidae; Nephtheidae; Nidaliidae; Xeniidae
The taxonomy of common intertidal and lagoon genera Sarcophyton and Sinularia are revised in
Verseveldt (1980, 1982).
Habitat Utilization
Colonies characteristic of large size grow in shallow water areas in high light intensity and
intertidally. Generally colonies are smaller on roofs of caves.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Alcyonaria: Colonial, tentacles and mesenteries 8 with tentacles pinnate attached.
Alcyonacea: Alcyoniina (Soft corals): Fleshy, stolon, membranous, encrusting or erect with
tree-like branching. Monomorphic polyps (autozooids: function in food intake, water movement
and bear the gonads). Some genera have dimorphic polyps (autozooids and tentacle-less
siphonozooids) e.g. Lobophytum spp. and Sarcophyton spp. Dimorphism attributed to need for
transport of water (Bayer, 1973). Skeleton has calcite spicules (sclerites). Coenechyme is the
general colonial mass filled with solenia that connect with the polyps and their anthocodium.
Tentacular contraction possible in some and only partial in others.
Zooxanthellate with resulting colour of greens to brown or bright coloration in the sclerites.
Paralcyoniidae: Lobed to arborescent upper portions and are able to retract this region into the
lower stalk. Rigidly reinforced with large sclerites.
Alcyoniidae: Large, lobed colonial forms with considerable amounts of scleritic coenenchyme.
Nephtheridae: The coenenchyme between polyps is thin, arboresent with polyps grouped at the
ends of branches. Hydrostatic pressure important to provide support.
Nidalidae: Rigid, brittle, arborescent colonies with narrow stems and branches. Densely
covered with spindle shaped sclerites. Similar in appearance to gorgonians Xeniidae: Fleshy
with sclerite mass reduced. Characterized by tentacular oscillation.
A-499
Age, Growth, Longevity
Two main growth forms massive and arborescent.
Growth by vegetative budding from the system of solenial canals between confluent
coenenchyme. Mucus production high in some and effective in cleaning of the surface of the
colony. Colonies are often prolific with numerous colonies covering large areas. In Guam
population density of up to 24 colonies per square meter of Asterspicularia randalli (Gawel,
1976).
Distribution
Occurring in all oceans at all latitudes, they are most abundant in the tropics.
Paralcyoniidae: Studeiroides spp.: Indo-Pacific
Alcyoniidae: Sarcophyton spp./ Lobophytum spp.: Cladiella spp.: Very common in the
Indo-Pacific. Sinularia spp.: Indo-Pacific Philippines, Malayan Archipelago Great barrier
Reef- Australia, Vietnam, Palau, New Caledonia and the Ryukyu Island, Japan.
Asterospiculariidae: Asterospicularia sp.: Guam
Nephtheidae: Capnella spp. / Nepthea spp. / Dendroneptha spp.: Very common in the
Indo-Pacific.
Nidaliidae: Chironephthya spp./ Nephthyigorgia spp/ Siphonogorgia spp.: Very common in the
Indo-Pacific.
Xeniidae: Xenia spp./ Cespitularia spp.: Indo-Pacific
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic through zooplankton capture. Autotrophic through nutrient exchange with
zooxanthellae, digestion of zooxanthellae and absorption of dissolved organic matter in the
seawater (Fabricius, et al. 1995a,b).
Food is taken in through the mouth. Prey are immobilized by nematocysts and conveyed to the
mouth by tentacles.
Behavior
Defensive
Chemical substances provide advantage over other organisms for protection by preventing
feeding or securing space on the reef. Majority of species of soft corals contain toxic terpene
compounds which they release in to their surroundings (Coll et al. 1982; and Coll and Sammarco
1983; 1986; Sammarco et al. 1983; Webb and Coll 1983). These may influence the reproductive
capability or survivorship of scleractinian corals (Aceret et al. 1995a,b).
A-500
Physical defenses involve the use of sweeper tentacles, sclerites, overtopping,
Reproductive Strategies
Asexual: Almost all increase colonial numbers through mechanisms such as fragmentation,
budding, transverse fission and pedal laceration.
Fragmentation: Takes place in Dendronephthya in 5-10 days (Fabricius, 1995). Fragmentation
can occur through constriction or though parting of the stolons.
Sexual: Dioecious and hermaphroditic. Gonads occur on the mesenteries and reproduction
involves the release of gametes into the surrounding water. Fertilization may occur externally
through broadcast spawning or within the polyp cavity. Internal fertilization gives rise to an
internal brooded planula. Also internal fertilization may give rise to an externally brooded
planulae. (Benayahu, and Loya 1983, 1984a, 1984b; Yamazato et al. 1981).
Alcyonium, Heteroxenia, Lobophytum, Parerythropodium, Sarcophyton and Xenia planulae were
released between 11 and 13 days after the full moon in November. Egg size range from 625um
(Lobophytum) to 810um (Sarcophytum) (Alino and Coll, 1989). Some are may be dioecious,
external surface planula brooders (Benayahu, and Loya, 1983; 1984b; 1986). Presence of
zooxanthellae is likely in planulae.
Bibliography
Aceret T.L., Sammarco, P.W. and J.C. Coll. 1995a. Toxic effects of alcyonacean diterpenes on
scleractinian corals. J. Esp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 188:63-78.
Aceret T.L., Sammarco, P.W. and J.C. Coll. 1995b. Effects of diterpenes derived from the soft
coral Sinularia flexibilis on the eggs, sperm and embryos of the scleractinian corals
Montipora digitata and Acropora tenuis. Mar. Biol. 122:317- 323.
Alino, P.M. and Coll, J.C. 1989. Observations of the synchronized mass spawning and
post-settlement activity of octocorals on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Biological aspects.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 45:697-707.
Bayer F. M. 1973. Colonial Organization in Octocorals, In: Boardman R.S., Cheetham A.H. and
W.A. Oliver (eds.). Animal Colonies: Development and Function Through Time. Dowden,
Hutchinson and Ross Stroudsburg, Pa. USA.
Bayer, F. M. 1981. Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive Pennatulacea (Coelenterata:
Anthozoa) with diagnoses of new taxa. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 94 (3): 902- 947.
Bayer, F.M. Grasshoff, M. Verseveldt J., 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological
terms applied to Octocorallia. E.J. Brill/ Fr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.
Benayahu, Y. and Loya Y. 1983. Surface brooding in the Red Sea soft coral Parerythropodium
fulvum fulvum (Forksal, 1975). Biol Bull. 165: 353-369.
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Benayahu, Y. and Loya Y. 1984a. Life history studies on the Red Sea soft coral Xenia
macrospiculata Gohar, 1940. I. Annual dynamics of gonadal development. Bio. Bull.
166:32-43.
Benayahu, Y. and Loya Y. 1984b. Life history studies on the Red Sea soft coral Xenia
macrospiculata Gohar, 1940. II. Planulae shedding and post larval development. Bio. Bull.
166:44-53.
Benayahu, Y. and Loya Y. 1986. Sexual reproduction of a soft coral: synchronous and brief
annual spawning of Sarcophyton glaucum (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833). Biol. Bull. 170:32-42.
Coll, J. C., S. Barre, P. W. Sammarco, W.T. Williams & G. J. Bakus 1982: Chemical defenses in
soft corals (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) of the Great Barrier Reef: a study of comparative
toxicites. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 8: 271-278.
Coll C. & P. W. Sammarco 1983: Terpenoid Toxins of soft coral (Coelenterata: Octocorallia):
their nature, toxicity, and ecological significance. Toxicon, suppl. (3): 69.
Coll C. & P. W. Sammarco 1986: Soft Corals: Chemistry and Ecology. Oceanus 29 (2): 33-37.
Fabricius, K.E. 1995. Slow population turnover in the soft coral genera Sinularia and
Sarcophyton on mid- and outer-shelf reefs to the Great Barrier Reef. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.
126: 145-152.
Fabricius, K.E., Benayahu, Y. and Genin. A. 1995a. Herbivory in asymbiotic soft corals.
Science 268: 90-92.
Fabricius, K.E., Genin. A. and Benayahu, Y. 1995b. Flow-dependent herbivory and growth in
zooxanthellae-free soft corals. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40:1290-1301.
Gawel, M.J. 1976: Asterospicularia randalli: A new species of Asterspicularidae (Octocorallia:
Alcyonacea) from Guam. Micronesia 12 (2): 303-307.
Hyman, L.H. (1940). Chapter VII. Metazoa of the tissue grade of construction Bthe radiate
phyla-Phylum Cnidaria. In: The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora Vol. 1.
McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 365-696.
Sammarco, P. W., J. C. Coll, S. LaBarre & B. Willis 1982: Competitive strategies of soft corals
(Coelenterata: Octocorallia): allelopathic effects on selected scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs
1(3): 173-178.
Verseveldt, J. (1980): A revision of the genus Sinularia May (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea). Zool.
Verhandlingen, Leiden (179): 1-128, figs. 1-68, pls. 1-38.
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Verseveldt, J. (1982): A revision of the genus Sarcophyton Lesson (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea).
Zool. Verhandlingen, Leiden (192): 1-91, 21 plates.
Webb, L. & J. C. Coll 1983: Effects on Alcyonaria coral terpenes on scleractinian coral
photosynthesis and respiration. Toxicon suppl. 3: 69.
Yamazato, K., Sato, M. and Yamashiro H. 1981. Reproductive biology of an alcyonacean coral,
Lobophytum crassum Marenzeller. Proc, 4th Int. Coral Reef Symp. Manila, vol. 2.
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4.2.3.12 Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); Order Alcyonacea; Suborder Scleraxonia;
Holoaxonia (gorgonian corals, sea fans and sea whips)
Important Summary Documents
Bayer (1956, 1973, and 1981) summarizes taxonomy and anatomy.
Taxonomic Issues
Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); Order Alcyonacea; Suborder Scleraxonia; Families:
Briareidae; Anthothelidae; Subergorgiidae; Coralliidae; Melithaeidae; Parisididae; Holoaxonia;
Families: Acanthogorgidae; Plexuridae; Gorgoniidae; Ellisellidae; Ifalukellidae:
Chrysogorgiidae; Primnidae; Isididae.
Habitat Utilization
Strong current location; low light conditions such as depths and overhangs.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristic
Generally arborescent in nature, some unbranched. Skeletal support by stiff axis utilizing the
flexible gorgonin. Divided taxonomically on basis of a central supporting axis (gorgonin and
fused sclerites) or core (cortex around chambered gorgonin). Polyps have pinnate tentacles,
anthocodia sit in coenenchymal calyx and sheath is formed around the central axis.
The main stem is attached by to a plate or branchlets to the surface. Stem contains a central
strengthening rod. The rod may be calcareous but is commonly of horny gorgonin. Short polyps
occur all over the branches of the colony but not on the main stem. Colonies are often brightly
colored and may reach 3m in height. Epizoic life common (George and George, 1979).
From (George and George, 1979):
Suborder Scleraxonia
Briareidae: Erect, finger-like processes of spongy texture (20cm height) or massive and
encrusting. Zooxanthellate. Polyps monomorphic
Anthothelidae: Thinly branched sea-fan. Fragments easily. Polyps monomorphic.
Subergorgiidae: Sea-fan with anastomosing branches (1m height), strong and flexible, polyps
monomorphic.
Coralliidae: Calcareous skeleton with color from pink to red. Retractile white feathery polyps
and branch in any plane. Polyps dimorphic.
Melithaeidae: Sea-fan with jointed axis and brittle (50cm height).
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Suborder Holoaxonia
Plexuridae: Dichotomously branched species.
Gorgoniidae: Sea-fan with anastomosing box-section branches, flattened, bushy or feathery
branches (1m height).
Ellisellidae: Whip-like (1m long).
Primnidae: Stems stiff and heavily calcified. Polyp bases composed of spicules are arranged in
whorls around the stem.
Isididae: Parallel with upright branches
Age, Growth, Longevity
Photosynthetic gorgonians grow rapidly 15 cm (Gorgonia ventalin); 2.5 cm/mon./branch
Pseudoplexaura spp and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa (Sprung and Delbeek 1997)
0.8-4.5cm/yr. found in Puerto Rico. (Yoshioka and Buchanan-Yoshioka 1991)
Small colonies grow vertically faster but not necessarily in area.
Distribution
Cosmopolitan though most abundant in warmer waters.
Indo-Pacific occurrence:
Suborder Scleraxonia
Briareidae: Solenopodium spp.; Briareum spp.
Anthothelidae: Erythropodium spp
Subergorgiidae: Subergorgia spp
Melithaeidae: Melithaea spp.; Mopsella spp.
Ellisellidae: Ellisella spp. / Junceella spp.
Suborder: Holoaxonia
Acanthogorgidae: Acanthogorgia spp.; Muricella spp.
Plexuridae: Bebryce spp.
Gorgoniidae: Lophogorgia spp.
Chrysogorgiidae: Stephanogorgia sp.
Isididae: Isis spp.
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic by the capture of zooplankton. Autotrophic through nutrient translocation from
zooxanthellae. Relative few holoaxonic zooxanthellate genera in the Indo-Pacific. Particulate
feeding described (Lasker, 1981)
Require strong current situations for effective feeding by fan-like colonies.
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Behavior
Periodic shedding of the waxy cuticle as a means of surface cleaning.
Reproductive Strategies
Parthenogenetic planulae production possible with planulae internal brooders (Brazeau and
Lasker, 1989) though most where produced through broadcast spawning (Lasker and Kim,
1996).
Clonal propagation occurs (Lasker 1990).
Bibliography
Bayer, F.M. 1956: Octocorallia In Moore, R.C. (ed.): Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part
F Coelenterata: 166-231, Geological Society of American University of Kansas Press.
Bayer F. M. 1973. Colonial Organization in Octocorals, In: Boardman R.S., Cheetham A.H. and
W.A. Oliver (eds.). Animal Colonies: Development and Function Through Time. Dowden,
Hutchinson and Ross Stroudsburg, Pa. USA
Bayer, F. M. 1981. Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive Pennatulacea (Coelenterata:
Anthozoa) with diagnoses of new taxa. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 94 (3): 902- 947
Brazeau, F.A. and Lasker. H.R. 1989. The reproductive cycle and spawning in a Caribbean
gorgonian. Biol Bull. 176:1-7.
George, D. & J. George, 1979: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Invertebrates in the Sea Marine
Life.
Lasker, H. R., 1981: A comparison of particulate feeding abilities of three species of gorgonian
soft corals. Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser., 5:61-67.
Lasker, H.R. 1990. Clonal propagation and population dynamic of a gorgonian coral. Ecology
71:1578-1589.
Lasker, H.R. AND Kim K. 1996. Larval development and settlement behaviour of the gorgonian
coral Plexaura kuna (Lasker, Kim and Coffroth). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 207: 161-175.
Sprung, J. & J. C. Delbeek (1997): The Reef Aquarium, vol. 2. Ricordea Publishing, Miami,
USA.
Yoshioka and Buchanan-Yoshioka 1991. A comparison of the survivorship and growth of
shallow-water gorgonian species of Puerto Rico (West Indies.). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.
69:253-260.
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4.2.3.13 Heliopora coerulea (DeBlainville, 1830) (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia) (blue coral)
Important Summary Documents
Zann and Boulton (1985) detail the distribution, abundance and ecology in the Pacific. Hyman
(1940) and Bayer (1973, 1981) describe the anatomy and taxonomy.
Taxonomic Issues
Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia): Order Coenothecalia (=Helioporacea); monotypic, family
Helioporidae with a single species. It is a soft coral with a hard, >stony coral-like= skeleton.
Habitat Utilization
High abundance of Heliopora is attributed to a reduction in competition from Acropora,
Pocillopora and faviids in areas where theses are mutually exclusive. Heliopora frequently
co-existed with Porites and Montipora. In terms of interspecific aggression, Heliopora is a good
competitor as both Acropora and Pocillopora are considered aggressive (Lang, 1973).
It is a warm-water generalist with a wide habitat range.
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristics
Zooxanthellate and colonial with a blue calcium carbonate skeleton which is the result of iron
salts (Hill, 1960). Bouillon and Houvenaghel-Crevecoeur (1970) conclude the blue pigmentation
is composed primarily of biliverdin IX and secondary oxidation products. (Hyman, 1940)
describes the skeleton as composed of crystalline slivers of aragonite fused into a layer. There
are no sclero-proteinaceous structures as in the rest of the Octocorallia. The skeleton contains
strontium but in smaller amounts in comparison to hermatypic scleractinia.
Colour and growth form is highly variable: corallum pale to deep blue; living coral is light
brown-grey with extended polyps grey-white. Growth forms: encrusting, columnar and
branching (coalescent compressed, flabellate fronds, fine branching). May form massive
micro-atolls (Zann and Boulton, 1985). Appears like a species of Millepora. There is a clear
correlation between colony shape and environmental conditions (Veron 1986).
Skeleton with blind tubes internally one for the polyps and one for the solenia (Hyman, 1940).
Reproductive Strategies
Dioecious with fertilization taking place internally and the eggs are brooded externally
(Babcock, 1990). External brooding is where they fertilized eggs are shed from the polyp and
adhere to the side in mucus pouches were they the developed until they are released. Weingarten
(1992) describes a synchronous annual of oocytic development following the general
octocorallian reproductive strategy. The gametes are typically released in January, after the full
moon, at the summer thermal maximum. Where its distribution is geographically marginal, it
takes more than one year for the gametes to mature. It broods its larvae, which settle
immediately after release.
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Zann and Boulton (1985) suggest the limitation to its distribution to more isolated areas due to a
relatively short larval life span. The short larval stage may be nutrient limited as the planula is
azooxanthellate.
Distribution
Duration of larval life span, prevailing currents, and the geological and climatic history of
isolated archipelagoes determine its distribution. Though widely distributed since the
Cretaceous, now more abundant in the equatorial Central Pacific than in the Western Pacific.
Comprises 16% of beach sediment in Tuvalu and 40% of substrate between 6m and 10m on
Tarawa Atoll, Kirribati. Competition with Acroporidae and Faviidae influence its occurrence
(Zann and Boulton, 1985). Globally, it occurs along West Africa, Red Sea, Indonesia and the
Maldives, where it may be the dominant coral fauna. It occurs as far south as Madagascar and
north to the Ryukyu Islands in Japan (Veron, 1986).
With regard to the AFPI, it is only present in Guam (Randall, 1977), Commonwealth of the
Northern Marianas and American Samoa (rare) (U.S. Army Corps Engineers 1980).
Its habitat distribution is inter-tidal reef flats, reef front reef slope in Guam from < 1m to >30m.
It is uncommon or rare (e.g. GBR; American Samoa) while it is abundant elsewhere. Heliopora
zones have been described in the Marshall Islands and where it is considered as the most
common coral (Emory et al. 1954; Wells, 1954a).
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic and autotrophic by virtue of its zooxanthellae symbiosis. Prey capture is
tentacular using nematocysts. Other sources of nutrition may be dissolved organic material and
suspension feeding.
Bibliography
Babcock, R. C. (1990). Reproduction and development of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea
(Alcyonaria: Coenothecalia). Mar. Biol 104:475-481.
Bayer F. 1973. Colonial Organization in Octocorals, In: Boardman R.S., Cheetham A.H. and
W.A. Oliver (eds.). Animal Colonies: Development and Function Through Time. Dowden,
Hutchinson and Ross Stroudsburg, Pa. USA
Bayer, F. M. 1981. Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive Pennatulacea (Coelenterata:
Anthozoa) with diagnoses of new taxa. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 94 (3): 902- 947.
Bouillon J. and Houvenaghel-Crevecoeur N. 1970. Etude monographique du Heliopora de
Blainville (Coenothecalia-Alcyonaria-Coelenterata). Musee Royal De L=Afrique Central,
Trevuren. Annales Sciences Zoologiques 178: 1-83.
Emery L.O., Tracy J.I. Ladd H.S. 1954. Geology of Bikini and nearby atolls. Prof. Pap. US Geol.
Survey 260A:1-265.
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Hyman, L.H. 1940. Chapter VII. Metazoa of the tissue grade of construction Bthe radiate
phyla-Phylum Cnidaria. In: The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora Vol. 1.
McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 365-696.
Hill, D. 1960. Possible intermediates between Alcyonaria, Tabulata and Rugosa, and Rugosa
and Hexacorallia. 21st Geol. Congr. 22:51-58.
Lang, J., 1973. Interspecific aggression by scleractinian corals: 2. Why the race is not only to the
swift. Bull. Mar. Sci., 23(2): 260-279.
Randall, R.H. (1977). Corals. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rep. 31:63-92.
U.S. Army Corps Engineers. Pac. Ocean Div. (1980). American Samoa Coral Reef Inventory.
Development Planning Office, Amer. Samoa Govt.
Veron J. E. N. 1986: Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0 207
15116 4.
Weingarten R.A. 1992. Notes on the reproduction and development of the Heliopora coerulea,
the blue coral. FAMA 15 (1): 160-170.
Wells J.W. (1954a). Recent corals of the Marshall Islands. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 260:
1-260: 285-486.
Zann, L. P. & L. Boulton (1985). The distribution, abundance and ecology of the blue coral
Heliopora coerulea (De Blainville) in the Pacific. Coral Reefs 4 (2): 125-134.
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4.2.3.14 Tubipora Musica (Linnaeus, 1758) (organ-pipe coral or star polyps)
Important Summary Documents
Veron (1986) describe the species.
Taxonomic Issues
Subclass Alcyonaria (=Octocorallia); Order Stolonifera; Family Tubiporidae; Genus Tubipora
with one species Tubipora musica
Four nominal species, probably one true species (Veron, 1986).
Order Stolonifera may be considered a sub-order, with the Order Alcyonacea. Two genera
present, Tubipora and Pachyclavularia, often confused with Clavularia spp. One form has
tentacles which look like Alveopora though eight tentacles.
Habitat Utilization
Requires high illumination and strong circulation through wave action or currents. Abundant in
shallow lagoons in turbid water. Also found on reef slopes and in deep water with clear or turbid
water. In back reef locations, large heads form in sand or coral rubble. On the reef flat the
colonies are smaller and encrusting (Sprung and Delbeek, 1997).
Life History
Adult: Appearance and Physical Characteristic
Colonies are massive, formed by long, parallel, calcareous tubes (stolons) of fused spicules
connected by horizontal platforms. The tubes contain the polyps (zooids), each of which has
eight pinnate or feather-like tentacles. The skeleton is a permanent dark-red colour. Polyp
colour greenish-brown or grey polyps (Veron, 1986; Barnes 1987).
Age, Growth, Longevity
Asexual growth by budding from the solenial canals. Linking of polyps by outward growth from
the body wall. The secondary stolon are platform-like and the scerites fuse producing hard
massive colonies.
Distribution
Extends from the Red Sea and west Africa, east to Fiji and the Marshall Is. Southerly
distribution from south of Madagascar and south Western Australia, north to the Kyushu Is.,
Japan. Not present in Hawaii, though in Guam and the CNMI.
Feeding and Food
Heterotrophic, autotroph with zooxanthellae
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Reproductive Strategies
Sexual and asexual. Sexual reproduction is unknown in Tubipora musica. An example of other
genera within the family may provide an analogous understanding. Morphologically similar,
Briareum stechei, Pachyclavularia violacea was found to be dioecious external brooder with the
developing planulae residing just beside the mouth. The reddish-brown planulae were released
between 11 and 13 days after the full moon in November (Alino and Coll, 1989). The colour of
the planulae suggests the presence of zooxanthellae.
Bibliography
Alino, P.M. and Coll, J.C. 1989. Observations of the synchronized mass spawning and
post-settlement activity of octocorals on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Biological aspects.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 45:697-707.
Barnes, R. D. (1987). Invertebrate zoology. Saunders Colledge, Philadelphia.
Sprung, J. & J. C. Delbeek 1997. The Reef Aquarium, vol. 2. Ricordea Publishing, Miami, USA.
Veron J. E. N. 1986. Coral of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus and Robertson. ISBN 0 207
15116 4.
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