The senses considered as perceptual systems

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Contents
1
Introduction
What are the senses? 1/ The Senses and the Sensory Nerves 4/
The Improvement of Perception with Learning 5/ The Facts to
be Surveyed 6/
I
The Environment as a Source of Stimulation
7
The Terrestrial Environment 8/ The Consequences of
Rigidity 8/ The Consequences of Gravity 10/ The Consequences of Electromagnetic Radiation 11/ The Special
Consequences of Light 12/ The Air as a Medium 14/
Ambient Information 15/ Perspective Projections of an
Object 15/ Compression Waves from a Vibratory Event 15/
The Diffusion of Volatile Substances 17/ Chemical Contacts
with the Environment 19/ Mechanical Contacts with the
Environment 20/ The World of Physics and the Sources
of Stimulation 21/
The Animate Environment 22/ Social Stimulation 23/
Social Interaction 24/ The Environment of Emerging
Man 24/
The Cultural Environment 26/
The Meaning of the Term "Stimulus" 28/
Summary 29/
II
The Obtaining of Sti mulati on
31
Two Ways of Obtaining Stimulation 32/ The Fallacy of
Ascribing Proprioception to Proprioceptors 33/ The Lower
Proprioceptive Systems: Posture and Equilibrium 35/ The
Higher Proprioceptive Systems: Purposive Action 36/ Theories
of Action Sensitivity 38/ The Characteristics of a Natural
Stimulus 39/ Receptors, Organs, and Systems 40/ Mechanoreceptors, Chemoreceptors, and Photoreceptors 43/
Summary 44/
III
47
The Perceptual Systems
The Historical Difficulty of Cataloging the Sensations 48/
A Classification of the Perceptual Systems 49/ The Five Modes
ix
x /
CONTENTS
of Extemal Attention 49/ The Education of Attention in
Perceptual Systems 51/ The Pickup of Information by the
Perceptual Systems 52/ The Partial Equivalence of Perceptual Systems 54/ The Irrelevance of Sensations to the
Perceptual Systems 55/ The Relation of Muscle Systems
to Perceptual Systems 56/ Summary 58/
IV
The Basic Orienting System
59
The Statocyst Organ 60/
The Statocyst in Relation to Other Organs 62/
The Evolution of the Vestibul ar Organ 64/ The Maculae of
the Utricle and Saccule 65/ The Cupulae of the Semicircular Canals 66/
The Use of Vestibular Information 67/
The Limitations of the Vestibular Apparatus 68/ Il1usions
of Passive Transposition 69/ Illusions of Passive Head
Rotation 69/
Postural Orientation: A Summary 71/
Oriented Locomotion 72/
V
The Auditory System
75
Structure and Evolution of the Auditory System 76/ The
Development of the Cochlea 77/ The Development of
the Middle Ear 77/
The Potential Stimuli for the Auditory System 79/
The Pickup of Wave Fronts: Orientation and Localization 81/
The Adjustment Process: Orientation 83/ Priority of
Onset and Disparity of Intensity as Cu es for the Perception
of Direction 84/ The Perception of Sounds in the Head 85/
The Pickup of Wave Trains: Identification 86/ Meaningful
Sounds 87/ Some Classes of Distinctive Sounds 89/
The Pickup of Symbolic Speech 90/ Articulation as the Source
of Speech 91/ The Stimulus Information for the Detection
of Phonemes 92/ The Physical Reality of Speech 94/
Proprioceptive Hearing and its Implication 94/
Summary 96/
VI
The Haptic System and its Components
The Sensations Taken to Underlie Haptic Perception 97/
The Skin with its Appendages and the Body with its
Members 99/ Cutaneous Appendages as Receptive Units 100/
Body Members 101/ The Haptic System of Arthropods 102/ The Use of Extremities for Touching 104/
The Organization of the Haptic System 104/ Mechanoreceptors and Mechanical Stimulation 104/ The Location
97
CONTENTS /
xi
of Mechanoreceptors in the Body 106/ Perceptual Subsystems 109/ The Difference between Muscle Sensitivity
and Joint Sensitivity 109/ The Use of the Term
"Kinesthesis" 111/ The Covariation of Skin Sensitivity and
Joint Sensitivity 111/ The Differentiated Skin 114/
VII
The Capahilities of the Haptic-Somatic System
116
Perceptions Induced by Cutaneous Deformation: Passive
Touch 116/
Perception of the Disposition of Touching Surfaces by the
Disposition of Body Members 117/ The Calibration of
Subjective Skeletal Space 120/
Exploratory Perception with Haptic Touch 123/ Shape 124/
Surface Texture 126/ Material Composition and Consistency: Dynamic Touching 127/ Summary of Perception
by Haptic Exploration 129/
Touch Temperature and Air Temperature 129/ Illusions of
Touch Temperature 130/ Receptors for Temperature 131/
Pain and Painful Touch 131/
Sodal Touch 132/
Summary of Chapters 6 and 7 134/
VIII
Tasting and Smelling as a Perceptual System
136
The Tasting System 138/ Available Information in Tasting 138/
Sensations of Taste 140/ The Limitations of Tasting as a
Control for Eating 141/ Hunger and Thirst 142/ The
Uses of the Mouth 142/ Experiments on the Haptics of
the Mouth 143/
The Smelling System 144/ The Uses of Smelling 145/
The Identification of Sources by Odor 146/ The Orientation
of Behavior by Odor 147/ The Sensations of Smell 148/
The Search for Chemicals as Stimuli for Smell and Taste 150/
The Beginning of a Theory 150/ The Perception of
Chemical Values in the Sea 151/
Summary 152/
IX
The Visual System: Evolution
The Uses of Eyes 155/ Detecting the Layout of the Surroundings 156/ Detecting Change or Sequence 158/ Detecting·
and Controlling Locomotion 160/
The Evolution of Visual Systems 163/ The Simplest Visual
Systems 165/ The Evolution of Ocular Systems in Vertebrates 169/ Postural Stabilization of the Eyes 170/ The
Focusing of a Definite Image 171/ The Uses of Frontal
154
xii /
CONTENTS
Eyes and Lateral Eyes 174/ The Advantage of Concentrating the Receptors in Special Regions 174/ The Advantage of Compulsory Convergence of Both Eyes 177/ The
Advantages of a Night Retina, a Day Retina, and a Duplex
Retina 180/ The Advantages of Color Vision 183/
Summary 184/
X
The Visual System: Environmental Information
186
The Principles of Ecological Optics 187/ Radiation from a
Luminous Source (Stage 1) 189/ Scatter-Reflection of Light
from Surfaces (Stage 2) 191/ The Set of AH Convergence
Points in a Medium (Stage 3) 191/ The Ambient Light
at a Stationary Convergence Point (Stage 4) 192/ The
Effective Array at a Stationary Convergence Point
(Stage 5) 194/ The Ambient Array at a Moving Convergence Point (Stage 6) 195/ Figural Motion within the
Ambient Array (Stage 7) 201/ Kinetic Optical Occlusion
and Edge Information (Stage 8) 203/ The Connected Set
of Convergence Points for a Geographical Environment 206/
The Structuring of Ambient Light 208/ Differential
Facing 208/ Surface Composition 209/ The Combination
of Inclination and Reflectance 21l/ Attached Shadows 212/
Cast Shadows 213/ The Combination of Inclination, Reflectance, and Shadowing 214/
The Structuring of Light by Means Other Than Reflection 216/
Transmitted Light and Transparent Surfaces 216/ Mirror
Reflection 216/ Irregular Refraction 218/ Differential
Polarization of Sky Light 218/ Structuring of an Array by
Radiant Sources 220/
Summary 220/
XI
The Structuring of Light by Ártifice
The Original and Derived Meanings of the Term "Image" 225/
The Distinction between Real and Apparent Sources of an
Optic Array 227/
The Origin of Images in Prehistory 228/ The Fundamental
Graphic Act 229/ Experiments on the Graphic Act 230/
The Consequences of Pictorial Representation 231/ The
Illusion of Reality in Pictorial Perception 231/ The Consequences of Perception at Second Hand 234/ The
Consequences of the Pictorial Attitude for Psychology 235/
The Consequences of the Pictorial Attitude for Art 238/
The Concern with Optical Structure as Such 240/
The Structuring of Light by Alphabetic Writing 242/
224
CONTENTS /
xiii
Two Conceptions of the Information in Stimulation 245/
Equivocal Information from a Picture 246/
XII
The Pickup of Amhient Information: Scanning
250
The Problem of Perceiving by Scanning 251/
The Equivalence of Successive Sampling to Simultaneous
Grasping 252/
The Stable and Unbounded Character of the Phenomenal
Visual World 253/
Ecological Optics and the Visual Scanning Process 256/
Ambient Light and the Ambient Array 257/ The Temporary Sample of an Ambient Array 257/ What, then, is the
retinal image? 258/
Exploratory Visual Attention 259/ The Persistence of Invariant
Structure in Successive Samples 261/ The Superfluous
Appeal to Memory 262/
The Tuning of the System to Invariant Information 264/
XIII
The Theory of Information Pickup
266
What is innate and what acquired in perception? 267/
The Probable Mechanism of Learning to Perceive 269/ How
are associations between events detected? 271/ What is
learning by insight? 273/ What is the relation of perceiving
to remembering? 275/ What is the relation of perceiving
to recognizing? 277/ What is the relation of perceiving to
expecting? 279/ What is the effect of language on perception? 280/
The Probable Kinds of Development in Learning to Perceive 283/ Differentiating the Range of Possible Inputs 283/
Establishing the Covariation of Inputs between Different
Systems 283/ Isolating External Invariants 284/ Learning
the Affordances of Objects 285/ Detecting Situational Invariants 285/ The Development of Selective Attention 286/
XIV
The Causes of Deficient Perception
Inadequate Information 288/ Minimal Energy and the Concept
of Threshold 288/ The Blurring of Structure 291/ The
Masking of Structure 293/ Conflicting or Contradicting
Information 296/ Interval Cutoff with a Tachistoscope 298/
Narrowing Down of an Array 299/ ExperimentalOperations
on Structure 299/
The Consequences of Inadequate Information 303/
The Deficiencies of the Perceptual Process 304/ The Failure
of Organ Adjustment at High Intensity 304/ Physiological
287
xiv /
CONTENTS
After-effects 305/ The Obtruding of Sensation on Perception 306/ After-effects of Habituation 308/ Overselective
Attention 309/
A Classification of Illusions 310/ Artificial Sources 310/ The
Bending of an Optic Array by Reflection or Refraction 3Il/
Contradictory Information from a Picture 312/ The Geometrical I1lusions 312/ After-effects of Excitation 316/
Insufficient Specialization of Receptors 316/ Internal
Excitation of the Nervous System 316/
Summary 318/
Conclusion
319
Bihliography
322
Index
331
×

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