THEME: Epithelial tissues. Glandular epithelium. Glands

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TERNOPIL STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
NAMED AFTER ACAD. I.J. HORBACHEVSKY
Album
of histology
I-II years student
group No
_____________________
(name and surname)
Ternopil 2008
PRACTICAL LESSON № 1
Rules of working with a light microscope
1.
Put a microscope on your working place.
2.
Arrange the objective of a low magnification opposite to the object-table
opening at the distance 1,5 cm away.
3.
Light up the visual field using a mirror.
4.
Put a specimen on the microscope table with coverslips up. Place the
section opposite to microscope frontal lens.
5.
Look from the side, lower the microscope tubus down, leave a minimal
lumen between the objective and the specimen (up to 1 cm).
6.
Look through the objective and slowly rise the tubus up by means of
macroscrew until the appearance of the object under observation.
7.
Observe the whole specimen while observing it under a low
magnification.
8.
Choose the most particular portion while studying the specimen under a
high magnification.
9.
Look through the objective and raise slowly the tubus by means of
microscrew until the appearance of image.
10.
Raise the tubus by turning the macroscrew, remove the specimen from
the object-table.
PRACTICAL LESSON № 1
THEME: General morphology of the cell. Noncellular structures of the
organism
SPECIMEN 1. Round – shaped cell (ovary).
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Plasmolemma
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleus
SPECIMEN 2. Skeletal muscle (symplast) of the
tongue.
Stained with iron haematoxylin
1.
2.
3.
4.
SPECIMEN 3. Intercellular substance (elastic
cartilage)
Stained with orcein haematoxylin
1. Groups of
chondrocytes
2. Intercellular
substance :
a) ground substance
b) fibers
Signature
________________________
Plasmolemma
Cytoplasm
Nuclei
Cross – striations
PRACTICAL LESSON № 2
THEME: CELL’S CYTOPLASM: HYALOPLASM, ORGANELLES,
INCLUSIONS NUCLEUS OF THE CELL.
SPECIMEN 1. Inclusions of glycogen in hepatocytes
Stained with Sсhiff -method
1. Nucleus
2. Cytoplasm
3. Glycogen granules
SPECIMEN 2. Inclusions of lipid in hepatocytes
Stained with sudan black, safranin
1. Nucleus
2. Cytoplasm
3. Lipid granules
SPECIMEN 3. Cell with spherical nucleus (dorsal
1. Nuclear envelope
root ganglion cell)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
SPECIMEN 4. Cell with elongated nucleus (smooth
muscle cell)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Plasmolemma
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleus
PRACTICAL LESSON № 3
Chromatin
Nucleolus
Nucleoplasm
Cell’s cytoplasm
Plasmolemma
THEME: CELL CYCLE. CELL REPRODUCTION.
SPECIMEN 1. Mitosis of the plant cell (onion root
section)
Stained with iron haematoxylin
I. Interphase
II. Mitosis
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase
SPECIMEN 2. Mitosis of the animal cell (liver)
Stained with iron haematoxylin
Mitosis
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase
Signature
________________________
PRACTICAL LESSON № 4
THEME: Embryology. Germ cells. Fertilization. Cleavage. Implantation.
SPECIMEN 1. Smear of male spermatozoa
Stained with nigrozin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Head
Nucleus
Acrosome
Neck
Tail
SPECIMEN 2. Oocyte of Graafian follicle (section of
cat ovary)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
Oocyte
Zona pellucida
Corona radiata
Corona radiata
granulosa cells
SPECIMEN 3. Fertilizated oocyte of ascaride
Stained with iron haematoxylin
1.
2.
3.
4.
Synkarion
Female pronucleus
Male pronucleus
Polar bodies
SCHEME 1. 4 –5th day of embryo development
1. Embryoblast
2. Trophoblast
3. Blastocyst cavity
SCHEME 2. Embryo implantation into the uterine
mucosa (7-8th day of embryo development)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Signature
________________________
Embryoblast
Trophoblast
Trophoblast villi
Endometrial
epithilium
5. Endometrial stroma
6. Uterine gland
PRACTICAL LESSON № 5
THEME: Gastrulation. Formation of tissues and organs. Extraembryonic
organs. Placenta. Critical moments of the embryogenesis
SPECIMEN 1. Embryo at the primitive streak stage
1. Primitive streak
(surface view)
2. Epiblast – ectoderStained with iron haematoxylin
mal germ layer
3. Hypoblast – entodermal germ layer
4. Mesoderm
SPECIMEN 2. Embryo at the stage of mesodermal
germ layer development
Stained with iron haematoxylin
SCHEME 3. 14th day of embryo development
Signature
________________________
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Neural tube
Ectoderm
Notochord
Somites
Splanchnic mesoderm layer
6. Somatic mesoderm
layer
7. Entoderm
8. Mesenchyma
9. Intra-embrionic
coelomic cavity
Intermediate mesoderm
1. Syncytiotrophoblast
2. Cytotrophoblast
3. Chorion extra-embrionic mesoderm
4. Amnion ectoderm
5. Amnion mesoderm
6. Amniotic cavity
7. Epiblast
8. Hypoblast
9. Yolk sac cavity
10.Yolk sac extra-embrionic entoderm
11.Blastocyst cavity
12.Yolk sac mesoderm
13.Chorionic villus
14.Mesoderm development from the
primitive streak
SPECIMEN 4. Umbilical cord
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
SPECIMEN 5. Amnion (surface view)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Amnion epithelial
cells
SPECIMEN 6. Chorionic villus
Stained with karmin
Signature
________________________
Amnion epithelium
Connective tissue
Vein
Arteries
Remnant of the
yolk sac
6. Remnant of the
allantois
1. Branching chorionic
villus
SPECIMEN 7. Fetal portion of the placenta
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Amnion
2. Chorionic plate
with branching
umbilical vessels
3. Chorionic villus
a) cytotrophoblast
b) syncytium
c) vilous stroma
d) vessels
SPECIMEN 8. Maternal portion of the placenta
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
Signature
________________________
Decidual plate
Decidual cells
Decidual septa
Lacunar (intervillous space) with
maternal blood
5. Chorionic villus
PRACTICAL LESSON № 6
THEME: Epithelial tissues. Glandular epithelium. Glands
SPECIMEN 1. Mesotelium of the peritoneum
(surface wiev)
Silver impregnation
SPECIMEN 2. Simple columnar (cuboidal)
epithelium of the kidney
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Cells boundaries
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleus
1.
Basement
membrane
2.
Columnar cells
3.
Lumen of the canal
SPECIMEN 3. Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
epithelium оf the human cornea
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
SPECIMEN 4. Stratified squamous keratinized
epithelium (fingertip skin)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Connective tissue
2. Basement membrane
3. Epidermis:
a)
stratum basale;
b)
stratum
spinosum;
c)
stratum
granulosum;
d)
stratum
lucidum;
e)
stratum
corneum
Signature
________________________
Basement membrane
Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
.Squamous cells
SPECIMEN 5. Simple nonbranched tubular gland
(uterus).
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Fundus
2. Body
3. Neck
SPECIMEN 6. Simple branched alveolar gland
(sebacous gland of the skin)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Duct of the gland
2. Secretory portion
a)
stem cells
b)
secretory
cells
c)
degenerative
cells
3. Root of the hair
Signature
________________________
PRACTICAL LESSON № 7
THEME: Blood and lymph. Hematopoiesis
SPECIMEN 1. Blood smear.
May – Grunwald – Giemsa stain
Signature
________________________
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Erythrocyte
Neutrophil
Eosinophil
Basophil
Lymphocyte
Monocyte
Thrombocyte
(platelet)
SPECIMEN 2. Hematopoiesis in the wall of the yolk
sac
Stained with iron haematoxylin
1. Blood wall
endothelial cells
2. Primary
erythroblasts
3. Mesenchymal cells
surrounding blood
vessel
SPECIMEN 3. Bone marrow smear
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Basophilic
erythroblast
2. Polychromatophilic
erythroblast
3. normoblast (early)
4. Erythrocyte
5. Promyelocyte
6. Myelocyte
7. Metamyelocyte
a) neutrophilic
b) eosinophilic
c) basophilic
8. Megakaryocyte
Signature
________________________
PRACTICAL LESSON № 8
THEME: Connective tissues. Loose connective tissue. Dense connective
tissue. Specialized connective tissue
SPECIMEN 1. Loose connective tissue (surface
view)
Stained with iron haematoxylin
SPECIMEN 2. Accumulation of dye by macrophages
Stained with methylene blue
Signature
________________________
1.
2.
3.
4.
Collagenous fibers
Elastic fibers
Fibroblasts
Macrophages
(histiocytes)
5.
Mast cells
6.
Amorphic
component of the
intercellular substance
1. Nucleus
2. Vacuoles with
methylene blue
SPECIMEN 3.. Dense regular connective tissue:
tendon (longitudinal and transverse section)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Collagenous fibers
2. Nuclei of fibrocytes
3. Bundle of tendon
fibers
4. Interfascicular
connective tissue
5. Vessels
SPECIMEN 4. Dense irregular connective tissue
(reticular layer of the dermis)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Collagenous fibers
2. Cells
3. Amorphic
component of the
intercellular
substance
SPECIMEN 5. White adipose tissue (peritoneum
surface view)
Stained with sudan III, haematoxylin
1. Adipose cells
2. Lipid droplet
3. Nucleus
Signature
________________________
PRACTICAL LESSON № 9
THEME: Sceletal connective tissue. Cartilage. Bone. Muscle tissues
SPECIMEN 1. Hyaline cartilage of the trachea
1. Perichondrium
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
2. Cartilage
a) chondrocytes
b) chondroblasts
c) isogenous groups
3. Intercellular
substance
SPECIMEN 2. Elastic cartilage of the auricle
Stained with orcein
I. Perichondrium
II. Cartilage
1. Isogenous groups of
chondrocytes
2. Intercellular substance
a) ground substabce
b) elastic fibers
SPECIMEN 3. Fibrocartilage (intervertebral disc)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
Signature
________________________
Ligamentum
Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage
a) chondrocytes
b) intercellular
substance
c) ground substabce
d) collagenous fibers
SPECIMEN 4. Compact laminar bone (transverse
section of the tibia diaphysis)
Stained with Schmorl method
SPECIMEN 5. Osteon (Haversian system)
Stained with Schmorl method
Periosteum
I.
Bone
1. External circumferential lamellae
2. Osteon’s layer
a) osteon
b) intercalated
lamellae
3. Internal circumferential lamellae
II.
Endosteum
III. Central marrow
canal
1. Central canal
2. Lamellae of the
bone
3. Osteocytes
a) body
b) processes
SPECIMEN 6. Intramembranous bone formation
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
SPECIMEN 7. Intracartilaginous bone formation
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
Signature
________________________
1. Inercellular
substance
2. Osteocytes
3. Osteoblasts
4. Osteoklasts
5. Mesenchymal cells
6. Blood vessels
I.
Diaphysis
1. Periosteum
2. Periosteal bone
3. Endochondral bone
4. Osteogenic tissue
5. Osteoblasts
6. Blood vessels
7. Spicules of calcified
cartilage
II.
Epiphysis
8. Zone of reserve
cartilage
9. Columns of
cartilage cells
10.Hypertrophied
cartilage cells
11.Degenerating
cartilage
PRACTICAL LESSON № 21
SPECIMEN 8.. Smooth muscle (muscle layer of the 1.
urinary bladder)
a)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
b)
2.
3.
4.
Smooth muscle cell
longitudinal section
transverse section
Nucleus
Sarcoplasm
Interfascicular
connective tissue
SPECIMEN 9. Sceletal muscle of the tongue
Stained with iron haematoxylin
1. Muscle fiber
a) longitudinal section
b) transverse section
2. Sarcolemma
3. Sarcoplasm
4. Nuclei
5. Myofibrils
SPECIMEN 10. Cardiac muscle (myocardium)
Stained with iron haematoxylin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Signature
________________________
Muscle fiber
Cardiac muscle cells
Intercalated discs
Nucleus
Sarcoplasm
Cross-striations
Connective tissue with
blood vessels
PRACTICAL LESSON № 10
THEME: Nervous tissue. Neurons. Neuroglia. Nerve fibers. Nerve endings
SPECIMEN 1. Chromatophilic substance (Nissl
1. Cell body
substance) in the multipolar neurons (spinal cord)
(perikaryon)
Stained with methylene blue
2. Chromatophilic
substance
3. Nucleus
4. Dendrites
5. Axon
SPECIMEN 2. Neurofibrils in the neurons (spinal
cord)
Stained with silver impregnation
SPECIMEN 3. Pseudounipolar neurons (spinal
ganglion)
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
Perikaryon
Nucleus
Processes
Neurofibrils
1. Ganglion cell body
2. Nucleus
3. Oligodendrocytes
(satellite cells)
SPECIMEN 4. Unmyelinated nerve fibers
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
SPECIMEN 5. Myelinated nerve fibers
Stained with osmic acid.
Signature
________________________
1. Unmyelinated nerve
fibers.
2. Tunica.
3. Shwann’s cells nuclei.
4. Axons.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Axon.
Myelin sheath.
Node of Ranvier.
Incisures of myelin
(SchmidtLanterman clefts).
SPECIMEN 6. Lamellar (Fatter-Pacinian) corpuscle.
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Inner bulb.
2. Axons branches.
3. Outer lamellae of the
corpuscle.
4. Connective tissue
lamellae.
5. Fibroblasts nuclei.
SYNAPSE SCHEME 7
1. Presynaptic pole:
a)
sinaptic
vesicles;
b)
mitochondria;
c)
presynaptic
membrane.
2. Synaptic fissure.
3. Postsynaptic pole:
a)
postsynaptic
membrane;
b)
mitochondria;
Signature
________________________
PRACTICAL LESSON № 11
THEME: Spinal ganglion. Peripheral nerve. Spinal cord.
SPECIMEN 1. Dorsal root ganglion.
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
SPECIMEN 2. Nerve (transverse section in human
skin).
Stained with haematoxylin and eosin
1. Nerve
2. Fasciculi of
mielinated nerve
fibers
3. Nerve fiber
4. Endoneurium
5. Perineurium
6. Epineurium
Signature
________________________
Capsule
Dorsal root
Ventral root
Ganglion cells
Satellite cells
Bundle of the nerve
fibers
7. Fibroblasts (nuclei)
in the interstitial
tissue
SPECIMEN 3. Spinal cord.
Stained with silver impregnation
1.
SCHEME OF THE SIMPLE REFLEX ARCH
1. Afferent neuron
(sensory
pseudounipolar)
2. Efferent neuron
(motor multipolar)
Signature
________________________
Anterior median
sulcus.
2.
Posterior median
septum.
3.
Central canal.
4.
Anterior horn.
5.
Posterior horn.
6.
Intermediate horn.
7.
Ventral white
column.
8.
Lateral white
column.
9.
Dorsal white
column
10. Multipolar neurons

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