Tracheophyta -Seedless Vascular Plants

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First found May 22, 2018

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Kingdom: Plantae
General Characteristics
• Multicellular, Photoautotrophic, Eukaryotic
• Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b,
and carotenoids
• Cell wall made of cellulose, Starch is the
food storage compound
• Adaptations to life on land include waxy
cuticle and stomata to allow for exchange of
gases through cuticle
Multicellular Algae to Plants
• Plants began the
movement onto land
about 425 million
years ago
• Evolutionary history
involves increasing
adaptations to
changing terrestrial
conditions
Adaptations for Life on Land
DIFFICULTY
ALGAE
PLANT
Moisture Loss
None
Cuticle
Exposure to Sun
Transport
Near Surface of Around Stem
Water
Diffusion
Xylem and Phloem
Gas Exchange
Diffusion
Reproduction
Water Required Pollen
Stomata
Support of Tissue Water Pressure Lignin, xylem, phloem
Vascular Tissue
• Xylem – transports
water and minerals up
from root (Xylem is
dead at functional
maturity)
• Phloem – transports
sugars (food)
throughout plant
Four major periods in Plant
Evolution
• Origin of plants from green algae
• Adaptation of vascular tissue (tissue which
allows transport of materials throughout
plant)
• Origin of seeds (embryos enclosed with
food in coating)
• Emergence of flowering plants (bear seeds
in protective coating)
Evolutionary trends
• The reduction of the
haploid generation
with increasing
dominance of the
diploid generation
• Adaptations to
terrestrial life
Classification
Bryophyta (mosses)
• No vascular tissue
• Gametophyte
generation is dominant
• Sperm must swim to
egg
• Plants must live in
moist environments
Bryophyta (mosses)
• Gametophyte is the
dominant
(photosynthetic)
generation,
Sporophyte is brown
capsule and stalk
Reproduction and Life Cycle
• Life cycle involves
Alternation of
Generations between
haploid gametophyte
and diploid sporophyte
• Moss Animation
Liverwort, Hornwort and Moss
Phylum Tracheophyta
Adaptations
Cuticle
Stomata
Retains water, prevents
evaporation
Pore for Gas Exchange
Xylem (Vascular Tissue)
Moves water up plant
Phloem (Vascular Tissue) Moves food up and down
Lignin
Support
Seed Coat
Protect seed, still need
water for fertilization
Vascular System – 3 areas
• Roots - Tubes gathered in center, anchor plant,
absorb moisture and nutrients
• Leaves – Major site of photosynthesis, stomata,
veins of vascular tissue
• Stems – Contains vascular tissue for transport,
xylem and phloem
Tracheophyta -Seedless Vascular
Plants
• Psilophyta – whisk ferns
Tracheophyta – Seedless Vascular
Plants
• Sphenophyta - horsetails
Tracheophyta – Seedless Vascular
Plants
• Lycophyta – Club Moss
Tracheophyta -Seedless Vascular
Plants
• Pterophyta - Ferns
• Produce spores
• Able to live in drier
environments than the
Bryophytes, but sperm
still must swim to egg
Fern Life Cycle
• Life cycle of a fern
Spermopsida – Seeded Plants
• Gymnosperms (naked
seeds)
• Angiosperms (covered
seeds)
Gymnosperms – Seeded Plants
Cone-bearing
plants that produce
seeds in cones
Seeds are not
contained in fruits –
seed has thin
protective coating that
is part of seed itself
Coniferophyta – cone bearers
Cycadophyta - cycads
Ginkgophyta – Ginkgo biloba
Angiosperms -Seeded Plants
• II.Angiosperm
(“covered seeds”)
Anthophyta – Flowering
plants with protected
seeds
Fruit is ripened in ovary
of flower that helps
disperse seeds
Angiosperms, cont.
• Monocots vs. Dicots
Monocot
Dicot
• Plants exhibit
indeterminate growth
• Primary growth is at
tips of root and shoot
• Secondary growth
increases a plant’s
girth
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