A Study of the Current and Future Skills Requirements of the Marine

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A Study of the Current and Future
Skills Requirements of the Marine/
Maritime Economy to 2020
April 2015
Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
c/o Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation
Kildare Street
Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 631 2881
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.skillsireland.ie
Untitled-1 1
30/01/2015 11:37:11
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1
Introduction to the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
3
Foreword
4
Executive
E.1
E.2
E.3
E.4
E.5
E.6
E.7
E.8
E.9
Summary
Introduction
Methodology
Seafood and Bio-Products
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
Summary of Skills Demand across the Marine Economy
Recommendations
5
5
9
12
15
19
23
26
29
36
Chapter 1:
Introduction
1.1
Introduction
1.2
Context
1.3
Marine Governance and the National Policy Agenda
1.4
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth (HOOW) – An Integrated Marine Plan (IMP)
1.5
The European Agenda
1.6
The Ocean Economy
1.7
Jobs in the Ocean Economy
1.8
Objectives and Methodology
1.9
Skills Demand Scenarios
1.10
Report Structure
38
38
38
39
40
41
42
44
44
45
47
Chapter 2:
Seafood and Bio-Products
2.1
Economic Profile
2.2
Company Interviews
2.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
2.4
Future Demand for Seafood and Bio-Product Skills, 2015 - 2020
2.5
Supply Side Information
2.6
Summary
48
48
51
57
57
63
69
Chapter 3:
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services (MTSS)
3.1
Economic Profile
3.2
Company Interviews
3.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
3.4
Future demand for MTSS Skills, 2015-2020
3.5
Supply Side Information
3.6
Summary
70
70
73
79
80
84
91
Chapter 4:
Energy
4.1
Economic Profile
4.2
Company Interviews
4.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
4.4
Future Demand for Energy Skills, 2015 - 2020
4.5
Supply Side Information
4.6
Summary
92
92
95
101
103
108
113
Chapter 5:
Marine Tourism
5.1
Economic Profile
5.2
Company Interviews
5.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
114
114
116
121
Skills in the Marine Economy
1
April 2015
5.4
5.5
5.6
Future Demand for Marine Tourism Skills, 2015-2020
Supply Side Information
Summary
122
124
128
Chapter 6:
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
6.1
Economic Profile
6.2
Company Interviews
6.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
6.4
Future demand for Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Skills, 2015-2020
6.5
Supply Side Information
6.6
Summary
129
129
131
136
137
139
141
Chapter 7:
Summary of Skills Demand across the Marine Economy
7.1
Introduction
7.1
Future Skills Demand by Sector
7.2
Future Skills Demand by Occupation across the total Marine Economy
7.3
Future Skills Demand by Sector and Occupation across the Marine Economy
7.4
Summary
142
142
143
145
147
150
Chapter 8:
152
Appendices
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Recommendations
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
154
Marine Governance
154
Marine Economy NACE Codes (Rev 2)
155
Marine Economy Occupations
157
National Framework of Qualifications
159
Steering Group Members
160
Members of the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
161
Recent Publications by the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs, 2012 - 2015 162
Skills in the Marine Economy
2
April 2015
Introduction to the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
The Expert Group on Future Skills Needs (EGFSN) advises the Irish Government on current and future
skills needs of the economy and on other labour market issues that impact on Ireland’s enterprise
and employment growth. It has a central role in ensuring that labour market needs for skilled
workers are anticipated and met.
Established in 1997, the EGFSN reports to the Minister for Education and Skills and the Minister for
Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation.
The EGFSN Secretariat is a unit in the Strategic Policy Division of the Department of Jobs, Enterprise
and Innovation (DJEI) and in conjunction with the Skills and Labour Market Research Unit (SLMRU) in
SOLAS provide the Expert Group with research and analysis support.
Acknowledgements
The EGFSN Secretariat would like to record its appreciation to the members of the Steering Group,
who oversaw the progress and the development of this report, for their significant commitment and
contribution – the membership is set out in Appendix 5.
The EGFSN Secretariat would like to thank the many industry executives, academics and staff at
expert organisations and State Agencies who gave their valuable time and insights through
interviews and at workshops.
The EGFSN Secretariat would like to acknowledge the work of the consortium comprising RSM
McClure Watters (Leading), Dr Paul Brewster of Pure Marine Gen Ltd., Matt Rooke of PACEC (now
part of RSM McClure Watters) and SEMRU (Socio Economic Marine Research Unit) of NUIG. The
EGFSN would also like to thank the Marine Institute for their support and for making their
photographs available for inclusion in the report.
Skills in the Marine Economy
3
April 2015
Foreword
Our ocean wealth is a national asset, supporting a diverse marine economy,
with vast potential to tap into a €1,200 billion global marine market for
seafood, tourism, oil and gas, marine renewable energy and new applications
for health, medicine and technology. Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth - an
Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland, (HOOW), sets out a roadmap for the
Government’s vision, high-level goals and integrated actions across policy,
governance and business to enable our marine potential to be realised. One
such action was to “Identify future skills needs and labour market supply and
demand trends in the marine/maritime area in the context of Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth”.
Under the Government Action Plan for Jobs 2014, the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs (EGFSN)
committed to undertaking this assessment of the profile and diversity of the occupations and skills
requirements of enterprises in the different sectors that make up the Marine economy. The
overarching aim of this study is to ensure that the right skills base will be available to meet the needs
of enterprises in the developing Marine Economy out to 2020.
The focus of the EGFSN study is on those sectors of the marine economy which have been identified by
HOOW as key sectors which contribute to the Irish Marine Economy, namely; Seafood and BioProducts; Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services; Energy; Marine Tourism; and Maritime
Monitoring, Security and Surveillance.
The 2014 employment estimate across the entire marine economy is 16,155 full-time equivalents
(FTEs). The demand forecast analysis indicates that, due to the anticipated expansion and
replacement demand some 16,915 job vacancies could become available over the period 2015-2020.
The expansion component of this demand is forecast to be 10,138 FTE jobs, of which 4,928 jobs are
forecast in the maritime transport, shipbuilding and services (MTSS) (driven primarily by the proposed
International Shipping Services Centre) with marine tourism following with 3,447 new jobs, reflecting
the upturn in the global economy and the return of foreign tourists.
No major skills shortage currently exists but in the seafood sector in particular, the workforce is
ageing and this will present a skills difficulty unless measures are put in place to attract and upskill
younger workers. While operatives and low skill roles are a major component of the Marine Economy
there is evidence of a shift toward more professionals being employed in sectors such as seafood
which is predominantly a low skill employer and the emerging sectors, such as marine renewable
energy and maritime monitoring where professionals such as engineers is the major skill in demand.
A key finding in the study is the lack of awareness about possible careers in the Marine Economy and
the time delay in obtaining current economic data for the marine economy.
I would like to express my thanks to all those who contributed to the report. Particular thanks are due
to the many industry executives, academics and professionals who contributed their valuable time and
expertise. I would like to thank Dr Brendan Murphy who chaired the Steering Group that oversaw the
completion of the report and to each member of the Steering group for their commitment and sharing
of expertise. Finally, I would like to thank the EGFSN Secretariat for their research and analysis input
and managing this project to a successful conclusion.
Una Halligan
Chairperson, Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
Skills in the Marine Economy
4
April 2015
Executive Summary
Courtesy of photographer Tomasz Szumski
E.1 Introduction
This report, A Study of the current and future skills requirements of the Marine/Maritime Economy
to 2020 was undertaken by the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs (EGFSN) to assess the profile
and diversity of the occupations and skills requirements of enterprises in the different sectors that
make up the Marine/Maritime Economy and to propose recommendations to ensure the right skill
base to meet the enterprise needs.
In the context of this study the Ocean Economy and the Marine and/or Maritime Economy are used
interchangeably and the terms Marine and Maritime are sometimes used together or individually.
Irrespective of the term used, it means “all activities relating to the sea” unless otherwise
specified.
The Ocean or (Marine/Maritime) Economy is defined as “Economic Activity that indirectly or
directly uses the marine as an input”1. The number of sub-sectors associated with the
Marine/Maritime economy is vast and each of these in turn is interlinked and also interacts with
other sectors outside the marine area. The sub-sectors of the ocean economy can be grouped in
many different ways, e.g., established markets and emerging markets; or mature, growth and predevelopment stage; or services, resources and manufacturing.
For the purposes of this study it has been decided to group the complex web of maritime economic
activities around five marine sectors, namely:
1
Seafood and Bio-Products;
2
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services;
3
Energy;
4
Marine Tourism; and
5
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance.
1
Source: Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth - An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland. 2012
Skills in the Marine Economy
5
April 2015
Background
Taking our seabed area into account, Ireland is one of the largest EU states; with sovereign or
exclusive rights over one of the largest sea to land ratios (over 10:1) of any EU State (Figure E1). Our
coastline of 7,500km is longer than that of many European countries and yet this is a resource we
often overlook.
Our ocean is a national asset, supporting a diverse marine economy, with vast potential to tap into a
€1,200 billion global marine market for seafood, tourism, oil and gas, marine renewable energy, and
new applications for health, medicine and technology. In 2010, (the latest year for which data is
published), Ireland generated 1.2% of GDP (€2.4bn direct and indirect Gross Value Added (GVA)) from
its ocean economy, supporting about 1% of the total workforce. Global marine economic activity is
estimated to contribute 2% of the world’s GDP and the European Commission estimates that between
3% and 5% of Europe’s GDP was generated from sea-related industries and services in 2007.
Figure E1: The Real Map of Ireland
© Marine Institute and the Geological Survey of Ireland
In 2012 the Government launched Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth– an Integrated Marine Plan for
Ireland (HOOW) 2. This Integrated Marine Plan:

sets out a roadmap for the Government’s vision, high-level goals and integrated actions across
policy, governance and business to enable our marine potential to be realised;

provides a new momentum for growth in the marine area; and

seeks to ensure that all nine government departments with responsibility for a marine activity
work together more efficiently and effectively on the diverse issues related to the marine.
2
http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/Pages/default.aspx
Skills in the Marine Economy
6
April 2015
Under the Government Action Plan for Jobs 2014, the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs (EGFSN)
EGFSN was tasked with undertaking a detailed assessment of “the future skills needs and labour
market supply and demand trends in the marine/maritime area in the context of the targets set in
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth”. The overarching aim of this study is to ensure that the right skills
base will be available to meet the needs of enterprises in the developing Marine Economy out to
2020.
The vision and goals set out in HOOW have been framed within the context of what is happening at
the broader global and EU levels recognising the contribution the marine economy can make to global
economic growth and the need for appropriate policies, strategies and funding mechanisms to enable
this. In particular in 2007, following a Europe wide consultation process, the Commission took a
landmark decision to establish a Directorate General for Maritime Affairs3 (DG MARE); and to publish
an Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union (IMP-EU) and an associated Action Plan4.
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland
The Ocean Economy
The marine economy in Ireland was been identified as having the potential to grow substantially in
the next few years and therefore create employment for residents of Ireland directly and indirectly.
The Socio Economic Marine Research Unit (SEMRU) in NUIG (National University of Ireland Galway)
undertook the extensive task of data collection and analysis of Ireland’s ocean economy. Marine
socio-economic data are not readily available in Ireland (nor indeed in the other European
countries) primarily because the economic profile of the ocean economy is not distinct from other
aspects of the broader economy. Only a proportion of the NACE Codes 5 relate solely to a maritime
activity with the majority being only partially relevant. A list of the NACE codes relevant to the
Ocean economy is in Appendix 2 of the full report 6.
This study assessed the skills needs of the ocean economy across five marine sectors each with a
number of sub-sectors. Table E1 provides some key economic indicators for each subsector, namely
Direct Employment (FTE), GVA (€millions) and Turnover (€millions). This data is the 2010 data, the
latest available, but it gives an indication of the size of the economy and the numbers employed.
3
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/maritimeaffairs_fisheries/index_en.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/index_en.htm
NACE Code is a Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Glossary:Statistical_classification_of_economic_activities_in_the_European_Community_(NACE)
6
www.skillsireland.ie
4
5
Skills in the Marine Economy
7
April 2015
Table E1: Direct Employment (FTE), GVA and Turnover for subsectors within the Marine Economy
Sector
Direct
Employment
GVA
Turnover
National Strategy/
(€millions)
(€millions)
Targets
Sub-sector
(FTE)
Seafood and Bio-Products
5,633
256
745
Sea Fisheries
2,825
116
202
Marine Aquaculture
918
47
123
Seafood Processing
1,586
80
390
304
13
30
5,689
540
1,658
Shipping and maritime transport
4,633
422
1,422
Marine Retail Services
252
34
58
726
44
111
Marine Biotechnology and BioProcessing
Maritime Transport, Shipping
and Services
Marine Manufacturing,
Construction and Engineering
Marine Commerce and Ship
Leasing
Energy
78
40
67
138
861
61
126
216
4
12
Tourism
3,502
337
858
Marine Tourism and Leisure
3,502
337
841
International Cruise Industry
N/A
N/A
17
391
21
56
Marine Renewables – Offshore
wind, Wave and Tidal
Maritime Monitoring, Security
and Surveillance
High-tech marine products and
services
Total
HOOW Turnover Target
>€1.2b (derived from
baseline level of
activity as measured by
SEMRU – Ireland’s Ocean
Economy
for Marine Commerce
and Ship leasing
65
Production
Turnover target €1billion from €0.7b
IMDO Turnover €2.6b
1,077
Oil and Gas Exploration and
FH(Food Harvest) 2020 Target 14,000 FTE
(from 11,000)
HOOW Turnover Target:
€1.5b
>€61m projected
391
21
56
turnover- based on 2007
SEMRU company survey
16,292
1,219
3,455
Source: SEMRU, Ocean Economy Report 2013 (Reference year: 2010)
Skills in the Marine Economy
8
April 2015
Jobs in the Ocean Economy
The marine economy offers a wide and diverse range of career opportunities. The types of jobs found
in each of the sectors are detailed in Appendix 3 of the full report. The occupations within the ocean
economy are distributed across all levels: management (including specialist management functions),
professionals (including engineers, scientists); associate professionals (e.g. technicians), operatives
(riggers, deck hands); sales and elementary occupations and reflect the diverse educational
requirements: Higher (HE) and Further Education and Training (FET); Leaving Certificate; Junior
Certificate and No Formal Qualifications.
Increasingly more complex technical projects
and opportunities offered by convergence in
the marine sector mean that far greater
interdisciplinary knowledge and experience of
working in multi-disciplinary environments is
and will continue to be required. It will mean
bringing together professionals from diverse
backgrounds - such as engineers, planners and
architects with ecologists, biologists, and
chemists.
© Marine Institute - Photographer Paul Kaye
The marine economy, both nationally and globally, has a requirement for technicians and general
operatives as well as highly skilled technical staff and professionals. The core skills and knowledge
of these occupations, e.g. electricians, metal workers and mechanical engineers, are relevant to
both land and sea based roles and as such are transferable. The land-based skills can be “marinised”
to deal with the challenges of working in an off-shore and/or a marine environment.
E.2
Methodology
Phase 1 – Assessing the current profile and diversity of skills
The objective of Phase 1 was to assess the profile and diversity of the current skills and occupations
and the skills supply and demand of the marine economy for all five sectors and their sub-sectors,
as listed in Table E1, and to assess qualitatively the anticipated future needs of enterprises within
the marine economy.
This phase of the research comprised four main elements:
1
Desk review of relevant government policies, economic profile and data on education/skill
levels within each subsector;
2
Telephone interviews were conducted, using a structured questionnaire format, with 60
maritime enterprises from across the ocean economy taking into account the size of company,
ownership (foreign/indigenous) and stage of development (start-up/mature);
3
Interviews were undertaken with stakeholders from the key Government departments,
development agencies, education providers, industry associations and other organisations
involved in the marine economy to ascertain their views on the current and anticipated skills
demand and how these skills requirements may best be met; and
4
Four thematic workshops were facilitated with selected companies and key stakeholders.
Skills in the Marine Economy
9
April 2015
Phase 2 - Future Demand Scenarios
Phase 2 involved forecasting the future demand for skills in the ocean economy. The most recent
official data is that provided by SEMRU (Socio-Economic Marine Research Unit in NUIG). Their first
Ocean Economy Report, published in 2010, was based on the reference year 2007, at the height of
the economic boom (2003 – 2007). The latest report, with a reference year of 2010 and published in
2013, represents the lowest point of the economic contraction (2007 – 2010) with a significant
decrease in activity, particularly in the shipping and maritime transport sector and in water based
construction. A comparison between 2007 and 2010 data saw a 25.4% decrease in turnover, a 20.9%
fall in employment and a 29.7% decrease in direct GVA7.
In order to develop forecasts of the future skills demand to 2020 it was necessary that baseline
estimates for 2014 be produced8. This was done using additional sources of information, such as:
annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad sectors; Economic and
Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and SOLAS Occupational
Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and discussions with
stakeholders. The outcome from this exercise is shown in Table E2.
Table E2: 2007 and 2010 FTE Employment and 2014 Baseline FTE Estimates for the Ocean Economy
Sub-sector
2007‡
2010‡
2014*
Total - Seafood and Bio-Products
5,615
5,633
5,359
Sea Fisheries
2,200
2,825
2,513
Marine Aquaculture
1,061
918
918
Seafood Processing
2,090
1,586
1,586
Marine Biotechnology and Bio-Processing
264
304
342
7,895
5,689
5,689
Shipping and maritime transport
5,903
4,633
4,633
Marine Retail Services
287
252
252
Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering
1,600
726
726
Marine Commerce and Ship Leasing
105
78
78
Total – Marine Renewable Energy
891
1,077
1,148
Offshore Oil and Gas
790
861
861
Offshore Renewables
101
216
287
Marine Tourism and Leisure
5,836
3,502
3,502
High-tech marine products and services
350
391
457
Total Marine Economy
20,587
16,292
16,155
Total - Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and
Services
‡: SEMRU Data from “Ireland’s Ocean Economy”, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates, developed by PACEC, based on the 2010 SEMRU data
7
SEMRU – Ireland’s Ocean Economy. –Dec 2013.
http://www.nuigalway.ie/semru/documents/irelands_ocean_economy_report_series_no2.pdf
8
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
Skills in the Marine Economy
10
April 2015
The demand for skills arises from two sources, namely:

Expansion Demand: additional employment owing to growth in the sector; and

Replacement Demand: the replacement of workers arising from exits to inactivity and net losses
from inter-occupational movements.
© Marine Institute - Photographer Cushla Dromgool Regan
Scenario 1 for each sector assumed that the turnover targets set out in HOOW would be met by
2020. Consultations with industry stakeholders, informed by the economic background data
gathered, were used to determine how this increase in turnover could be achieved, how the
additional turnover would be distributed between the various sub-sectors and how employment
would need to increase in order to generate this turnover. A modelling exercise was then conducted
using the information from the company interviews to estimate how the expansion demand would
be distributed by occupational level in each sub-sector over the period 2014-2020. An estimation of
the replacement demand was also conducted using data provided by the SLMRU (Skills and Labour
Market Research Unit, SOLAS) and following the methodology used by them in the publication of the
EGFSN National Skills Bulletin9 on the exits from employment to economic inactivity and net losses
from inter-occupational movements, which vary by occupation.
An alternative scenario, Scenario 2, representing a no-growth scenario for Seafood and Bio-Products
and a higher growth scenario for Energy were also developed. The no-growth scenario was driven by
lack of expansion in the aquaculture sub-sector and the high growth scenario was driven by growth
in the energy sector, in particular marine renewable energy.
For each of the five sectors the distribution of the future skills demand by occupation is presented
in Tables E3 - E7. The first column shows the distribution of the 2014 baseline estimate of FullTime Equivalent (FTE) employees across the occupations. The second grouping sets out the
expansion demand by occupation expressed as the actual number and as a percentage of the 2014
baseline estimate. The next set of columns presents the replacement demand while the final set of
columns present the gross demand, i.e. the expansion plus the replacement demand.
In addition to the initial telephone discussions and consultations with key stakeholders in Phase 1,
follow-up consultations were conducted to validate the outcome of the forecasts of the future skills
demand.
9
http://www.skillsireland.ie/media/23072014-National_Skills_Bulletin%20_2014--Publication.pdf
Skills in the Marine Economy
11
April 2015
E.3
Seafood and Bio-Products
The sub-sectors assessed under this sector area:

Sea Fisheries

Marine Aquaculture

Seafood Processing

Marine bio-technology and bio-processing
Economic Profile
In 2010, the Irish Seafood and Bio-Products sector had an estimated annual sales value of €745
million and the Department of Agriculture believe that the potential exists to increase revenue to
€1 billion by 202010 11.
Table E1 shows that GVA for the Seafood and Bio-Products sector in 2010 was €256 million while
turnover was €745 million. In addition, direct employment was 5,633 FTEs; however this figure rises
considerably if indirect employment is taken into consideration.
© Marine Institute - MRI Carna research facility. Photographer David Branigan
Company Interviews
For the study 15 companies were interviewed from the Seafood and Bio-Products sector with a total
of 798 employees which constitutes 15% of the total number of employees in the sector (5359).
Over the previous three years these companies have seen their greatest expansion in the
Administrative, Professional and Management Occupations (40%, 33%, 30% respectively), although
the numbers are small at 15, 12, 18 respectively. Over the next six years these companies
anticipated a continued expansion for these occupations, in particular for Professionals with a 58%
expansion (28 persons).
10
Food Harvest 2020- A vision for Irish agri-food and fisheries. http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/agrifoodindustry/foodharvest2020/
11
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth: An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland (2012) - http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/Pages/default.aspx
Skills in the Marine Economy
12
April 2015
Over the last three years six of the 15 companies saw an increase in their turnover while another six
had a decrease in turnover with three indicating their turnover had not changed. By contrast over
the next six years only two of the companies anticipated a decrease in turnover while seven
anticipated an increase and six expected it to stay the same. The companies also indicated that on
average over the last three years 67% of their turnover was from exports.
Currently, the majority of companies do not find skills or qualifications difficult to source. Where
difficulties do exist, such as, onshore operatives and boat handlers, it was because they were not
readily available in the local/rural area. This need could be met by the local Education and Training
Boards (ETBs) in conjunction with Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) which provides the Further Education
and Training for the Seafood sector. In aquaculture, there are increased demands for energy and
environmental monitoring, linked to new EU regulations which require up-skilling of professionals.
Stakeholder Consultation
A number of skills issues were identified during the stakeholder consultation. The first of these was
the ageing workforce, in particular for the sea-fisheries sub-sector and the second related to the
new export markets which would require greater language and international sales, marketing and
business skills. In addition it was identified that fisherman, with appropriate training, are in an ideal
position to provide data for scientists through sample collection and data measurement.
Future Demand for Skills 2015 - 2020
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover target of an increase from €745mn to €1bn as set out in
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth will to be met by 2020.
It forecasts an expansion demand of 1,423 jobs increasing employment from 5,359 in 2014 to 6,782
full-time equivalent jobs by 2020. The replacement demand is 2,094 FTEs thereby giving rise to a
gross demand of 3,517 which is 66% of the current work force. The distribution of the expansion and
replacement demand by occupation level is shown in Table E3.
The overall HOOW target of €1bn turnover by
2020 was driven by an increase in aquaculture
production of 80,000 tonnes which was the
target set in Food Harvest 2020. The evidence
from the stakeholder consultations was that
this aquaculture production target is very
challenging and is unlikely to be realised by the
2020 timeline.
Therefore a second no-growth scenario was
developed, Scenario 2, which forecast that
employment over the seafood and bio-products
sector would remain constant in all sectors over
the period 2014-2020. In this no-growth scenario,
the only driver of skills demand will be the
© Marine Institute. Sampling and Data Collection
replacement demand of 2,083 employees. The replacement demand for Scenario 1, the high growth
scenario, is marginally higher than in Scenario 2, the no-growth scenario, simply because the sector is
bigger. For Scenario 2 the replacement demand is equivalent to the gross demand.
Skills in the Marine Economy
13
April 2015
Table E3: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand to 2020 by Occupation in the Seafood and Bio-
HOOW Target
met
No.
% of
Replacement
Demand
Scenario 1
HOOW Target
met
% of
Occupation Level
Baseline
Operative Grades
3,043
514
17%
0
1,296
Administration
392
180
46%
0
Skilled Trades
934
237
25%
Associate Professional
and Technical
45
0
Professionals
365
Management
Total
Gross Demand
Scenario 1
HOOW Target
met
No.
43%
1,328
1,810
59%
179
46%
166
359
92%
0
344
37%
341
581
62%
0%
0
10
22%
11
10
22%
373
102%
0
129
35%
100
502
138%
580
119
21%
0
136
23%
137
255
44%
5,359
1,423
27%
0
2,094
39%
2,083
3,517
66%
2014
Source: PACEC, 2014
Supply-side Information
Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) is the national agency with responsibility for training in the seafood
sector. It has dedicated facilities through the National Fisheries College of Ireland (NFCI) at
Greencastle, Co. Donegal and at Castletownbere in Co. Cork. BIM’s courses cover a variety of
disciplines including: Fishing – Skipper and Crew; Aquaculture; Processors and Retailers and Sea
Safety training. Many courses are run in conjunction with the Education and Training Boards (ETBs).
Courses range from three days to six months and are provided at NFQ (National Framework of
Qualifications)12 Levels 3-6.
Skillnets funds and facilitates training through networks of private sector companies, in a range of
sectors and regions. Each network delivers training that is driven by specific industry and member
company needs. The Taste 4 Success Skillnet runs two short courses namely: an Introduction to Fish
Handling Skills and Smoking Fish.
Higher Education degree courses, at both undergraduate and postgraduate (NFQ Levels 7 – 10) which
are “Marine” focussed and would provide a sound basis for moving into the broad Seafood and BioProducts sector are predominantly taught in GMIT (Galway, Mayo Institute of Technology) and NUIG
(National University of Ireland – Galway) with courses also available in QUB (Queen’s University
Belfast) and UU (University of Ulster – Coleraine).
12
The National Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) is a ten-level system giving an academic or vocational value to
qualifications obtained in Ireland. QQI (Quality and Qualifications Ireland) is Ireland's guardian of the NFQ system.
http://www.qqi.ie/Pages/National-Framework-of-Qualifications-(NFQ).aspx
Skills in the Marine Economy
% of
No.
2014
No.
Replacement Demand
Scenario 2 - HOOW
Target NOT met
Expansion
Demand
Scenario 1
Expansion Demand
Scenario 2 - HOOW
Target NOT met
2014 estimates
Products Sector
14
April 2015
2014
E.4
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services
The sub-sectors assessed under this sector are:

Shipping and maritime transport

Marine Retail Services

Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering

Marine Commerce and Ship Leasing
Economic Profile
Economic indicators for the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services sector are outlined in
Table E1. GVA in 2010 was €540 million, turnover was €1,658 million and direct employment was
5,689 FTE. Turnover decreased between 2007 and 2010 by 37.6%, with a 41.9% decrease in exports
and a 28% decrease in employment in the
same period.
Shipping and Maritime Transport is by far
the largest sub-sector within this sector
with 4,633 FTEs directly employed which
constitutes 81% of the entire grouping.
The majority of shipping and maritime
services activity occurs around the nine
State commercial ports: Tier 1 - Dublin;
Cork; Shannon-Foynes; Tier 2 - Waterford;
Rosslare13 14; Regional -Drogheda; DunLaoghaire; Galway; New Ross; and Wicklow.
© Marine Institute, Dublin Port 2014.
By contrast Marine Commerce, which deals with the legal and financial services, insurance and ship
leasing is a very small sub-sector with a turnover of €67 million and 78 FTE directly employed. That
said, however, international ship leasing and charter operations are one of the fastest growing
segments of the maritime services cluster and HOOW has set an ambitious target for an increase in
turnover to €2.6 billion15 in maritime commerce and ship leasing by 2020. While this is an ambitious
target, on-going work by the Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) and the IDA regarding a
proposed International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC) in Dublin could deliver a significant aspect of
this growth. It is expected that such a hub would attract firms involved in shipping, ship leasing,
shipping finance and operations management16.
13
National Ports Policy, – Iarnrod Eireann operates Rosslare Europort under a complex ownership involving Fishguard port that dates
to the 19th Century http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/contentpublication/National%20Ports%20Policy%202013.PDF
14
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
15
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013The ship leasing component of this
target is included in shipping and maritime transport in this report, and cannot be disaggregated due to data confidentiality
16
http://www.imdo.ie/IMDO/business/maritime-development/ISSC+Dublin.htm
Skills in the Marine Economy
15
April 2015
Company Interviews
For the study 17 companies were interviewed from the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and
Services sector with a total of 531 employees which constitutes 9% of the total number of
employees (5,689) in the sector.
Over the previous three years these
companies have experienced a
decline in employment of 16% for
operative grades but for professional
occupations employment increased by
24%. Over the next six years these
companies anticipated that the
largest employment growth would be
for administrative occupations at 54%
closely followed by the professional
occupations at 49% and operatives at
40%.
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland
Over the last three years 10 of the 17 companies saw an increase in their turnover while another
four had a decrease in turnover with three indicating their turnover had stayed the same. By
contrast over the next six years only one of the companies anticipated a decrease in its exports
while ten anticipated an increase and six expected them to stay the same. The companies also
indicated that on average over the last three years 43% of their turnover was from exports.
Approximately 50% of the companies interviewed had difficulty finding people in their local area with
the right level of experience and/or skills for Associate Professional and Technical occupations and
82% of companies had roles which they found were difficult to recruit into, such as: ships captains;
marine engineers; hydrographic surveyors; marine electricians; marine planners; and welders.
Stakeholder Consultation
The main employment in this area of the ocean economy currently centres on the Irish ports, of
which three have been categorised in the National Ports Policy as “Ports of National Significance
(Tier 1)” namely: Dublin Port Company, Port of Cork Company and Shannon Foynes Port Company 17.
Each port is individually responsible for 15% to 20% of overall tonnage through Irish Ports. The ports
companies themselves have relatively small numbers employed, with around 300 FTE employees
between the three Tier 1 ports. Even though vacancies do not come up regularly, specialist skills
can be difficult to find, for roles such as harbourmaster and berthing master. These positions are
often filled by former merchant seafarers or naval officers. The majority of the occupations are at
operative level but as port activities grow, there could be skills issues due to a lack of maritime
training and experience of operatives.
The consultations highlighted a lack of awareness among school leavers about career options in the
maritime sector and a lack of basic maritime knowledge combined with work experience in a
maritime environment presented employers in the Maritime Transport, Shipping and Services sector
with difficulty finding people with the right mix of skills and experience.
17
http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/content-publication/National%20Ports%20Policy%202013.PDF
Skills in the Marine Economy
16
April 2015
The proposed international
shipping services centre (ISSC)
is a major project likely to
impact on employment in the
maritime transport area with a
phased build up to
accommodate over 100
maritime companies and
creating over 3,500 jobs,
employing engineers, excaptains and specialists in ship
broking/chartering, maritime
law and finance, crew
management, logistics and
freight. These maritime
companies will need skills where
© Marine Institute, Dublin Port 2014
business experience is combined with maritime knowledge. One approach to addressing this is to
recruit ex-mariners and focus their training on business skills, or alternatively “marinise” the
business skills.
Future Demand for Skills 2015 - 2020
Estimating the baseline figure for 2014 for this large and diverse subsector was challenging. All the
subsectors of the Maritime Transport, Shipping and Services lost substantial employment between
2007 and 2010, and this decline may not have ceased in 2010. However, the results of the
interviews with companies suggested that many had increased employment and turnover over the
last three years, and the stakeholder consultations revealed ongoing plans for investment to regrow
the sector. The consensus view of stakeholders was that for the sector as a whole the best estimate
was that employment was likely to be equal to the 2010 level.
Scenario 1 assumes that the targets of an increase in turnover to €2.6 billion 18 in maritime
commerce and ship leasing as set out in Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth will to be met by 2020. While
this target is ambitious the conclusion was that the increase in turnover will be driven by the ship
leasing component of the shipping and maritime transport sector, i.e. the proposed International
Shipping and Services Centre (ISSC).
The scenario forecast an expansion demand of 4,928 jobs increasing employment from 5,689 in 2014
to 10,617 full-time equivalent jobs by 2020 with 3,500 of these jobs (71% of the total expansion
demand) in the proposed ISSC. The remainder of the proposed growth (1,428 jobs) would take place
in the shipping and maritime transport sector, driven by investment in ports. The replacement
demand is 2,373 FTEs thereby giving rise to a gross demand of 7,301 which is 128% of the estimated
current work force. The distribution of the expansion and replacement demand by occupation level
is shown in Table E4.
18
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013The ship leasing component of this
target is included in shipping and maritime transport in this report, and cannot be disaggregated due to data confidentiality
Skills in the Marine Economy
17
April 2015
Table E4: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand to 2020 by Occupation in the
2014
estimates
Maritime Transport, Shipping and Services Sector
Scenario 1 HOOW Target met
Expansion
Demand
Replacement
Demand
Gross Demand
Occupation Level
Baseline
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
Operative Grades
814
850
104%
476
58%
1,326
163%
Administration
445
651
146%
283
64%
934
210%
Skilled Trades
1,727
821
48%
706
41%
1,527
88%
803
793
99%
261
33%
1,054
131%
Professionals
1,183
1,416
120%
452
38%
1,868
158%
Management
717
397
55%
195
27%
592
83%
Total
5,689
4,928
87%
2,373
42%
7,301
128%
Associate Professional
and Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
An examination of the expansion demand by educational attainment shows that the concentration is
at NFQ Levels 6 – 8 of the Framework, driven by the substantial increase in the number of
professional and associate professional occupations, 2,209 of 4,928 (45%) required by the ISSC.
Supply-side Information
The National Maritime College of Ireland (NMCI) is a constituent college of Cork Institute of
Technology (CIT) and is the national centre for education and training for careers in the Merchant
Maritime sector and provides the non-military training needs of the Irish Naval Service (INS). The
NMCI offers degree courses in Nautical Science, Marine and Plant Engineering and a Certificate in
Seamanship.
The only specifically Maritime business courses available in Ireland are those provided by the
Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers (ICS). The ICS is the only internationally recognised professional
body in the maritime arena and it represents shipbrokers, ship managers and agents throughout the
world. It is a major provider of education and training and sets and examines the syllabus for
membership, providing the shipping industry with highly qualified professionals. An Ireland branch
of the ICS was formed in 1974.
Maritime Safety applies to all sea-going vessels from merchant ships to passenger ferries, fishing
trawlers and leisure craft. The Marine Survey Office of the Department of Transport, Tourism and
Sport (DTTAS) is responsible for the certifications of seafarers’ competencies. Safety training is
provided by NMCI, BIM and several private operators. Radio operator courses are also provided by
NMCI, BIM and one or two private operators.
Skills in the Marine Economy
18
April 2015
E.5
Energy
The sub-sectors assessed under this sector are:

Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

Marine Renewables – Offshore Wind, Wave and Tidal
Economic Profile
There are two distinct industries in the
energy sector that relate to Ireland’s
Ocean economy, namely the offshore oil
and gas sector and the offshore
renewables sector. The offshore oil and
gas sector is a well-established, global
industry, though activities in Ireland are
at a low level. The oil and gas industry
relies on a flexible, mobile and
international workforce and there are
many skilled Irish people working in the
oil and gas industry abroad.
© Marine Institute, Marine Renewable Energy Services.
Offshore Renewables is an emerging sector, which has seen dramatic growth globally over the last
ten years. The Communication from the Commission Com(2014) 254 “Innovation in the Blue
Economy the EU”19 has shown there is a demand for marine renewables skills at a European level.
The Marine Renewables Industry Association (MRIA) in Ireland carried out a study in 2011 20 and found
that there was no real shortage of third-level skills in the nascent ocean energy industry in Ireland.
During the course of this study the MRIA confirmed that this is still the situation.
Economic indicators for the Offshore Energy sector are outlined in Table E1. GVA in 2010 was €65
million, turnover was €138 million and direct employment was 1,077 FTE 21. Due to the fact that the
oil and gas sector is already well-established the turnover is significantly larger than the newly
emerging offshore renewables sector which is expected to increase significantly in the coming
years.
Company Interviews
For this study ten companies were interviewed from the Energy sector with a total of 704 employees
which constitutes 61% of the total number of employees (1,148) in the marine energy sector.
Over the previous three years these companies have experienced significant growth in employment,
in particular, for professionals with an increase of 167 (80%) and associate professionals and
technical staff of 55 which is a 250% increase. Over the next six years these companies anticipated
continued employment growth for professionals and associate professionals.
19
Communication from the Commission. Innovation in the Blue Economy: realising the potential of our seas and oceans for
jobs and growth. COM (2014) 254 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=COM:2014:254:REV1&from=EN
20
Third-Level Education Needs of the Ocean Energy Industry. To maximize the job and income creation potential of Ireland’s
ocean energy resource. Discussion Paper. MRIA. 2011. http://www.mria.ie/documents/92d05fb11cdab8d6531dd4cbb.pdf
21
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
Skills in the Marine Economy
19
April 2015
Over the last three years seven of the ten companies saw an increase in their turnover, of which
four had moderate growth (10% – 20% pa) and three had significant growth (>20%pa), with the
remaining three indicating their turnover had remained the same. By contrast over the next six
years 50% of the companies anticipated a significant increase in their exports with four anticipating
a moderate increase and only one expecting their exports to stay the same. The companies also
indicated that on average over the last three years 49% of their turnover was from exports.
Approximately 70% of the companies interviewed had roles which they found were difficult to
recruit into. The main occupations identified were electrical and specialist engineers; people with
offshore energy skills; project managers with practical experience and people with basic technical
skills e.g. riggers, algae biologists and software developers.
© Marine Institute - Photographer Cushla Dromgool Regan
Stakeholder Consultation
The Oil and Gas sub-sector ranges from production to exploration and the supply chains for these
areas. Production facilities need engineering skills and one such example is the Corrib Gas Field
which will create approximately 131 FTEs during its 10-15 year life of field production. For
exploration, the skills needed are for scientific research, typically MSc and PhD graduates. Tullow
Oil, an Irish company, has its worldwide geophysics centre in Ireland employing around 90
geoscientists, though none of their activities are currently focused on exploration in Irish waters.
Increased exploration is anticipated following the announcement from the DCENR for a licensing
round in 201522.
The emergence and rapid growth in the Marine Renewable Energy sector has been driven by
European targets for generating renewable energy. The EU is supporting the establishment of the
wave and tidal energy sectors and a European Ocean Energy Forum has been set up to deploy
demonstration projects, such as Westwave, which the ESB are developing.
Ireland is particularly well placed to compete in this emerging sector and the Offshore Renewable
Energy Development Plan (OREDP)23 published in 2014 by the DCENR provides the framework to
22
http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/9B40A9A2-10AE-4E6A-9382-1D07FC76A802/0/2015LicensingRoundNotice18June2014Final.pdf
The Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) - A Framework for the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s Offshore
Renewable Energy Resource was launched in February 2014 and sets out a vision for the sector that sees it contributing to sustainable
economic growth and delivering jobs in the green economy.
http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/Energy/Sustainable+and+Renewable+Energy+Division/OREDP.htm
23
Skills in the Marine Economy
20
April 2015
develop offshore wind and wave energy in Irish waters without any significant environmental
impacts.
Ireland also has the potential to become a centre of excellence and world leader in research,
development and demonstration in the marine renewables field. At present there are five companies
actively involved in developing offshore wind energy projects in Ireland. Employment opportunities
are currently mostly for graduates as the sector becomes established. Once demonstration projects
are deployed there will be a need for vessel operators and maintenance technicians.
Future Demand for Skills 2015 - 2020
Offshore Oil and Gas increased employment between 2007 and 2010, but lost substantial turnover
and GVA over the same period. Discussions with stakeholder suggested that further employment
growth, between 2010 and 2014, would have been unlikely and so the 2010 employment figure has
been carried forward as the 2014 baseline.
Employment and turnover in Offshore Renewables grew between 2007 and 2010 and the consensus
position, based on the evidence set out above and discussions with stakeholders, was that this
growth rate would have continued between 2010 and 2014 though at a slightly lower rate.
Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand to 2020 by Occupation in the Energy Sector
2014 estimates
Table E5:
Occupation Level
Expansion
Demand
Scenario 1
HOOW Target
met
% of
Expansion
Demand
Scenario 2 HOOW Target
EXCEEDED
% of
% of
2014
2014
Replacement
Demand
Scenario 2 HOOW Target
EXCEEDED
% of
Operative Grades
47
3
6%
8
17%
23
49%
24
51%
26
55%
Administration
70
2
3%
5
7%
32
46%
32
46%
34
49%
Skilled Trades
166
8
5%
22
13%
67
40%
69
42%
75
45%
Associate
Professional and
Technical
125
31
25%
82
66%
41
33%
46
37%
72
58%
Professionals
603
96
16%
258
43%
204
34%
220
36%
300
50%
Management
137
10
7%
25
18%
36
26%
38
28%
46
34%
1,148
150
13%
400
35%
403
35%
429
37%
553
48%
2014
No.
% of
No.
Total
No.
Gross Demand
Scenario 1
HOOW Target
met
Baseline
2014
No.
Replacement
Demand
Scenario 1
HOOW Target
met
2014
Source: PACEC, 2014
Scenario 1 forecasts an expansion demand of 150 jobs, all in the Marine Renewable energy sector as
the Oil and Gas industry was forecast to remain constant, thus increasing employment from 1,148 in
2014 to 1,298 full-time equivalent jobs by 2020. The replacement demand is 403 FTEs thereby giving
rise to a gross demand of 553 which is 48% of the estimated current work force. The distribution of
the expansion and replacement demand by occupation level is shown in Table E5.
A second high-growth scenario, Scenario 2, was also developed for the Energy sector. This scenario
forecasts an expansion demand of 400 FTE by 2020 with 100 additional jobs in the oil and gas
Skills in the Marine Economy
21
April 2015
industry and 300 in the Marine Renewable industry. The distribution of the 400 additional FTE jobs
by occupation level is shown in Table E5.
An examination of the expansion demand by educational attainment for both scenarios shows that
the concentration is in NFQ Levels 9 - 10 of the NFQ Framework, driven by the substantial increase
in the number of professional and associate professional occupations, 127 of 150 (85%) for Scenario
1 and 339 of 400 (85%) for Scenario 2.
Supply-side Information
While the Offshore Energy Sector
has two distinct sub-sectors there
are many overlapping skill sets,
e.g., engineering and working offshore, fishermen providing
services to the off-shore energy
industry. In addition to offshore
energy specific education and
training other education and
training apply such as the marine
safety training and marine and
environmental scientists.
Courtesy of photographer Tomasz Szumski
The one year MSc in Petroleum Geo-
science at UCD, which was launched in Sept 2013, offers science graduates a vocational training in the
broad range of technical fields associated with the exploration and production of the petroleum industry.
In addition to the formal professional qualifications, specific training and qualification is required by
the oil and gas industry before anyone can work on an oil rig. OPITO – Offshore Petroleum Industry
Training Organisation - is the skills organisation for the oil and gas industry. Two organisations in
Ireland are approved by OPITO to provide training. They are:

Effective Offshore in Falcarragh, Co. Donegal; and

NMCI in association with SEFtec in Ringaskiddy Co. Cork.
The marine renewable energy sub-sector is still an emerging sector and its current skills needs are
more for researchers at this point in time until the industry is more developed when it will have a
greater need for associate professionals and technicians. With regard to undergraduates the
industry prefers students to undertake a traditional/mainstream engineering degree such as
mechanical and electrical and then to specialise afterwards.
A taught masters in Marine Energy was recently launched by UCC in partnerships with seven other
colleges, including Queens University in Belfast, following a consultation of stakeholders by the
MRIA (Marine Renewable Industry Association) of the education needs of the industry 24.
Two SFI (Science Foundation Ireland) funded Research Centres in Ireland have also been
established, namely, the iCRAG (Irish Centre for Research in Applied Geosciences) in UCD and the
Marine Renewable Energy Ireland (MaREI) centre in UCC.
24
http://www.mria.ie/documents/92d05fb11cdab8d6531dd4cbb.pdf
Skills in the Marine Economy
22
April 2015
E.6 Tourism
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland.
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland.
The sub-sectors assessed under this sector are:

Marine Tourism

International Cruise Industry
Economic Profile
In 2010, the tourism industry contributed approximately €5.8 billion to the Irish economy and
marine tourism is estimated to account for 10% of the overall value of the tourism sector in Ireland 25
26
. The main marine tourism activities which are offered along the coastline in Ireland include
angling, water sports and seaside/ resort trips 27.
Economic indicators for Marine Tourism are outlined in Table E1. GVA in 2010 was €337 million,
turnover was €841 million and direct employment was 3,502 FTE. These figures are lower than the
2007 figures which stated a turnover of €944 million, a GVA of €453 million and full time direct
employment of 5,83628. This decrease reflects the global downturn in the economy during this
period.
Over 200 cruise liners, carrying 205,000 passengers, visited Ireland in 2010, an increase of over 200%
in the last decade. Turnover from cruise passengers was €17 million. Increased tourism numbers
from cruise passengers would give rise to increased employment in tourism services and attractions,
such as, golf courses, equestrian centres, visitor attractions, car hire, coach hire, cruising and water
based activity centres.
Company Interviews
For the study nine companies were interviewed from the Marine Tourism sector with a total of 83
employees which constitutes 2.4% of the total number of employees (3,502) in the sector.
Over the previous three years these companies indicated that employment declined or stayed the
same for all occupations except administration. Over the next six years these companies anticipated
25
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU, Published Dec 2013.
http://www.failteireland.ie/News-Features/News-Library/Significant-growth-in-marine-tourism-achievable.aspx
27
Ireland’s Ocean Wealth. 2010.
28
SEMRU – Ireland’s Ocean Economy, 2010.
26
Skills in the Marine Economy
23
April 2015
the largest employment growth would be for operatives and skilled trades at a rate of 21% and 17%
respectively.
Over the last three years four of the nine companies saw an increase in their turnover while three
had a decrease in turnover with two indicating their turnover had remained the same. By contrast
over the next six years none of the companies anticipated a decrease in the number of foreign
tourists with six of the nine companies expecting the number of foreign tourists to increase.
Approximately 33% of the companies interviewed had difficulty finding people with practical
experience and knowledge of working in a marine environment (i.e. boat skippers or boat men, and
people with kayak/rock-climbing skills and qualifications).
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland. Learning to sail
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland. Yachting Marina
Stakeholder Consultation
Cruise Tourism has been identified as potential for large growth in visitor numbers, with the
associated increase in visitor expenditure creating scope for increased employment.
Ocean racing offers a good career path into professional sport but currently there is little
opportunity in Ireland for Irish Olympic level sailors, so they go abroad. With this local talent pool
and the unique Atlantic facing coastal areas, Ireland is an ideal location for an Ocean Racing
Training Base. Such a base could be modelled on the successful development in Lorient, France
where there are 1,300 jobs in the local nautical industry cluster and over 700,000 annual visitors for
festivals.
The establishment of a yacht racing hub to attract international racing teams to Ireland would
increase requirements for sail making, boat building and associated supply chains, in addition to the
impact on tourism numbers. It can be difficult to attract school leavers to a career associated with
sailing in Ireland due to the perceived lack of status, as it is not a recognised career/profession.
Future Demand for Skills 2015 - 2020
The consensus position from the stakeholder discussions was that despite the loss of employment
during the recession, the prospects for growth are strong, and any continuation of the fall in
employment which took place between 2007 and 2010 would have recovered by 2014. As such the
2010 employment figure has been used as the best estimate of the 2014 baseline.
Skills in the Marine Economy
24
April 2015
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover targets of revenue earnings of €1.5 billion in marine and
coastal tourism and leisure (including cruise tourism) as set out in Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth will
to be met by 2020.
The scenario forecasts an expansion demand of 3,447 jobs increasing employment from 3,502 in
2014 to 6,949 full-time equivalent jobs by 2020. The replacement demand is 1,752 FTEs thereby
giving rise to a gross demand of 5,199 which is 148% of the estimated current work force. The
distribution of the expansion and replacement demand by occupation level is shown in Table E6.
Table E6: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand to 2020 by Occupation in Marine
2014
estimates
Tourism
Scenario 1 HOOW Target met
Expansion
Demand
Replacement
Demand
Gross Demand
Occupation Level
Baseline
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
Operative Grades
1,604
1,705
106%
1,100
69%
2,805
175%
Administration
422
371
88%
164
39%
535
127%
Skilled Trades
506
519
103%
265
52%
784
155%
253
222
88%
57
23%
279
110%
Professionals
295
259
88%
74
25%
333
113%
Management
422
371
88%
92
22%
463
110%
Total
3,502
3,447
98%
1,752
50%
5,199
148%
Associate Professional
and Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
Supply-side Information
There are many routes into Marine Tourism such as Tourism, Business, Hospitality and Catering, and
Hotel management courses. There are also specific training courses available in outdoor adventure
activity tourism, watersports training and certification, boat and engine training and marine and
countryside guiding. For the purposes of this study the focus has been on the water based tourism,
such as angling, sailing, surfing and adventure centres with a focus on water sports.
Adventure/Outdoor Activity Tourism has become one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism
industry and many of the Education and Training Boards provide 1yr NFQ level 5 or 3 year NFQ Level
7/8 qualifications in Outdoor Adventure Education.
National Governing Bodies for water based activities regulate the training, awards and
qualifications. The relevant organisations are: the Irish Sailing Association – ISA; the Irish Canoe –
ICU; and the Irish Surfing Association.
Skills in the Marine Economy
25
April 2015
E.7
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
The sub-sectors assessed under this sector are:

High-tech marine products and services
Economic Profile
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance is an
emerging sector and produced a GVA of around
€20.8m in 2010 and grew its turnover between 2007
(€43.6m) and 2010 (€56m) despite the recession.
Likewise, exports increased from €10.8m in 2007 to
€12.3m in 2010.
The numbers in direct full time employment (FTE)
are quite low compared to other marine industries;
but have increased from 350 FTE in 2007, to 391 FTE
in 2010.
HOOW has set a target for an increase in turnover to
in excess of €61 million in marine ICT and
biotechnology by 2020.
Company Interviews
For the study nine companies were interviewed from
the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
© Marine Institute - Photographer Glenn Nolan.
sector with a total of 124 employees which
constitutes 27% of the total number of employees (457) in the sector.
Over the previous three years these companies indicated that employment increased for Associate
Professional and Technical occupations and Professional occupations. Over the next six years these
companies anticipate the largest employment growth will be for Administration occupations with a
modest growth also for Professional and Skilled trades. However, the sample base was very small so
caution has to be exercised when drawing any conclusions.
Over the last three years seven of the nine companies saw an increase in their turnover with two
indicating their turnover had not changed. By contrast over the next six years eight of the nine
companies expect an increase in their exports, and only one expects their exports to remain the
same.
Approximately 78% of the companies interviewed stated they had roles which were difficult to
recruit into, such as, IT software developers, environmental scientists, high quality administration,
technical engineers, project managers and satellite technicians.
Skills in the Marine Economy
26
April 2015
Stakeholder Consultation
This sector is centred on high-tech marine products and services. It is currently dominated by small
start-up businesses, though these companies can grow rapidly as a result of being acquired or
securing investment from venture capitalists and private investors for launching new products and
expanding into international markets.
Government support for research and the
SmartOcean29 Ireland strategy, launched in 2010, is
promoting this sector with the aim of harnessing
Ireland’s natural marine resources and specialist
expertise in Marine Science and ICT to establish
Ireland as a leader in the development of high
value products and services for the global marine
sector.
The marine technology sector is one of the new
growth areas for the general ICT industry and
companies such as IBM are working on initiatives to
develop this new market. Companies will need skills
on data handling, cloud computing and analytics,
similar to those in the mainstream economy30 31.
© Marine Institute - Smart Bay Buoy, Photographer James Ryan
Future Demand for Skills 2015 - 2020
As the sector continued to grow between 2007 and 2010 (in turnover, exports and employment) it
has been assumed that it continued to grow in employment between 2010 and 2014 at its trend rate
of 4% a year and a baseline estimate for the 2014 employment figure at 457 FTEs was therefore set.
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover target of €61 million as set out in Harnessing Our Ocean
Wealth will to be met by 2020.
The distribution of the expansion and replacement demand by occupation level is shown in Table
E7. The scenario forecasts an expansion demand of 190 jobs increasing employment from 457 in
2014 to 647 full-time equivalent jobs by 2020. The replacement demand is 155 FTEs thereby giving
rise to a gross demand of 345 which is 75% of the estimated current work force.
The largest increase in FTE jobs is professional occupations although there is also a significant
contribution to growth from Administration and Associate Professional and Technical Occupations –
combined they are 116 of the 190 additional jobs (61%).
29
http://www.smartocean.org - SmartOcean is an initiative led by the Marine institute aimed at catalyzing the development
of high value products and services by creating a critical mass of research and development activities in Marine ICT through
the development of a SmartOcean innovation cluster
30
EGFSN report - Assessing the Demand for Big Data and Analytics Skills, 2013 - 2020
http://www.skillsireland.ie/publication/egfsnSearch.jsp?ft=/publications/2014/title,12194,en.php
31
EGFSN report -Addressing Future Demand for High-Level ICT Skills
http://www.skillsireland.ie/publication/egfsnSearch.jsp?ft=/publications/2013/title,11287,en.php
Skills in the Marine Economy
27
April 2015
Table E7:
Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand to 2020 by Occupation in the
2014
estimates
Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Sector
Scenario 1 HOOW Target met
Expansion
Demand
Replacement
Demand
Gross Demand
Occupation Level
Baseline
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
Operative Grades
33
0
0%
14
42%
14
42%
Administration
44
43
98%
28
64%
71
161%
Skilled Trades
15
6
40%
6
40%
12
80%
Associate Professional
and Technical
125
46
37%
32
26%
78
62%
Professionals
166
70
42%
55
33%
125
75%
Management
74
25
34%
20
27%
45
61%
Total
457
190
42%
155
34%
345
75%
Source: PACEC, 2014
Supply-side Information
Marine Technology comprising maritime monitoring, security, surveillance and high-tech products is
an emerging area and is the application of technology in the marine environment. The main roles in
marine technology include: engineers, software developers, geo-scientists, satellite technicians,
environmental scientists and hydrographers. With the exception of hydrography which is directly
marine focussed all the others have applications outside of the marine area.
The Irish Maritime and Energy Research Cluster (IMERC) represents a tripartite alliance between
UCC, CIT and the Irish Naval Service and aims to become a research and commercial cluster of world
standing and to realise Ireland’s potential in the global maritime and energy markets of tomorrow.
Skills in the Marine Economy
28
April 2015
E.8
Summary of Skills Demand across the Marine Economy
This section presents the aggregated and summarised demand forecasts for the entire marine
economy by sector and occupation. A single table showing the employment, expansion, replacement
and gross demand for each sector and combined is in Table E8.
Table E8: Future skill demand to 2020 by occupation and subsector for the Marine Economy
Seafood
Skilled Trades
Associate.
Professional
and Technical
Professional
Management
Total
Tourism
Maritime
Monitoring
Total
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
3,043
-
814
-
47
-
1,604
-
33
-
5,541
-
514
17%
850
104%
3
6%
1,705
106%
0
0%
3,072
55%
Replacement
1,296
43%
476
58%
23
49%
1,100
69%
14
42%
2,909
52%
Gross
1,810
59%
1,326
163%
26
55%
2,805
175%
14
42%
5,981
108%
2014 baseline
392
-
445
-
70
-
422
-
44
-
1,373
-
Expansion
180
46%
651
146%
2
3%
371
88%
43
98%
1,247
91%
Replacement
179
46%
283
64%
32
46%
164
39%
28
64%
686
50%
Gross
359
92%
934
210%
34
49%
535
127%
71
161%
1,933
141%
2014 baseline
934
-
1,727
-
166
-
506
-
15
-
3,348
-
Expansion
237
25%
821
48%
8
5%
519
103%
6
40%
1,591
48%
Replacement
344
37%
706
41%
67
40%
265
52%
6
40%
1,388
41%
Gross
581
62%
1,527
88%
75
45%
784
155%
12
80%
2,979
89%
2014 baseline
45
-
803
-
125
-
253
-
125
-
1,351
-
Expansion
0
0%
793
99%
31
25%
222
88%
46
37%
1,092
81%
Replacement
10
22%
261
33%
41
33%
57
23%
32
26%
401
30%
Gross
10
22%
1,054
131%
72
58%
279
110%
78
62%
1,493
111%
2014 baseline
365
-
1,183
-
603
-
295
-
166
-
2,612
-
Expansion
373
102%
1,416
120%
96
16%
259
88%
70
42%
2,214
85%
Replacement
129
35%
452
38%
204
34%
74
25%
55
33%
914
35%
Gross
502
138%
1,868
158%
300
50%
333
113%
125
75%
3,128
120%
2014 baseline
580
-
717
-
137
-
422
-
74
-
1,930
-
Expansion
119
21%
397
55%
10
7%
371
88%
25
34%
922
48%
Replacement
136
23%
195
27%
36
26%
92
22%
20
27%
479
25%
Gross
255
44%
592
83%
46
34%
463
110%
45
61%
1,401
73%
2014 baseline
5,359
-
5,689
-
1,148
-
3,502
-
457
-
16,155
-
Expansion
1,423
27%
4,928
87%
150
13%
3,447
98%
190
42%
10,138
63%
Replacement
2,094
39%
2,373
42%
403
35%
1,752
50%
155
34%
6,777
42%
Gross
3,517
66%
7,301
128%
553
48%
5,199
148%
345
75%
16,915
105%
2014 baseline
Admin
Energy
No.
Occupation
Operatives
MTSS
Expansion
Source: PACEC, 2014
The jobs in the Marine Economy straddle the full gamut of occupations from Managerial and
Professional to Operatives. While many of the skills are the same as for land based jobs but with
some additional upskilling to work in the Marine Environment, e.g. electricians, some are specific to
the Marine economy, such as tug operators, Ship Captains and Naval Architects where very specific
education and training is required. For many other occupations such as engineers in the energy
Skills in the Marine Economy
29
April 2015
sector this requires a basic engineering degree e.g. mechanical or electrical followed by a
specialisation by completing a masters degree.
Future Skills Demand by Sector
The current employment across the entire marine economy is 16,155 full-time equivalents.
Across the five broad sectors, the total expansion demand for Scenario 1, i.e., meeting the HOOW
targets, is forecast to be 10,138 FTE jobs, with the largest expansion of 4,928 in maritime
transport, shipbuilding and services (driven primarily by the 3,500 expansion demand arising from
the proposed International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC)) with marine tourism following with a
3,447 FTE expansion demand, reflecting the upturn in the global economy and the return of foreign
tourists. If the growth in the seafood and bio-products sector does not occur owing to lack of growth
in aquaculture then the total expansion is 8,715 (10,138 less 1,423).
The replacement demand is greatest in terms of actual numbers for the Maritime Transport,
Shipbuilding, and Services (MTSS) (2,373) and Seafood and Bio-Products (2,094) sectors but in terms
of the percentage of the 2014 baseline employment marine tourism has the greatest replacement
demand at 50% (1,752) of its current work force to be replaced.
Figure E2: Future Skill Demand by Sector
8,000
2014 Baseline
Expansion Demand
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
FTE
1,000
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime
Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
The sectors with the greatest skills demand are maritime transport, shipbuilding, and services
(MTSS), marine tourism, and seafood. In the case of seafood unlike MTSS and marine tourism the
replacement demand is greater than the expansion demand.
Over the entire Marine Economy the replacement demand is 6,777 some 3,361 less than the
expansion demand. The total gross demand out to 2020 for the Marine economy is 16,915 FTE
positions.
In Figure E3 the expansion, replacement and gross demand are displayed as a percentage of the
current 2014 employment. In the case of tourism while its expansion demand is only 2 nd highest,
after MTSS, as a percentage of the 2014 employment it has the largest expansion at 98%, meaning
employment in tourism will almost double by 2020. Both MTSS and tourism are forecast to expand
Skills in the Marine Economy
30
April 2015
at a rate greater than the expansion demand of the total marine economy which is forecast to
expand, in employment, by 63%.
Figure E3: Future Skill Demand by Sector as a % of the 2014 FTE Baseline estimate for the occupation
Expansion Demand
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
160%
140%
120%
98%
100%
87%
80%
63%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Seafood
Shipping &
Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime
Monitoring
Total
Source: PACEC, 2014
Future Skills Demand by Occupation across the total Marine Economy
Operatives comprise the largest occupation across the marine economy with a 2014 baseline
estimate of 5,541 FTEs which is 34% of the total full-time employment. Not surprisingly, therefore,
it is also the occupation category with the largest expansion demand of 3,072 (30% of the expansion
demand). This reflects the nature of much of the work within the Marine economy. There is also
strong expansion demand for professionals (2,214 FTE (22% of total expansion)) which reflects the
expansion demand arising from the ISSC but also the anticipated professionalisation of enterprises
within the marine economy.
Skilled Trades is the next largest occupation category at 3,348 FTEs (21% of the total marine
economy (Figure E5)) and has an expansion demand of 1,591 FTEs which is 48% of the total 2014
skilled trade employment (Figure E6) and 16% of total expansion (Figure E5) reflecting the skilled
nature of the work within the marine economy.
The occupations generating the highest gross demand are operative roles (5,981 FTE, or 35% of the
total gross demand). This is driven by expansion in the tourism sector (where expansion demand
exceeds replacement demand (Figure E.2), and the high proportion of operatives in seafood. There
is also strong gross demand for professionals (3,128 FTE) and skilled trades (2,979 FTE), the former
being driven by the ISSC.
Skills in the Marine Economy
31
April 2015
Figure E4: 2014 Future Skills Demand by Occupation Grade for the whole Marine Economy
7,000
2014 Baseline
Expansion demand
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
FTE
1,000
0
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professional
Management
Source: PACEC, 2014
While professionals have a lower 2014 employment then for skilled trades their expansion demand is
greater at 2,214 FTE which is 22% of total expansion (Figure E5) and 85% of the 2014 Professional
FTE (Figure E6), which is almost a doubling of the number of professionals working in the marine
economy by 2020.
Figure E5: Proportion of an Occupation to the total within the displayed FTE cohort
2014 baseline
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
34%
Expansion Demand
Replacement Demand
2020 FTE
33%
21%
8%
Operatives
19%
10%
Administration
16%
8%
Skilled Trades
18%
12%
9%
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professional
11%
Management
Source: PACEC, 2014
The proportion of an occupation to the total employment in 2014 and that forecast for 2020 is not
hugely different. The largest component is operatives at 34% in 2014 and 33% in 2020 with the
replacement demand greater than the expansion demand.
In the case of professionals the opposite picture emerges with the composition of professionals
rising from 16% of total employment in 2014 to 18% in 2020 and the expansion demand in this case is
greater than the replacement demand, largely driven by the ISSC. This is further emphasised when
we take the combined Professional and Associate Professional & Technical occupations, which is 33%
Skills in the Marine Economy
32
April 2015
(22% and 11% respectively) of the total expansion demand, whereas the 2014 combined Professional
and Associate Professional FTE is 24% (16% and 8% respectively) (Figure E5) of the total marine
employment. This 9% increase also points to an increasing professionalisation of the marine
economy and the expansion of the emerging sectors which require more professionals in the initial
years.
The expansion demand for the marine economy is 63% of the 2014 FTE employment. It is interesting
to note that the expansion for professionals, associate professionals and technical and
administration are all higher than this. While this indicates a degree of professionalisation of the
marine economy all of these occupations are starting at a lower base which also would account for
the higher percentage. However from Figure E4 we see that the expansion of professionals is the
second highest. After operatives, at 2,214 which is an 85% increase in the number of professionals
(Figure E6).
Figure E6: Future Skills Demand by Occupation as % of 2014 baseline for the occupation
Expansion demand
160%
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
The Replacement demand of 42%
for the entire Marine Economy
140%
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Operatives Administration Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional
Professional &
Technical
Management
Total
Source: PACEC, 2014
Future Skills Demand by Sector and Occupation across the Marine Economy
This section examines the skills demand by occupation and sector which demonstrates clearly the
contrasting skills demand in the different sectors. The Figures E7 and E8 show the difference
between the expansion and replacement demand for each occupation and sector.
The sector Maritime Transport, Shipping and Services requires the largest number of professionals
largely attributed to the ISSC. The largest component of the expansion demand is for operatives in
tourism. Seafood also requires 373 professionals which is 26% of seafood’s total expansion demand.
While energy and maritime monitoring have small numbers their largest expansion is for
professionals as both these sectors are emerging.
The picture of the replacement demand is somewhat different to the expansion demand. The single
biggest difference is the large number of operatives for seafood, at 1,296 is the largest component.
Replacement demand is higher for operatives and low skill occupations compared to professional
and managerial occupations, so the sectors with a higher proportion of employees as operatives
such as tourism and seafood have a higher replacement demand.
Skills in the Marine Economy
33
April 2015
Figure E7: Expansion Demand by Occupation Group within a Marine Sector
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate Professional and Technical
Professional
Management
1,750
1,500
1,250
1,000
750
500
FTE
250
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
Figure E8: Replacement Demand by Occupation Group within Marine Sector
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate Professional and Technical
Professional
Management
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
FTE
200
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
Conclusion
There are many opportunities for a career in the marine economy. As most of the industry is in
coastal areas it therefore provides employment opportunities in these rural areas. Many of the skills
are transferable across the different sectors, e.g. fishermen providing services to the offshore
energy sector, merchant seafarers finding employment in the ports after they give up working at
sea.
The sectors with the greatest skills demand are seafood, maritime transport, shipbuilding, and
services (MTSS) and marine tourism. The replacement demand for the seafood sector is greater than
its expansion demand, as the replacement demand of the operative-grade jobs, prevalent in the
sector, is higher than that for professional or managerial grades. In the case of tourism the
Skills in the Marine Economy
34
April 2015
expansion demand is greater than the replacement demand even though like the seafood sector it
has a large number of operatives but this sector is expected to double its FTEs by 2020. In the case
of MTSS the largest component of its expansion demand is for professionals. In seafood the
workforce is ageing and this will present a skills difficulty unless measures are put in place to
attract and upskill younger workers.
A key finding in the course of the study is the concept of “marinisation”. Many of the occupations
and qualifications are either non-technical, e.g., managers, professionals or associate professionals
in fields such as law, accountancy and business development, or not specific to the marine
economy, e.g., engineering and software development. None of these qualifications are specific to
the marine sector, but may be “marinised” – that is, additional training or a top up qualification in a
marine context. “marinisation” applies across the full spectrum of occupations and qualifications
such that a mechanical engineer, an electrician or a construction worker can upskill or “marinise”
his/her skills and be able to work in a marine or off-shore environment. This upskilling or
“marinising” of a skill provides more employment opportunities.
In addition to “marinising” traditional disciplines and training, ICT skills need to be embedded in
existing maritime education and training as the pervasiveness of ICT in all aspects of the economy,
including the ocean economy, takes hold. This extends to all occupations and the ICT skills of
coastal communities needs to be improved so that ICT becomes an integral part of the marine
economy.
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland
Skills in the Marine Economy
35
April 2015
E.9 Recommendations
1 Establish a Marine Discover Programme modelled on the SFI Discover Programme to raise
awareness among primary, second and third level students and the Irish public about the range
of careers opportunities in the Marine Economy.
The SFI Discover Programme, seeks to promote the awareness and engagement of the Irish public with
science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), to increase interest in STEM among students,
teachers and members of the public and to contribute to Ireland’s continued growth and development as
a society – one that has an active and informed interest and involvement in STEM.
A Marine Discover Programme should broadly follow the model used by SFI and in many cases would be
part of the SFI Discover programme where the STEM subjects would be of relevance to the marine sector.
The Marine Institute should lead on and be the co-ordinator for this programme. Other organisations that
should be involved are: Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) The Maritime Development Organisation (IMDO), Fáilte
Ireland, Maritime Safety Directorate and Marine Survey Office in Department of Transport, Tourism and
Sport (DTTAS), SFI, SOLAS, HEA, IUA, IOTIs, NMCI, Institute of Career Guidance Councillors, Geological
Survey of Ireland (GSI) and DCENR, Industry bodies and private training providers.
Lead: Marine Institute on behalf of the Marine Co-ordination Group
2 Monitor the skills needs in each sub-sector of the Marine Economy on an ongoing basis to
ensure a sufficient supply of skills is available as the trigger points for accelerated growth of a
sub-sector are reached.
When the International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC) is established with the predicted creation of 3,500
jobs, measures will need to be put in place to ensure there is a sufficient supply of qualified personnel,
such as shipping brokers, legal and business professionals with knowledge of the maritime industry.
As the process for aquaculture licensing becomes streamlined and the number, size of farms and
production increases there will be an increased demand for the skills in aquaculture.
As activity increases facilitated by the 2015 licensing round for oil and gas exploration and proposals for a
new fiscal regime which would accelerate if there was a find, there will be a greater demand for skills.
While the time scales for this process will give sufficient time to put measures in place the situation will
need to be monitored.
Lead: Marine Co-ordination Group
Skills in the Marine Economy
36
April 2015
3 Update Marine Economy data regularly to ensure accurate data
The SEMRU (Socio Economic Maritime Research Unit, NUIG) publication “Ireland’s Ocean Economy” which
was published in December 2013, with 2010 as the data reference year and the 2010 publication with
2007 reference data is a cross cutting look at the entire marine economy and which was the reference
data used in HOOW. However, there is a considerable time lag with the data owing to a time lag with the
CSO data. The HOOW Development Task Force is addressing this issue as the need to have more up to
date information to enable monitoring the performance of the Ocean Economy is accepted as being an
imperative.
BIM surveys provide information on the seafood sector that could be used to monitor development and
growth of employment and IMDO are piloting a survey scheme in relation to maritime shipping
companies.
Ireland’s Ocean Economy should be updated, at a minimum every 2 years, to provide a more accurate
and up-to-date set of figures of the economic profile of the marine economy which would facilitate a
watching brief of the growing areas and the likely areas that will need more skills.
Lead: Marine Co-ordination Group, Marine Institute and SEMRU
4 Develop a mentoring programme for the Seafood sector.
The seafood subsector has an ageing workforce and the development of a mentoring programme so that
those who will be retiring over the next few years can pass on their knowledge and experience to those
younger than them would ensure their experience and expertise won’t be lost to the sector. It could also
include the possibility of retaining the retirees as mentors for a period so the depth of expertise can be
passed on.
Lead: BIM
5 Develop a data-collection and biological sampling course for fishermen
Fishermen trained in data-collection and biological sampling would be in a position to provide consistent
and valuable data to researchers and industry/science partnership initiatives. Scientists and fishery
managers are aware of the problems arising from lack of sufficient good quality data and using fishermen
to provide timely and accurate data would be a significant advantage.
Lead: BIM
6 Provide ICT Training to coastal communities and workers in the marine economy
ICT skills need to be more broadly available to the coastal community as many people living in these
areas have little knowledge or experience of ICT. An outcome from this initiative would be more
mainstream use of ICT with the marine economy
Lead: BIM, in conjunction with SOLAS, ETBs and NALA
Skills in the Marine Economy
37
April 2015
Chapter 1:
1.1
Introduction
Introduction
Under the Government Action Plan for Jobs 2014, the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs (EGFSN)
committed to undertaking a detailed assessment of the “future skills needs and labour market
supply and demand trends in the marine/maritime area in the context of Harnessing Our Ocean
Wealth – An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland (HOOW)”.
The overarching aim of this study is to assess the profile and diversity of the occupations and skills
requirements for the various sectors and subsectors of the Marine/Maritime Economy and to propose
recommendations to ensure the right skill base to meet the enterprise needs.
In the context of this study the Ocean Economy and the Marine and/or Maritime Economy are used
interchangeably and the terms Marine and Maritime are sometimes used together or individually.
Irrespective of the term used, it means “all activities relating to the sea” unless otherwise
specified.
The Ocean or (Marine/Maritime) Economy is defined as “Economic Activity that indirectly or
directly uses the marine as an input”32. The number of sub-sectors associated with the
Marine/Maritime economy is vast and each of these in turn is interlinked and also interacts with
other sectors outside the marine area.
The sectors of the ocean economy can be grouped in many different ways, e.g. established markets
and emerging markets; or Mature, Growth and pre-development stage; or Services, Resources and
Manufacturing. For the purposes of this study the complex web of maritime economic activities
were grouped around five broad maritime sectors, each with one or more sub-sectors as follows:
1
Seafood and Bio-Products (Sea Fisheries; Marine Aquaculture; Seafood Processing; and Marine
Biotechnology and Bio-Processing)
2
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services (Shipping and Maritime Transport; Marine Retail
Services; Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering; and Marine Commerce and Ship
Leasing)
3
Energy (Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Production; and Marine Renewables: Offshore
Wind, Wave and Tidal)
4
Tourism (Marine Tourism and International Cruise Industry)
5
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance (High-tech Marine Products and Services).
1.2
Context
Taking our seabed area into account, Ireland is one of the largest EU states; with sovereign or
exclusive rights over one of the largest sea to land ratios (over 10:1) of any EU State (Figure 1.1).
Our coastline of 7,500 km is longer than that of many European countries and yet this is a resource
we often overlook.
Our ocean is a national asset, supporting a diverse marine economy, with vast potential to tap into
a €1,200 billion global marine market for seafood, tourism, oil and gas, marine renewable energy,
32
Source: Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth - An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland. 2012
http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/Pages/default.aspx
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
and new applications for health, medicine and technology. In 2010, (the latest year for which data
is published), Ireland generated 1.2% of GDP (€2.4bn direct and indirect Gross Value Added (GVA))
from its ocean economy, supporting about 1% of the total workforce. A comparison between 2007
and 2010 data saw a 25.4% decrease in turnover, a 20.9% fall in employment and a 29.7% decrease
in direct GVA33. Global marine economic activity is estimated to contribute 2% of the world’s GDP
and the European Commission estimates that between 3% and 5% of Europe’s GDP was generated
from sea-related industries and services in 2007.
Figure 1.1: The Real Map of Ireland
© Marine Institute and the Geological Survey of Ireland
1.3
Marine Governance and the National Policy Agenda
Responsibility for marine activities is spread across a number of government departments and
agencies depending on their functions (Appendix 1). In recognition of the broad scope of the sector
and the need for better co-ordination, the Government established in 2009 the Inter-Departmental
Marine Co-ordination Group (MCG), chaired by the Minister for Agriculture, Food and Marine and
hosted by the Department of the Taoiseach. Departments represented on the Group are as
follows34:

Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM)

Taoiseach

Defence

Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR)
33
http://www.nuigalway.ie/semru/documents/irelands_ocean_economy_report_series_no2.pdf
34
http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/Lists/News/DispForm.aspx?ID=9
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015

Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht (DAHG)

Environment, Community and Local Government (DECLG)

Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation (DJEI)

Public Expenditure and Reform (DPER)

Transport, Tourism and Sport (DTTS)

The Attorney General’s Office and the Marine Institute also participate.
The MCG provides a strategic high-level, cross-government mechanism to address key challenges
and opportunities related to the development of the marine sector. The MCG developed and
overseas the implementation of Ireland’s Integrated Marine Plan – Harnessing our Ocean Wealth
(HOOW).
Given the spread of departments with responsibilities for marine activities it follows that several
existing national policy initiatives and strategies are also linked to the marine economy and are
taken into account in both the HOOW strategy and in the research for this study. These include:

Food Harvest 2020 – a vision for Irish Agri-food and fisheries35

Bord Iascaigh Mhara Strategy (2013 – 2017)36

BIM Annual Aquaculture Survey (2012)37

The National Ports Policy (2013)38

The Strategic Review of Irish Maritime Transport Sector (1996 – 2005)39

Irish Maritime Transport Economist (2003 – 2013)40

Strategy for Renewable Energy (2012 – 2020)41

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (2014) 42.
1.4
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth (HOOW) – An Integrated Marine Plan (IMP)
In 2012 the Government launched Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth – an Integrated Marine Plan (IMP)
for Ireland. This plan sets out a roadmap for the Government’s vision, high-level goals and
integrated actions across policy, governance and business to enable our marine potential to be
realised. The vision set out in Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth is as follows:
Our ocean wealth will be a key element of our economic recovery and sustainable growth,
generating benefits for all our citizens, supported by coherent policy, planning and regulation,
and managed in an integrated manner.
35
http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/agri-foodindustry/foodharvest2020/
http://www.bim.ie/media/bim/content/publications/BIM%20Strategy%202013-2017.pdf
37
http://www.bim.ie/media/bim/content/downloads/BIM%20Aquaculture%20Survey%202012.pdf
38
http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/content-publication/National%20Ports%20Policy%202013.PDF
39
http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/contentpublication/IMDO%20Strategic%20Review%20of%20Irish%20Maritime%20Transport%20Sector.pdf
40
http://www.imdo.ie/NR/rdonlyres/43882410-A782-4EE4-BCE7-744618CF58D4/0/IMTEVolume10.pdf
41
http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/9472D68A-40F4-41B8-B8FD-F5F788D4207A/0/RenewableEnergyStrategy2012_2020.pdf
42
http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/nr/rdonlyres/836dd5d9-7152-4d76-9da081090633f0e0/0/20140204dcenroffshorerenewableenergydevelopmentplan.pdf
36
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Three high-level goals, of equal importance, based on the concept of sustainable development have
been developed.
Goal 1 focuses on a thriving maritime economy, whereby Ireland harnesses the market
opportunities to achieve economic recovery and socially inclusive, sustainable growth.
Goal 2 sets out to achieve healthy ecosystems that provide monetary and non-monetary goods and
services (e.g. food, climate, health and well-being).
Goal 3 aims to increase our engagement with the sea. Building on our rich maritime heritage, our
goal is to strengthen our maritime identity and increase our awareness of the value (market
and nonmarket), opportunities and social benefits of engaging with the sea.
HOOW set out two main targets to be reached; these are to:

double the value of Ireland’s ocean wealth to 2.4% of GDP by 2030; and

increase the turnover from Ireland’s ocean economy to exceed €6.4bn by 2020.
HOOW provides a new momentum for growth in the marine area and seeks to ensure government
departments work together more efficiently and effectively on the diverse issues related to the
marine economy.
1.5
The European Agenda
HOOW’s vision and goals are framed within the context of what is happening at the broader global
and EU levels, particularly the Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union, recognising the
contribution the ‘blue economy’ can make to global economic growth and the need for appropriate
policies, strategies and funding mechanisms to enable this.
The Marine Co-ordination Group also facilitates national responses to EU initiatives such as those
evolving from the Europe 2020 Strategy43 and the Integrated Maritime Policy for the European
Union44.
In 2007, following a Europe wide consultation process, the Commission took a landmark decision to:

establish a Directorate General for Maritime Affairs45 (DG MARE); and

to publish an Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union (IMP-EU) and an associated
Action Plan (The Blue Book).
The Commission also launched a Europe wide consultation to identify the most important growth
scenarios and the domains where the EU can help unlock the full potential of the marine resource
published in 2012 “Blue Growth – Scenarios and drivers for Sustainable growth from the Oceans,
Seas and Coasts”46 which recommends actions needed to develop Europe's maritime economy.
43
http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/index_en.htm
45
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/maritimeaffairs_fisheries/index_en.htm
46
https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/maritimeforum/system/files/Blue%20Growth%20Final%20Report%2013092012.pdf
44
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Other important Europe wide initiatives with a prominently integrated focus that have already been
undertaken include:

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive 47 (MSFD), the environmental pillar of the IMP-EU,
which requires Member States to achieve good environmental status in their marine waters by
2020. The implementation of this Directive will benefit from the further development of crosscutting tools of the IMP-EU, such as Marine Spatial Planning48 (MSP) and Marine Knowledge
202049. The Marine Knowledge 2020 Strategy aims to improve the knowledge of Europe’s seas
and oceans and use this data to develop knowledge-based and internationally traded products
and services.

Closely related to the MSFD, the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy
50
(CFP) has integrated
the ecosystem approach as an overarching principle.
There is a range of legislative requirements that must be adhered to when planning and permitting
maritime activities. The origins of these requirements have their roots in a combination of national,
EU and international legislation, agreements and policies. The Environmental Directives relevant to
the Marine Economy and the responsible department for their transposition include:

Water Framework Directive (2000), DECLG

Birds Directive (1979 and 2009), DAHG

Habitats Directive (1992), DAHG

Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008), DECLG

Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (1985 and 1997), DECLG

Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001), DECLG

Data Collection Framework for the Common Fisheries Policy (2008), DAFM

Shellfish Waters Directive (2006), DECLG.
This gives an indication of the complexity involved in developing a coherent and thriving marine
economy
1.6
The Ocean Economy
The marine economy in Ireland has been identified as a significant area with regards to future
growth. It has the potential to grow a substantial amount in the next few years and therefore create
employment for the residents of Ireland directly and indirectly.
The Socio Economic Marine Research Unit (SEMRU) in NUIG undertook the extensive task of data
collection and analysis of Ireland’s ocean economy. Marine socio-economic data are not readily
available in Ireland (nor indeed in the other European countries) primarily because the economic
profile of the ocean economy is not distinct from other aspects of the broader economy. Only a
proportion of the NACE codes51 relate solely to a maritime activity with the majority being only
partially relevant. A list of the NACE codes relevant to the Ocean economy is in Appendix 2.
47
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:164:0019:0040:EN:PDF
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/maritime_spatial_planning/index_en.htm
49
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/marine_knowledge_2020/
50
http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/index_en.htm
51
NACE Code is a Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Glossary:Statistical_classification_of_economic_activities_in_the_European_Community_(NACE)
48
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Table 1.1: Direct Employment (FTE), GVA and Turnover for subsectors within the Marine Economy
Sector
Sub-sector
Direct
GVA
Turnover
National Strategy/
Employment
(€millions)
(€millions)
Targets
(FTE)
Seafood and Bio-Products
5,633
256
745
Sea Fisheries
2,825
116
202
Marine Aquaculture
918
47
123
Seafood Processing
1,586
80
390
304
13
30
5,689
540
1,658
Shipping and maritime transport
4,633
422
1,422
Marine Retail Services
252
34
58
726
44
111
Marine Biotechnology and BioProcessing
Maritime Transport, Shipping
and Services
Marine Manufacturing,
Construction and Engineering
Marine Commerce and Ship
Leasing
Energy
78
40
67
138
861
61
126
216
4
12
Tourism
3,502
337
858
Marine Tourism and Leisure
3,502
337
841
International Cruise Industry
N/A
N/A
17
391
21
56
Marine Renewables – Offshore
Wind, Wave and Tidal
Maritime Monitoring, Security
and Surveillance
High-tech marine products and
services
Total
HOOW Turnover Target
>€1.2bn (derived from
baseline level of activity
as measured by SEMRU –
Ireland’s Ocean Economy
Marine Commerce and
Ship leasing
65
and Production
Turnover target - €1bn
from €0.7bn
IMDO Turnover €2.6bn for
1,077
Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration
FH(Food Harvest) 2020 Target 14,000 FTE (from
11,000)
HOOW Turnover Target:
€1.5bn
>€61m projected
391
21
56
turnover- based on 2007
SEMRU company survey
16,292
1,219
3,455
Source: SEMRU, Ireland’s Ocean Economy Report 2013 (Reference year: 2010) 52
Ireland’s Ocean Economy, Ref. Year: 2010 is the latest published economic data for the ocean economy
and is the data used in HOOW. Table 1.1 provides some key economic indicators for each subsector.
52
http://www.nuigalway.ie/semru/documents/irelands_ocean_economy_report_series_no2.pdf
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
1.7
Jobs in the Ocean Economy
The marine economy offers a wide and diverse range of career opportunities. The types of jobs
found in each of the sectors are detailed in the chapters dealing with a specific sector and also in
Appendix 3. The occupations within the ocean economy are distributed across all levels:
management (including specialist management functions), professionals (including engineers,
scientists); associate professionals (e.g. technicians), operatives; sales; and elementary occupations
and reflect the diverse educational requirements: Higher (HE) and Further Education and Training
(FET); Leaving Certificate; Junior Certificate
and No Formal Qualifications.
Increasingly more complex technical projects
and opportunities offered by convergence in
the marine sector mean that far greater
interdisciplinary knowledge and experience of
working in multi-disciplinary work environments
is and will continue to be required which will
mean bringing together professionals from
diverse backgrounds working together in multidisciplinary teams - such as engineers, planners
and architects with ecologists, biologists, and
chemists.
© Marine Institute - Photographer Paul Kaye
The marine economy, both nationally and globally, has a requirement for technicians and general
operatives as well as highly skilled technical staff and professionals. The core skills and knowledge
of these occupations, e.g. electricians, metal workers and mechanical engineers, are relevant to
both land and sea based roles and as such are transferable. The land-based skills can be “marinised”
to deal with the challenges of working in an off-shore and/or a marine environment.
1.8
Objectives and Methodology
The overarching aim of the study is to assess the profile and diversity of the occupations and skills
requirements for the various sectors and their sub-sectors of the Marine/Maritime Economy and to
propose recommendations to ensure that we have the right skill base to meet the skills needs of
enterprises in the Marine economy.
The focus of the study is on those sectors of the marine economy which were identified in HOOW as
the main ones which contribute to the Irish Marine Economy. Within each sub sector there is an
assessment of the current and future skills requirements by occupational group, namely: operatives,
administration, skilled trades, associate professional and technical, professionals, and management.
There were two distinct phases to the study:
The objectives of Phase 1 were to quantify and assess the adequacy of:

The current profile, diversity and pool of skills within the existing workforce in the marine
economy;

The current and planned supply of relevant skills from the education and training system,
including the in-company education and training and Continuing Professional Development,
which together are required to satisfy current and anticipated enterprise skills demand; and
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015

An assessment of the current and anticipated skills capability demand and how these skills
requirements may be best met.
This phase of the research comprised four main elements:
1
Desk review of relevant government policies, economic profile and data on education/skill
levels within each subsector;
2
Telephone interviews were conducted, using a structured questionnaire format, with 60
maritime enterprises from across the ocean economy taking into account the size of company,
ownership (foreign/indigenous) and stage of development (start-up/mature);
3
Interviews were undertaken with stakeholders from the key Government departments,
development agencies, education providers, industry associations and other organisations
involved in the marine economy to ascertain their views on the current and anticipated skills
demand and how these skills requirements may best be met; and
4
Four thematic workshops were facilitated with selected companies and key stakeholders.
The objectives of Phase 2 were to:

Assess and quantify the future skills requirements out to 2020 and to forecast the labour market
supply and demand trends in the context of Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth; and

Make recommendations to ensure that the supply of skills in Ireland will be sufficient to meet
the anticipated enterprise skills demand out to 2020.
This second phase involved modelling the future demand for skills in the ocean economy; this was
modified by information from other published forecasts, information from interviews with
businesses and stakeholders, and supply-side constraints/ policy interventions. The model
encompassed the following elements:

A review of the demand side of the labour market at national and sectoral levels;

A review of published economic forecasts;

A baseline assessment of the ocean economy (taken from 2014 levels); and

Modelling of future ocean economy employment and skills demand to 2020.
1.9
Skills Demand Scenarios
The most recent official economic data is that provided by SEMRU which covers the years 2007 and
201053 54. In order to develop forecasts of the future skills demand to 2020 it was necessary that
baseline estimates for 2014 be produced55. This was done using additional sources of information,
such as: annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad sectors; Economic
and Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and SOLAS Occupational
Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and discussions with
stakeholders. The outcome from this exercise is shown in Table 1.2.
53
http://www.marinekic-initiative.eu/docs/IrelandOceanEconomy12.pdf
http://www.nuigalway.ie/semru/documents/irelands_ocean_economy_report_series_no2.pdf
55
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
54
Skills in the Marine Economy
45
April 2015
Table 1.2: 2007 and 2010 FTE Employment and 2014 Baseline FTE Estimates for the Ocean Economy
Sub-sector
2007‡
2010‡
2014*
Total - Seafood and Bio-Products
5,615
5,633
5,359
Sea Fisheries
2,200
2,825
2,513
Marine Aquaculture
1,061
918
918
Seafood Processing
2,090
1,586
1,586
Marine Biotechnology and Bio-Processing
264
304
342
7,895
5,689
5,689
Shipping and maritime transport
5,903
4,633
4,633
Marine Retail Services
287
252
252
Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering
1,600
726
726
Marine Commerce
105
78
78
Total – Marine Renewable Energy
891
1,077
1,148
Offshore Oil and Gas
790
861
862
Offshore Renewables
101
216
286
Marine Tourism and Leisure
5,836
3,502
3,502
High-tech marine products and services
350
391
457
Total Marine Economy
20,587
16,292
16,155
Total - Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and
Services
‡: SEMRU Data from “Ireland’s Ocean Economy”, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates, developed by PACEC, based on the 2010 SEMRU data
The demand for skills arises from two sources, namely:

Expansion Demand: additional employment owing to growth in the sector; and

Replacement Demand: the replacement of workers arising from exits to inactivity and net losses
from inter-occupational movements.
Three possible alternative demand scenario forecasts were developed for the main occupational
categories broken down by expansion and replacement demand over the period 2014 – 2020.
The first scenario, called Scenario 1 for each broad sector, assumed that the turnover targets set
out in HOOW would be met by 2020. Consultations with industry stakeholders, informed by the
economic background data gathered, were used to determine how this increase in turnover could be
achieved, how the additional turnover would be distributed between the various sub-sectors and
how employment would need to increase in order to generate this turnover.
A modelling exercise was then conducted using the information from the company interviews to
estimate how the expansion demand would be distributed by occupational grade in each sub-sector
over the period 2014-2020.
An estimation of the replacement demand was also conducted using data provided by the SLMRU
(Skills and Labour Market Research Unit, SOLAS) and following the methodology used by them in the
publication of the EGFSN National Skills Bulletin56 on the exits from employment to economic
56
http://www.skillsireland.ie/media/23072014-National_Skills_Bulletin%20_2014--Publication.pdf
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, which vary by occupation. Professional
occupations have a lower rate of movement from employment to inactivity than operative or
administrative occupations – intuitively, the length of a continuous career in an occupation requiring
specialised high-level qualifications is longer than for those requiring entry-level qualifications. The
data also takes account of movement between occupations, as there is a general tendency for net
movement into management and associate professional occupations from others, corresponding to
promotion within companies – without this correction, the number of managers required would be
overestimated. The statistics are an overestimate of true retirement, as “economic inactivity”
incorporates all those neither working nor seeking work, including those in full-time education, the
long-term sick or injured, and people looking after households full-time.
An alternative scenario, Scenario 2, representing a no-growth scenario for Seafood and Bio-Products
and a higher growth scenario for Energy were also developed. The no-growth scenario assumed lack
of expansion in the aquaculture sub-sector and the high growth scenario assumed growth in the
energy sector, in particular marine renewable energy.
The distribution of the future skills demand by occupation is presented for each of the five broad
sectors and shows the distribution of the 2014 baseline estimate of FTE employees across the
occupations, the expansion demand by occupation expressed as the actual number and as a
percentage of the 2014 baseline estimate, the replacement demand also expressed as the actual
number and as a percentage of the 2014 baseline estimate and finally the gross demand, i.e. the
expansion plus the replacement demand
In addition to the initial telephone discussions and consultations with key stakeholders in Phase 1,
follow-up consultations were conducted to validate the outcome of the forecasts of the future skills
demand.
1.10 Report Structure
The Structure of the report is as follows:
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Seafood and Bio-Products
Chapter 3 – Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services
Chapter 4 – Energy
Chapter 5 – Marine Tourism
Chapter 6 – Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
Chapter 7 – Summary of Skills Demands for Marine Economy
Chapter 8 – Recommendations
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Chapter 2:
Seafood and Bio-Products
Sub-sectors

Sea Fisheries

Marine Aquaculture

Seafood Processing

Marine Biotechnology and Bio-Processing
2.1
Economic Profile
In 2010, the Irish Seafood and Bio-Products sector had an estimated annual sales value of €745
million and exports increased by 14% in 2010 and by 13% in 201157. As outlined in Food Harvest 2020,
the Department of Agriculture believe that the potential exists to capitalise on strong demand to
increase revenue to €1 billion by 202058.
The 2010 economic indicators for the sector are summarised in Table 2.1:
Table 2.1: 2010 Economic Indicators for the Seafood and Bio-Products Sector
Turnover
Sub-sector
Direct Employment (FTE)
GVA (€millions)
Sea Fisheries
2,825
116
202
Marine Aquaculture
918
47
123
Seafood Processing
1,586
80
390
304
13
30
5,633
256
745
Marine Biotechnology
and Bio-Processing
Total
(€millions)
Source: SEMRU, Ocean Economy Report 2013 (Ref. year 2010)
The Table 2.1 shows that GVA for the Seafood and Bio-Products sector in 2010 was €256 million
while turnover was €745 million. In addition, direct employment in the Sea food and Bio-Products
sector was 5,633; however this figure rises considerably if indirect employment is taken into
consideration
The most recent official data is the 2010 data provided by SEMRU (Socio-Economic Marine Research
Unit in NUIG). The first Ocean Economy Report, published in 2010, was based on the reference year
2007, at the height of the economic boom (2003 – 2007). The latest report, with a reference year of
2010 and published in December 2013, represents the lowest point of the economic contraction
(2007 – 2010) and a significant decrease in activity. In order to develop forecasts of the future skills
demand to 2020, baseline estimates for 2014 were produced59, using additional sources of
57
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth: An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland (2012) - http://www.ouroceanwealth.ie/Pages/default.aspx
Food Harvest 2020- A vision for Irish agri-food and fisheries. http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/agri-foodindustry/foodharvest2020/
59
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
58
Skills in the Marine Economy
48
April 2015
information, such as: annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad
sectors; Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and
SOLAS Occupational Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and
discussions with stakeholders. For sub-sectors aquaculture and seafood processing, the best
estimate of 2014 employment is the 2010 figure as they had lost employment during the recession
and may have continued to do so beyond 2010, but recent evidence was of a recovery. Marine
biotechnology and bio-processing grew during the recession and this growth rate has continued. Sea
fisheries apparently grew in employment during the recession, but this was accompanied by a
substantial fall in turnover; the consensus position was that 2014 employment was likely to be
below that estimated in 2010 and the midpoint between the 2007 and 2010 figures has been used as
the 2014 baseline.
Table 2.2: Seafood and Bio-Products profile – FTE Direct Employment 2007, 2010, 2014 (estimated)
‡
2007
Sea Fisheries
2,200
2,825
2,513
Marine Aquaculture
1,061
918
918
Seafood Processing
2,090
1,586
1,586
264
304
342
5,615
5,633
5,359
Marine Biotechnology
and Bio-Processing
Total
2010
‡
Sub-sector
2014*
‡: SEMRU Data from “Ireland’s Ocean Economy”, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates, developed by PACEC, based on the 2010 SEMRU data
Locations of employment are widely distributed around the coast of Ireland. Areas which offer
employment in all sub sectors (Fisheries, Aquaculture, Processing and Biotechnology) are Donegal,
Galway, Kerry, Mayo, Cork, Waterford and Dublin.
2.1.1 Sea Fisheries
Catching of wild fish is regulated at national and EU levels under the Common Fisheries Policy
(CFP), which sets annual catch quotas for most fish species. Primary responsibility for the allocation
and management of these quotas rests with the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine
(DAFM). The Irish Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January to June 2013) secured
agreement on reform of the CFP in May 2013. It is the first major reform since 2002 and includes
measures to prevent over-fishing, i.e. fishing at Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) levels and puts an
end to the controversial practice of discarding fish which was estimated to comprise 23% of total
catches in 2013. Under the obligation all catches have to be kept on board, landed and counted
against quotas. Undersized fish cannot be marketed for human consumption purposes.The new CFP
came into effect on January 1st 2014.
Profitability of the fisheries sector is heavily impacted by trends in fuel costs, global trade patterns
and world prices for seafood products. The potential for the sector lies in adding value to the
existing catch. This can be achieved by rebuilding and management of the stocks to enable higher
fish quotas in line with the CFP MSY obligations. Increases in oil prices will affect the profitability of
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
the Irish fleet’s landings, however, for non-Irish vessels fishing in the Irish Exclusive Economic Zone
(EEZ) and which catch in the region of 88% of the fish caught in this zone it will be more
advantageous for these non-Irish vessels to land in Ireland thereby increasing the supply of raw
materials for the sea-food processing sub-sector.
Under the CFP Member States also have to ensure that their fleet capacity is in balance with the
fishing opportunities. Currently this is not an issue for the Irish Fishing fleet which comprised of
1,914 fishing vessels in 2013. (There were 2,119 vessels in 2010 and 1,710 in 2007).
In 2010 the fisheries sector employed 2,825 FTEs most of which are concentrated along the Western
seaboard. It is not anticipated that there will be any major changes in employment in this subsector over the reference period (2015 – 2020). The age profile of crewmembers is such that a
higher proportion of older crewmembers are in the inshore sector. Approximately 30% of crew in the
inshore sector are over 50 years of age, compared to less than 15% for the rest of the fleet. The
highest proportion of crew in the 16 – 20 age categories is also in the inshore sector (approx. 15%
compared to less than 5% for the rest of the fleet), indicating a strong family involvement in the
inshore sector, and also partially explaining the high part-time component of this sector60.
2.1.2 Marine Aquaculture
Marine aquaculture in Ireland comprises of finfish (mainly salmon) and shellfish (predominantly
mussels and oysters). Currently, aquaculture in Ireland is primarily shellfish production comprising
of 850 licensed operations covering 2,000 sites. The turnover for aquaculture in 2010 was €123
million. Turnover increased between 2007 and 2010 by 16% largely attributed to an increase in unit
value per tone of the salmon and oyster industry. The value per tonne of production for salmon is
approximately three times that for finfish, (Table 2.6). Currently approximately 68% of production is
exported.
The sector is mainly comprised of part-time workers. In 2012 there were 1,023 part-time workers
compared with 693 full-time workers61. The number of active enterprises engaged in marine
aquaculture has remained stable with a total of 292 enterprises62. However, there is significant
scope for aquaculture expansion in Ireland but Ireland needs to and is addressing difficulties with
regard to compliance with the Birds and Habitats Directives before the true potential of the
aquaculture sector can be realised. This potential also includes deep water sites and it is estimated
that each new large-scale deep water salmon farming site could generate an extra €100 million in
exports per annum.
Food Harvest 2020 has set an ambitious target for the aquaculture sector of a 78% increase in
production by 2020.
2.1.3 Seafood Processing
The Irish seafood processing industry is mostly comprised of small enterprises with less than 10
employees. Only 12% of Irish processing companies had more than 50 employees in 2010. In 2011,
there were an estimated 169 companies engaged in the handling, processing, distributing and
60
EU - Ireland, National Strategic Plan, The Fisheries Sector 2007-2013
BIM Strategy 2013-17
62
Marine Agencies & Programmes Division: Dept. of Agriculture, Food & the Marine EMFF Union Priority 2 – Context (provided
to RSM McClure Watters 2014)
61
Skills in the Marine Economy
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marketing of seafood in Ireland of which approximately 25 of these companies account for
approximately 60% of the total turnover.
Shellfish companies accounted for the largest number of seafood processing companies. The
industry is concentrated in the coastal regions of Donegal, Mayo, Galway, Kerry, Cork and in the
South East. It is facing limitations on raw material supply and the need to scale-up to meet demand
in competitive export markets. Almost 70% of output is exported to markets including: France, UK,
Spain, Italy Germany, Russia, Nigeria and Egypt.
2.1.4 Marine Biotechnology and Bio-Processing
Ireland’s emerging Marine Biotechnology and Bio-Processing sub-sector is currently focused on
seaweed harvesting. In 2011 the seaweed and biotechnology sector was estimated to be worth €18
million per annum and processed 36,000 tonnes of seaweed (wild product)63. In 2010 this sector
employed 304 FTEs, which is an increase of 15% from 2007.
The use of seaweed in non-food applications is increasing, with clearly defined markets for seaweed
as dietary supplements; over-the-counter medicines and pharmaceuticals; animal feeds; in
agriculture and horticulture; as an aquaculture feed; as the basis of bioremediation and for use in
cosmetics. Seaweeds are increasingly being recognised as a source of novel bioactive compounds
with applications in pharmaceutical and functional foods, many of which are only being discovered.
The product source is currently limited to the wild resource and the product range is limited to high
volume, low value products. Moving away from the more traditional wild species and applying
aquaculture techniques to create sustainable year round supply is essential if the industry is to
grow64.
2.2
Company Interviews
This section details the findings from the 15 companies interviewed from the Seafood and BioProducts sector. There was a total of 798 employees within the companies interviewed representing
approximately 15% of the total employment of 5,359 FTEs in the seafood and bio-products sector in
Ireland.
It is important to note that all the statistics in this section refer only to the companies interviewed
and should not be extrapolated to the entire sector.
2.2.1 Turnover and Exports
Figure 2.1 shows that of the 15 companies interviewed in the Seafood and Bio-Products sector, six
companies (40%) stated that turnover had decreased over the last three years while four (27%)
stated turnover had grown moderately (increased by approx. 10%-20% per annum) over the last
three years.
63
Morrissey et al., 2011
http://www.bim.ie/media/bim/content/publications/corporate-otherpublications/A%20Market%20Analysis%20towards%20the%20Further%20Development%20of%20Seaweed%20Aquaculture%20in%20
Ireland.pdf
64
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Figure 2.1: Percentage of Companies that experienced a Change in Turnover over the last 3 Years
in the Seafood and Bio-Products sector
13%
40%
Decreased
Stayed the same
27%
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
20%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Figure 2.2 shows the levels of export growth anticipated over the next six years by the companies
interviewed. Six companies (or 40% of the sample) each expected levels of export growth to stay
the same or grow moderately (increase by approx. 10%-20% per annum). The interviews with the
companies also found that on average, over the last three years approximately 67% of the turnover
was from exports.
Figure 2.2: Anticipated Export Growth over the next 6 Years in the Seafood and Bio-Products sector
7%
13%
Decrease
Stay the same
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
40%
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
40%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
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2.2.2 Employment Growth / Decline by Occupation
Companies were asked about their employment growth by occupation over the last three years and
their anticipated growth for the next six years. Examples of job roles by occupation within the
Seafood and Bio-Products Sector are outlined in the Table 2.3.
Table 2.3: Job Roles by occupational level in the Seafood and Bio-Products Sector
Occupation Level
Job Roles
Operative Grades
General Operatives, Boat Crew, Deckhands, Riggers, Food
Production/Process operatives, e.g. Fish Filleters
Administration
HR staff, General Administrators, Receptionists
Skilled Trades
Radio Operators, Production Supervisors, Maintenance Technicians,
Mechanics, Electricians, Plant Operators, Maintenance and repair of fishing
gear, Boat builder, Skippers - Deck Officer (Fishing Vessel), Fishermen,
Divers
Associate
Production and Process Development Technicians, Pollution Control
Professional &
Personnel, Safety Officers, Quality Assurance Technicians, Lab Technicians,
Technical
Market Development Staff, Nature Conservationists,
Professionals
Marine scientists, Marine biologists, Fishery Scientists, Microbiologists,
Botanists, Earth & Ocean scientists, Geneticists, Food Chemists, Food
Technologists, New Product Development Technologists, Food Process
Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Environmental Scientists, Marine Spatial
Planners, Fish Veterinarians, Quality Auditors, Food Economists,
Engineering Officers (Fishing Vessel)
Management
Managing Directors, Plant Managers, Accountants, Production Managers,
Legal Professionals, Marketing Professionals
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing Document, Part III, Enablers - Getting the
Conditions Right for Growth (2012)
Figure 2.3 shows that there has been some employment growth in most occupations over the last
three years, with the exception of Operative Grades and Associate Professionals and Technical.
Over the previous three years these companies have seen their greatest expansion in the
Administrative, Professional and Management Occupations (40%, 33%, 30% respectively), although
the numbers are small at 15, 12, 18 respectively. Over the next six years, companies anticipated a
continued expansion for these occupations, in particular for Professionals with a 58% expansion (28
persons).
The companies interviewed indicated that many young people are over qualified and do not want to
do the manual labour that is required at operative level.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 2.3: Employment Growth within the Seafood and Bio-Products Sector*
60%
3yrs ago -> now
Now -> next 6 yrs
50%
40%
30%
28
15
20%
13
10%
0%
0
Admin
12
18
13
16
14
Operative Grades
2
26
0
Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professionals
Management
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
* Values are calculated as a percentage of growth from 3 years ago to now and now to the next 6 years, within specific
occupations. The numbers stated in the above figure represent the number of employees companies have stated they have
gained from 3 years ago to now and will need from now to the next 6 years.
2.2.3 Current and Required Skills Levels
Companies interviewed were asked about the current and future qualifications under the National
Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) that they would require for the different occupations,
(Table 2.4). The NFQ is detailed in Appendix 4.
While the number of employees within each category is, in some cases, very small and therefore the
results may not be representative of the sector an interesting change is emerging which is seen
across all the sectors of the marine economy, namely the increase in qualifications for
Professionals, Managers and Administrators.
Two thirds of those employed as operatives have between Level 4 -5 and it is not anticipated that
this will change. The almost 20% of the operative cohort with less than NFQ Level 4, is a legacy
issue and comprises the older personnel who left school early and started work in the fishing
industry. Over time as these people retire the percentage with this low educational attainment
would be expected to significantly reduce with an associated increase in Level 4-5.
The cells shaded green in Table 2.4 are those for which a significant increase in NFQ level is
anticipated. The occupation levels are Administration, Professionals and Managers. This implies an
increase in the professionalisation of the sector with the focus on the development of the managers
and professionals to lead, manage and expand the sector, develop new products, focus on exporting
to international markets and meet all the changing environmental and regulatory requirements.
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Table 2.4: Current and anticipated NFQ Levels required by Occupation in Seafood and Bio-Products
Occupation
NFQ Level
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
9-10
Current
8
Future
6-7
Current
4-5
Future
<4
Current
Number
454
468
18%
19%
68%
67%
13%
13%
1%
1%
0%
0%
Administration
58
71
0%
0%
58%
45%
33%
29%
7%
25%
2%
1%
Skilled Trades
139
155
8%
7%
51%
62%
40%
29%
1%
2%
0%
0%
Associate
7
9
0%
0%
0%
0%
67%
67%
33%
33%
0%
0%
Professionals
54
82
0%
0%
0%
0%
36%
21%
33%
57%
32%
23%
Management
86
99
0%
0%
44%
30%
29%
26%
22%
28%
5%
16%
Total
798
884
Operative
Grades
Professional
and Technical
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Cells shaded
indicate no significant change in NFQ level required for the occupation, while cells shaded
NFQ level required and cells shaded
indicate a corresponding decline in NFQ required
indicate a higher
2.2.4 Training and Development
The companies were also asked about training provision for their employees. Figure 2.4 shows that
for the Seafood and Bio-Products sector over half the companies interviewed (57%) provided
between 6-10 training days a year per employee.
Figure 2.4: Number of Training Days in the Seafood and Bio-Products sector
11-15 days
7%
6 - 10 days
57%
1 - 5 days
36%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 2.5 shows that 87% of companies interviewed used internal training and 60% used private
providers.
Figure 2.5: How Training was delivered in the Seafood and Bio-Products Sector
Internally- on or off the job
87%
Private Providers
60%
Further Education and Training
Providers
Higher Education Institutions
27%
7%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
2.2.5 Availability of Personnel
Companies were asked about the availability of personnel with the relevant education, skills and
expertise. A summary of the results is outlined in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5: Availability of Personnel for the Seafood and Bio-Products sector
Not enough people in my local area with right level of:
Education
Experience
Skills
N
%
N
%
N
%
Operative Grades
5
33%
6
40%
6
40%
Administration
1
7%
1
7%
1
7%
Skilled Trades
2
13%
2
13%
4
27%
Associate
Professionals and
Technical
1
7%
2
13%
2
13%
Professionals
1
7%
2
13%
2
13%
Management
2
13%
2
13%
2
13%
Base= 15
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Table 2.5, indicates that companies have the most difficulty finding operatives (pink shaded cells).
One company stated that people in their area are over qualified and do not want to do the manual
labour involved. Many of the companies are located in coastal communities which are experiencing
high unemployment, therefore, the difficulty finding operative is likely a reflection of the
unattractive nature of the work. The rural location can also present a difficulty in finding
operatives. However, it is important to note also that responses to many of the question are too low
to draw definitive conclusions.
2.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
The central issue that stakeholders highlighted in all the discussions that took place was the
difficulty surrounding the issuing of licenses because of the challenges on the State regulatory
structure in achieving compliance with the Birds and Habitats Directives. This has created a
perceived uncertainty for the industry and resulted in a cautious approach to development of the
sector. However, notwithstanding this difficulty for the industry a number of skills issues were
identified.
The first relates to the sea fisheries sub-sector and its ageing workforce. This will require some
form of “succession strategy” to be developed and put in place to ensure that the onshore fishing
workforce can be replaced as existing employees retire.
The second issue was the exporting to Asia and the US markets as well as the existing traditional EU
markets as this will require language and cultural awareness skills and international marketing and
business skills for the Irish seafood producers at management level.
Quality of exports will also become increasingly important and ensuring wastage, such as transport
of dead shellfish, is minimised, and logistics skills are particularly important in management roles.
In aquaculture, increased demands for energy and environmental monitoring, linked to new EU
regulations means that many professional staff will need to be skilled in these areas.
2.4
Future Demand for Seafood and Bio-Product Skills, 2015 - 2020
2.4.1 Introduction
This section of the report deals with the future demand for skills in the Seafood and Bio-Product
sector over the period 2015-2020, arising from growth of the sector and replacement of workers
arising from exits to inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, referred to as
expansion and replacement demand respectively.
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover targets of an increase from €0.7bn to €1bn set out in HOOW
will be met by 2020. By taking these targets and translating them into numbers of jobs, the demand
for skills for the different jobs out to 2020 is forecast. Consultations with industry stakeholders,
informed by the economic background data gathered, were used to determine how this increase in
turnover could be achieved, how the additional turnover would be distributed between the various
industries making up the Seafood and Bio-Product sector and how employment would need to
increase in order to generate this turnover. A modelling exercise was then conducted using the
information from the company interviews to estimate how the expansion demand would be
distributed by occupational grade in each sub-sector over the period 2015-2020.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
An estimation of the replacement demand was also conducted using data provided by the SLMRU
(Skills and Labour Market Research Unit, SOLAS) and following the methodology used by them in the
publication of the EGFSN National Skills Bulletin 65 on the exits from employment to economic
inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, which vary by occupation.
2.4.2 Scenario 1: Achieving the HOOW targets
2.4.2.1 Scenario 1 Summary
A forecast of employment was developed, in consultation with stakeholders, based on a growth
scenario for aquaculture and which assumes that the HOOW target of €1billion turnover in Seafood
and Bio-Product sector by 2020 will be met. The premise of Scenario 1 is that the increase in
turnover will be driven by investment in Aquaculture, leading to increased output, turnover, and
employment. Expansion of aquaculture will drive the expansion in seafood processing through
increased raw material supply which in turn will have an impact on turnover and employment in the
Seafood Processing industry.
2.4.2.2 Aquaculture Background
Consultations with stakeholders indicated that aquaculture production is currently around 36,000
tonnes, which includes around 12,000 tonnes of salmon. The targets set out in Food Harvest 2020
represent an output of approximately 85,000 tonnes by 2020. Ireland’s salmon production previously
peaked at 24,000 tonnes in 2001 and could be replicated again.
One source of expansion is the development of the existing network of conventional sites to
increase productivity and output and in particular for one of the large aquaculture companies with
sufficient resources, i.e. juvenile fish stock and finance to increase its salmon production from
6,500 tonnes to 18,000 tonnes by 2020 which would increase Full Time Equivalent (FTE) employment
by 268.
The expansion of the existing network would not be sufficient to meet the HOOW targets,
therefore, in the development of the scenarios cognisance was taken of the expansion potential
arising from large offshore deep-water sites for salmon production which have higher productivity
and lower employment per tonne of production than the existing industry average. However, in the
development of the scenario only one of these off-shore farms is factored in. To quantify the value
of one such deep-water off-shore salmon farm a potential output of 15,000 tonnes, could provide
350 direct jobs, of which approximately 65 of those jobs would be on the farm itself, with others in
rearing juvenile fish, processing the fish after harvest, and transportation. In addition to the direct
employment in the aquaculture sector, a further 150 jobs will be needed in associated industries,
and these will be slightly more remote from the project location, which means that its employment
benefits will spread beyond the immediate area.
The discussions with stakeholders focused on levels of production (tonnage) and the impacts on
employment and turnover for a given increase in tonnage. It was necessary to establish the
relationship between tonnage, turnover, and employment, so that the tonnage estimates could be
65
http://www.skillsireland.ie/media/23072014-National_Skills_Bulletin%20_2014--Publication.pdf
Skills in the Marine Economy
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converted into turnover, for comparison with the HOOW target, and employment, for analysis of
future skills demand.
To translate the HOOW €1 billion turnover target to tonnage Table 2.6 was developed using the unit
of turnover per tonne of production of approximately €6,000 for finfish and €2,000 for shellfish. The
current (2014) figure of jobs per tonne of production is likely to be similar to 2012 figures given that
production levels are similar in scale. We have used a standard ratio of 40 tonnes of production per
full-time equivalent employee (provided by stakeholders), to convert tonnage to employment.
Table 2.6: Aquaculture Production 2012
Tonnes
€000
Finfish66(e.g. salmon, trout)
13,880
83,830
Shellfish67
22,820
48,940
Total
36,700
132,770
Source: BIM Strategy 2013-2017
The stakeholder consensus on the 2014 baseline position relative to 2010 (informed by the economic
data) was that employment in aquaculture and seafood processing would be broadly similar to that
in 2010, that sea fisheries employment would be between its 2007 and 2010 positions as reported by
SEMRU, and that the emerging marine biotechnology and bio-processing sector (which had grown
during the recessionary period 2007-2010) would have continued to grow between 2010 and 2014.
(Table 2.2)
2.4.2.3 Assumptions for Seafood and Bio-Products: Scenario 1
Aquaculture
Under this scenario, the growth of the aquaculture sector would need to be to a total of 80,000
tonnes of production in 2020, made up of:

18,000 tonnes of salmon from a single large existing business (requiring 420 FTE employees)
(value = €108m);

15,000 tonnes from one an off-shore farm (requiring 350 FTE employees) (value = €90m);

18,000 tonnes of salmon from other small producers (employment levels as per existing FTE per
tonne= 450 FTE)(value: €108m); and

29,000 tonnes of shellfish (requiring 725 FTE employees) (value = €58m).
Therefore total aquaculture value (turnover) in 2020 would equate to €364m with employment as
per BIM profiles for finfish and shell fish to rise to 1,945 in 2020.
66
67
Value of finfish approximately €6,000 per tonne
Value of shellfish approximately €2,200 per tonne
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Sea Fisheries
Fisheries are expected to remain between 2007 and 2010 figures, with turnover equating to
approximately €200-250m and employment between 2,200 (2007 level) and 2,825 (2010 level) at
2,513.
Seafood Processing
Seafood processing will make up the residual growth of €410m to reach the HOOW target of €1bn.
Employment in seafood processing will rise from approximately 1,600 to 1,916 in 2020 (this is a
growth rate of 1.9% per annum from 2010, and is consistent with capacity as demonstrated by the
2007 level of employment at 2,090). Seafood processing growth will be facilitated by the following:

The increased availability of raw materials from aquaculture;

The focused efforts to attract landings from other international fishing fleets active in Irish
waters; and

New facilities, for example the "Bio-Marine ingredients" facility planned for Killybegs, utilising
the available catch for producing higher value products.
Marine biotechnology and bio-processing
For the purposes of this study, marine biotechnology and bio-processing is included as part of the
broader seafood/aquaculture sector. Based on observed growth in the bio-technology/bioprocessing sector even during the recessionary period, 2007-201068, and evidence on growth in
science jobs in general from the wider economy 69, turnover in this sector is projected to rise from
€30m in 2010 to €40m in 2020, and direct FTE employment will rise from 342 in 2014 to 408 in 2020.
The evidence from stakeholder consultations was that the aquaculture production targets set in
Food Harvest 2020 of 80,000 tonnes are very challenging and seem unlikely to be realised by the
2020 timeline, though a number of large salmon farms, if licensed, would have a major impact.
Hence, an overall target of 80,000 tonnes is used to reflect a strongly performing aquaculture
sector, with other sections of the seafood sector, mainly processing, making up the gap to achieve
the overall HOOW target of €1bn. This growth in aquaculture would not be sufficient to achieve the
overall HOOW target of €1bn of itself; we have assumed that the growth in aquaculture would have
an indirect impact on employment in the seafood processing sector as a result of the increased raw
material supply. In this way, we have constructed a scenario in which turnover rises to meet the
overall HOOW target of €1bn and there is sufficient employment growth to provide this turnover
(with turnover per employee held constant).
68
69
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
Annual growth of 0.6% in scientific occupations is forecast by Occupational Employment Projections 2020 (SOLAS)
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Table 2.7: Turnover and FTE 2020 values for Seafood and Bio-Products for Scenario 1
Sub-Sector
Production to meet the HOOW
2020
2020
2014
Expansion
2020 targets
Value
FTE
FTE
demand
18,000 tonnes from one large
€108m
420
-
€90
350
-
€108
450
-
€58m
725
-
existing farm
15,000 tonnes from one new
Aquaculture
offshore farm
18,000 tonnes from other small
producers
29,000 tonnes of shellfish
Aquaculture Total
Sea Fisheries
Values mid-point between 2007
€364m
1,945
918
1,027
€225m
2,513
2,513
0
330
and 2010
Seafood Processing
Increased raw material supply
€410
1,916
1,586
Seafood Total
As per target in HOOW
€999m
6,374
5,017
Marine
Based on biotechnology growth
€40
408
342
66
Total for Seafood
All 4 sub-sectors as set out for
€1.39bn
6,782
5,359
1,423
and Bio-Products
this study
Biotechnology and
Bio-Processing
Source: PACEC, 2014
2.4.3 Employment and Skills Implications
The above scenario forecasts an expansion demand of 1,423 jobs to 2020. The distribution of the
1,423 additional FTE jobs by occupation level is shown in Table 2.8 below. The first column shows
the 2014 FTE baseline estimate by occupation level. The next set of columns presents the expansion
demand, the percentage of that figure to the 2014 baseline estimate for that occupation level and
the percentage of the occupation expansion to the total expansion demand. Then follows the
replacement demand - those leaving, e.g. due to retirement or change of occupation. The gross
demand is the sum of the expansion and replacement and is the true reflection of the skills demand
for the sector. Summed across the period 2015-2020, the total number of workers leaving is
estimated to be 2,094 FTEs, known as the replacement demand, which when summed with the
expansion demand of 1,423 FTEs gives a gross demand of 3,517 FTE employees.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Table 2.8: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement demand by occupation level for Scenario 1
% of
No.
2014
% of
No.
2014
% of
demand
No.
2014-2020
Gross Demand
% of Gross
2014
2014-2020
demand
Demand
% of Replacement
Demand
demand
Replacement
% of Expansion
Expansion
Estimate
Baseline
% 2014 Total
Estimate
2014 Baseline
Level
Occupation
for Seafood and Marine Bio-Products
Operatives
3,043
57%
514
17%
36%
1,296
43%
62%
1,810
59%
51%
Administrative
392
7%
180
46%
13%
179
46%
9%
359
92%
10%
934
17%
237
25%
17%
344
37%
16%
581
62%
17%
45
1%
0
0%
0%
10
22%
0.4%
10
22%
0.3%
Professionals
365
7%
373
102%
26%
129
35%
6%
502
138%
14%
Managers
580
11%
119
21%
8%
136
23%
6%
255
44%
7%
Total
5,359
1,423
27%
2,094
39%
3,517
66%
Skilled
Trades
Associate
Professionals
& Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
While operatives are the largest occupation within the Seafood and Bio-Products sector, at 57% of
the total workforce, and therefore not surprisingly also has the largest expansion demand in actual
numbers, it is professionals that have the largest percentage increase (102%) with a requirement of
373 additional professionals by 2020. This reflects the trend of greater professionalisation of the
sector.
What is also significant is the fact that 39% of the current workforce in the Seafood and BioProducts sector will need to be replaced in addition to the 27% needed for the expansion of the
sector.
The replacement demand for operatives, at 62% of the total replacement demand, is consistent
with the fact that there is a higher churn among the lower skilled occupations than for professionals
and managers which are each at 6% of the replacement total.
2.4.4 Scenario 2: No growth in Aquaculture
For the purposes of this report we have considered a no-growth scenario where the anticipated
growth in aquaculture does not occur owing to continuing uncertainty within the industry arising
from the licensing difficulties that have existed. In Scenario 1, growth in the broad Seafood and BioProducts sector is primarily driven by significant expansion in aquaculture, with an indirect effect
on growth in seafood processing (which would benefit as the aquaculture sector supplies fish for
processing). In this no-growth scenario, we have considered the skills impact if, in the absence of
growth in employment in aquaculture and employment in all the other sub-sectors were to remain
constant over the period 2015-2020, then the only driver of skills demand would be the replacement
demand. The expansion component of demand is therefore zero for all occupations under the
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
alternative scenario. By the end of the forecast period, the replacement demand is higher in the
high-growth scenario than the no-growth scenario simply because the sector is bigger but the rate
of attrition is the same. As a result, the total replacement demand in this alternative scenario is
lower than the high-growth scenario and is 2,084 FTEs of which 1,328 jobs are for operatives and
comprise 64% of the total gross demand. Skilled Trades is next at 341 jobs or 16% of the gross
demand. Again this reflects the low skill nature of the seafood and bio-products sector.
Table 2.9:
Distribution of Expansion and Replacement demand by occupation level for the “nogrowth” Scenario 2 for Seafood and Marine Bio-Products
Replacement
Demand
Demand
2014-2020
2014-2020
% of
% of
Demand
No.
Operative Grades
3,043
0
-
1,328
44%
1,328
44%
64%
Administration
392
0
-
166
42%
166
42%
8%
Skilled Trades
934
0
-
341
37%
341
37%
16%
45
0
-
11
24%
11
24%
1%
Professionals
365
0
-
100
27%
100
27%
5%
Management
580
0
-
137
24%
137
24%
7%
Total
5,359
0
-
2,084
39%
2,084
39%
Associate Professional
& Technical
2014
No.
% of
Baseline
2014
No.
Gross
demand
Estimate
Expansion
% of Gross
Occupation Level
2014
2014
Source: PACEC, 2014
2.5
Supply Side Information
Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) is the national agency with responsibility for training in the seafood
sector. It has dedicated facilities through the National Fisheries College of Ireland (NFCI) at
Greencastle, Co. Donegal and at Castletownbere in Co. Cork. It also provides short-training courses
at other locations around Ireland and has a mobile training unit which provides hands-on training at
local level. BIM is also increasing its capacity to provide courses by expanding facilities at Crofton
Road, Dun Laoghaire to cater for demand on the East coast. BIM also plans to provide Seafood
Business Management courses in future in partnership with selected third level institutions in its
Seafood Development Centre (CDC) at Clonakilty, Co. Cork.
BIM’s courses cover a variety of disciplines namely:

Fishing – Skipper and Crew

Marine Engineering

Aquaculture
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April 2015

Processors and Retailers

Green Seafood Business Programme

Sea Safety training

Radio

Passenger Boats
Table 2.10 lists the courses for fishing, marine engineering, aquaculture and seafood processors and
retailers. Courses dealing with sea safety, radio and passenger boats are dealt with under Maritime
Transport, Shipbuilding and Services as they are generic courses, internationally accredited and are
relevant across multiple sub-sectors of the marine economy.
Table 2.10: List of BIM Training Courses
Course Title
Institution
Award
Duration
Fishing – Skipper and Crew
Commercial Fishing
BIM - Dun Laoghaire
QQI
Skipper - Second Hand
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Donegal &
DTTAS - Fishing Vessel
Limited Certificate
Castletownbere
Cert of Competency
Skipper - Second Hand
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Donegal &
DTTAS - Fishing Vessel
Full Certificate
Castletownbere
Cert of Competency
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Donegal &
DTTAS - Fishing Vessel
Castletownbere
Cert of Competency
Navigation Control
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Donegal &
DTTAS - Fishing Vessel
(Fishing)
Castletownbere
Cert of Proficiency
Electronic Navigation
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Donegal &
DTTAS - Fishing Vessel
Systems (Fishing)
Castletownbere
Cert of Proficiency
BIM - Dun Laoghaire
QQI
Skipper - Full Certificate
E-learning Navigation &
Stability (Fishing)
6 months
12 weeks
16 weeks
14 weeks
2 weeks
105 hrs
120 hrs
Marine Engineering
Engineer Officer (Fishing
BIM - Donegal + 1 yr on board a
Vessel)
commercial fisshing vessel
Marine Engineering
Processes
BIM - Castletownbere
DTTAS - Class 3 Cert of
Competency Engineer
1 + 1 yrs
Officer (Fishing Vessel)
QQI
3 weeks
QQI – Level 3
20 hrs
QQI – Level 3
20 hrs
Aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture
Skills in the Marine Economy
BIM - Dun Laoghaire
Galway-Roscommon ETBLetterfrack, Rosmuc, Aran
64
April 2015
Course Title
Institution
Award
Duration
QQI – Level 4
30 hrs
QQI –Level 4
30 hrs
QQI – Level 5
4 months
QQI – Level 5
4 months
Islands
Aquaculture
BIM - Dun Laoghaire
Galway-Roscommon ETB-
Aquaculture
Letterfrack, Rosmuc, Aran
Islands
Aquaculture
BIM - Castletownbere
Galway-Roscommon ETB-
Aquaculture
Letterfrack, Rosmuc, Aran
Islands
Farmed Fish Welfare
BIM - Dun Laoghaire
QQI – Level 6
1 week
Seaweed On-growing
BIM - Dun Laoghaire
QQI –Level 5
3 weeks
Seafood Processing and Retailers
Fish Handling & Filleting
Risk Based HACCP70 for
Seafood
Seafood Hygiene
Management
Seafood Innovation
BIM - Clonakilty
2 days
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Clonakilty
QQI
2 days
BIM - Dun Laoghaire, Clonakilty
QQI
1 day
UCC (developed with BIM)
QQI –Level 7
2 yrs - 8 x
Fri pm &
Sat day
Green Seafood Business Programme
Energy Management Training
Programme for Small - Medium
Seafood Processing Businesses
SEAI in partnership with
BIM
2
workshops 1.5 days
Source: List compiled by DJEI, Nov 2014
The National Fisheries College at Greencastle has its own fully equipped trawler deck, a training
vessel (MV Lough Swilly) and a working 600hp marine diesel engine for engineering training. All the
equipment is Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (DTTAS) approved and specific for the
training needs. BIM works closely with the Education and Training Boards (ETBs), formerly
Vocational Educational Colleges (VECs), in delivering courses in remote rural areas and also works
with Údarás na Gaeltachta in Irish speaking areas.
70
HACCP - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed
through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement
and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Accreditation for BIM’s seafood courses is provided through the BIM Agreement with Quality and
Qualifications Ireland (QQI). The Certificates of Competency and Proficiency for the fishing vessels
are issued by the DTTAS following an examination.
Training courses are provided on a regular basis depending on demand. Information on the
availability and dates of courses are on the BIM website71.
Skillnets72 funds and facilitates training through networks of private sector companies, in a range of
sectors and regions. Each network delivers training that is driven by specific industry and member
company needs. The Taste 4 Success Skillnet runs two training programmes relevant to the seafood
industry, as shown in Table 2.1173.
Table 2.11: List of “Taste 4 Success” Skillnet Training Courses
Course Title
Institution
Award
Duration
Fish Handling Skills - an
Taste4Success Skillnet - Cork
Short Course
5 days
Taste4Success Skillnet - Galway
Short Course
5 days
Introduction
Smoking Fish
Source: List compiled by DJEI, Nov 2014
2.5.1 Higher Education – Degree Courses
Currently there are no degree courses in aquaculture. Degree courses used to be run in GMIT
(Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology), LYIT (Letterkenny) and Tralee IT but the demand for the
courses declined. GMIT now focuses on degree courses in Marine science which has modules in
aquaculture and resource management (the latter being pertinent to fish farming). The provision of
a broader Marine science degree with the possibility of specialising with a postgraduate
qualification is more in keeping with the evolution in Higher Education in recent years. If the
demand for a specialisation in aquaculture arose GMIT would be in a position to develop and offer
an MSc in Aquaculture. A number of graduates from GMIT go to Stirling University in Scotland to
undertake such a Masters.
Following a survey of aquaculture companies in the South East, where 50% of shellfish is produced,
BIM is currently in discussion with Carlow Institute of Technology to develop a degree in Sustainable
Aquabusiness as the companies they interviewed indicated there would be a demand for such
graduates for their business and that it would enhance the seafood industry.
Another course worth mentioning is the MSc in Business Innovation Technology and
Entrepreneurship, a one year, Level 9 course offered by Waterford Institute of Technology
dedicated to transforming Science, Engineering and Technology graduates who will create and lead
the businesses of tomorrow.
71
http://www.bim.ie/training/
Skillnets, which was established in 1999 and is funded from the National Training Fund (NTF) through the Department of
Education and Skills (DES), actively supports and works with businesses in Ireland to address their current and future skills
needs. http://www.skillnets.ie/
73
http://www.skillnets.ie/network/taste4success-skillnet
72
Skills in the Marine Economy
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2.5.2 Marine Science
Higher Education degree courses, at both undergraduate and postgraduate (NFQ Levels 7 – 10) which
are “Marine” focussed are listed in the Table 2.12. Graduates from these courses are required
across the entire Marine economy in off-shore energy; marine technology and marine tourism, so
while listed in this section marine scientists are not limited to working solely in the seafood and bioproducts sector.
Table 2.12: List of Third Level Marine Science Courses
Course
Institution
Applied Freshwater and Marine Biology or
Galway-Mayo IT
Undenominated Science and choose Applied
(Galway)-GMIT
Freshwater and Marine Biology at end yr 1)
Marine Science
Award
BSc
Duration
3/4
years
NUI Galway
BSc
4 yrs
NUI Galway
BSc
4 yrs
Marine - Applied Marine Biological Sampling and
Galway-Mayo IT
Postgraduate
data Collection
(Galway)-GMIT
certificate
GMIT
MSc
2 years
GMIT
PhD
Min 3 yrs
GMIT
MSc taught
2 years
Earth and Ocean Sciences Science or –
Undenominated Science and choose to major in
Earth and Ocean Sciences
Research Programmes - Marine and Freshwater
Research Centre (MFRC)
Research Programmes - Marine and Freshwater
Research Centre (MFRC)
EMBC+ International MSc in Marine Biodiversity
and Conservation (www.embcplus.org)
MARES Joint Doctoral Programme on Marine
Ecosystem Health and Conservation
GMIT
(www.mares-eu.org)
Coastal and Marine Environments: Physical
PhD
Structured
NUI Galway
MSc
NUI Galway
PhD
NUI Galway
MSc / PhD
Earth and Ocean Sciences - Research
NUI Galway
MSc/ PhD
Earth and Ocean Sciences –Structured PhD
NUI Galway
PhD
Process, Policy and Practice
Marine – Structured PhD
Ryan Institute - Research (Ryan Institute for
Environmental, Marine and Energy Research)
University College
Applied Science - Marine Biology
Cork - UCC
Marine Biology Conversion Programme - a
University College
conversion course for non-
Cork - UCC
biological/environmental graduates in order to
Skills in the Marine Economy
67
2 weeks
3 years
1 yr
MSc
1 yr
PGCert
6 months
April 2015
Course
Institution
Award
Duration
UCC
MSc
1 yr
progress to the MSc Marine Biology
Coastal and Marine Management - Applied
University of Ulster
Marine Spatial Planning - eLearning
- Coleraine - UU
Queen's University
Marine Biology (with Professional Studies)
Belfast - QUB
Marine Science with DPP /DIAS (International
University of Ulster
Academic Studies)
- Coleraine - UU
University of Ulster
Coastal Zone Management - eLearning
- Coleraine - UU
Ecology Evolution Behaviour and Environmental
Queen's University
Economics
Belfast - QUB
Open University in
Earth Science
Ireland
PgDip/MSc
BSc Hons
BSc Hons
PgDip/MSc
PhD/MPhil
2-3years
3 (4)
years
3 (4)
years
2-3years
MSc
Source: List compiled by DJEI, Nov 2014
2.5.2.1 SMART – Strategic Marine Alliance for Research and Training74
Another resource on the “supply side” is SMART - The Strategic Marine Alliance for Research and
Training. SMART is a consortium of Higher Education Institutions and the Marine Institute,
established in 2011, to develop and deliver practical off-shore training on board the national
research vessels for students of marine-related science, technology and engineering. The
consortium comprises GMIT, NUIG, UCC AIT, UU, and MI.
One of the objectives of SMART is to facilitate the creation of new skills and expertise which will be
of direct benefit to science and industry, particularly in new and emerging technologies. Examples
of SMART Training Programmes are as follows:
1.
Multidisciplinary Offshore Operations in Marine Science
The national offshore blended learning module is an inter-institutional accredited module (5 ECTS –
European Credit Transfer System) that provides undergraduate students (NFQ level 8) with the
detailed knowledge, skill sets and expertise necessary to design, plan and execute a
multidisciplinary research survey at sea.
The module is designed to introduce students from a variety of science backgrounds to the concept
of utilising a multidisciplinary ecosystem approach to studying the marine environment using the
core disciplines of oceanography, benthic ecology (ecology of the lowest level of the sea), fisheries
biology and geosciences. Teaching focuses on the practical, cross‐disciplinary skills involved in
sample acquisition and processing, deployment and operation of equipment and instrumentation
74
http://www.smartseaschool.com/
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
and data acquisition, processing and analysis of these data. Other elements essential in carrying out
research surveys at sea will be examined, including safety at sea, survey design and planning, post‐
survey analysis and assessment, vessel activities and capabilities, and vessel familiarisation and
orientation.
Training Through Research Surveys (TTRS)
2.
TTRS provides exciting opportunities for graduate and postgraduate students and researchers of
marine science and technologies researchers to gain seagoing experience on a range of research
cruises on-board the RV Celtic Explorer. This programme is designed to provide mentored training
for emerging marine scientists on surveys taking place off the western seaboard of Ireland and
ranging as far as Newfoundland.
3.
[email protected] - CPD (Continuing Professional Development) Courses
[email protected] multidisciplinary courses in marine science offshore operations are intensive two-day
courses on-board the RV Celtic Voyager and are aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students
of marine-related sciences, technology and engineering, as well as researchers, technical staff and
industry professionals. Special emphasis is placed on the cross‐disciplinary skills involved in sample
collection and processing, deployment and operation of equipment and instrumentation, and data
acquisition and interpretation.
2.6
Summary
The Irish Seafood and Bio-Products sector had, in 2010, an estimated annual sales value of €745
million with a potential to increase revenue to €1 billion by 2020. This opportunity if realised will
increase employment from 5,359 in 2014 to 6,782 full-time equivalent jobs by 2020, an expansion of
1,423. The expansion is driven by increased production in the aquaculture sector, with a knock-on
effect on jobs in seafood processing (due to increased supply of raw materials).
The replacement demand is estimated to be 2,094 over the period 2015-2020 with the gross demand
at 3,517.
Owing to uncertainty within the aquaculture industry arising from the licensing difficulties that have
existed in the past the anticipated growth in aquaculture is unlikely to meet the target by 2020.
This alternative scenario, the no-growth scenario, would have no expansion demand but would,
however, have a replacement demand of 2,084.
There is no expected change in the educational attainment required for operatives, but for
administrators, associate professionals and managers NFQ levels are expected to increase. Managers
will need business skills and commercial acumen to expand companies, particularly in export
markets such as Asia and the US.
Currently, the majority of companies do not find skills or qualifications difficult to source.
However, operatives can be difficult to obtain but this is likely to be a retention issue.
In aquaculture, there are increased demands for energy and environmental monitoring, linked to
new EU regulations which results in a need for up skilling of professionals in these areas.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Chapter 3: Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services (MTSS)
Sub-sectors

Shipping and Maritime Transport

Marine Retail Services

Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering

Marine Commerce and Ship Leasing
3.1
Economic Profile
The Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services (MTSS) sector contains a variety of industries.
The 2010 economic indicators for the sector are summarised in Table 3.1:
Table 3.1: 2010 Economic Indicators for the MTSS sector
Employment
GVA
Turnover
(FTE)
(€millions)
(€millions)
Shipping and maritime transport
4,633
422
1,422
Marine Retail Services
252
34
58
Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering
726
44
111
Marine Commerce
78
40
67
Total
5,689
540
1,658
Sub-sector
Source: SEMRU, Ocean Economy Report 2013 (Ref. year 2010)
Table 3.1 shows that GVA for the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services (MTSS) sector in
2010 was €540 million while turnover was €1,658 million and direct employment was 5,689 FTE.
Turnover for shipping and maritime transport decreased between 2007 and 2010 by 35.2%, with a
41.9% decrease in exports in the same period.
The most recent official data is the 2010 data provided by SEMRU (Socio-Economic Marine Research
Unit in NUIG). The first Ocean Economy Report, published in 2010, was based on the reference year
2007, at the height of the economic boom (2003 – 2007). The latest report, with a reference year of
2010 and published in December 2013, represents the lowest point of the economic contraction
(2007 – 2010) and a significant decrease in activity. In order to develop forecasts of the future skills
demand to 2020, baseline estimates for 2014 were produced75, using additional sources of
information, such as: annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad
sectors; Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and
SOLAS Occupational Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and
discussions with stakeholders.
75
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Projecting forward the 2010 levels of employment to a baseline figure for 2014 for this large and
diverse subsector was challenging. All subsectors saw a fall in employment between 2007 and 2010
which may have continued beyond 2010, but evidence from company surveys and stakeholder
discussions suggest that the most recent employment trajectory was positive. As a result, the
consensus view was that for the sector as a whole the best estimate for 2014 employment was likely
to be equal to the 2010 level.
Table 3.2: MTSS profile: FTE Direct Employment 2007, 2010, 2014 (estimated)
Sub-sector
2007‡
2010‡
2014*
Shipping and maritime transport
5,903
4,633
4,633
Marine Retail Services
287
252
252
Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering
1,600
726
726
Marine Commerce and Ship Leasing
105
78
78
Total
7,895
5,689
5,689
‡: SEMRU Data from “Ireland’s Ocean Economy”, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates, developed by PACEC, based on the 2010 SEMRU data
Shipping and maritime transport directly employed 4,633 FTE in 2010 and employment decreased by
21.5% between 2007 and 2010. The majority of shipping and maritime services activity occurs
around the nine State commercial ports: Tier 1 – Dublin, Cork, Shannon-Foynes; Tier 2 – Waterford,
Rosslare76 77; Regional –Drogheda, Dun-Laoghaire, Galway, New Ross and Wicklow.
3.1.2 Marine Retail Services
Marine Retail Services are comprised of small and medium sized enterprises involved in retail
activities including boat sales, chandlery, and the retail of seafood in fishmonger shops. In 2010,
turnover from these marine retail services was €58 million, a decrease of 41.4% since 2007. Marine
retail services contributed €34 million in GVA to the Irish economy in 2010 with turnover valued at
€58 million in 2010 and exports valued at €4.9 million. The sector directly employed a total of 252
FTE in 2010, a decrease of 12.2% since 200778. In general, the marine retail sector is facing similar
challenges to the overall retail sector in Ireland. These challenges relate to a weak domestic
demand with consumer spending decreasing every year since 2008. As a result, sales have fallen
sharply and the retail sector has experienced significant job losses 79. With regard to the domestic
seafood retail sector, the sector outlook was positive in 2012 with an increase in spending on fish by
5% compared to the previous year80; this is expected to increase further.
76
National Ports Policy, – Iarnrod Eireann operates Rosslare Europort under a complex ownership involving Fishguard port that dates
to the 19th Century http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/contentpublication/National%20Ports%20Policy%202013.PDF
77
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
78
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
IBEC, Retail Ireland Facts, 2013
80
BordBia Press Release 2013, ‘Irish consumers spending 5% more on fish’
79
Skills in the Marine Economy
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3.1.3 Marine Manufacturing, Construction and Engineering
In 2010 marine manufacturing, construction and engineering had a turnover of approximately €111
million with exports amounting to €9.7 million. The sector generated €44 million in GVA to the Irish
economy and directly employed 726 FTE. There has been a significant decline in activity between
2007 and 2010 in this sector, with a decrease of 58% in turnover. The decline in this sector was
primarily due to the slowdown in the construction industry from 2008 onwards 81.Companies involved
in marine manufacturing are found throughout Ireland, both along the coast and inland. However,
there are clusters of particular marine product manufacturing to be found in certain areas,
particularly in Co. Donegal (marine industrial engineering) and counties Galway and Cork (boat
building).
3.1.4 Marine Commerce and Ship Leasing
Marine commerce in this study refers to ship surveying and the legal, finance and insurance services
to the shipping industry. In 2010, Marine commerce had a turnover of €67 million and generated €40
million in GVA to the Irish economy. Turnover decreased by 34.2% between 2007 and 2010,
particularly in the areas of financing and insurance. The Irish marine commerce sector employed 78
direct FTE in 2010. Companies that provide marine commerce services are primarily located in
Dublin, Cork, and Galway. The majority of these companies are large international firms, who have
marine related divisions82. International ship leasing and charter operations are one of the fastest
growing segments of the maritime services cluster. Growth in this segment has been driven by both
indigenous and foreign inward investment and Harnessing Our Ocean’s Wealth (HOOW) 83 sets out a
target for an increase in turnover to €2.6 billion84 in maritime commerce and ship leasing by 2020.
While this is an ambitious target, on-going work by the IMDO and the IDA regarding the proposed
International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC) in Dublin could deliver a significant aspect of this
growth. It is expected that such a hub would attract firms involved in shipping, ship leasing,
shipping finance and operations management 85.
Recent policy developments at the national and European level that are of relevance for the
shipping and maritime transport sector in Ireland are the National Ports Policy (2013)86 and the
European Atlantic Action Plan (2013)87. Companies operating in the ports and maritime transport
services area are largely dependent on the wider performance of the Irish economy to drive growth
and investment. The growth in this segment can be linked to future domestic GDP forecasts. The
most recent publication of the IMTE88 (May 2014) indicates that “a number of important indicators
show that shipping and port volumes are increasing, and there is investment taking place in an
industry sector that has often been a reliable bellwether for economic growth. Preliminary figures
81
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013
83
Government of Ireland, Inter-Departmental Marine Coordination Group (MCG), ‘’Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth - An
Integrated Marine Plan (IMP) for Ireland,” July 2012
84
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013The ship leasing component of this
target is included in shipping and maritime transport in this report, and cannot be disaggregated due to data confidentiality
85
Irish Times 2nd August 2013: Global shipping hub plan for Dublin docklands on scale of IFSC has O’Brien as investor Proposal aims to make Dublin a world centre for shipping and related services
86
Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (2013) National Ports Policy
http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/content-publication/National%20Ports%20Policy%202013.PDF
87
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/sea_basins/atlantic_ocean/index_en.htm
88
The Irish Maritime Transport Economist. IMDO. 2014. http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/279790e8#/279790e8/1
82
Skills in the Marine Economy
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for the first quarter of 2014 suggest that the trends in the maritime transport sector that were
observed in 2013 have continued and that a degree of cautious optimism is justified.” In particular,
The Irish Maritime Development Office released a statement in June 2013, indicating that the
tonnage tax has made a positive economic contribution to Ireland with the creation of new jobs and
investment opportunities for over 600 people 89.
3.2
Company Interviews
This section details the findings from the 17 companies interviewed from the Maritime Transport,
Shipbuilding and Services sector (MTSS). There was a total of 531 employees within the companies
interviewed representing approximately 9% of the total employment of 5,689 FTEs in the MTSS
sector in Ireland.
It is important to note that all the statistics in this section refer only to the companies interviewed
and should not be extrapolated to the entire sector.
3.2.1 Turnover and Exports
Figure 3.1 shows that of the 17 companies interviewed in the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and
Services sector, ten companies (59%) stated turnover had grown moderately, approx. 10%-20% pa
over the last three years while four (23%) stated that turnover had decreased over the last three
years.
Figure 3.1: Percentage of Companies that experienced a Change in Turnover over the last 3 Years
in the MTSS sector
23%
Decreased
Stayed the same
59%
18%
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Figure 3.2 shows the levels of export growth anticipated over the next six years by the companies
interviewed. Eight companies (50%) expected levels of export to grow moderately, (10%-20% pa),
while six companies (38%) expected levels of export to stay the same over the next six years.
89
IMDO Press Release, June 2013: ‘Irish based International Shipping & Leasing sector remains steady in 2012’
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
The interviews with the companies also found that on average, over the last three years
approximately 43% of the turnover was from exports.
Figure 3.2: Anticipated Export Growth over the next 6 Years for the MTSS sector
6%
6%
Decrease
Stay the same
38%
50%
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
3.2.2 Employment Growth/Decline by Occupation
Companies were asked about their employment growth by occupation over the last three years and
their anticipated growth for the next six years. Examples of job roles by occupation within the
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services Sector are outlined in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Job Roles by occupational level in the MTSS sector
Occupation Level
Job roles
Operative Grades
General Operatives, Stevedores, Tug Operators, Crane operators,
Deckhands, Boat Crew, Riggers
Administration
HR staff, General Administrators, Receptionists
Skilled Trades
Harbour Masters, Berthing Masters, Bunker Brokers, Pilots, Radio
Operators
Associate
Marine Insurance Agents, Marine Underwriters, Cargo Claims
Professional &
Personnel, Ships Agents ,Freight Forwarders, Commodity Traders,
Technical
Charterers, Ship Brokers, Ship Chandlers and Equipment Suppliers
Professionals
Master Mariners and other Deck Officers, Engineering Officers, Naval
Architects, Marine Surveyors, Hull Surveyors, Cargo Surveyors,
Maritime Analysts, Shipping Accountants & Lawyers, Hydrographic
Surveyors, Marine Planners
Management
Directors, Project Managers, Fleet Managers
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing Document, Part III, Enablers - Getting the
Conditions Right for Growth (2012)
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 3.3 shows that over the last three years there was a decline in employment by 16% (14
persons) for operative grades but for professional occupations employment increased by 24% (21
persons). However over the next six years, companies anticipate the largest employment growth
will be for administration occupations at 54% (23 persons) closely followed by the professional
occupations at 49% (53 persons) and operatives at 40% (30 persons).
The decline in employment for operative grades with an increase in employment for professionals
could be explained by the mix of sub sectors in Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services
sector. Ports activity, in line with the economy, has decreased and therefore the number of
operatives required would also be expected to decrease. Shipping companies, like those being
attracted for the ISSC, employ highly qualified professionals and the IMDO have been working to
attract companies here ahead of the ISSC, an example of which is D’amico.
Figure 3.3: Employment Growth within the offshore MTSS sector*
60%
3yrs ago -> now
Now -> next 6 yrs
40%
23
20%
53
30
6
4
13
29
21
21
3
14
0%
-14
-20%
Operative
Grades
Admin
Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professionals
Management
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
*Values are calculated as a percentage of growth from 3 years ago to now and now to the next 6 years, for specific
occupations. The numbers stated in the above figure represent the number of employees companies have stated they have
gained from 3 years ago to now and will need from now to the next 6 years.
3.2.3 Current and Required Skills Levels
Companies interviewed were asked about the current and future qualifications under the National
Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) that they would require for the different occupations,
(Table 3.4). The NFQ is detailed in Appendix 4.
While the number of employees within each category is, in some cases, very small and therefore the
results may not be representative of the sector an interesting change is emerging which is seen
across all the sectors of the marine economy, namely the increase in qualifications for Managers and
Administrators. The companies interviewed anticipate the continued requirement of qualifications
at NFQ Levels 8 – 10 for its Professionals.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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The cells shaded green in Table 3.4 are those for which an increase in NFQ level is anticipated.
Four fifths of those occupied as operatives have a highest level of qualification of NFQ Level 4 -5,
however, there is an anticipated but small reduction in this of 6% with a corresponding anticipated
required increase in qualification up to Level 6 and 7.
For Administration staff and Managers there is also an anticipated increase in qualification which
implies an increase in the professionalisation of the sector with the focus on the development of the
managers and administrators to lead, manage and expand the sector.
No significant change is anticipated for professionals or associate professionals as the qualifications
required are already in line with what would be expected.
Table 3.4: Current and anticipated NFQ Levels required by Occupation in the MTSS sector
Occupation
NFQ Level
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
9-10
Current
8
Future
6-7
Current
4-5
Future
<4
Current
Number
75
105
0%
2%
81%
75%
19%
25%
0%
0%
0%
0%
Administration
41
64
2%
2%
32%
14%
37%
34%
29%
48%
0%
2%
Skilled Trades
159
188
0%
0%
43%
40%
57%
60%
0%
0%
0%
0%
Associate
81
102
0%
0%
18%
16%
60%
54%
20%
27%
2%
3%
Professionals
109
162
0%
0%
0%
0%
1%
1%
78%
81%
21%
18%
Management
66
80
0%
0%
24%
14%
44%
40%
24%
40%
8%
6%
Total
531
701
Operative
Grades
Professional
and Technical
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Cells shaded
indicate no significant change in NFQ level for the occupation, while cells shaded
required and cells shaded
indicate a corresponding decline in NFQ required
indicate a higher NFQ level
3.2.4 Training and Development
The companies were also asked about training provision for their employees. Figure 3.4 shows that
for the MTSS 31% of companies stated they had either 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 training days throughout
the year.
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Figure 3.4: Number of Training Days in the MTSS sector
21 - 25 days
6%
11-15 days
31%
6 - 10 days
31%
1 - 5 days
31%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Figure 3.5 shows that 71% of companies interviewed used in-house training and 59% used Further
Education and Training providers such as the ETBs. The higher education provider which emerged
for vessel training and marine engineering was the National Maritime College of Ireland (NMCI).
Figure 3.5: How Training was delivered for the MTSS sector
Internally- on or off the job
71%
Further Education and Training
Providers
59%
Private Providers
Higher Education Institutions
29%
6%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
3.2.5 Availability of Personnel
Companies were asked about the availability of personnel with the relevant education, skills and
expertise. A summary of the results is outlined in Table 3.5. Caution must be used in interpreting
these results given the low response rate.
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Table 3.5: Availability of Personnel for the MTSS sector
Not enough people in my local area with right level of:
Education
Experience
Skills
N
%
N
%
N
%
Operative Grades
1
6%
1
6%
1
6%
Administration
1
6%
2
12%
1
6%
Skilled Trades
3
18%
3
18%
4
24%
Associate Professionals
and Technical
Professionals
5
29%
7
41%
8
47%
3
18%
5
29%
6
35%
Management
0
0%
2
12%
1
Base= 15 responses
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Table 3.5, indicates that companies have the most difficulty finding professionals and associate
professionals (pink shaded cells). Companies cited that a lack of basic marine knowledge and field
skills was an issue; in particular they stated that Hydrographic Surveyors and Geologists with field
skills were lacking.
3.2.6 Difficulties Filling Current Vacancies and Skills Supply
Of 17 companies interviewed 82% had roles which they found were difficult to recruit into. The
main roles which were difficult to recruit into were:

Ship captains;

Ship engineers;

Crewmen;

Hydrographic Surveyors;

Marine electricians;

Environmental scientists;

Marine Planners;

Vessel masters;

Welders; and

Marine engineers.
Companies also noted they found it difficult to find people with planning and geologist
qualifications, mechanical and electrical skills, foreign language skills and marine IT skills.
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3.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
The main employment in this area of the ocean economy currently centres on the Irish ports, of
which three have been categorised in the National Ports Policy as “Ports of National Significance
(Tier 1)” namely: Dublin Port Company, Port of Cork Company and Shannon Foynes Port Company 90.
Each port is individually responsible for 15% to 20% of overall tonnage through Irish Ports. There is
clear potential for the development of major port based activities, such as the proposed Liquefied
Natural Gas receiving terminal “Shannon LNG” on the Shannon Estuary that would create hundreds
of jobs during construction and sustained employment in the plant and in the associated port
activities during plant operation over the longer term. The ports’ companies themselves have
relatively small numbers employed, with around 300 FTE employees between the three Tier 1 ports.
Even though vacancies do not come up regularly, specialist skills can be difficult to find, for roles
such as harbourmaster and berthing master. These positions are often filled by former merchant
seafarers or naval officers. Most of the employment in the ports is in business services providing
logistics, haulage, tug boats, stevedoring etc. The majority of the occupations are at “operative”
level but as port activities grow, there could be skills issues due to lack of ‘maritime’ training and
experience of operatives.
The consultations highlighted a lack of awareness among school leavers of options for “maritime”
careers – a merchant marine career at operator level starting as deck hand and working upwards can
provide a well-paid career. Crew and deck operators are available in the global market place, so
pay scales can be at the low end but niche areas with offshore skills-sets have good opportunities
for higher pay. Evidence from the company interviews indicated that a lack of basic marine
knowledge and field skills was an issue when companies go to the market to recruit.
The other skills issues related to ports are linked to the higher labour intensity of the ferries e.g. at
the Rosslare Europort, (one of the two ports categorised as “a Tier 2 Port of National Significance”)
and plans for the development of Cruise tourism infrastructure e.g. Dun Laoghaire (categorised as
one of the Ports of Regional Significance).
Other links between the ports sector and other sectors of the ocean economy include the
involvement of the Port of Cork in partnership with companies developing technology for the
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector. These high-tech marine companies have
potential for fast growth trajectories and MTSS is one of the emerging markets identified for focus
in Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. Marine manufacturing is currently a relatively small area of
employment, though initiatives highlighted by the Development Task Force on ship building in Cork
Harbour and a centre for international yacht racing teams would create much higher levels of
employment in the longer term. These examples illustrate the role ports play as an enabling
infrastructure throughout the ocean economy.
On-going work by the Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) and the IDA regarding the proposed
international shipping services centre (ISSC) is a major project likely to impact on employment in
the maritime transport area. There are currently 17 companies (technically 9 groups, operating 42
subsidiaries and 8 separate individual companies) in Ireland that own or manage around 182 vessels,
which operate between ports worldwide but do not necessarily dock in Ireland. The Irish offices
employ engineers, ex-captains and specialists in ship broking/chartering, marine law and finance,
crew management, logistics and freight. The proposed ISSC involves the development of a purpose
90
http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/node/add/content-publication/National%20Ports%20Policy%202013.PDF
Skills in the Marine Economy
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built centre in Dublin, similar to the International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) and a phased
build-up to accommodate over 100 maritime companies and creating over 3,500 jobs. These
maritime companies will need skills where business experience is combined with maritime
knowledge e.g. maritime, leasing and brokering skills. One approach to addressing this is where exmariners are recruited and the training focus is on business skills, while other companies could
choose to “marinise” the business based skills. D’amico is an example of one such company that has
established an Irish office and currently employs around 30 people.
Shipping services provide opportunities to work abroad and the establishment of the ISSC would
offer scope to return to well-paid employment in Ireland. The workforce is mobile and tends to
move between companies to broaden experience for promotion and the cluster to be created by the
proposed ISSC is an attractive proposition for international companies. Courses on Nautical
Sciences, for example at the NMCI, help to provide the skills needed by the shipping services
companies and specialist modules or masters for economics, finance, and engineering graduates
that cover specialist shipping application areas could address the growing need for these skills that
would result from a successful ISSC.
3.4
Future demand for MTSS Skills, 2015-2020
3.4.1 Introduction
This section of the report deals with the potential future demand for skills employment in the
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services subsector over the period 2015-2020 arising from
expansion of the sector and replacement of employees who retire referred to as expansion and
replacement demand respectively.
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover target of €2.6bn as set out in HOOW will be met by 2020 and
the impact that this would have on employment and skills demand is forecast. Consultations with
industry stakeholders, informed by the economic background data gathered, were used to
determine how this increase in turnover could be achieved, how the additional turnover would be
distributed between the various industries making up the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and
Services sector and how employment would need to increase in order to generate this turnover. A
modelling exercise was then conducted using the information from the company interviews to
estimate how the expansion demand would be distributed by occupational grade in each sub-sector
over the period 2015-2020.
3.4.2
Scenario 1: Achieving the HOOW targets
3.4.2.1
Scenario 1 Summary
A forecast of employment was developed, in consultation with stakeholders and shaped by the
available economic data and published forecasts and which assumes that the HOOW target of €2.6
billion turnover for the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services sector would be met by 2020.
There are two main components to growth in the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services
sector which need to be treated separately for the purposes of this study:
i.
growth in the shipping and maritime transport (excluding ship leasing) subsector, driven by
investment in ports and which currently forms the bulk of the sector in employment terms; and
Skills in the Marine Economy
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ii.
the establishment of an International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC) in Dublin, a world class,
industry-specific office facility in Dublin’s Docklands to accommodate blue chip global shipping
and trading companies.
The premise of Scenario 1 is that most of the expansion would take place from the establishment of
the ISSC.
3.4.2.2
Contribution from Maritime Commerce and Ship Leasing: Scenario 1
If developed, the ISSC would account for the majority of the €2.6bn turnover target from HOOW.
The Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) have produced a Skills, Training and Educational
Needs assessment for the ISSC and anticipate that 3,500 jobs could be hosted at the site across a
range of up to 100 companies91. (Table 3.6)
Table 3.6: Anticipated breakdown of jobs in the International Shipping Services Centre
Organisation Type
% of jobs
No. of jobs
International shipping companies
70
2,450
National shipping companies
9
315
International banks
5
175
Insurance and finance companies
4
140
National and international traders
3
105
Brokers and agents
6
210
Others
3
105
Total
100
3,500
Source: IMDO: Skills, Training and Educational Needs
As can be seen from the Table 3.6, international shipping companies are expected to account for
70% of the jobs created by the ISSC. It is envisaged that senior roles (representing 10-20% of the
total employed) within the international shipping companies will be filled by candidates with either
operational experience in shipping or those with experience in commercial, financial and taxation
issues. It is expected that experienced mariners (captains and chief engineers) will be recruited to
fill senior operational roles and accountants/ business graduates will fill commercial and financial
roles. Less senior roles (representing 20-25% of the total employed) will be filled by candidates with
primary degrees in business subjects or professional qualifications from bodies such as the
Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, or have qualified as Chartered Ship Brokers.
The jobs created by the other 30% of organisations are expected to be filled primarily by business
graduates in the areas of banking, finance, insurance, and in the expanded activities of national
shipping companies.
91
Skills, Training and Education Needs, International Shipping Services Centre, Dublin Docklands. IMDO. 2014.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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3.4.2.3
Assumptions for Other Sectors: Scenario 1
Port activity (and associated jobs) is expected to grow at a rate of 3-5 % per annum:

All the Tier 1 ports have extensive plans to develop capacity in the short, medium and long term
and all have well developed Master plans and/or Strategic Plans in place - supported by National
Ports Policy.

Shannon Foynes Port Company (SFPC) and the Port of Cork have significant sheltered deep
water sites available for future economic development. This is a strategic advantage owing to
the trend for larger vessels requiring deeper waters and a small number of ports globally with
sufficient depth.

The development of deep-water sites is also an advantage for other major facilities such as:
energy storage, large scale processing, manufacturing and assembly of offshore turbines and
transhipment facilities. Examples of existing and potential developments include:
the proposed Shannon LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) Terminal which will employ 100 FTEs;

Rusal’s Alumina plant which directly employs over 450 FTE’s and 400 contract FTEs with a
cumulative capital expenditure of well over €1bn invested in the plant in Askeaton, Co.
Limerick.
3.4.3
Employment and Skills Implications
The scenario forecasts an expansion demand for the sector of 4,928 jobs, with 3,500 coming from
Marine Commerce including Ship Leasing, 1,400 from shipping and maritime transport and the
remaining 28 from the other industries in the Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services sector.
The distribution of the additional 4,928 FTE jobs by occupation level is shown in Table 3.7. The first
column shows the 2014 FTE baseline estimate by occupation level. The next set of columns presents
the expansion demand, the percentage of that figure to the 2014 baseline estimate for that
occupation level and the percentage of the occupation expansion to the total expansion demand.
Then follows the replacement demand - those leaving, e.g. due to retirement or change of
occupation. The gross demand is the sum of the expansion and replacement and is the true
reflection of the skills demand for the sector. Summed across the period 2015-2020, the total
number of workers leaving is estimated to be 2,373, known as the replacement demand, which
when summed with the expansion demand of 4,928 gives a total gross demand of 7,301 employees.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
% of
No.
2014
% of
No.
2014
% of
demand
No.
2014-2020
% of Gross
2014
2014-2020
Gross Demand
demand
Demand
% of Replacement
Demand
demand
Replacement
% of Expansion
Expansion
Estimate
Baseline
% 2014 Total
Estimate
2014 Baseline
Level
Occupation
Table 3.7: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand for the MTSS sector by occupation level
Operatives
814
14%
850
104%
17%
476
58%
20%
1,326
163%
18%
Administrative
445
8%
651
146%
13%
283
64%
12%
934
210%
13%
1,727
30%
821
48%
17%
706
41%
30%
1,527
88%
21%
803
14%
793
99%
16%
261
33%
11%
1,054
131%
14%
Professionals
1,183
21%
1,416
120%
29%
452
38%
19%
1,868
158%
26%
Managers
717
13%
397
55%
8%
195
27%
8%
592
83%
8%
Total
5,689
4,928
87%
2,373
42%
7,301
128%
Skilled
Trades
Associate
Professionals
& Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
The distribution of expansion demand (4,928 FTE jobs) by NFQ level is shown in Table 3.8 The
demand is concentrated in levels 6 – 7 and 8 of the framework (higher certificate/advanced
certificate and honours degree or equivalent). This is largely driven by a substantial increase in the
number of workers in professional and associate professional occupations (2,209 of 4,928) arising
from the skills requirements of the International Shipping Services Centre.
Table 3.8: Distribution of Expansion demand by Educational Attainment at NFQ level for the MTSS sector
Expansion
NFQ Level
Demand
4-5
Secondary School Leaving Certificate and Certificate FET awards
542
6-7
Higher Certificate/Advanced Certificate and Ordinary Bachelors Degree
1,555
Honours Degree or Higher Diploma
2,591
Masters and Doctoral Degrees / Postgraduate diploma
240
8
9 - 10
Net Total
4,928
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
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3.5
Supply Side Information
3.5.1 Maritime Transport
The National Maritime College of Ireland (NMCI), a purpose built facility in Ringaskiddy about 18km
from Cork city, is the national centre for education and training for careers in the maritime sector.
It is a constituent college of Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) and comprises of the Irish Naval
Service (INS) and the School of Nautical Studies. NMCI offers degree courses in Nautical Science,
Marine and Plant Engineering and a Certificate in Seamanship.
The Irish Naval Service (INS), which is the maritime component of the Defence Forces, has two entry
levels for joining the Naval Service i.e. as a Cadet or as a Recruit. The NMCI provides the nonmilitary training for the INS.
While the focus of this study is on skills for enterprises in the Marine economy, the Naval Service
training is included here for completeness as the skills can be transferred over to the merchant
marine sector (Table 3.9). It is therefore a potential skills resource should a person decide to leave
the defence forces.
Table 3.9: List of NMCI Maritime Training Courses
Course
Institution
Award
Duration
Merchant Shipping - Sea Based Roles
Higher Certificate in Nautical Studies
NMCI
Certificate
3 yrs
Nautical Science
NMCI
BSc
3.5 yrs
Marine and Plan Engineering
NMCI
BEng
4 yrs
Marine Electro-technology
NMCI
BEng
4 yrs
Irish Naval Service
Cadet Training - Operations
Irish Naval Service in NMCI
Cadet Training - Engineering
Irish Naval Service in NMCI
Engineering Training - Tradesmen:
Fitters, Electricians and Joiners
Communications Training - Comms
Operators or Radio Radar Technicians
Irish Naval Service in NMCI
Irish Naval Service in NMCI
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
The NMCI has a Maritime Engineering Unit including a full size working ship’s engine room, fully
instrumented control room, welding, electrical and mechanical engineering workshops. It also has
marine simulators, full mission bridge simulator, engine room, port work and VTS simulators as well
as GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System) simulators, liquid cargo handling and damage
control. The facility provides training in all areas of Sea Safety, Emergency Response, Fire Fighting
and GMDSS Maritime Communication. The college also has a Sea Survival Pool in which extreme
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April 2015
environmental conditions can be simulated as well as fully compliant equipment, instruments and
platforms for training purposes. Approximately 100 students graduate each year from NMCI with
either the BSc or BEng.
There are no dedicated Maritime Business Masters available in Ireland. The only specifically
Maritime business courses available in Ireland are those provided by the Institute of Chartered
Shipbrokers (ICS).
The ICS is the only internationally recognised professional body in the maritime arena and it
represents shipbrokers, ship managers and agents throughout the world. It is a major provider of
education and training and sets and examines the syllabus for membership, providing the shipping
industry with highly qualified professionals. An Ireland Branch of the ICS was formed in 1974.
The Professional Qualifying Examination (PQE) forms the pinnacle of the ICS qualification and
comprises seven examinations over a maximum of five years. In addition to the PQE, for people with
little experience, there is a Foundation Diploma and an Advanced Diploma the latter being designed
as a stepping stone into full professional qualification. Both these Diplomas are stand alone.
Table 3.10 lists the required modules for the Diplomas and PQE.
Table 3.10: The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers Syllabus for its Professional Qualifying Examinations
PQE Compulsory Papers
Introduction to Shipping
Compulsory for Foundation Diploma
Legal Principles in Shipping Business
Economics of Sea Transport and International Trade
Compulsory in Yr 1 for PQE
Shipping Business
Compulsory for Advanced Diploma
Optional Papers – Group 2
Dry Cargo Chartering
One subject from Group 2 for both
Ship Operations and Management
the Foundation and Advanced
Diploma
Ship Sale and Purchase
The PQE requires choosing a total of
Tanker Chartering
3 examinations from the combined
Liner Trades
Group 2 and Group 3.
Port Agency
Logistics and Multi-modal Transport
Port and Terminal Management
Offshore Support Industry
Optional Papers – Group 3
Shipping Law
Marine Insurance
Shipping Finance
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
In Ireland on average about 40 people a year take the ICS examinations in contrast to 6,000 globally.
Despite this <1% participation rate an Irish student won an international award in 2014 for obtaining
the highest marks in the world in one of the modules. The majority (around 95%) of people who
undertake ICS training are employed in the shipping sector or the shipping component of a
financial/legal/insurance company. Courses can be done via on-line correspondence or at a Dublin
venue, one Saturday per month (six hours) between September and April. Two modules are taught
each year and the examinations are held in April.
Waterford Institute of Technology (WIT) provides a 1 year add-on, NFQ level 7 ordinary BA, for
students who have a Higher Certificate (NFQ Level 6) in either Legal Studies or Business Studies. It is
designed for those seeking work in areas related to international trade, namely: export/import
administration, marketing and financing, international carriage and insurance of goods. Students
who obtain this award receive some exemptions for the ICS – PQE.
The only private provider of training for international trade (excluding Logistics and Supply Chain)
that was identified was Export Edge. The Professional Development courses that they provide are
listed in Table 3.11. Approximately 200 people attend these courses annually with some attending
more than one course. Typically those attending courses are working in the sector and are sent on
the course by their employer. Further details on the courses are available on their website 92.
Table 3.11: Professional Development Courses from Export-Edge
Course Title - Award/Awarding Body
Duration
International Trade - QQI and Irish Institute of Credit Management
3 months
International Trade Blended Learning Course QQI and Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM)
Dangerous Goods by ait - iata approved
3 days
Letters of Credit Operations
1 day
Export Procedures and Documentation
1 day
Customs Clearance Procedures
1 day
Customs Compliance Procedures
2 days
Customs Compliance Refresher
1 day
VIES INTRASTAT and Customs Procedures
1 day
International Payment methods for exports
1 day
International Credit Collections
Dangerous Goods ADR Awareness
Dangerous Goods by Sea - Introductory IMDG
Dangerous Goods by Sea - IMDG Code Advance Course
Dangerous Goods Safety Adviser - DGSA
Source: Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation November 2014
92
www.export-edge.com
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Courses dealing with Logistics and Supply Chain Management are not dealt with in this report as
they are the subject of a separate EGFSN report looking specifically at Logistics 93.
Another alternative for graduates who wish to pursue a career in Shipping is to go abroad to
undertake a Masters designed specifically for the shipping and maritime sector. Some countries have
a long established tradition in shipping and undergraduate and postgraduate courses have evolved to
provide graduates for the sector. Many of these courses are conducted in English. Table 3.12 lists a
number of postgraduate courses available abroad.
Table 3.12: Post-Graduate Qualifications in Shipping available in Major shipping locations
Provider
Course Title
CASS Business School – City University London
MSc in Shipping, Trade and Finance
BI Norwegian School
Executive MBA in Maritime Offshore
Copenhagen Business school
Executive MBA in Shipping & Logistics – The Blue
MBA
Nanyang Technical University Singapore
MSc in Maritime studies – Accredited by the BI
Norwegian School and the Maritime Port Authority
of Singapore
Erasmus Rotterdam
MSc in Maritime Economics and Logistics
Source: The IMDO Ireland
In addition to the formal maritime qualification courses and the short course on trade and exports a
series of practical short courses for those working or aiming to work in the shipping/port sector are
provided by the NMCI. These are outlined in table 3.13.
Table 3.13: Shipping and Port Sector Training by NMCI
Training
Course Title
classification
Container Gantry Crane Operation – Simulator and Classroom
Duration
Port Sector94
3 days
Port Sector
5 days
Port Sector
2 days
Pilot Refresher Course
Port Sector
2.5 days
Port Pass – Docks Operation and Safety Training
Port Sector
1 day
Shipboard Familiarisation
Specialised Course
Tanker Familiarisation
Specialised Course
based course, plus 6 months practical crane operation.
Mobile Dockside Crane Operation - – Simulator and Classroom
based course, plus 6 months practical crane operation.
Container Gantry and Dockside Crane Operator Induction – for
candidates who have little or no experience of operating cranes in
a port related environment.
93
http://www.skillsireland.ie/publications/featuredpublications/title,12923,en.php
94
Port Sector Training is provided in association with the Port of Cork
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Training
Course Title
Duration
classification
Specialised Training for Oil Tankers (STCW-95)
Operator Electronic Chart Display - Based on IMO (International
Maritime Organisation) Model course
Specialised Course
5 days
Simulation
5 days
Oil and Shipping Operations
Oil Tanker Operations in Port
Understanding LNG (Liquid Natural Gas)
2 days
LNG Carrier Operations in Port
LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas)- Introduction
LPG Operations in Port
Bunkering - A complete Guide
Petrochemical, Oil
and Commodities
Seismic Replenishment at Sea Operations
Ship to Ship (STS) Transfer Commercial Training
95
3 days
1 - 5 days
1-2 days
Ship to Ship (STS) Transfer Simulator Course
Dry Cargo Operations and Chartering
2 days
Rummage Training
Deep Rummage Training
Actions to be taken to Prevent acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
3.5.2 Maritime Safety
While Maritime Safety is included in this section, Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services,
safety applies to all sea-going vessels therefore these maritime safety courses apply right across all
aspects of the Marine economy where a boat goes out on the sea.
The Maritime Safety Directorate of the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport comprises two
main sections: the Maritime Safety Policy Division (MSPD) and the Marine Survey Office (MSO), with
the latter dealing with the examination and certification of seafarers’ competencies and the
enforcement of standards by way of audits on organisations and facilities and prosecutions for
breaches of regulations. Maritime Safety encompasses merchant ships, passenger vessels, fishing
trawlers and leisure craft.
Shipping is a truly international industry, and it can only operate effectively if the regulations and
standards are themselves agreed, adopted and implemented on an international basis. The
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is the forum at which this process takes place. A
95
Petrochemical, Oil & Commodities training are provided by GTSS (GAC Training & Service Solutions) a partnership between
GAC and the National Maritime College of Ireland established to provide innovative and cost saving training for the maritime
sector. GAC is a global provider of integrated shipping, logistics, marine and related services.
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specialized agency of the United Nations, the IMO is the global standard-setting authority for the
safety, security and environmental performance of international shipping. Its main role is to create
a regulatory framework for the shipping industry that is fair and effective, universally adopted and
universally implemented. The Maritime Safety Directorate implements agreed revised safety
standards through the ratification of international treaties/conventions and the introduction of
regulations and legislation.
The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
(STCW), developed in 1978 (amended in 1995 and 2012,) was the first to establish basic
requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers on an international level.
Previously such standards were established by individual governments, usually without reference to
practices in other countries and as a result standards and procedures varied widely.
While the Standard is still colloquially referred to as the STCW-95 certificates are issued as ‘STCW78 as amended’ -the most recent 2012 Manila Amendment brought the standard back to the 1978
version. The Maritime Safety Directorate publishes a list of approved training course providers under
STCW -78/95. The most recent list is Marine Notice No. 33 of 2013 (amended 26/06/2014)96.
The approved STCW-78/95 Certificates of Proficiency Safety Training courses for Sea-going
personnel available in Ireland are shown in table 4.14.
Table 3.14: List of STCW Sea Safety Training Courses
Course
Award
Duration
Personal Survival Techniques (PST), STCW-95
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
1 day
Elementary First Aid - (STCW-95)
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
1 day
Personal Safety and Social Responsibility (PSSR), STCW-
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
1 day
Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (STCW-95)
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
3 days
Basic Safety Training - includes: PST, PSSR, Elementary
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
6 days
Advanced Fire Fighting (STCW-95)
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
5 days
Medical first Aid Aboard Ship (STCW-95)
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
3 days
Medical care training Aboard Ship (STCW-95)
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
5 days
Proficiency in Survival Craft and Rescue Boats -
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
5 days
Proficiency in Fast Rescue Boats - STCW95
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
2 days
Crisis Management and Human Behaviour - STCW95
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
½ day
Crowd Management - STCW95
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
½ day
Efficient Deck Hand - STCW95
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
5 days
Proficiency in Security Awareness - STCW95
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
1 day
95
First Aid; Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting
STCW95
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
96
http://www.dttas.ie/sites/default/files/corporate/MN33of2013-Amended
Approved%20Training%20Course%20Providers%20UPDATE_1.pdf
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The DTTAS approved providers for the above courses are as follows:

BIM – Donegal and Castletownbere

NMCI - Cork

Chris Mee Safety Engineering (CMSE) - Cork

Sea & Shore Safety Services - Dublin

Bow Waves - Galway

SeaTec Maritime Training - Mayo

West Galway School of Navigation - Galway

Professional Maritime Training - Donegal

Cantwell Keogh & Associates - Cork
The providers can only provide training for those sections of the STCW convention for which they
have been approved. It has not been possible to ascertain the total number of STCW certificates
issued in any given year as this data is no longer collected by the Marine Survey Office.
In addition to the above sea safety courses there are additional STCW courses for Certificates of
Competency in GMDSS radio-communications. These are shown in Table 3.15.
Table 3.15: List of STCW GMDSS Radio Communication Training Courses
GMDSS Radio Course
Award
Duration
Restricted Operator Certificate - ROC
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
4 days
General Operator Certificate - GOC
STCW-78/95, DTTAS accredited
10 days
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
The companies approved by the DTTAS to provide these radio courses are as follows:

BIM

NMCI

VHF.ie (Moher Technologies)
In addition to the STCW – GMDSS courses there are VHF (Short and Long range) courses approved by
the DTTAS. For anyone operating a boat, with a VHF radio it is a legal requirement for the person
using the boat to have the appropriate certificate (Table 3.16)
Table 3.16: List of Radio Courses
GMDSS Radio Course
Award
Duration
Short Range Certificate for VHF Operators (SRC)
DTTAS accredited
2 days
Long Range Certificate for VHF Operators (LRC)
DTTAS accredited
5 days
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
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The companies providing VHF – SRC and LRC radio courses are listed below.

BIM

NMCI

VHF.ie (Moher Technologies)

West Galway School of Navigation97

SeaTec Maritime Training

Sea & Shore Safety Services

Professional Maritime Training
Cork County ETB also provides a “Seafaring Safety Skills” courses. The next course is scheduled for
September 2015. This is a nine week course and includes the STCW-78/95 Basic Safety Training
(PST, PSSR, Elementary First Aid, Fire Fighting and Prevention). It also has modules on Coastal
Navigation and General Ship Knowledge and Seamanship. This course provides learners with the
skills and competency to perform as an effective junior member of the deck team on board a
merchant ship trading internationally. The course also aims to provide a learner with qualifications
which will enable them to gain access to further formal training in Seamanship leading to a
qualification as an Efficient Deckhand (EDH). This course also has a module on Career planning and
Job Seeking Skills. Applicants apply through their local Employment/Intreo office.
3.6
Summary
Growth in this sector has been driven by both indigenous and foreign inward investment and
Harnessing Our Ocean’s Wealth (HOOW) has set out a turnover target of €2.6 by 2020. This is an
ambitious target and it is envisaged that the proposed International Shipping and Services Centre
(ISSC) in Dublin could facilitate it being reached.
This opportunity if realised will increase employment by 4,928 FTE new jobs by 2020 of which 3,500
jobs, would be at the proposed ISSC. The remainder of the proposed growth would be driven by
investment in the ports. The replacement demand is estimated to be 2,373 FTE over the period
2015-2020 with the gross demand at 7,301.
The main skills which were difficult to source are engineers (ship, marine and composite),
hydrographic surveyors, and environmental scientists. Companies also found people with adequate
practical experience and marine knowledge difficult to source and had difficulty recruiting ships
captains; ship engineers and crewmen.
There is development potential for major port based activities which would create sustained
employment in the associated port activities over the longer term and not just in the construction
phase.
There appears to be lack of awareness among school leavers of the possibilities and options
available of a maritime career.
97
The companies listed in italics are not on the DTTAS approved list, but their websites indicate that they provide some or
all of the GMDSS radio courses
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Chapter 4:
Energy
Sub-sectors

Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

Offshore Marine Renewables - Wind, Wave and Tidal
4.1
Economic Profile
There are two distinct industries in the energy sector that relate to Irelands Ocean economy,
namely the offshore oil and gas sector and the offshore marine renewables sector. The offshore oil
and gas sector is a well-established, global industry, though activities in Ireland are at a low level
due to few discoveries of commercially attractive offshore oil and gas fields when compared to
activities in UK and Norway in the North Sea.
Marine Renewables centres on technologies that generate electricity from offshore wind, wave
energy and tidal current resources. It is an emerging sector, which has seen dramatic growth
globally over the last 10 years, mostly through the development of large offshore wind turbine
arrays in the UK, Denmark and Germany.
Table 4.1 summarises the 2010 economic indicators for the sector. The oil and gas sector, although
at a low level in Ireland compared to the UK and Norway, is an established industry which is
reflected in the significantly larger turnover than for the newly emerging offshore renewables
sector.
Table 4.1: 2010 Economic Indicators for the offshore Energy sector
Direct
Sub-sector
Employment
(FTE)
GVA
Turnover
(€millions)
(€millions)
Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Production
861
61
126
Marine Renewables – Offshore Wind, Wave and Tidal
216
4
12
Total
1,077
65
138
Source: SEMRU, Ocean Economy Report 2013 (Ref. year 2010)
The table above shows that GVA for the Energy sector in 2010 was €65 million while turnover was
€138 million. In addition, direct employment in the Energy sector was 1,077 FTE.
The most recent official data is the 2010 data provided by SEMRU (Socio-Economic Marine Research
Unit in NUIG). The first Ocean Economy Report, published in 2010, was based on the reference year
2007, at the height of the economic boom (2003 – 2007). The latest report, with a reference year of
2010 and published in December 2013, represents the lowest point of the economic contraction
(2007 – 2010) and a significant decrease in activity. In order to develop forecasts of the future skills
demand to 2020, baseline estimates for 2014 were produced98, using additional sources of
98
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
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information, such as: annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad
sectors; Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and
SOLAS Occupational Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and
discussions with stakeholders. Employment and turnover in Marine Renewables grew between 2007
and 2010 and the consensus position, based on the evidence provided and discussions with
stakeholders, was that this growth rate would have continued between 2010 and 2014 though at a
slightly lower rate. Offshore Oil and Gas also gained in employment between 2007 and 2010, but
lost substantial turnover and GVA over the same period, and the stakeholder discussions suggested
that further employment growth between 2010 and 2014 would have been unlikely and so the 2010
employment figure has been carried forward to the 2014 baseline.
Table 4.2: Offshore Energy profile – FTE Direct Employment 2007, 2010, 2014 (estimated)
‡
2010
‡
Sub-sector
2007
2014*
Offshore Oil and Gas
790
861
861
Offshore Renewables
101
216
287
Total
891
1,077
1,148
‡: SEMRU Data from “Ireland’s Ocean Economy”, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates, developed by PACEC, based on the 2010 SEMRU data
4.1.1 Oil and Gas exploration and production
The 2010 figures show that the Irish Oil and Gas exploration and production industry directly
employed 861 people full time, had a turnover of €126 million and added a direct gross value of €61
million to the Irish economy. The sector is concentrated in the coastal regions of Donegal, Mayo,
Cork, Kerry, Galway and in the South East. The Irish Offshore Operators Association (IOOA) is the
representative body for the Irish offshore oil and gas industry 99. There are currently sixteen member
companies of the IOOA, however, the number of companies who hold options, exploration licences
and prospecting licences is much larger100. In 2006, it was estimated by the Department of
Communications, Energy and Natural Resources - Petroleum Affairs Division (DCENR - PAD) that
there were potentially 10 billion barrels of oil equivalent (gas and/or oil) in the Atlantic Margin in
the West of Ireland in addition to Kinsale, Ballycotton and Seven Heads. There are financial
investment risks associated with development of gas sites which could damage the potential for
growth in the sector. A review of Ireland’s oil and gas industry 101 stated that based on historical
experiences, the probability of making a commercial discovery in Ireland is low (1 in 32) compared
with Norway (1 in 7) and the UK (1 in 6).
The Corrib gas field is the only commercial discovery in Ireland in the last 20 years in relation to
petroleum potential. The project is operated by Shell E&P Ireland Ltd (with partners Statoil and
Vermillion Energy) and over its lifespan the gas field is expected to contribute €3 billion to Ireland’s
99
The IOOA proactively assists in the development of oil and gas exploration and production in Ireland’s waters. It provides a
forum in which its member companies work together to identify and tackle issues facing Ireland’s offshore industry.
100
http://iooa.ie/about-us/member-companies/
101
Making the Most of Our Natural Resources. PwC. 2013 http://www.providenceresources.com/uploads/pwcoilandgasreportfinal-may2013.pdf
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GDP. A study of the Economic Benefits of the Corrib Gas Project (2012)102 estimated that when the
gas field is fully operational it will employ directly approximately 55 full time jobs and give rise to a
further 76 indirect jobs over the 15-20 years of its activity.
Ireland’s fiscal regime for oil and gas exploration and production has evolved considerably 103 since
1975 when it was first introduced. Between 1987 and 2007 there were a number of changes
implemented which were designed to make the oil and gas sector more attractive to exploration
companies. In addition, 2007 saw the introduction of Profit Resource Rent Tax (PRRT) that would be
payable in the case of more profitable fields. This ensured the State’s interest in a large
commercial discovery was protected. A major driver for the offshore oil and gas industry in Ireland
in the near future will be the Atlantic Margin Licensing Round104 which has been launched for 2015.
This has the potential to provide industries with the certainty necessary to invest in offshore
exploration in Irish waters, and has the potential to employ large numbers of people in Ireland if
viable discoveries are made.
4.1.2 Marine Renewable Energy – Off-shore Wind, Wave and Tidal
The wave and tidal sectors are still in the developmental stages in Ireland and globally, while the
offshore wind sector is seeing considerable progress taking place at a European and global level105.
In Ireland in 2010, the Offshore Renewables sector had a turnover of €12 million. Turnover
increased by 100% between 2007 and 2010. There were 216 direct FTE in the field of Offshore
Renewables in 2010. Employment more than doubled between 2007 and 2010 in this sector 106. At
present there are 5 companies actively involved in developing offshore wind energy projects in
Ireland; these are: SSE Renewables, Oriel Windfarm, Codling Wind Park, Dublin Array and
Fuinneamh Sceirde Teoranta107. The only offshore wind farm constructed to date is the first phase
of the Arklow Bank project.
The EU Blue Growth108 study identified offshore wind and ocean renewable energy as two of the
most promising activities with regards to future growth activities. Ireland’s location at the western
edge of the Atlantic Ocean means that it is ideally located to take advantage of the emerging
opportunities to harness power from marine renewable resources. WestWave 109 is a collaborative
initiative led by ESB which will generate an initial 5MW of electricity from wave energy, this is in
line with ESB’s strategy and will fulfil phase 3 of the Irish Government’s Ocean Energy Strategy.
102
Economic Benefits of the Corrib Gas Project. Goodbody Economic Consultants. 2012.
http://www.corribgaspipeline.com/uploads/file/further-information/goodbody_report%20November%202007.pdf
103
Review of Irelands Oil and Gas Fiscal System. Wood Mackenzie. 2014 http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/639CBB4441D6-49F1-9629-7E1A98BBBDCC/0/ReviewofIrelandsOilGasFiscalSystem.pdf
104
http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/9B40A9A2-10AE-4E6A-93821D07FC76A802/0/2015LicensingRoundNotice18June2014Final.pdf
105
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan: A Framework for the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s Offshore Renewable
Energy Resource. Feb 2014. http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/Energy/Sustainable+and+Renewable+Energy+Division/OREDP.htm
106
Ireland’s Ocean Economy – Reference Year 2010; NUIG, SEMRU , Published Dec 2013.
107
http://www.nowireland.ie/offshore-wind-ireland.html
108
Blue Growth – Scenarios and drivers for Sustainable Growth from the Oceans, Seas and Coasts, Third Interim Report, 2012.
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/documentation/studies/documents/blue_growth_third_interim_report_en.pdf
109
http://www.westwave.ie/
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4.1.3 Skills
The oil and gas industry relies on a flexible, mobile international workforce. There are many skilled
Irish people working in the oil and gas industry abroad, but there is no indigenous industry to sustain
employment. The range of skills required in this sector is very broad, however, there are some
specialist technical skills including geological, geophysical, engineering, IT/computing and financial
essential for oil and gas exploration and production110. In 2013, the UCD School of Geological
Sciences introduced an MSc in Petroleum Geoscience which provides graduates with some of the
skills for the oil and gas industry. Ireland, however, does not have a degree in petroleum
engineering unlike universities in London and Aberdeen which have a long history in this area.
There are a few companies which provide specific training for the offshore oil and gas sector in
Ireland. Effective Offshore111 offers a range of courses that are specifically designed to provide the
basic knowledge needed to work in the industry; courses include offshore safety, offshore
emergency and rigger training. A more comprehensive list is in Table 4.11.
The publication “Innovation in the Blue Economy the EU” 112 has shown there is a demand for marine
renewables skills at a European level, particularly in the offshore wind industry given the fast
growth of the industry. A report carried out by Marine Research Industries Association 113 in 2011 into
the third level education needs of the ocean energy industry in Ireland, found that the traditional
disciplines of civil, mechanical and electrical engineering with other areas such as computer
science, science – physics, chemistry and biology, mathematics and health and safety are
fundamental to the industry. The report found that there was no real shortage of third-level skills in
the nascent ocean energy industry but more was needed to attract young people into engineering
generally. There will also be a need for engineers with experience of working in a demanding
offshore environment, especially in roles such as process engineering, marine energy engineering,
structural engineering and wave scientists.
4.2
Company Interviews
This section details the findings from the ten companies interviewed from the offshore Energy
sector. There was a total of 704 employees within the companies interviewed representing
approximately 61% of the total employment of 1,148 FTEs in the offshore energy sector in Ireland.
It is important to note that all the statistics in this section refer only to the companies interviewed
and should not be extrapolated to the entire sector.
4.2.1 Turnover and Exports
Figure 4.1 shows that of the ten companies interviewed in the offshore energy sector, four
companies (40%) stated that turnover had grown moderately (increased by approx. 10%-20% per
annum) over the last three years while three (30%) stated turnover had grown significantly
110
http://iooa.ie/
http://www.effectiveoffshore.ie/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=24&Itemid=267
112
Communication from the Commission. Innovation in the Blue Economy: realising the potential of our seas and oceans for
jobs and growth. COM. 2014. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=COM:2014:254:REV1&from=EN
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/blue_growth/
113
Third-Level Education Needs of the Ocean Energy Industry. To maximize the job and income creation potential of Ireland’s
ocean energy resource. Discussion Paper. MRIA. 2011. http://www.mria.ie/documents/92d05fb11cdab8d6531dd4cbb.pdf
111
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(increased by more than 20% per annum) over the same period, while a further 30% indicated that
turnover had stayed the same.
Figure 4.1: Percentage of Companies that experienced a Change in Turnover over the last 3 Years
in the offshore Energy sector
30%
30%
Stayed the same
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
40%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Figure 4.2 shows the level of export growth anticipated over the next six years by the companies
interviewed. Half of the companies (five) expected levels of export to grow significantly (increase
by more than 20% per annum) over the next six years while four companies (40%) expected levels of
export to grow moderately (increase by approx. 10%-20% per annum) and the remaining one
company expected levels to stay the same. The interviews with companies also found that on
average, over the last three years approximately 49% of the turnover was from exports.
Figure 4.2: Anticipated Export Growth over the next 6 Years for the offshore Energy sector
10%
Stay the same
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
50%
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
40%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
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4.2.2 Employment Growth / Decline by Occupation
Companies were asked about their employment growth by occupation over the last three years and
their anticipated growth for the next six years. Examples of job roles within the Energy Sector are
outlined in Table 4.3.
Table 4.3: Job Roles by occupational level in the offshore Energy Sector
Occupation Level
Job Roles
Operative Grades
General Operatives, Riggers, Boat Crew
Administration
HR staff, General Administrators, Receptionists
Skilled Trades
Mechanics, Electricians, Maintenance technicians, Fabrication and
Welding Technicians, Divers
Associate Professional
IT Technicians, Software Development Technicians, Hardware
& Technical
Developers,
Professionals
Marine Energy Engineer, Drilling, Reservoir & Petroleum Engineers,
Geoscientists/geo physicists, Hydrographic surveyors, Production &
Facilities Engineers, Environmental & Chemical Engineers, Structural &
Mechanical Engineers, Power Systems, Turbine Monitoring & Diagnostic
and Smart Grid Engineers, Wave Scientists, Data Systems Analysts,
Naval Architects, Marine Surveyors, Oceanographers, Marine
Meteorologists, Energy Economists, Master Mariners and other Deck
Officers, Engineering Officers
Management
Site Development Managers, Marine Operations Managers
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing Document, Part III, Enablers - Getting the
Conditions Right for Growth (2012)
The companies interviewed highlighted that there had been significant employment growth in the
Energy sector over the last three years. Figure 4.3 shows that the most significant employment
growth over the last three years has been in the associate professional & technical and management
occupations (250% and 140% respectively). The energy sector projected the highest employment
growth of all sectors over the next six years, envisaging doubling the number employed at present,
albeit from a low base. However, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from these
figures due to the small sample base of ten companies. Over the next six years, companies
interviewed indicated that they expected the most substantial employment growth in the Associate
Professional & Technical and Professional occupations (225% and 145% respectively).
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Figure 4.3: Employment Growth within the offshore Energy Sector*
250%
3yrs ago -> now
Now -> next 6 yrs
200%
150%
55
100%
172
539
50%
10 17
0%
Operative Grades
39
13 11
Admin
49
167
59
49
Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professionals
Management
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
*Please note values are calculated as a percentage of growth from 3 years ago to now and now to the next 6 years, within
specific occupations. The numbers stated in the above figure represent the number of employees companies have stated
they have gained from 3 years ago to now and will need from now to the next 6 years.
4.2.3 Current and Required Skills Levels
Companies interviewed were asked about the current and future qualifications under the National
Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) that they would require for the different occupations.
(Table 4.4) The NFQ is detailed in Appendix 4.
While the number of employees within each category is, in some cases, very small and therefore the
results may not be representative of the sector an interesting change is emerging which is seen
across all the sectors of the marine economy, namely the increase in qualifications for Managers,
Professional and Associate Professionals & Technical.
For Operatives the qualifications requirement is anticipated to increase to levels 4 - 5, from below
level 4 at present, which is in line with Government policy of keeping people in school to complete
their leaving certificate. The reduction in requirement from level 6-7 to level 4-5 is also to be
expected as the economy picks up and those with qualifications at levels 6 & 7 will find employment
commensurate with their educational attainment.
For administrative occupations and skilled trades the educational attainment required is not
significantly different. Alternatively it could be that those with high educational attainment are
taking jobs requiring lower qualifications so that they can obtain the experience of working in an
offshore environment which is one of the skills issues that companies reported having difficulty
recruiting.
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Table 4.4: Current and anticipated NFQ Levels required by Occupation in the offshore Energy Sector
NFQ Level
46
24%
0%
38%
72%
38%
28%
0%
0%
0%
0%
Administration
43
54
0%
0%
47%
48%
25%
28%
26%
20%
2%
4%
Skilled Trades
101
150
0%
0%
75%
76%
19%
17%
6%
7%
0%
0%
77
249
0%
0%
14%
4%
11%
4%
7%
7%
67%
85%
Professionals
370
909
0%
0%
0%
0%
3%
0%
12%
8%
85%
92%
Management
84
143
2%
0%
0%
0%
10%
6%
82%
88%
6%
6%
Total
704
1,551
& Technical
Future
29
Associate Professional
Current
Future
Operative Grades
Future
Current
9-10
Future
8
Current
6-7
Future
4-5
Current
<4
Future
Current
No.
Current
Occupation
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Cells shaded
indicate no significant change in NFQ level for the occupation, while cells shaded
required and cells shaded
indicate a corresponding decline in NFQ required
indicate a higher NFQ level
4.2.4 Training and Development
The companies were also asked about training provision for their employees. Figure 4.4 shows that
for the offshore energy sector 50% of the companies interviewed provided between 6-10 training
days a year per employee.
Figure 4.4: Number of Training Days in the offshore Energy sector
16-20 days
20%
6-10 days
50%
1-5 days
30%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
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Figure 4.5 shows that 80% of companies interviewed used in-house training and 40% used both
private providers and Further Education and Training providers such as the ETBs. The higher
education provider which emerged for vessel training and marine engineering was the National
Maritime College of Ireland (NMCI).
Figure 4.5: How Training was delivered for the offshore Energy sector
Internally- on or off the job
80%
Private Providers
40%
Further Education and Training
Providers
40%
Higher Education Institutions
10%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
4.2.5 Availability of Personnel
Companies were asked about the availability of personnel with the relevant education, skills and
expertise. A summary of the results in outlined in Table 4.5. Caution must be used in interpreting
the data given the low levels of response.
Table 4.5: Availability of Personnel for the offshore Energy Sector
Not enough people in my local area with right level of:
Education
Experience
Skills
N
%
N
%
N
%
Operative Grades
0
0%
1
10%
1
10%
Administration
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
Skilled Trades
2
20%
3
30%
3
30%
Associate Professionals and
Technical
2
20%
3
30%
3
30%
Professionals
2
20%
3
30%
4
40%
Management
2
20%
2
20%
2
20%
Base= 10
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
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Table 4.5, indicates that companies have the most difficulty finding Professional and associate
professionals and skilled trades (pink shaded cells) with the requisite experience and skills. This can
be interpreted as a lack of experience working in an offshore environment. (Section 4.2.6)
4.2.6 Difficulties Filling Current Vacancies and Skills Supply
In the Energy sector, 70% of companies interviewed stated that they have roles which were difficult
to recruit into, the main occupations identified were electrical and specialist engineers; people
with offshore energy skills; Project managers with practical experience; people with basic technical
skills (i.e. riggers; people with algae-biology experience; people with software data skills; and
general tradesmen).
4.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
4.3.1 Offshore Oil and Gas
The Oil and Gas sector is a diverse industry ranging from production, exploration and the supply
chains for these areas. Production facilities need engineering skills and one such example is the
Corrib Gas Field which will employ approximately 131 people during its 10-15 year life of field
production. For exploration, the skills needed are for scientific research activities and are typically
MSc and PhD graduates. Increased exploration is anticipated following the announcement from the
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR) for a licensing round in
2015114. However, the current fall in oil prices could have an impact on the exploration potential
but a discovery could lead to demand for additional production facilities.
Initial seismic surveys are not likely to have an impact on employment and skills, although this will
change if well drilling takes place on foot of these surveys. There will also be an increase in demand
for port facilities and service vessels. An example of such a demand occurred following Corribrelated drilling activity in the Slyne Basin, with 214 offshore vessel movements in Killybegs; 620
additional flights at Donegal’s Carrickfinn Airport and the industry generated €3 million in Killybegs
during 2007.
Deep water ports will also be needed to support drilling activities (e.g. the location of the port
facilities in Aberdeen resulted in the growth of an industry cluster servicing the North Sea oil and
gas activities). In Ireland the Shannon Foynes Port Company or Cork Harbour have deep waters and
could accommodate this activity. If the exploration resulted in a significant number of wells being
drilled then exploration companies could end up establishing headquarters in Ireland.
A commercial discovery and the development of one or more offshore oil or gas fields have the
potential to provide and stimulate the growth of high-end jobs. Currently a number of discoveries in
the Porcupine and Celtic Sea basins are being appraised. Overall, there is cautious optimism that
commercial development could occur in the next few years and one discovery could generate
momentum. The skills needed to service these activities will be Levels 8 – 10 degrees, (honours
degrees, Masters and PhDs) generally in engineering, geoscience and hydrography.
An offshore services group targeting business opportunities for Irish companies in the supply chain
was established previously in anticipation of offshore oil and gas discoveries, though relatively little
114
http://www.dcenr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/9B40A9A2-10AE-4E6A-9382-1D07FC76A802/0/2015LicensingRoundNotice18June2014Final.pdf
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activity followed compared to the likes of Aberdeen, which benefitted from the discoveries in the
North Sea. However, the potential for major new oil finds for Scotland in the North Atlantic is being
predicted which could open up a second oil boom and Ireland could benefit. This is an area being
assessed by the HOOW Development Task Force and a major initiative is planned to ensure
opportunities for rapid growth can be capitalised on.
4.3.2 Marine Renewable Energy
The emergence and rapid growth in the Marine Renewable Energy sector has been driven by
European targets for generating renewable energy of which one way is to harness the huge
renewable energy resources in the seas and oceans around North West Europe.
The UK leads worldwide in offshore wind energy, with 1,075 turbines (3,653MW) deployed, a
pipeline for 8,000MW by 2016 envisaged and 18,000MW installed by 2020. The first demonstration
project was deployed in UK waters in 2000 (Blyth – 4MW) and the first large scale array followed in
late 2003 at North Hoyle (60MW). Employment since then has grown to current levels of 6,830 full
time employees. The wave and tidal energy sectors are still at the demonstration stage, though the
success of offshore wind deployments is expected to promote a similar growth trajectory over the
next 5-10 years.
Ireland is particularly well placed to compete in this emerging sector and the Offshore Renewable
Energy Development Plan (OREDP) published in 2014 by the DCENR identified scope to develop
4,500MW of offshore wind and 1,500MW of wave energy in Irish waters without any significant
environmental impacts. At present there are 5 companies actively involved in developing offshore
wind energy projects in Ireland, with sites at various stages in the permitting process, which
involves environmental impact assessments and applications for grid connections. These sites could
produce over 2,600MW, with an associated investment in excess of €8bn, and could be deployed
within the next 3-5 years if agreements were reached with the UK to export the electricity
generated.
For wave energy, ESB is developing a 5MW demonstration project called Westwave and was recently
awarded over €20 million from Europe to help fund the building and operation of the project. The
EU is supporting the establishment of the wave and tidal energy sectors and a European Ocean
Energy Forum has been set up with the aim of having at least ten demonstration projects, like
Westwave, deployed by 2020. Ireland has some of the best sites for wave energy in Europe and
other members of the Marine Renewables Industry Association (MRIA) in Ireland are actively
investigating options for sites to deploy demonstration projects.
Ireland has the potential to become a centre of excellence and a world leader in research,
development and demonstration in the marine renewables field. Employment opportunities in this
area are currently mostly for graduates, with little available for the time being for technical and
skilled trades. Very specialist skills are needed in early stages as the sector becomes established
and it is believed that this can be catered for by the current supply of graduates and postgraduates. Once demonstration projects are deployed there will be a need for vessel operators and
maintenance technicians. Operatives can be brought in as contractors and the mobility associated
with this workforce means that constraints are unlikely.
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The taught masters in Marine Energy was recently launched by UCC in partnerships with seven other
colleges, including Queens University in Belfast, following a consultation of stakeholders by the
MRIA of the education needs of the industry.
4.4
Future Demand for Energy Skills, 2015 - 2020
4.4.1 Introduction
This section of the report deals with the future demand for skills in the Energy sector over the
period 2015-2020, arising from growth of the sector and the replacement of workers arising from
exits to inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, referred to as expansion and
replacement demand respectively.
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover targets set out in HOOW will be met by 2020. By taking these
targets and translating them into numbers of jobs, the demand for skills for the different jobs out
to 2020 is forecast. Consultations with industry stakeholders, informed by the economic background
data gathered, were used to determine how this increase in turnover could be achieved, how the
additional turnover would be distributed between the various industries making up the offshore
Energy sector and how employment would need to increase in order to generate this turnover. A
modelling exercise was then conducted using the information from the company interviews to
estimate how the expansion demand would be distributed by occupational grade in each sub-sector
over the period 2015-2020.
An estimation of the replacement demand was also conducted using data provided by the SLMRU
(Skills and Labour Market Research Unit, SOLAS) and following the methodology used by them in the
publication of the EGFSN National Skills Bulletin115 on the exits from employment to economic
inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, which vary by occupation .
4.4.2 Scenario 1: Achieving the HOOW targets
4.4.2.1
Scenario 1 Summary
In summary, the collected view of the consulted stakeholders, shaped by the available economic
data and published forecasts, is that if the HOOW turnover targets are achieved the offshore energy
sector will expand by an additional 150 FTE between 2015 and 2020. The Oil and Gas industry will
remain at its 2010 level of employment, while the expansion demand of 150 FTE will be in Marine
Renewable Energy predominantly in engineering services and R&D.
4.4.2.2
Assumptions for Oil and Gas: Scenario 1
Under this scenario, Oil and Gas employment is projected to remain constant from 2010 to 2020.
See Scenario 2 – the accelerated growth scenario, in Section 4.4.4 for evidence on potential
developments which could raise employment in the sector.
115
http://www.skillsireland.ie/media/23072014-National_Skills_Bulletin%20_2014--Publication.pdf
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4.4.2.3
Assumptions for Marine Renewable Energy: Scenario 1
As an emerging industry, Marine Renewable Energy employment grew very rapidly from 2007 to
2010. For this scenario, following discussions with stakeholders and examination of forecasts of
employment in scientific and technical occupations, we have assumed continued growth at a lower
rate, leading to a baseline position of 286 FTE in 2014 and an additional 150 FTE between 2015 and
2020. Scenario 2 – the accelerated growth scenario presented in Section 4.4.4 sets out evidence on
potential developments which could maintain the level of growth which was displayed in the early
stages of this new industry. Scenario 1 - the baseline scenario, represents a continuation of growth
based on existing developments and investments.
4.4.3 Employment and Skills Implications
The distribution of the expansion demand of 150 additional FTE jobs by occupation level is shown in
Table 4.6. The first column shows the 2014 FTE baseline estimate by occupation level. The next set
of columns presents the expansion demand, the percentage of that figure to the 2014 baseline
estimate for that occupation level and the percentage of the occupation expansion to the total
expansion demand. Then follows the replacement demand - those leaving, e.g. due to retirement or
change of occupation. The gross demand is the sum of the expansion and replacement and is the
true reflection of the skills demand for the sector. Summed across the period 2015-2020, the total
number of workers leaving is estimated to be 403 FTEs, known as the replacement demand, which
when summed with the expansion demand of 153 FTEs gives a gross demand of 553 FTE employees.
Table 4.6: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement demand by occupation level for Scenario 1
% of
No.
2014
% of
No.
2014
% of
demand
No.
2014-2020
% of Gross
2014
2014-2020
Gross Demand
demand
Demand
% of Replacement
Demand
demand
Replacement
% of Expansion
Expansion
Estimate
Baseline
% 2014 Total
Estimate
2014 Baseline
Level
Occupation
for the offshore Energy sector
Operatives
47
4%
3
6%
2%
23
49%
6%
26
55%
5%
Administrative
70
6%
2
3%
1%
32
46%
8%
34
49%
6%
166
14%
8
5%
5%
67
40%
17%
75
45%
14%
125
11%
31
25%
21%
41
33%
10%
72
58%
13%
Professionals
603
53%
96
16%
64%
204
34%
51%
300
50%
54%
Managers
137
12%
10
7%
7%
36
26%
9%
46
34%
8%
Total
1,148
150
13%
403
35%
553
48%
Skilled
Trades
Associate
Professionals
& Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
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The occupation group with the largest expansion demand is “professionals” which is in line with the
fact that this is still an emerging sector and the initial expansion will require more professionals, in
particular engineers. There is also a small expansion demand for associate professional and
technical personnel.
A further source of demand for skills is the replacement demand which is estimated to be 403 FTEs.
The largest replacement demand is for professionals at 204 FTEs which is 51% of the total
replacement demand. This is in line with the figure of 53% of the total 2014 workforce being
professionals and it is therefore not surprising that professionals are also the largest replacement
category.
The gross demand over the period to 2020 is the sum of the expansion and replacement demand and
is 553 FTEs.
The distribution of expansion demand of 150 additional FTE jobs by educational attainment is shown
in Table 4.7. The demand is concentrated in levels 9 - 10 of the framework (Masters degree,
Postgraduate diploma and Doctoral degree). This is driven by an increase in the number of workers
in professional and associate professional occupations (127 of the150 total).
Table 4.7: Distribution of Expansion demand by Educational Attainment for Scenario 1 for the offshore
Energy sector
NFQ Level
Description
Expansion Demand
4-5
Secondary School Leaving Certificate
10
6-7
Higher Certificate / Advanced Certificate or Bachelors Degree
2
Honours Degree or Higher Diploma
17
Masters Degree / Postgraduate Diploma or Doctoral Degree
121
8
9 - 10
Net Total
150
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
4.4.4 Scenario 2: Accelerated Growth in Energy Sectors
The stakeholders were also asked to consider the potential developments which may drive growth
over and above the HOOW turnover targets, such as oil and gas exploration and the implementation
of the Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (and realisation of its job creation and growth
aspirations), and what the impacts of these developments may be. Their views have been used to
prepare an additional scenario, Scenario 2, reflecting accelerated growth throughout the offshore
energy sectors.
4.4.4.1
Summary of Scenario 2
Under the accelerated growth scenario, the collected view of the stakeholders is that the energy
sector could expand by an additional 400 FTE by 2020. The Oil and Gas industry will need 100
additional FTE in high tech consultancy and specialist engineering services; while expansion demand
in Marine Renewable Energy will equate to 300 additional FTE by 2020 in engineering services and
R&D.
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4.4.4.2
Assumptions for Oil and Gas: Scenario 2:
The main drivers behind the expansion of the oil and gas industry are as follows:

Current seismic surveying activity;

The 2015 Atlantic Margin oil and gas exploration licensing round 116;

The new fiscal terms for offshore oil and gas exploration and production which provides industry
with the certainty necessary to invest in exploration offshore Ireland; and

IMERC (the Irish Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster) providing companies with the
opportunity to promote products and services in a collaborative manner to global Oil and Gas
companies and increase interests off the Irish coast.
The consensus position among the stakeholders was that this could lead to an increase in
employment of 100 FTEs.
4.4.4.3
Assumptions for Marine Renewable Energy: Scenario 2
The main drivers behind growth in the Marine Renewable Energy Industry are:

The Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan, involving:

Increased exchequer support of €26.3m from 2013 – 2016 for ocean energy research and
demonstration;

A feed in tariff of €260 per MWh for ocean energy arrays up to 30MW in size;

An additional €30m capital grant for the prototype development fund in the 2016 – 2018
period for demonstration projects; and


Export of offshore wind to the UK market through Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA);
The MaREI (Marine Renewable Energy Ireland) centre – with €29.5m funding from SFI and 40+
industry partners.

ESB’s “Westwave” demonstration wave farm - awarded €23.5m of NER300 funding from the
European Commission towards Ireland’s first wave energy project, with proposed delivery of the
WestWave project in 2018

The IMERC campus, along with supports from Enterprise Ireland and IDA to promote new startups and attract FDI companies

Horizon 2020 funding for research and demonstration of new technologies

Continued investment in research infrastructure and test sites for wave energy established in
Ireland, e.g., SmartBay in Galway and the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) in
Belmullet.
These additional jobs could be created from the initiation of five micro businesses creating 3-5 jobs
each, ten SMEs creating 15-20 jobs each and two FDI creating 50 jobs each, e.g., the Irish start-up
Open Hydro now has over 90 employees following investment from the French company the DCNS
Group. The new jobs will require candidates to be educated to at least degree level, ideally to have
116
The Minister of State for Natural Resources, Fergus O’Dowd TD, announced the details of the 2015 Atlantic Margin oil and
gas exploration licensing round on 18th June. The round will close in September 2015 and will include all of Ireland’s major
Atlantic basins: Porcupine, Goban Spur, Slyne, Erris, Donegal and Rockall. The form of concession on offer will be a two-year
licensing option.
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offshore energy skills, although through consultations with Mainstream Renewable Power, this
seems to be a skill which is difficult to source. Other examples of potential job creation include new
companies choosing to relocate to Ireland, for example at IMERC, and Exceedence, a new spin-out
company from UCC bidding for Horizon 2020 funding which would create 3 FTEs.
4.4.5
Employment and Skills Implications
The distribution of the expansion demand of 400 additional FTE jobs by occupation level is shown in
Table 4.8. As for Table 4.6 the first column shows the 2014 FTE baseline estimate by occupation
level. The next set of columns presents the expansion demand, the percentage of that figure to the
2014 baseline estimate for that occupation level and the percentage of the occupation expansion to
the total expansion demand. Then follows the replacement demand - those leaving, e.g. due to
retirement or change of occupation. The gross demand is the sum of the expansion and replacement
and is the true reflection of the skills demand for the sector. Summed across the period 2015-2020,
the replacement demand is estimated to be 429 FTEs giving rise to a total gross demand over the
period of 829 FTEs.
More than half the expansion demand (65%) and the replacement demand (51%) is for professional
occupations such as electrical, mechanical and software engineers, geologists, geophysicists,
applied physicists and biochemical and environmental scientists (as identified from the company
interviews).
Table 4.8: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand by occupation level for Scenario 2
Demand
2014
2014-2020
2014
% of Replacement
Demand
% of Expansion
Replacement
2014-2020
Gross
Demand
2%
24
51%
6%
32
68%
4%
Administrative
70
6%
5
7%
1%
32
46%
7%
37
53%
4%
166
14%
22
13%
6%
69
42%
16%
91
55%
11%
125
11%
82
66%
21%
46
37%
11%
128
102%
15%
Professionals
603
53%
258
43%
65%
220
36%
51%
478
79%
58%
Managers
137
12%
25
18%
6%
38
28%
9%
63
46%
8%
Total
1,148
400
35%
429
37%
829
72%
No.
2014
% of
demand
17%
% of
% of Gross
8
No.
demand
4%
No.
demand
47
Baseline
Operatives
Level
Estimate
% 2014 Total
Expansion
% of
Skilled
Trades
Associate
Professionals
& Technical
Estimate
2014 Baseline
Occupation
for the offshore Energy sector
Source: PACEC, 2014
The distribution of the expansion demand (400 additional FTE jobs) educational attainment (NFQ
level) is shown in Table 4.9. These have been estimated by combining the scenario projections of
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
jobs growth with the responses from the company interviews on the distribution of occupations and
educational attainment among current and likely future workers. As with the baseline scenario
(Scenario 1), the demand is concentrated in levels 9 and 10 of the framework (Doctoral and Masters
Degrees). This is driven by a large increase in the number of workers in professional occupations 258 of the 400 total (65%).
Table 4.9: Distribution of Expansion demand by Educational Attainment for Scenario 2 for the offshore
Energy sector
NFQ Level
Description
Expansion Demand
4-5
Secondary School Leaving Certificate
28
6-7
Higher Certificate / Advanced Certificate or Bachelors Degree
5
Honours Degree or Higher Diploma
46
Masters Degree / Postgraduate Diploma or Doctoral Degree
321
8
9 - 10
Net Total
400
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
4.5
Supply Side Information – Offshore Energy
The offshore Energy Sector has two distinct sub-sectors: Off-Shore Oil and Gas Exploration and
Production and Marine Renewable Energy. While there are many overlapping skill sets required for
both, e.g., engineering and working off-shore skills the focus here is on the specific technical skills
required for each sub-sector. In addition to the industry specific education and training listed here
the marine safety training outlined in the previous section will also apply to many people working in
the off-shore energy sector. Marine and Environmental Scientists, whose education and training are
listed in the section on Seafood and Bio-Products, will also be employed by the off-shore industry as
it has to meet many Environmental Directives.
4.5.1 Oil and Gas Exploration and Production
The one year MSc in Petroleum Geoscience at UCD, which was launched in Sept 2013, offers science
graduates a vocational training in the broad range of technical fields associated with the exploration and
production of the petroleum industry. The course reflects the multi-disciplinary nature of petroleum
geosciences, with modules extending from the geological through to reservoir engineering and practical
experience in the industry.
Table 4.10: Petroleum Geoscience Course Details
Course Title
Institution
Award
Duration
2013 intake
Petroleum Geoscience
UCD
MSc
1 Year
10
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
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In addition to the formal professional qualifications, specific training and qualification is required by
the oil and gas industry before anyone can work on an oil rig. OPITO – Offshore Petroleum Industry
Training Organisation- is the skills organisation for the oil and gas industry. It originated in the UK in
1977 to address the skills gaps between traditional industry and the oil and gas industry and to upskill existing workers. It is now an international organisation with offices in Aberdeen, Kuala
Lumpur, Dubai and Houston. OPITO works with Governments, national oil companies, multinationals and contractors to help them meet their skills needs through, among other things, the
provision of occupational standards and qualifications and quality assurance of training delivery.
Working closely with the oil and gas industry OPITO identifies the needs and requirements for new
and improved technical standards that play a pivotal part in the training and assessing of oil and gas
employees.
Employers worldwide use OPITO Technical Standards to ensure that technicians working in the oil
and gas industry have the knowledge and competence to work on and offshore. Training centres and
employers can apply for approval to deliver technical training and assessment in line with these
standards. The approval procedure and monitoring activity is a robust process and ensures that
training is safe and quality assured with competence based, consistent outcomes.
Two organisations in Ireland are approved by OPITO to provide training. They are:

Effective Offshore in Falcarragh, Co. Donegal and

NMCI in association with SEFtec in Ringaskiddy Co. Cork.
The OPITO approved courses provided by Effective Offshore and NMCI/SEFtec for working offshore
are listed in Table 4.11.
Close to 2,000 people received OPITO training in 2013 with the majority being for BOSIET (Basic
Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training) followed by MIST (Minimum Industry Safety
Training). While it has not been possible to follow up with all those that did receive training, 52% of
those that did respond to a survey were in employment. The people who attend for this training are
a mixture between those who already have a job offer subject to their obtaining the requisite
training, are unemployed technicians (fitters, welders, electricians, construction labourers etc.) and
those who would like to get into the offshore industry. The Department of Social Protection (DSP)
provides up to €500 for unemployed people to partake in this training.
Cork County ETB (formerly FÁS training centre) provides an “Access to Offshore” course. The next
course is scheduled for June 2015. This is a 3 week course and includes the MIST and BOSIET OPITO
training and the Oil and Gas Medical which is a medical certificate required by the oil and gas
industry before a person can work in the offshore environment. This course also has a module on
Career planning and Job Seeking Skills. Applicants apply through their local Employment/Intreo
office.
In addition to its OPITO approval, Effective Offshore is also approved to provide IRATA Rope Access
training. IRATA (Industrial Rope Access Trade Association) is the global trade association for the
“work-at-height sector” with member companies in every continent. Industrial rope access has been
developed by IRATA in the last 25 years to a point where it is the chosen means of access for much
of the work in the offshore oil and gas industry. IRATA International has a formal training and
certification scheme. Rope access technicians are grouped into three technical grades, depending
upon their experience and level of assessment as set out in the IRATA International publication
Training, Assessment and Certification Scheme (TACS).
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Table 4.11: Offshore Training Courses
Course Title
Provider
Approval
Duration
Offshore - Minimum Industry Safety
Effective Offshore
& NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
2 days
Effective Offshore
& NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
3 days
Effective Offshore
& NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
1 day
Effective Offshore
& NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
(HUET) & EBS
½ day &
1 day
NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
4 days
NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
1 day
NMCI/SEFtec
OPITO approved
2 days
Rigger Training Stage 1
Effective Offshore
OPITO approved
3 days
Rigger Competence Stage 3 and 4
Effective Offshore
OPITO approved
2 days
Banksman & Slinging Operations Stage 1
Effective Offshore
OPITO approved
3 days
Rope Access: Level 1,2 and 3
Effective Offshore
IRATA approved*
5 days
Training (MIST)
Basic Offshore Safety Induction &
Emergency Training (BOSIET)
Further Offshore Emergency Training
(FOET)
HUET (Helicopter Underwater Escape
Training): incl Compressed Air
Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)
(TEMPSC)117 Offshore Lifeboat Coxswain
Initial Twinfall Training
(TEMPSC) Offshore Lifeboat Coxswain
Freefall Supplementary Training
(TEMPSC) Offshore Lifeboat Coxswain
Training
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
4.5.2
Marine Renewable Energy – Offshore Wind, Wave and Tidal
4.5.2.1
Overview
The Marine Renewable energy sector is still an emerging sector and its current skills needs are more
for researchers at this point in time until the industry is more developed and then it will have a
greater need for associate professionals and technicians. Table 4.12 lists the engineering courses
that were identified with the marine renewable energy sector. With regard to undergraduates the
industry prefers students to undertake the traditional engineering degree such as mechanical and
electrical and then to specialise afterwards.
117
TEMPSC - Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Craft
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Table 4.12: Engineering courses identified with the marine renewable energy sector
Course Title
Institution
Award
Duration
Engineering Technology with 1
Colaiste chomain - Gaelo
choláiste Ros Dumhach (Ballina)
(Mayo-Sligo-Leitrim ETB)
Level 5
Certificate
1 year
Athlone Institute of Technology
-AIT
BEng
Athlone Institute of Technology
-AIT
M.E.Eng
15
months
Marine Renewable Energy
UCC - (All Island taught
Masters in MRE)
MEngSc
1 year
MaREI - Marine Renewable
MScResearch
Energy Ireland
UCC, NUIG, NUIM, UL, UCD and
CIT
Renewable Energy Engineering
University of Ulster - UU
BBng
4 years
Renewable Energy Engineering
University of Ulster - UU
MEng
5 years
optional Marine Engineering
module
Engineering - Mechanical
Engineering and Renewable
Energy
Energy Communications
Infrastructure
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
The Energy Communications Infrastructure Masters is designed for Civil and Structural engineering
graduates to give them an opportunity to move into the Marine Renewable Sector to work on the
infrastructural requirements of the industry.
4.5.2.2
MaREI – Marine Renewable Energy Ireland
MaREI is an SFI research centre comprising a cluster of key third level institutions (UCC, CIT, UL,
NUIG, UCD and Maynooth University) and industrial partners dedicated to solving the main
scientific, technological and socio-economic challenges related to marine renewable energy. These
challenges require innovative solutions to reduce time to market and reduce costs to a competitive
level. They cover all aspects of the technology development and require solutions to engineering
problems, energy conversion and storage transmission and integration as well as the enabling ICT
technologies and environmental aspects.
The nucleus of MaREI originates from well-established MRE (Marine Renewable Energy)-related
research entities distributed throughout Ireland. The research teams comprise internationally
recognised experts from each of the six participating third level institutions, who have
complementary research backgrounds key to providing the underpinning research necessary for
Ireland to achieve a commercially successful MRE industry. The multidisciplinary nature of the group
reflects the breadth of expertise required to support the R&D requirements of the emerging MRE
industry, both in Ireland and abroad. The main administrative and management activities are
located at UCC’s new Beaufort Laboratory; and the research is conducted across all the
participating institutions.
The MaREI Research Programme aims to transform the MRE sector in Ireland by delivering sciencebased engineering solutions to the large-scale deployment of ocean energy devices. These devices
Skills in the Marine Economy
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will be required to operate cost-effectively in hostile and complex ocean environments. The
Research Programme is closely aligned to the partner companies’ research and development
strategies, and addresses the real needs of both the companies involved and the Marine Renewable
Energy sector as a whole.
The MaREI Research Programme operates on a hub (or platform) and spoke model. It is organised
into four Platform Themes (P1-4), which conduct the scientific research that underpins the
development of the MRE-sector, and five Spokes (S1-5) that contain targeted projects, pertinent to
the industry partners. It is anticipated that additional spokes will be added in the future, as
dictated by research needs, within which further associated targeted projects will be carried out.
The core Platform and Spoke project categories are as follows:
Platform Projects:

P1 = Wave Energy Device Design Innovation and Optimisation

P2 = Marine Electro-gas

P3 = Marine Renewable Energy Informatics Tools

P4 = Cost Reduction for Marine Renewable Energy
Spoke Projects:

S1 = Marine Renewable Energy Devices

S2 = Novel Materials for MRE Systems

S3 = Power Take-Off and Energy Storage for MRE

S4 = Operations Support Engineering

S5 = MRE Decision Support and Data Management
The All-Island Masters Degree in Marine Renewable Energy is a 12-month, full-time taught Masters in
Engineering Science, which is hosted by University College Cork, and involves heavy participation by
MaREI lecturers and staff members. The programme is delivered in conjunction with UCD, Maynooth
University, NUIG, UL, CIT, DIT and Queens University Belfast. It was launched in 2013, with an
intake of 12 students in the inaugural year. A key component of the Masters programme is an
industry-focused project, whereby students develop a topic in collaboration with an industry
partner, and spend 3 months on placement with the partner, carrying the project to completion.
The programme covers a range of engineering and non-engineering topics relevant to the Marine
Renewable Energy (MRE) industry, with specially-developed advanced modules in MRE which are not
available in any other Masters course, which seek to satisfy the increasing demand for suitablyqualified professionals in the MRE sector. This Masters was developed following extensive
consultation with the industry.
4.5.2.3
The Global Wind Organisation
The Global Wind Organisation (GWO) is an association of Wind Turbine owners and manufacturers
whose aim is to support an injury free work environment for the construction and operation of wind
farms both on- and off-shore. To support this aim the GWO has developed a standard for Basic
Safety Training for personnel working on wind farms. While the focus of this study is on off-shore
wind, the Basic Safety Training requirement is the same for both on- and off-shore with the
exception for the sea survival course for the off-shore wind farms. Several hundred people
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
undertake the Basic Safety Training in a given year. Many of these have worked in the building
industry and undertake this training in order to get into this industry. Many will start out working on
land wind farms and when they have gained more experience they will move on to working off-shore
as the money is better. It has not been possible to obtain data regarding the numbers who go to
work off-shore compared to the numbers who undertake the windfarm training.
This Basic Safety Training (BST) standard comprises 4 modules with and additional Sea Survival
Module for working on off-shore wind farms. These are:

First Aid
2 days

Manual Handling
½ day

Fire Awareness
½ day

Working at Height 2 days

Sea Survival
Total – 5 days for Basic Safety Training Standard
2 days
Three organisations in Ireland are approved by GWO to provide the four main modules of the Basic
Safety Training standard. They are:

ARCH – (Access Rescue Consulting at Height), a UK company with a training facility in Shannon
Airport, Co Clare; (They also have a training location in Belfast) ARCH also provides IRATA Rope
Access Training - see section on Oil and Gas exploration above.

Renewables Academy (formerly Daralinn), Wexford; and

Safety Technology (a UK company) in partnership with Letterkenny Institute of Technology,
Killybegs, Co. Dublin
Effective Offshore in Falcarragh which specialises in training for the offshore sector has GWO
approval to provide the fifth “Sea survival” module. Those who have obtained training in any of the
first three organisations and who wish to work on off-shore wind farms can complete their training
in Effective Offshore.
4.6
Summary
The 2010 figures show that the Irish Oil and Gas subsector employed 861 FTEs, had a turnover of
€126 million and added a direct gross value of €61 million to the Irish economy while the marine
renewable sector employed 216 direct FTE, more than double the 2007 figure of 101.
In Scenario 1 – achieving the HOOW targets by 2020, the energy sector will create 150 new jobs. in
the Marine Renewable Energy sub-sector. Replacement demand would require a further 403 FTE,
leading to a total gross demand of 553. Over half of the demand (300 FTE) is for professionals.
Under Scenario 2 -accelerated Growth, 400 new jobs would be created with the Oil and Gas industry
needing 100 and Marine Renewable Energy 300. The replacement demand under this scenario would
be 429, giving a total gross demand of 829 FTE of which 478 of these positions are for professionals
in engineering and R&D.
The oil and gas industry relies on a flexible, mobile international workforce. As there is no
indigenous industry to sustain oil and gas workers they need to travel for work, however with a
critical mass becoming established and momentum from promising discoveries, Ireland could be
seen as the place for global employers to locate and the demand for skilled employees would
significantly increase.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Chapter 5:
Marine Tourism
Sub-sectors

Marine Tourism

International Cruise Industry
5.1
Economic Profile
Using a broad definition for marine tourism which refers to marine and coastal tourism water based
activities as well as the activities and services adjacent to the coastline, Fáilte Ireland, in 2013,
estimated that marine tourism accounts for 10% of the overall value of the tourism revenue in
Ireland118. Marine tourism activities include angling, water sports and seaside/resort trips. Fáilte
Ireland estimated that in 2010 tourism expenditure in Ireland was approximately €5.8 billion 119.
The SEMRU 2010 economic indicators for the Marine Tourism sector are summarised in Table 5.1:
Table 5.1: 2010 Economic Indicators for the Marine Tourism sector
Sub-sector
Direct Employment
GVA (€millions)
(FTE)
Marine Tourism and
Turnover
(€millions)
3,502
337
841120
N/A
N/A
17
3,502
337
858
Leisure
International Cruise
Industry
Total
Source: SEMRU, Ocean Economy Report 2013 (data unavailable for cruise tourism)
In 2010, Marine Tourism and Leisure had a turnover of €841 million, a GVA of €337 million and
employed 3,502 FTEs. These numbers are lower than the 2007 figures which stated a turnover of
€944 million, a GVA of €453 million and full time direct employment of 5,836 people 121. This
decrease reflects the global downturn in the economy during this period.
The most recent official data is the 2010 data provided by SEMRU (Socio-Economic Marine Research
Unit in NUIG). The first Ocean Economy Report, published in 2010, was based on the reference year
2007, at the height of the economic boom (2003 – 2007). The latest report, with a reference year of
2010 and published in December 2013, represents the lowest point of the economic contraction
(2007 – 2010) and a significant decrease in activity. In order to develop forecasts of the future skills
118
http://www.failteireland.ie/Utility/News-Features/News-Library/Significant-growth-in-marine-tourism-achievable.aspx
http://www.failteireland.ie/FailteIreland/media/WebsiteStructure/Documents/3_Research_Insights/3_General_Surveys
Reports/Tourism-Facts-2010-FINAL-v2.pdf?ext=.pdf
120
The €841 million figure is greater than 10% of the overall tourism figure of €5.8 million, however, the figures compiled by
SEMRU include Marine Leisure which is not included in Fáilte Ireland’s figures.
121
SEMRU – Ireland’s Ocean Economy, 2013
119
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
demand to 2020, baseline estimates for 2014 were produced122, using additional sources of
information, such as: annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad
sectors; Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and
SOLAS Occupational Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and
discussions with stakeholders. The consensus position from the stakeholder discussions was that
despite the loss of employment during the recession, the prospects for growth were strong, and any
continuation of the fall in employment which took place between 2007 and 2010 would have
recovered by 2014. As such the 2010 employment figure has been used as the best estimate of the
2014 baseline.
Table 5.2: Marine Tourism profile – FTE Direct Employment 2007, 2010, 2014 (estimated)
‡
Sub-sector
2007
Marine Tourism and Leisure
5,836
2010
‡
3,502
2014*
3,502
‡: SEMRU Data from Ireland’s Ocean Economy, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates based on the 2010 data developed by PACEC
One of the recent major Marine Tourism developments has been The Wild Atlantic Way project123
which is a long-distance driving route stretching along the Atlantic coast from Donegal to West Cork
and will achieve greater visibility for the west coast of Ireland in overseas tourist markets.
Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth sets out a target for an increase in turnover to €1.5 billion in marine
and coastal tourism and leisure (including cruise tourism) by 2020.
Since the launch of Cruise Ireland124 in 1994, the island of Ireland has enjoyed significant success in
the cruise sector with the number of ships increasing from 65 in 1994 to 202 in 2010. In Ireland, the
main ports of call for cruise liners include Cork, Dublin, Waterford and Galway125. In 2012, the
largest cruise ports in Ireland recorded positive cruise traffic levels, with Dublin Port and the Port of
Cork receiving 87 and 57 cruise vessel calls respectively and Dun Laoghaire receiving 14 cruise
vessels in 2013. Currently there are concerns regarding lack of infrastructure at Irish ports to handle
the increased amount of cruise liners in Irish docks 126.
There has also been a positive trend in passenger visits to Irish ports with an increase of over 200%
in the last decade from 64,376 to 204,489 in 2010. In 2010 there was an average of 1,012 passengers
per port call and an average expenditure of €71 per person. Overall the total expenditure of cruise
passengers in 2010 was €17 million 127. The EU Blue Growth Study128 also identifies Cruise Tourism as
one of the most promising activities/markets for Europe.
122
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
123
http://www.failteireland.ie/wildatlanticway
124
www.cruiseireland.ie - Cruise Ireland is a marketing co-operative, which was formed in 1994 to promote the island of
Ireland as a premier cruise destination
125
http://www.failteireland.ie/FailteIreland/media/WebsiteStructure/Documents/3_Research_Insights/1_Sectoral_SurveysR
eports/ReportCruiseTourismIreland.pdf?ext=.pdf “Cruise Tourism to Ireland Research Report – 2010”
126
Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport, National Ports Policy Review
127
“Cruise Tourism to Ireland Research Report – 2010”
128
Blue Growth – Scenarios and drivers for Sustainable Growth from the Oceans, Seas and Coasts, Third Interim Report, 2012.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
5.1.1 Skills
A report by the EGFSN titled ‘Key Skills for Enterprise to Trade Internationally’129 included a
section on skills and talent needed to drive Ireland's tourism sector. Specifically business planning,
risk management, marketing, selling, e-commerce and language learning are identified as key areas
of skill development which must be tackled in order to deliver the highest standards of service. It
recommended that training programmes be developed at NFQ Levels 6 and 7 for employees, in
partnership with tourism businesses, in a continuing professional development format and with a
flexible delivery mode to address the issue.
5.2
Company Interviews
This section details the findings of the nine companies interviewed from the Marine Tourism sector.
There was a total of 83 employees within the companies interviewed representing approximately
2.4% of the total employment 3,502 employees in the marine tourism sector in Ireland.
It is important to note that all the statistics in this section refer only to the companies interviewed
and therefore cannot be extrapolated to the entire sector.
5.2.1 Turnover and Exports
Figure 5.1 shows that of the nine companies interviewed in the Marine Tourism sector, four
companies (45%) stated that turnover had grown moderately (increased by approx. 10%-20% per
annum) over the last three years while three companies (33%) stated turnover had decreased and
two companies (22%) indicated turnover had stayed the same.
Figure 5.1: Percentage of Companies that experienced a Change in Turnover over the last 3 Years in
the Marine Tourism sector
33%
Decreased
45%
Stayed the same
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
22%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
129
Key Skills for Enterprise to Trade Internationally. EGFSN 2012. http://www.skillsireland.ie/publications/2012/title,9402,en.php
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
The interviews with companies also found that of the nine companies interviewed five stated that a
percentage of their turnover was from foreign tourists. Figure 5.2 below shows the levels of foreign
tourist growth anticipated over the next six years by those five companies. Two of the companies
(40%) expected numbers of foreign tourists to grow moderately (increase by approx. 10%-20% per
annum) while a further two expected them to stay the same over the next 6 years.
Figure 5.2: Anticipated Foreign Tourist Growth over the next 6 Years
20%
Stay the same
40%
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
40%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
5.2.2 Employment Growth / Decline by Occupation
Companies were asked about their employment growth by occupation over the last three years and
their anticipated growth for the next six years. Examples of job roles by occupation within the
Maritime Tourism Sector are outlined in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3: Job Roles by occupational level in the Marine Tourism Sector
Occupation Level
Detailed occupation
Operative Grades
Bar Staff, Waiting staff, Cleaners, Drivers, Retailers, General
Operatives
Administration
HR staff, General Administrators, Receptionists
Skilled Trades
Sailing and Wind Surfing Instructors, Canoeing/Sea Kayaking
Instructors, Angling Instructors, Adventure Sports Instructors, Life
Guards, Boat Builders, Tour Operators/Guides, Maintenance
Technicians, Marine Engine Maintenance, Electricians, Chefs
Associate Professional & Technical
Engineering Technicians and IT Technicians
Professionals
Marketing and Public Relations Staff, Translators, Environmental
Managers
Management
Managers - Adventure Centres and Marine Parks, Hotel and
Catering Managers
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing Document, Part III, Enablers - Getting the
Conditions Right for Growth (2012)
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April 2015
Figure 5.3 shows that there has been little or no employment growth over the last three years in the
Marine Tourism Companies interviewed. Employment declined for operatives and with the exception
of Administration which increased by 11% (1 person) all other occupations stayed the same.
Over the next 6 years, the companies anticipated a slight employment growth in the Operative
Grades and Skilled Trade occupations with growth rates of 21% (8 persons) and 17% (2 persons)
respectively. Particular caution must be exercised when drawing conclusions from these results due
to the small sample base of only 2.4% (83 employees).
Figure 5.3: Employment Growth/ Decline within Marine Tourism Sector*
25%
3yrs ago -> now
Now -> next 6 yrs
20%
15%
8
10%
2
1
5%
1
0
0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
-4
-5%
Operative
Grades
Admin
Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professionals
Management
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
*Please note values are calculated as a percentage of growth from 3 years ago to now and now to the next 6 years, within
specific occupations. The numbers stated in the above figure represent the number of employees companies have stated they
have gained from 3 years ago to now and will need from now to the next 6 years.
5.2.3 Current and Required Skills Levels
Companies interviewed were asked about the current and future qualifications under the National
Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) that they would require for the different occupations.
(Table 5.4) The NFQ is detailed in Appendix 4.
The number of current employees in the companies interviewed is very small for some occupations,
and therefore no clear conclusions can be drawn from these. The exception is for operative grades
and from this it is projected that the profile of qualifications needed for operatives will remain the
same as at present.
Skills in the Marine Economy
118
April 2015
Table 5.4: Current and anticipated NFQ Levels required by Occupation in Marine Tourism
Occupation
NFQ Level
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
9-10
Current
8
Future
6-7
Current
4-5
Future
<4
Current
Number
Operative Grades
38
46
3%
2%
79%
78%
0%
0%
18%
20%
0%
0%
Administration
10
10
0%
0%
70%
80%
20%
10%
10%
10%
0%
0%
Skilled Trades
12
14
0%
0%
17%
14%
75%
79%
8%
7%
0%
0%
6
6
0%
0%
0%
0%
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
Professionals
7
7
0%
0%
0%
14%
71%
57%
29%
29%
0%
0%
Management
10
11
0%
0%
50%
50%
10%
0%
30%
30% 10%
Total
83
94
Associate Professional
& Technical
20%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Cells shaded
indicate no significant change in NFQ level required for the occupation, while cells shaded
NFQ level required and cells shaded
indicate a corresponding decline in NFQ required
indicate a higher
5.2.4 Training and Development
Companies were asked about their training provision for their employees. Figure 5.4 shows that for
the Marine Tourism sector 43% of the companies interviewed provided between 6-10 training days a
year per employee and 29% trained staff 1-5 days per year
Figure 5.4: Number of Training Days in the Marine Tourism sector
Over 25 days
14%
11-15 days
14%
6-10 days
43%
1-5 days
29%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
119
April 2015
Figure 5.5 shows that 56% of companies used Private Providers and/or conducted in-house training
Figure 5.5: How Training was delivered in the Marine Tourism sector
Private Providers
56%
Internally- on or off the job
56%
Further Education and Training
Providers
11%
Higher Education Institutions
0
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
5.2.5 Availability of Personnel
Companies were asked about the availability of personnel with the relevant education, skills and
expertise. A summary of the results in outlined in Table 5.5; however caution must be used in
interpreting these results given the low response rate.
Table 5.5: Availability of Personnel for the Marine Tourism sector
Not enough people in my local area with right level of:
Education
Experience
Skills
N
%
N
%
N
%
Operative Grades
4
44%
3
33%
3
33%
Administration
1
11%
1
11%
1
11%
Skilled Trades
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
Associate
Professionals and
Technical
2
22%
2
22%
2
22%
Professionals
1
11%
1
11%
0
0%
Management
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
Base= 9
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
120
April 2015
Table 5.5, indicates that companies have the most difficulty finding operatives (pink shaded cells).
As many of these jobs are in coastal communities, areas which are experiencing high
unemployment, this figure is probably a reflection of the seasonal nature of the sector as opposed
to unavailability of personnel. This is also supported by the findings in the EGFSN National Skills
Bulletin which indicate “No skills Shortage” but has retention issues.
5.2.6 Difficulties Filling Current Vacancies and Skills Supply
In total 67% of companies interviewed in the Marine Tourism sector stated that they didn’t have a
problem sourcing specific skills and qualifications. Of the remaining 33%, the main skills and
qualifications difficult to source were identified as people with practical experience and knowledge
of working in a marine environment (i.e. boat skippers or boat men, and kayak/ rock-climbing
skills/qualifications). Companies interviewed found it difficult to recruit mariners, part time
outdoor tutors and boat mechanics.
5.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
Cruise Tourism is an area that has been identified as having potential for large growth in visitor
numbers, with the associated increase in visitor expenditure which would in turn give rise to
increased employment. Increased tourism numbers from cruise passengers would be expected to
relate mostly to increased employment in the tourism services and attractions sector, which
comprises golf courses, equestrian centres, visitor attractions, car hire, coach hire, cruising and
water based activity centres.
For water based activities, the Irish Sailing Association (ISA) provides training and accreditation for
sailing schools, power boating and wind surfing, and there are approximately 140 training centres in
Ireland split between commercial training centres and sports clubs. Approximately 3,000 instructors
are accredited and trained by ISA. Commercial centres average 5-10 FTE and additional seasonal
employment during summer, mostly employing students. Employees are generally sailing
enthusiasts and entrepreneurial, with several starting up their own training business when
experienced.
Ocean racing offers a good career path into professional sport but currently there is little
opportunity in Ireland for Irish Olympic level sailors, so they leave to work overseas. However, with
the unique Atlantic facing coastal areas combined with Ireland’s talented pool of professional
sailors, Ireland is an ideal location for an “Ocean Racing Training Base” such as the successful
development in Lorient, France, where there are 1,300 jobs in the local nautical industry cluster
and over 700,000 annual visitors for festivals. In addition to the impact on tourism numbers, the
establishment of a yacht racing hub to attract “international racing teams” to Ireland, would
increase requirements for sail making, IT, boat building and associated supply chains. These
businesses would need graduates with good technical knowledge of sailing. It can be difficult to
attract school leavers to a career associated with sailing in Ireland as it is not recognised as a career
here but is seen more as hobby.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
5.4
Future Demand for Marine Tourism Skills, 2015-2020
5.4.1 Introduction
This section of the report deals with the future demand for skills in the Marine Tourism sector over
the period 2015-2020, arising from growth of the sector and replacement of arising from exits to
inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, referred to as expansion and
replacement demand respectively.
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover targets set out in Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth of increasing
turnover to €1.5bn will to be met by 2020. Taking these targets and translating them into number of
jobs the demand for skills out to 2020 for those jobs is forecast. Consultations with stakeholders,
informed by the economic background data gathered, were used to determine how this increase in
turnover could be achieved, how the additional turnover would be distributed between the various
industries making up the Marine Tourism subsector, and how employment would need to increase in
order to generate this turnover. A modelling exercise was then conducted using the information
from the company interviews to estimate how the expansion demand would be distributed by
occupational grade in each sub-sector over the period 2015-2020.
An estimation of the replacement demand was also conducted using data provided by the SLMRU
(Skills and Labour Market Research Unit, SOLAS) and following the methodology used by them in the
publication of the EGFSN National Skills Bulletin130 on the exits from employment to economic
inactivity and net losses from inter-occupational movements, which vary by occupation.
5.4.2 Scenario 1: Achieving the HOOW targets
5.4.2.1
Summary and Assumptions: Scenario 1
The marine tourism scenario is based on achieving the HOOW turnover target of €1,500 million by
2020. The collected view of the stakeholders was that this was achievable. Based upon the average
turnover per capita observed in marine tourism and leisure between 2007 and 2010, this would
require an increase in employment to around 6,949 by 2020. This is a substantial increase over the
current level of employment, but the equivalent figure of 5,836 from 2007 (and the seasonal and
rapid-hiring nature of the sector) suggests that this is not beyond the capacity of Ireland’s tourist
economy to support.
5.4.3 Employment and Skills Implications
The distribution of expansion demand of 3,447 additional FTE jobs by occupation level is shown in
Table 5.6 and was developed using the distribution of employment by occupation in established by
Fáilte Ireland. The first column shows the 2014 FTE baseline estimate by occupation level. The next
set of columns presents the expansion demand, the percentage of that figure to the 2014 baseline
estimate for that occupation level and the percentage of the occupation expansion to the total
expansion demand. Then follows the replacement demand - those leaving, e.g. due to retirement or
change of occupation. The gross demand is the sum of the expansion and replacement demand and
is the true reflection of the skills demand for the sector. Summed across the period 2015-2020, the
130
http://www.skillsireland.ie/media/23072014-National_Skills_Bulletin%20_2014--Publication.pdf
Skills in the Marine Economy
122
April 2015
total number of workers leaving is estimated to be 1,752 FTEs, known as the replacement demand,
which when summed with the expansion demand gives a gross demand of 5,199 FTE employees.
Table 5.6: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand by occupation level for Scenario 1 for
2014
% of
No.
2014
% of
Gross Demand
No.
2014
% of Gross
demand
No.
Replacement
Demand
2014-2020
% of Replacement
demand
Expansion
Demand
2014-2020
% of Expansion
demand
% 2014 Total
Baseline
Estimate
2014 Baseline
Estimate
Occupation Level
Marine Tourism and Leisure including cruise tourism
% of
Operatives
1,604
46%
1,705
106%
49%
1,100
69%
63%
2,805
175%
54%
Administrative
422
12%
371
88%
11%
164
39%
9%
535
127%
10%
Skilled Trades
506
14%
519
103%
15%
265
52%
15%
784
155%
15%
253
7%
222
88%
6%
57
23%
3%
279
110%
5%
Professionals
295
8%
259
88%
8%
74
25%
4%
333
113%
6%
Managers
422
12%
371
88%
11%
92
22%
5%
463
110%
9%
Total
3,502
3,447
98%
1,752
50%
5,199
148%
Associate Professionals & Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
Operatives comprise 46% of the total employment in marine tourism and they are also the
occupation with the largest expansion demand of 49%. For replacement demand, in keeping with
the expected pattern for replacement by occupation, the operatives replacement is 63% of the total
replacement demand while managers and professionals is 5% and 4% respectively yet their
proportion within the 2014 employment estimate is 12% and 8% respectively.
The gross demand over the period to 2020 is the sum of the expansion and replacement demand and
is 5,199 FTEs which is greater than the current total employment.
The distribution of expansion demand of 3,447 additional FTE jobs by educational attainment is
shown in Table 5.7. The demand is concentrated in levels 4 - 5 of the framework (Secondary school
leaving certificate) driven by the predominance of operative grade occupations.
Table 5.7: Distribution of Expansion demand by Educational Attainment for the Marine Tourism sector
NFQ Level
Description
Expansion Demand
Junior Certificate or below
34
4-5
Secondary School Leaving Certificate
1,884
6-7
Higher Certificate / Advanced Certificate or Bachelors Degree
854
Honours Degree or Higher Diploma
601
Masters Degree / Postgraduate Diploma or Doctoral Degree
74
<4
8
9 - 10
Net Total
3,447
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
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5.5
Supply Side Information
As with all of the other sectors, the education and training for Marine Tourism identified here
focusses on the “aquatic” aspect of the sector. There are many routes into Marine Tourism such as
Tourism; Business; Hospitality and Catering; and Hotel management courses. For the cruise
industry, likewise there are many aspects to the industry. For those working on the ships there are
two kinds of training needed: (i) the managing/sailing of the ship itself which requires a maritime
qualification such as the Nautical Science or Marine Engineering degrees provided by NMCI and
detailed in section 3.5.1 and (ii) the services provided on the ship which require people trained in
hospitality.
The tourism products required on shore when a liner arrives at a destination are the normal tourism
activities such as bars, catering and guiding. For the purposes of this study the focus has been on
the water based tourism, such as angling, sailing, surfing and adventure centres with a focus on
water sports.
5.5.1 Outdoor Adventure Activity Tourism
Adventure/Outdoor Activity Tourism has become one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism
industry. Table 5.8 lists most of the outdoor adventure activity training courses available in Ireland.
Table 5.8: Outdoor Adventure Activity Training Courses
Course Title
Provider
Course type
Award
Duration
Outdoor Education
GMIT
BA ord/ hons
NFQ Level
3 yrs/ 1 yr
7/ 8
add-on
NFQ Level
3 yrs/ 1 yr
7/ 8
add-on
NFQ Level
3 yrs
and Leisure
Adventure Tourism
IoT Tralee
BA ord/ hons
Management
Outdoor Adventure
Colaiste Dhulaigh
Management
College of Further
(Colloquially referred
Education
PLC
5
to as the Shackelton
Course)
Outdoor Adventure
Kinsale College of
PLC
Education
Further Education
Outdoor Sport and
Bray Institute of Further
Recreation
Education (FE)
Outdoor Sport and
Drogheda Inst. of FE
PLC
PLC
1yr
NFQ Level
1yr
5
Lough Allen College
PLC
NFQ Level
1yr
5
St. Kevin’s College
PLC
Crumlin
Skills in the Marine Economy
NFQ Level
5
Recreation
Outdoor Recreation
1 yr + 1 yr
5 and 6
Recreation
Outdoor Sport and
NFQ Level
NFQ Level
1 yr
5
124
April 2015
Course Title
Provider
Course type
Award
Duration
Outdoor Activity
Donegal ETB, Gweedore
SOLAS (FÁS) Training
1 yr
Achill Outdoor
PLC
1 yr
Instructor Traineeship
Outdoor Recreation
Education Centre (OEC)
Outdoor Activity
Cappanalea OEC
NFQ Level
5
PLC
Instructor Traineeship
NFQ Level
1 yr
5
Surf Instructor and
SOLAS ETB Training in Tralee, Bundoran, Sligo,
Beach Lifeguard
Westport, Skerries and Ennis, Nov 2014 – Jul 2015
26 weeks
Training
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
On the three year programmes the students obtain a range of awards from the relevant National
Governing Body for a given adventure sport such as, hill walking, rock climbing, sailing, canoeing
and windsurfing. In addition, students learn about the adventure tourism industry, entrepreneurship
and business management, the developmental and educational role of outdoor education, child
protection and communication and personal leadership. Graduates from these courses find
employment as instructors and managers in adventure and outdoor education centres or establish
their own activity centre.
The “Shackleton” course in Coláiste Dhulaigh is one of the longest established outdoor activity
training courses having started in the 1970’s. Graduates from this course are often employed by
earlier graduates. Graduates from Coláiste Dhulaigh can also continue their studies with advanced
entry to the GMIT and Tralee IoT courses as listed in Table 5.8 and also to Waterford IoT (Leisure
Management), University of Chicester (Outdoor education), Strathclyde University (Outdoor
Education) and University of St. Martins (Outdoor Education).
5.5.2 Watersports Training and Certification
National Governing Bodies for watersports regulate the training, awards and qualifications. The
organisations relevant to this study are:

The Irish Sailing Association - ISA

The Irish Canoe Union (now known as Canoeing Ireland) – ICU

The Irish Surfing Association
The Irish Sailing Association is the National Governing Body for sailing and motor-boating in Ireland.
It develops and administers a range of training to support all those involved in sailing and boating of
all types. ISA certified training courses can only be run at accredited ISA training centres, by
suitably-qualified staff, who follow the relevant national syllabus, use appropriate well-maintained
equipment and have adequate safety support. A list of all of the ISA course are in Table 5.9.
The Irish Canoe Union (Canoeing Ireland) is the recognised National Governing Body for canoeing
and kayaking in Ireland. Like the ISA it has awards and qualifications to different levels for river and
Skills in the Marine Economy
125
April 2015
sea kayaking and canoeing. The Levels for instructors run from 1 – 4 and determine up to which skill
level an instructor can teach.
The Irish Surfing Association is the National Governing Body for the sport in the 32 counties of
Ireland. It is a voluntary organisation comprising clubs involved in the development, representation
and regulation of surfing in Ireland.
The students on the adventure tourism courses receive their instructor qualifications from these
governing bodies.
Table 5.9: Watersport Training Courses
Course Title
Provider
Course
Award
Duration
type
ISA Instructor Qualification Courses:

Dinghies,

Keelboats,

Catamarans,

Sailing Yachts,

Motor Yachts,

Powerboats,

Windsurfing.
ICU Instructor Qualification Courses:

Kayaking: Level 1 - 4

Sea Kayaking: Level 3 - 4

Canoeing: Level 1 – 4

Level 5 Instructor – recognises a level
Irish Sailing
Courses to various Instructor
Association –
levels allowing for instruction
ISA approved
to different Skills levels
training
centres
ICU – Irish
Courses to various Instructor
Canoe Union
levels allowing for instruction
to different Skills levels
of excellence in coaching techniques
Level 1 Surf Instructor Course
Irish Surfing
Association
ISA Shorebased training:

Navigation,

Emergency Care,

Sea Survival
ISA approved
training
centres
Yachtmaster - Offshore and Ocean
ISA training
Certificate
centres
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
A number of other courses were identified that are of relevance to the Marine Tourism/Marine
Leisure industry and also the aquaculture sector. They are identified in Table 5.10.
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Table 5.10: Boat and Engine Training Courses
Course Title
Provider
ISA Shorebased
ISA approved Centres
Course type
Award
Duration
training:
Marine Engine
Marine Engine
Cabinteely Community School
Maintenance
and
Lifelong Learning
1 evening/wk x
10 wks
Ringsend College
Boat Building
Cavan Institute
PLC
QQI
1 yr
Boat Building
Ionad Oiliuna agus Oideachais
BTEI
QQI
Evenings
Rosmuc
Boat Building
Garmscoil Einne
Lifelong Learning
8 weeks, 2 hrs/
evening
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
The map below which shows the locations of many water based leisure activities has been
generated from the interactive Marine Irish Digital Atlas (MIDA) 131.
Figure 5.6: Water Based Leisure Activities
Blue Flag
Beaches
Dive Clubs
Blue Flag
Marinas
Marinas and
Pontoons
ISA Sailing
Clubs
Windsurfing
Schools
Surfing
locations
Source: The Marine Irish Digital Atlas (MIDA)
131
http://mida.ucc.ie/contents.htm
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5.5.3 Marine and Countryside Guiding
Marine and Countryside Guiding (MCSG), a Regional and Local Guiding, Special Purpose Level 6
Award, was designed by Fáilte Ireland and the National Tourism Development Authority in
consultation with discipline specialists and providers. The programme equips participants with the
professional, technical, social and administrative skills to offer a quality guiding service. The
programme has been offered by Letterkenny IT (LYIT), GMIT, Tralee IT and Galway-Roscommon ETB.
Currently there are about 60 people between LYIT, Tralee It and Galway-Roscommon ETB taking the
MCSG programme.
It usually consists of two modules, namely “Guiding” and “Irish Cultural and Natural Heritage”.
Additional modules on Coarse, Game, Pike and Boat Angling Guiding and Shore Guiding have also
been offered but these tend to be more expensive and Fáilte Ireland no longer part-funds these
programmes.
Many of the providers of the MCSG course who are located on the Wild Atlantic Way route are
exploring the possibility of establishing a Wild Atlantic Way Ambassador Programme.
5.6
Summary
Employment in Marine Tourism 2010 was estimated to be 3,520 FTEs (FTE), and turnover was €841
million. Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth has set a turnover target of €1.5 billion for the Marine
tourism sector by 2020.
In Scenario 1 - achieving the HOOW targets by 2020, the marine tourism will create 3,447 new jobs.
Replacement demand would require a further 1,752 FTEs giving rise to a total gross demand of
5,199 FTEs largely concentrated among operative grades (2,805 FTEs).
Cruise Tourism has potential to grow its visitor numbers, with the associated increase in visitor
expenditure and give rise to increased employment in the tourism services and attractions sector,
such as golf courses, equestrian centres, visitor attractions, car hire, coach hire, and water based
activity centres.
There are many qualifications offering routes into Marine Tourism such as Tourism, Business,
Hospitality and Catering, and Hotel management courses. There are also specific training courses
available in outdoor adventure activity tourism, watersports training and certification, boats and
engine training and marine and countryside guiding.
Ireland produces Olympic level sailors, and ocean yacht racing offers a good career path into
professional sport. Currently, however, there is little opportunity for Irish Olympic level sailors in
Ireland but this local talent pool combined with Ireland’s unique Atlantic facing coastal areas,
positions Ireland as an ideal location for an “Ocean Racing Training Base” such as that in Lorient in
France which has created 1,300 jobs in its local nautical industry cluster and over 700,000 annual
visitors for festivals.
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Chapter 6:
Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
Sub-sector

High-tech marine products and services
6.1
Economic Profile
The 2010 economic indicators for the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector are
summarised in the Table 6.1 below:
Table 6.1: 2010 Economic Indicators for the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Sector
Sub-sector
High-tech marine products and services
Direct Employment
GVA
Turnover
(FTE)
(€millions)
(€millions)
391
21
56
Source: SEMRU, Ocean Economy Report 2013 (Ref. year 2010)
The most recent official data is the 2010 data provided by SEMRU (Socio-Economic Marine Research
Unit in NUIG). The first Ocean Economy Report, published in 2010, was based on the reference year
2007, at the height of the economic boom (2003 – 2007). The latest report, with a reference year of
2010 and published in December 2013, represents the lowest point of the economic contraction
(2007 – 2010) and a significant decrease in activity. In order to develop forecasts of the future skills
demand to 2020, baseline estimates for 2014 were produced132, using additional sources of
information, such as: annual CSO (Central Statistics Office) employment trend data for broad
sectors; Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) Medium Term Review (MTR) 2013 – 2020 and
SOLAS Occupational Employment Projection 2020 (Jan 2014); results from company surveys; and
discussions with stakeholders.
The 2010 figures indicate that turnover and exports had increased steadily from 2007 and
indications suggest that this trend has continued. In 2007, turnover was €43.6m and increased to
€56m in 2010 (growth of 28.2%). Likewise, exports increased from €10.8m in 2007 to €12.3m in
2010. The numbers in direct full time employment while low compared to other marine industries
increased also from 350 FTEs in 2007, to 391 in 2010. The consensus position is that the sector
continued to grow in employment between 2010 and 2014 at its trend rate of around 4% a year and
a baseline of 457 FTE employees in 2014 has therefore been estimated.
Table 6.2: Monitoring, Security and Surveillance– FTE Direct Employment 2007, 2010, 2014 (estimated)
Sub-sector
2007
High-tech marine products and services
350
‡
2010
‡
391
2014*
457
‡: SEMRU Data from “Ireland’s Ocean Economy”, Ref Year 2007, (2010) and Ref year 2010 (2013)
*: 2014 baseline estimates, developed by PACEC, based on the 2010 SEMRU data
132
The 2014 employment estimates were based on the SEMRU 2010 data which was the latest available data at the time.
SEMRU are currently updating the 2010 data and will publish the 2012 figures later in 2015. The SEMRU publication will also
present 2014 estimates but based on 2012 data.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
The high-tech marine products and services sector encompasses companies from across both the ICT
and marine sectors. It is an emerging sector of strategic interest to multinational ICT companies in
Ireland many of whom are engaged in the development and provision of high-tech marine products
and services to the global marine market. Technology convergence and integration are essential to
the development of specialist marine ICT tools which include the provision of remote sensing
systems, data management and visualisation tools, modelling, simulation, forecasting and
engineering design supporting operational management.
The marine economy faces technology challenges such as the deployment of sensor networks, the
development of software and control interfaces and access to communication links for data transfer
and management. The application of remote sensing and information technologies for
environmental measurement and monitoring presents Ireland with an opportunity to capitalise on
the rapid evolution of technology in this area.
With Ireland’s ocean territory ten times the size of its land mass and its strategic position on the
western periphery of Europe makes Ireland an ideal location for a European and Global Centre for
ocean research, technology and innovation. In 2010, the Marine Institute published a National
Strategy on the development of the Smart Ocean Innovation Cluster 133 which involved the creation
of a multi-disciplinary innovation cluster supporting the convergence of ICT and marine related
industries. SmartBay Ireland134, which manages the ¼ scale marine test site located in Galway Bay,
is the national marine test facility for the development of innovative products and services for the
global maritime sector. This includes the trial and validation of novel marine sensors, prototype
equipment and the collection and dissemination of marine data to national and international users
of the facility.
HOOW identifies this sector as one with opportunities for economic growth and has set a turnover
target in excess of €61 million by 2020. There are currently in the region of 50 indigenous and
multinational companies in the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector based in
Ireland.
6.1.1 Skills
If Ireland is to build a successful Marine ICT sector it has to meet the global market requirements,
which will be the capacity to quickly train marine ICT technicians (Levels 6 & 7) in addition to ICT
graduates (Levels 8, 9 and 10).
The EGFSN Report, Addressing Future Demand for High-Level ICT Skills135 forecasts the demand for
high-level ICT skills over the period 2013–2018. Technological trends are changing rapidly as are the
demand for new skills associated with these new technologies. Particular areas of demand include
cloud computing, mobile devices and technology, Big Data analytics, IT security, social
technologies, micro and nano-electronics. This demand also applies across the marine economy.
133
http://www.smartocean.org/Home.aspx
http://www.smartbay.ie/Home.aspx
135
http://www.skillsireland.ie/publication/egfsnSearch.jsp?ft=/publications/2013/title,11287,en.php.
134
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
6.2
Company Interviews
This section details the findings of the nine companies interviewed from the Maritime Monitoring,
Security and Surveillance Sector. There was a total of 124 employees within the companies
interviewed representing approximately 32% of the total employment of 391 FTEs in the Maritime
Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector in Ireland.
It is important to note that all the statistics in this section refer only to the companies interviewed
and therefore cannot be extrapolated to the entire sector.
6.2.1 Turnover and Exports
Figure 6.1 shows that of the nine companies interviewed in the Maritime Monitoring, Security and
Surveillance sector, four companies (45%) stated turnover had grown moderately (increased by
approx. 10%-20% per annum) over the last three years while three (33%) stated turnover had grown
significantly and a further two (22%) said that turnover had stayed the same.
Figure 6.1: Percentage of Companies that experienced a Change in Turnover over the last 3 Years
in the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Sector
22%
33%
Stayed the same
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
45%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Figure 6.2 shows the levels of export growth anticipated over the next six years by the companies
interviewed. Four companies (45% of those interviewed) expected levels of exports to grow
moderately (increase by approx. 10%-20% per annum) and a further four expected levels to grow
significantly (increase by more than 20% per annum) over the next six years.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 6.2: Anticipated Export Growth over the next 6 Years in the Maritime Monitoring, Security
and Surveillance Sector
10%
Stay the same
Moderate Growth (10%- 20% pa)
45%
Significant Growth (>20% pa)
45%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
6.2.2 Employment Growth / Decline by Occupation
Companies were asked about their employment growth by occupation over the last three years and
their anticipated growth for the next six years. Examples of job roles by occupation within the
Maritime Monitoring Sector are outlined in Table 6.3 below.
Table 6.3: Job Roles by occupational level in the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Sector
Occupation Level
Job Roles
Operative Grades
General Operatives
Administration
HR staff, General Administrators, Receptionists
Skilled Trades
Mechanics, Electricians, Maintenance Technicians, Divers
Associate Professional &
Web Developers, Programmer/Software Developers, Technical
Technical
Sales Staff
Professionals
Network Engineers, Telecoms Engineers, Software Engineers,
Electronic Engineers, Civil / Structural Engineers, Systems
Analysts, Data Analysts, Geoscientists, Oceanographers, Marketing
Managers
Management
Entrepreneurs, CEOs, Project Managers
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing Document, Part III, Enablers - Getting the
Conditions Right for Growth (2012)
Figure 6.3 shows the employment growth and the anticipated employment growth of the
interviewed companies.
Over the previous three years these companies have seen their greatest expansion in the Associate
Professional and Technical occupations with 33 new jobs created from a base of one three years
ago. Professional occupations also saw employment growth with 31 new jobs amounting to 220%
Skills in the Marine Economy
132
April 2015
increase in professional employment. Over the next six years, companies anticipated the largest
percentage employment growth in Administration occupations with a growth of 117% (14 jobs).
Modest growth was also projected for Professional (23 jobs) and Skilled Trade occupations (2 jobs)
over the next six years at 51% and 50% respectively. Again, caution must be exercised when drawing
conclusions from these figures due to the small sample base.
Figure 6.3: Employment Growth within Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Sector*
3yrs ago -> now
Now -> next 6 yrs
3000%
2000%
33
1000%
0%
0
0
Operative
Grades
3
14
Admin
4
2
Skilled Trades
12
Associate
Professional &
Technical
31
23
Professionals
4
4
Management
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
*Please note values are calculated as a percentage of growth from 3 years ago to now and now to the next 6 years, within
specific occupations. The numbers stated in the above figure represent the number of employees companies have stated they
have gained from 3 years ago to now and will need from now to the next 6 years.
6.2.3 Current and Required Skills Levels
Companies interviewed were asked about the current and future qualifications under the National
Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) that they would require for the different occupations.
(Table 6.4) The NFQ is detailed in Appendix 4.
The outcome from the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance companies interviewed was
that no major change in qualifications would occur for any of the occupations. Operatives and
skilled trades would remain unchanged at Levels 4 – 5 and Levels 6 – 7 respectively. For
administrative roles Level s 6 – 7 remains the principal level of educational attainment and an
increase for Level 8 with the attendant decrease in Levels 9 – 10. This reduction in the numbers
with Level 9 – 10 qualifications in Administrative roles indicates that these individuals are expected
to find occupations more commensurate with their qualification. The associate professional and
technical occupations are expected to see an increase at numbers with levels 6 and 7 with a
corresponding reduction for Levels 8, 9 and 10 for reasons similar to those for the administrative
occupations. For professionals not surprisingly the qualification levels required will increase from
Level 8 to Level 9 – 10 which is in keeping with the skills required in such an emerging sector,
namely advanced qualifications and research skills. It is important to note in some cases the number
of current employees is very small and therefore the results may not be representative of the
sector, however the results do indicate what might be expected from such a sector at a time
emerging from an economic recession and high unemployment.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Table 6.4: Current and anticipated NFQ Levels required by Occupation in Monitoring, Security and Surveillance
Occupation
NFQ Level
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
Current
Future
9-10
Current
8
Future
6-7
Current
4-5
Future
<4
Current
Number
Operative Grades
9
9
0%
0%
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
Administration
12
26
0%
0%
0%
0%
58%
57%
9%
27%
33%
16%
Skilled Trades
4
6
0%
0%
0%
0%
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
34
46
0%
0%
0%
0%
3%
10%
44%
41%
53%
49%
Professionals
45
68
0%
0%
0%
0%
1%
0%
79%
65%
20%
35%
Management
20
24
0%
0%
5%
3%
0%
0%
55%
54%
40%
43%
Total
124
179
Associate Professional
& Technical
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Cells shaded
indicate no significant change in NFQ level required for the occupation, while cells shaded
NFQ level required and cells shaded
indicate a corresponding decline in NFQ required
indicate a higher
6.2.4 Training and Development
The companies were also asked about their training provision for their employees. Figure 6.4 shows
that for the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector 29% of companies trained staff for
between both 6-10 days and/or 16-20 days per year.
Figure 6.4: Number of Training Days in the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector
21-25 days
14%
16-20 days
29%
11-15 days
14%
6-10 days
29%
1-5 days
14%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Figure 6.5 shows that 89% used internal training.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Figure 6.5: How Training was delivered Days in the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector
Internally- on or off the job
89%
Further Education and Training
Providers
22%
Private Providers
11%
Higher Education Institutions
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
6.2.5 Availability of Personnel
Companies were asked about the availability of personnel with the relevant education, skills and
expertise. A summary of the results in outlined in Table 6.5.
Table 6.5: Availability of Personnel for the Maritime Monitoring, Security & Surveillance sector
Not enough people in my local area with right level of:
Education
Experience
Skills
N
%
N
%
N
%
Operative Grades
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
Administration
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
Skilled Trades
0
0%
2
22%
2
22%
Associate Professionals
and Technical
4
44%
5
56%
1
11%
Professionals
3
33%
4
44%
0
0%
Management
0
0%
1
11%
0
0%
Base= 9
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
Table 6.5, indicates that companies have the most difficulty finding Professionals and Associate
Professional and Technical persons (pink shaded cells). This is in line with the findings in the EGFSN
report Addressing Future Demand for High-Level ICT Skills136 which identified a global shortage of
ICT skills. However, caution must be used in interpreting these results given the low response rate.
136
http://www.skillsireland.ie/publication/egfsnSearch.jsp?ft=/publications/2013/title,11287,en.php
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
6.2.6 Difficulties Filling Current Vacancies and Skills Supply
Within the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector 78% of companies interviewed
stated they had roles which were difficult to recruit into, these were identified as, IT software
developers, environmental scientists, high quality admin, technical engineers, project managers and
satellite technicians. Companies also stated they found it difficult to find engineers, particularly
hardware, material, marine and radio frequency satellite engineers, environmental scientists and
marine geophysicists with practical experience.
6.3
Stakeholder Consultation and Analysis
This sector is centred on technology products and services for marine activities and infrastructure.
It is currently dominated by small start-up businesses, though these companies can grow rapidly as a
result of being acquired or securing investments from venture capitalists and private investors or
launching new products and expanding into international markets. A recent example is Cathx
Ocean, which expects to more than double its workforce over the next 24 months with the creation
of 50 additional jobs. This follows announcements on major deals for the supply of their subsea
camera and laser based imaging technology to a large US customer.
Government support for research and the SmartOcean Ireland strategy launched in 2010 is
promoting this sector with the aim of harnessing Ireland’s natural marine resources and specialist
expertise in Marine Science and ICT to establish Ireland as a leader in the development of high value
products and services for the global marine sector. The development of an integrated enterprise
strategy across development agencies and support for existing and new test-beds/facilities for
demonstration and commercialisation purposes are two of the underpinning actions that the HOOW
Development Task Force are addressing. An example of the research infrastructure is the Spiddal
Test Site in Galway Bay, which is managed by SmartBay Ireland. In addition to supporting testing of
wave energy devices, the test site led to collaboration between IBM and the Marine Institute on a
pilot project to monitor wave conditions, marine life and pollution levels in and around Galway Bay.
The pilot project uses real-time advanced analytics to transform large data sets, paving the way for
smarter environmental management and development of the bay. Plans for further development of
Ireland’s Marine Research Infrastructure are under development, which could result in the growth of
the site management companies, like SmartBay Ireland, in addition to fostering more start-up
companies and attracting inward investment to Ireland.
The marine technology sector is one of the new growth areas for the ICT sector and companies are
working on initiatives to develop this new market. Companies, small and large, will need skills on
data handling, cloud computing and analytics, similar to those in the mainstream ICT sector. As with
the ICT sector, these new technology skills will be a core requisite for every employee rather than
contracting to third parties. With large global markets rapidly emerging in this area, new technology
companies with high tech products and software solutions have the capacity to grow rapidly. Access
to research infrastructure for prototyping and pilot trials paves the way for securing initial sales and
customers.
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6.4
Future demand for Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance Skills,
2015-2020
6.4.1 Introduction
This section of the report deals with the potential future demand for skills in the Maritime
Monitoring, Security and Surveillance sector over the period 2015-2020 arising from expansion of the
sector and replacement of employees who retire, referred to as expansion and replacement demand
respectively.
Scenario 1 assumes that the turnover target in Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth will to be met by 2020
and the impact that this would have on employment and skills demand is forecast. Consultations
with industry stakeholders, informed by the economic background data gathered, were used to
determine how this increase in turnover could be achieved, how the additional turnover would be
distributed between the various industries making up the Maritime Monitoring, Security and
Surveillance sector and how employment would need to increase in order to generate this turnover.
A modelling exercise was then conducted using the information from the company interviews to
estimate how the expansion demand would be distributed by occupational grade in each sub-sector
over the period 2015-2020.
6.4.2 Scenario 1: Achieving the HOOW targets
6.4.2.1
Summary and Assumptions: Scenario 1
High Tech Marine Products and Services grew at 3.7% per annum between 2007 and 2010. ESRI and
SOLAS forecast that IT Professional occupations will grow by 4% per annum between 2012 and 2020
and science occupations are projected to grow at 0.6% per annum over the period. Evidence from
stakeholders indicates, however, that more rapid growth in the sector is possible - the main drivers
behind which are as follows:

The IMERC campus, along with support from Enterprise Ireland and IDA to promote new startups and attract FDI companies;

The INFOMAR Programme – national integrated seabed mapping programme, funding applied
research, providing free access to marine data and infrastructure, engaging and upskilling
multiple SME’s, training 2nd , 3rd level students and industry in marine survey operations, and
with strong industry links to all major international survey technology providers.

SmartOcean Ireland – a strategy developed with the aim of “Harnessing Ireland’s Potential
European and Global Centre for Ocean Technologies”

Continued investment in the development of Ireland’s research infrastructure, for example
SmartBay in Galway and the “Irish Digital Ocean” platform;

Support for the sector from existing FDI corporations based in Ireland, for example, the IBM
business accelerator programme for Marine ICT aimed at accelerating the growth of early startups through mentorship, advice, technical support and helping the international growth of the
business through partnerships and collaboration; and

Horizon2020 funding and specific focus on “Blue growth”.
The consensus view of the stakeholders is that these additional jobs could be created through the
start-up of five micro businesses creating 3-5 jobs each; five SMEs creating 25-50 jobs each and one
FDI creating 30-50 jobs. Cathx Ocean is one example of this potential job creation. They expect to
Skills in the Marine Economy
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create 50 new jobs over the next 2 years having just completed a deal to supply US based Bluefin
Robotics with their subsea camera and laser based imaging technology.
This indicates that 190 additional FTE jobs could be created between 2015 and 2020 - a 6% per
annum growth rate. The subsector could grow to €83m in turnover and 647 FTEs in 2020, from the
€56m and 391 FTE in 2010 figures – including trend growth of 4% per annum between 2010 and 2014,
to a level of 457 FTE at the baseline of 2014.
6.4.3 Employment and Skills Implications
The distribution of the 190 additional FTE jobs by occupation level is shown in Table 6.7. The first
column shows the 2014 FTE baseline estimate by occupation level. The next set of columns presents
the expansion demand, the percentage of that figure to the 2014 baseline estimate for that
occupation level and the percentage of the occupation expansion to the total expansion demand.
Then follows the replacement demand - those leaving, e.g. due to retirement or change of
occupation. The gross demand is the sum of the expansion and replacement demand and is the true
reflection of the skills demand for the sector. Summed across the period 2015-2020, the total
number of workers leaving is estimated to be 155 FTES, known as the replacement demand, which
when summed with the expansion demand of 190 FTEs gives a gross demand of 345 FTE employees.
% of
No.
2014
% of
No.
2014
% of
demand
No.
2014-2020
Gross Demand
% of Gross
2014
2014-2020
demand
Demand
% of Replacement
Demand
demand
Replacement
% of Expansion
Expansion
Estimate
Baseline
% 2014 Total
Estimate
2014 Baseline
Level
Occupation
Table 6.7: Distribution of Expansion and Replacement Demand for the MMSS sector by occupation level
Operatives
33
7%
0
0%
0%
14
42%
9%
14
42%
4%
Administrative
44
10%
43
98%
23%
28
64%
18%
71
161%
21%
15
3%
6
40%
3%
6
40%
4%
12
80%
3%
125
27%
46
37%
24%
32
26%
21%
78
62%
23%
Professionals
166
36%
70
42%
37%
55
33%
33%
125
75%
36%
Managers
74
16%
25
34%
13%
20
27%
13%
45
61%
13%
Total
457
190
42%
155
34%
345
75%
Skilled
Trades
Associate
Professionals
& Technical
Source: PACEC, 2014
The distribution of expansion demand (190 additional FTE jobs) by NFQ Level is shown in Table 6.6.
The demand is concentrated in levels 8 and 9 of the framework (honours and masters degrees or
equivalent). The increase in the number of professionals and associate professionals is 116 FTEs of
the total 190 FTE of expansion which would account for the concentration of educational
attainment at Levels 8 - 10.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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Table 6.6: Distribution of Expansion demand by Educational Attainment at NFQ level for the MMSS sector
NFQ Level
Description
Expansion Demand
4-5
Secondary School Leaving Certificate
0
6-7
Higher Certificate / Advanced Certificate or Bachelors Degree
40
Honours Degree or Higher Diploma
73
Masters Degree / Postgraduate Diploma or Doctoral Degree
76
8
9 - 10
Net Total
190
Source: Company interviews – RSM McClure Watters, 2014
6.5
Supply Side Information
Marine Technology comprising maritime monitoring, security, surveillance and high-tech products is
an emerging area and is the application of technology in the marine environment. The central roles
in Marine Technology include: engineers, software developers, geo-scientists, satellite technicians,
environmental scientists and hydrographers. With the exception of hydrography which is directly
marine focussed all the others have applications outside of the marine. To work in marine
technology an engineer or a software developer does not need any specific marine qualification,
other than the regulatory safety requirement, but they could specialise through a postgraduate
course in any number of the relevant areas identified in previous sections.
6.5.1 Hydrographic Surveying
Reliable maps of the seabed are essential for safe shipping and for effective management and
conservation of the marine environment. While terrestrial maps are largely very accurate, seabed
maps are much less so. Many ‘current’ nautical charts are based on data from the mid-19th century
when depth was measured by lowering lead lines to the seabed at wide intervals.
Hydrography is the branch of applied science which deals with the measurement and description of
the physical features of the navigable portion of the earth’s oceans, seas and coastal areas and the
prediction of their change over time. Hydrography’s primary purpose is for safe navigation. Its
secondary purpose is in support of all other marine activities, such as, oil and gas exploration and
drilling and marine renewable energy; security and defence; scientific research; and environmental
protection. Scientifically measuring, describing and depicting the seabed is crucial to the
development of world trade and offshore expansion in the search for hydrocarbons.
A hydrographic surveyor specialises in precise positioning, data acquisition and processing in marine
environments. Tasks, which vary depending on the specific area of work, can include:

using specialised technical software and equipment including satellite and terrestrial positioning
systems, sonars, single and multi-beam echo sounders, laser scanners and LiDAR equipped
aircraft to provide data for the production of nautical charts and maps;

using remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles to acquire data in deep oceans;

using specialised technical software and geographical information systems (GIS) to manage the
integration, processing and presentation of data;
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015

providing accurate and reliable information for other disciplines, such as, navigation, dredging,
coastal works, seabed telephone cables, environmental monitoring, aquaculture, marine wind
farm development, oceanographic research, bridge construction, and oil, gas and mineral
resource exploration.
6.5.2 INFOMAR
The INtegrated Mapping FOr the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s MArine Resource (INFOMAR)
programme is a joint venture between the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) and the Marine
Institute. The programme is a successor to the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and concentrates
on creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features
of the Irish seabed in the near-shore area.
Several Marine Technology companies have been funded under the INFOMAR programme to
undertake research and to develop related technology and software solutions.
A team of marine geoscientists at the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) is also engaged in working
with geological surveys and research institutes across Europe to bring together web-accessible,
inter-operable marine geological and hydrographic datasets.
There is an international shortage of hydrographic surveyors. An MSc in Hydrography (Table 6.8) is
available in Plymouth University for engineers or geoscientists. Currently hydrographers are trained
on the job by the GSI and many are then headhunted by companies either in Ireland or abroad. An
alternative route to become a hydrographer would be to undertake the Geomatics – Surveying and
Mapping BSc in DIT. Geomatics, which in essence is the terrestrial form of hydrography, provides
graduates with knowledge of cutting-edge technologies such as satellites, lasers, camera and
advanced surveying and computing to collect data, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Spatial
Information Management, digital mapping and 3D modelling, all of which are used in hydrography.
Table 6.8: Survey Training Courses
Course Title
Institution
Award
Duration
2013 intake
Geomatics - Surveying and
Dublin Institute of
BSc
4 yrs
18
Mapping
Technology - DIT
(hons)
Hydrography
Plymouth
MSc
1 yr
University (UK)
Source: List compiled by EGFSN-DJEI, Nov 2014
6.5.3 IMERC – the Irish Maritime and Energy Research Cluster
The Irish Maritime and Energy Research Cluster (IMERC) is a tripartite alliance between UCC, CIT
and the Irish Naval Service. Its vision is to become a research and commercial cluster of world
standing, to realise Ireland’s potential in the global maritime and energy markets of tomorrow.
In order to exploit to its maximum the resources and core disciplinary strengths within IMERC, four
thematic areas have become the focus around which the researchers, enterprise and institutions
collaborate. The four areas are:
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
Ocean engineering;

Ecosystems Governance;

Enabling Maritime Technologies; and

Maritime Operations.
Ocean Engineering and Enabling Maritime Technologies are particularly relevant to the Marine
Technology sub-sector. The postgraduate researchers linked to IMERC provide the research skills
needs of the emerging maritime technology industry.
There do not appear currently to be any courses in Ireland which are directly and exclusively
relevant to the Maritime Monitoring, Security and Surveillance subsector; however, general marine
science qualifications are available, as are close substitutes from other disciplines such as
engineering and ICT, as well as a wide range of short courses which would form the basic training
required to convert someone with a generic or related degree into an effective marine operator.
6.6
Summary
This is emerging sector that grew in employment and turnover between 2007 and 2010 despite the
recession. This sector is centred on high-tech marine products and services. It is currently
dominated by small start-up businesses, though these companies can grow rapidly as a result of
being acquired or securing investments from venture capitalists.
Scenario 1 -achieving the HOOW targets by 2020, maritime monitoring, security and surveillance
estimates the creation of 190 new jobs. Replacement demand will require a further 155 FTEs giving
rise to a gross demand of 345 FTEs largely concentrated in professional and associate professional
occupations (61% of the total).
IMERC has found that across the global marine ICT sector, major players are not only interested in
employees with PhD’s and Masters but that over the next 5-10 years at the top of their recruitment
list will be young ICT and Marine savvy Technicians who want to travel 137.
The development of an integrated enterprise strategy across development agencies and support for
existing and new test-beds/facilities for demonstration and commercialisation purposes are two of
the underpinning actions that the HOOW Development Task Force are addressing.
137
http://smartocean.org/Portals/2/FORUM/Presentations/SmartOcean%20Forum%202013%20-%20Cormac%20Gebruers%20%20Clustering%20Convergence%20Workforce%20skills%20%20Irelands%20Marine%20ICT%20Opportunity.pdf
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Chapter 7:
7.1
Summary of Skills Demand across the Marine Economy
Introduction
This chapter presents the aggregated and summarised demand forecasts for the entire marine
economy by sector and occupation. The demand forecasts are presented in Table 7.1 showing the
2014 baseline employment estimate, expansion, replacement and gross demand for each sector by
occupation and the aggregated total for each sector and occupation. Each figure is also given as a
percentage of the 2014 baseline estimate.
Table 7.1: Future skill demand to 2020 by occupation and subsector for the Marine Economy
Seafood
Skilled Trades
Associate.
Professional
and Technical
Professional
Management
Total
Tourism
Maritime
Monitoring
Total
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
No.
% of
2014
3,043
-
814
-
47
-
1,604
-
33
-
5,541
-
514
17%
850
104%
3
6%
1,705
106%
0
0%
3,072
55%
Replacement
1,296
43%
476
58%
23
49%
1,100
69%
14
42%
2,909
52%
Gross
1,810
59%
1,326
163%
26
55%
2,805
175%
14
42%
5,981
108%
2014 baseline
392
-
445
-
70
-
422
-
44
-
1,373
-
Expansion
180
46%
651
146%
2
3%
371
88%
43
98%
1,247
91%
Replacement
179
46%
283
64%
32
46%
164
39%
28
64%
686
50%
Gross
359
92%
934
210%
34
49%
535
127%
71
161%
1,933
141%
2014 baseline
934
-
1,727
-
166
-
506
-
15
-
3,348
-
Expansion
237
25%
821
48%
8
5%
519
103%
6
40%
1,591
48%
Replacement
344
37%
706
41%
67
40%
265
52%
6
40%
1,388
41%
Gross
581
62%
1,527
88%
75
45%
784
155%
12
80%
2,979
89%
2014 baseline
45
-
803
-
125
-
253
-
125
-
1,351
-
Expansion
0
0%
793
99%
31
25%
222
88%
46
37%
1,092
81%
Replacement
10
22%
261
33%
41
33%
57
23%
32
26%
401
30%
Gross
10
22%
1,054
131%
72
58%
279
110%
78
62%
1,493
111%
2014 baseline
365
-
1,183
-
603
-
295
-
166
-
2,612
-
Expansion
373
102%
1,416
120%
96
16%
259
88%
70
42%
2,214
85%
Replacement
129
35%
452
38%
204
34%
74
25%
55
33%
914
35%
Gross
502
138%
1,868
158%
300
50%
333
113%
125
75%
3,128
120%
2014 baseline
580
-
717
-
137
-
422
-
74
-
1,930
-
Expansion
119
21%
397
55%
10
7%
371
88%
25
34%
922
48%
Replacement
136
23%
195
27%
36
26%
92
22%
20
27%
479
25%
Gross
255
44%
592
83%
46
34%
463
110%
45
61%
1,401
73%
2014 baseline
5,359
-
5,689
-
1,148
-
3,502
-
457
-
16,155
-
Expansion
1,423
27%
4,928
87%
150
13%
3,447
98%
190
42%
10,138
63%
Replacement
2,094
39%
2,373
42%
403
35%
1,752
50%
155
34%
6,777
42%
Gross
3,517
66%
7,301
128%
553
48%
5,199
148%
345
75%
16,915
105%
2014 baseline
Admin
Energy
No.
Occupation
Operatives
MTSS
Expansion
Source: PACEC, 2014
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April 2015
To understand at a glance the makeup of the marine economy Figure 7.1 presents the distribution
of the five marine sectors as a percentage of the 2014 employment estimate for the total marine
economy.
Figure 7.1: Marine Economy Sectors as % (by employment) of the whole Marine Economy
2014 Total Marine Economy Employment Estimate: 16,155 FTE
Maritime
Monitoring,
Security and
Surveillance
3% 457 FTE
Marine
Tourism
22% 3,502 FTE
Energy
7% 1,148 FTE
7.1
Seafood and
Bio-Products
33% 5,359 FTE
Maritime
Transport,
Shipping and
Services
35% 5,689 FTE
Future Skills Demand by Sector
The current employment across the entire marine economy is 16,155 full-time equivalents.
Figure 7.2 presents the 2014 FTE employment estimate, and the future skills expansion,
replacement and gross demand by sector. Across the five broad sectors, the total expansion demand
for Scenario 1, i.e., meeting the HOOW targets, is forecast to be 10,138 FTE jobs, with the largest
expansion of 4,928 in maritime transport, shipbuilding and services (driven primarily by the 3,500
expansion demand arising from the proposed International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC)) with
marine tourism following with a 3,447 FTE expansion demand, reflecting the upturn in the global
economy and the return of foreign tourists. If the growth in the seafood and bio-products sector
does not occur owing to lack of growth in aquaculture then the total expansion is 8,715 (10,138 less
1,423).
The replacement demand is greatest in terms of actual numbers for the Maritime Transport,
Shipbuilding, and Services (MTSS) (2,373) and Seafood and Bio-Products (2,094) sectors but in terms
of the percentage of the 2014 baseline employment marine tourism has the greatest replacement
demand at 50% (1,752) of its current work force to be replaced over the period to 2020.
The sectors with the greatest skills demand are maritime transport, shipbuilding, and services
(MTSS), marine tourism, and seafood. In the case of seafood unlike MTSS and marine tourism the
replacement demand is greater than the expansion demand.
Over the entire Marine Economy the replacement demand is 6,777 some 3,361 less than the
expansion demand. The total gross demand out to 2020 for the Marine economy is 16,915 FTE
positions.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 7.2: Future Skill Demand by Sector
8,000
2014 Baseline
Expansion Demand
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
FTE
1,000
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime
Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
In Figure 7.3 the expansion, replacement and gross demand are displayed as a percentage of the
current 2014 employment. In the case of tourism while its expansion demand is only 2 nd highest,
after MTSS, as a percentage of the 2014 employment it has the largest expansion at 98%, meaning
employment in tourism will almost double by 2020. Both MTSS and tourism are forecast to expand at
a rate greater than the expansion demand of the total marine economy which is forecast to expand,
in employment, by 63%.
Figure 7.3: Future Skill Demand by Sector as a % of the 2014 FTE Baseline estimate for the occupation
Expansion Demand
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
160%
140%
120%
100%
98%
87%
80%
63%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Seafood
Shipping &
Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime
Monitoring
Total
Source: PACEC, 2014
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
7.2
Future Skills Demand by Occupation across the total Marine Economy
Operatives comprise the largest occupation across the marine economy with a 2014 baseline
estimate of 5,541 FTEs which is 34% of the total full-time employment. Not surprisingly, therefore,
it is also the occupation category with the largest expansion demand of 3,072 (30% of the expansion
demand). This reflects the nature of much of the work within the marine economy. There is also
strong expansion demand for professionals (2,214 FTE (22% of total expansion)) which reflects the
expansion demand arising from the ISSC but also the anticipated professionalisation of enterprises
within the marine economy.
Skilled Trades is the next largest occupation category at 3,348 FTEs (21% of the total marine
economy, Figure 7.5) and has an expansion demand of 1,591 FTEs which is 48% of the total 2014
skilled trade employment (Figure 7.6) and 16% of total expansion (Figure 7.5) reflecting the skilled
nature of the work within the marine economy.
The occupations generating the highest gross demand are operative roles (5,981 FTE, or 35% of the
total gross demand). This is driven by expansion in the tourism sector (where expansion demand
exceeds replacement demand (Figure 7.2), and the high proportion of operatives in seafood. There
is also strong gross demand for professionals (3,128 FTE) and skilled trades (2,979 FTE), the former
being driven by the ISSC.
Figure 7.4: Future Skills Demand by Occupation Grade for the whole Marine Economy
7,000
2014 Baseline
Expansion demand
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
FTE
1,000
0
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professional
Management
Source: PACEC, 2014
While professionals have a lower 2014 baseline employment then for skilled trades their expansion
demand is greater at 2,214 FTE which is 22% of total expansion (Figure 7.5) and 85% of the 2014
professional FTE (Figure 7.6), which is almost a doubling of the number of professionals working in
the marine economy by 2020.
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April 2015
Figure 7.5: Proportion of an Occupation to the total within the displayed cohort
2014 baseline
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
34%
Expansion Demand
Replacement Demand
2020 FTE
33%
21%
8%
Operatives
19%
10%
Administration
16%
8%
Skilled Trades
18%
12%
9%
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Professional
11%
Management
Source: PACEC, 2014
The proportion of an occupation to the total employment in 2014 and that forecast for 2020 is not
hugely different. The largest component is operatives at 34% in 2014 and 33% in 2020 with the
replacement demand greater than the expansion demand.
In the case of professionals the opposite picture emerges with the composition of professionals
rising from 16% of total employment in 2014 to 18% in 2020 and the expansion demand in this case is
greater than the replacement demand, largely driven by the ISSC. This is further emphasised when
we take the combined professional and associate professional & technical occupations, which is 33%
(22% and 11% respectively) of the total expansion demand, whereas the 2014 combined professional
and associate professional FTE is 24% (16% and 8% respectively) (Figure 7.5) of the total marine
employment. This 9% increase also points to an increasing professionalisation of the marine
economy and the expansion of the emerging sectors which require more professionals in the initial
years.
The expansion demand for the marine economy is 63% of the 2014 FTE employment. It is interesting
to note that the expansion for professionals, associate professionals and technical and
administration are all higher than this. While this indicates a degree of professionalisation of the
marine economy all of these occupations are starting at a lower base which would also account for
the higher percentage. However from Figure 7.4 we see that the expansion of professionals, at
2,214 FTEs, is the second highest after operatives (3,072). This is an 85% increase in the number of
professionals (Figure 7.6).
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 7.6: Future Skills Demand by Occupation as % of 2014 baseline for the occupation
Expansion demand
160%
Replacement Demand
Gross Demand
The Replacement demand of 42%
for the entire Marine Economy
140%
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Operatives Administration Skilled Trades
Associate
Professional
Professional &
Technical
Management
Total
Source: PACEC, 2014
7.3
Future Skills Demand by Sector and Occupation across the Marine Economy
The jobs in the marine economy straddle the full range of occupations from managerial and
professional to operatives. While many of the skills are the same as for land based jobs with some
additional upskilling required in order to work in the marine environment, e.g. electricians, others
are specific to the marine economy, such as tug operators, Ship Captains and Naval Architects
where very specific education and training is required. For many other occupations such as
engineers in the energy sector this requires an engineering degree e.g. mechanical or electrical
followed by a masters degree. Table 7.2 presents the typical jobs by occupational level for each of
the marine sectors.
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April 2015
Table 7.2: Typical jobs by occupation and Marine Sector
Occupation
Seafood and BioProducts
MTSS
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring
Operative
Grades
General Operatives,
Fish Filleters, Boat
Crew, Deckhands,
Riggers
Stevedores, Tug
Operators, Crane
Operators,
Deckhands, Boat
Crew, Riggers
General Operatives,
Riggers,
Boat Crew
Bar Staff, Waiting
staff, Cleaners,
Drivers, Retailers,
General Operatives
General Operatives
Administration
HR staff, General
Administrators,
Receptionists
HR staff, General
Administrators,
Receptionists
HR staff, General
Administrators,
Receptionists
HR staff, General
Administrators,
Receptionists
HR staff, General
Administrators,
Receptionists
Skilled Trades
Radio Operators,
Production
Supervisors,
Maintenance
Technicians,
Mechanics,
Electricians, Skippers
– Deck Officer,
Fishermen, Divers
Harbour & Berthing
Masters,
Bunker Brokers,
Pilots,
Radio Operators
Mechanics,
Electricians,
Technicians:
Maintenance;
Fabrication; and
Welding
Chefs, Tour
operators/Guides,
Life Guards, Boat
Builders,
Instructors: Sailing;
Wind surfing;
Canoeing/Sea
Kayaking; Adventure
Sports; and Angling.
Technicians:
Maintenance; Marine
engine; and
Electricians
Mechanics and
Electricians,
Maintenance
Technicians, Divers
Associate
Professional &
Technical
Production and
Process Development
technicians, Pollution
Control Personnel,
Safety Officers,
Quality Assurance
Technicians, Lab
Technicians, Market
Development Staff,
Nature
Conservationists
Marine Insurance
Agents,
Marine Underwriters,
Ship Agents,
Freight Forwarders,
Commodity Traders,
Charterers, Ship
Brokers,
Ship Chandlers and
Equipment Suppliers
IT Technicians,
Software
Development
Technicians,
Hardware Developers
Engineering
Technicians and
IT Technicians
Web Developers,
Programmers/
Software Developers,
Technical Sales Staff
Professionals
Marine scientists,
Marine biologists,
Fishery Scientists,
Microbiologists,
Botanists, Earth &
Ocean scientists,
Geneticists, Food
Chemists, Food
Technologists, New
Product Development
Technologists, Food
Process Engineers,
Chemical Engineers,
Environmental
Scientists, Marine
Spatial planners, Fish
Veterinarians, Quality
Auditors, Food
Economists,
Engineering Officer
(Fishing Vessel)
Master Mariners and
other Deck Officers,
Engineering Officers,
Naval Architects,
Marine Surveyors,
Hull Surveyors, Cargo
Surveyors, Maritime
Analysts, Shipping
Accountants &
Lawyers,
Hydrographic
Surveyors,
Marine Planners
Marine Engineers;
Geophysicists,
Hydrographic
surveyors, Production
& Facilities
Engineers,
Environmental &
Chemical Engineers,
Structural &
Mechanical Engineers,
Power Systems, Smart
Grid Engineers,
Wave Scientists, Data
Systems Analysts,
Naval Architects,
Marine Surveyors,
Oceanographers,
Naval architects,
Master Mariners and
other Deck Officers,
Engineering Officers
Marketing and Public
Relations Staff,
Translators,
Environmental
Managers
Engineers:- Network;
Telecoms; Software;
Electronic; and
Civil/Structural.
Systems Analysts,
Data Analysts,
Geoscientists,
Oceanographers,
Marketing Managers
Management
Managing Directors,
Plant Managers,
Accountants,
Production Managers,
Legal and Marketing
Professionals
Directors
Project Managers,
Fleet Managers
Site Development
Managers,
Marine Operations
Managers
Managers: Adventure
Centres,
Hotel and Catering,
and Marine Parks
Entrepreneurs, CEOs,
Project Managers
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April 2015
Figure 7.7: 2014 Baseline Distribution of Occupation by Marine Sector
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate Professional and Technical
Professional
Management
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
FTEs
1,500
1,000
500
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
Figure 7.7 presents the distribution of occupation by sector. What this highlights is that operatives
are the largest occupation for Seafood and Tourism. Skilled trades are the largest occupation for the
Maritime Transport, Shipbuilding and Services (MTSS). Not surprisingly Professionals are the largest
occupation for Energy and Maritime Monitoring although the numbers are small. Professionals are
the second largest component for MTSS.
This section examines the skills demand by occupation and sector which demonstrates clearly the
contrasting skills demand in the different sectors. The Figures 7.8 and 7.9 show the difference
between the expansion and replacement demand for each occupation and sector.
The sector Maritime Transport, Shipping and Services requires the largest number of professionals
largely attributed to the ISSC. The largest component of the expansion demand is for operatives in
tourism. Seafood also requires 373 professionals which is 26% of seafood’s total expansion demand.
While energy and maritime monitoring have small numbers their largest expansion is for
professionals as both these sectors are emerging.
The picture of the replacement demand is somewhat different to the expansion demand. The single
biggest difference is the large number of operatives for seafood at 1,296 FTEs compared to the
expansion demand of 514 FTE operatives.
Replacement demand is higher for operatives and low skill occupations compared to professional
and managerial occupations, so the sectors with a higher proportion of employees as operatives
such as tourism and seafood have a higher replacement demand.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Figure 7.8: Expansion Demand by Occupation Group within a Marine Sector
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate Professional and Technical
Professional
Management
1,750
1,500
1,250
1,000
750
500
FTE
250
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
Figure 7.9: Replacement Demand by Occupation Group within Marine Sector
Operatives
Administration
Skilled Trades
Associate Professional and Technical
Professional
Management
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
FTE
200
0
Seafood
Shipping & Services
Energy
Tourism
Maritime Monitoring
Source: PACEC, 2014
7.4
Summary
There are many opportunities for a career in the marine economy. As most of the industry is in
coastal areas it therefore provides employment opportunities in these rural areas. Many of the skills
are transferable across the different sectors, e.g. fishermen providing services to the offshore
energy sector, merchant seafarers finding employment in the ports after years of experience
working at sea.
The sectors with the greatest skills demand are seafood, maritime transport, shipbuilding, and
services (MTSS) and marine tourism. The replacement demand for the seafood sector is greater than
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
its expansion demand, as the replacement demand of the operative-grade jobs, prevalent in the
sector, is higher than that for professional or managerial grades. In the case of tourism the
expansion demand is greater than the replacement demand even though like the seafood sector it
has a large number of operatives but this sector is expected to double its FTEs by 2020. In the case
of MTSS the largest component of its expansion demand is for professionals. In seafood the
workforce is ageing and this will present a skills difficulty unless measures are put in place to
attract and upskill younger workers.
A key finding in the course of the study is the concept of “marinisation”. Many of the occupations
and qualifications are not specific to the marine economy, e.g., engineers and software developers,
managers, professionals in law, accountancy and business development, but they can be
“marinised” – that is, additional training or a top up qualification in a marine context.
“Marinisation” applies across the full spectrum of occupations and qualifications such that a
mechanical engineer, an electrician or a construction worker can upskill or “marinise” his/her skills
and be able to work in a marine or off-shore environment. This upskilling or “marinising” of a skill
provides more employment opportunities.
In addition to “marinising” traditional disciplines and training, ICT skills need to be embedded in
existing maritime education and training as the pervasiveness of ICT in all aspects of the economy,
including the ocean economy, takes hold. This extends to all occupations and the ICT skills of
coastal communities needs to be improved so that ICT becomes an integral part of the marine
economy.
© Fáilte Ireland and Tourism Ireland
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Chapter 8:
Recommendations
1 Establish a Marine Discover Programme modelled on the SFI Discover Programme to raise
awareness among primary, second and third level students and the Irish public about the range
of careers opportunities in the Marine Economy.
The SFI Discover Programme, seeks to promote the awareness and engagement of the Irish public with
science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), to increase interest in STEM among students,
teachers and members of the public and to contribute to Ireland’s continued growth and development as
a society – one that has an active and informed interest and involvement in STEM.
A Marine Discover Programme should broadly follow the model used by SFI and in many cases would be
part of the SFI Discover programme where the STEM subjects would be of relevance to the marine sector.
The Marine Institute should lead on and be the co-ordinator for this programme. Other organisations that
should be involved are: Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) The Maritime Development Organisation (IMDO), Fáilte
Ireland, Maritime Safety Directorate and Marine Survey Office in Department of Transport, Tourism and
Sport (DTTAS), SFI, SOLAS, HEA, IUA, IOTIs, NMCI, Institute of Career Guidance Councillors, Geological
Survey of Ireland (GSI) and DCENR, Industry bodies and private training providers.
Lead: Marine Institute on behalf of the Marine Co-ordination Group
2 Monitor the skills needs in each sub-sector of the Marine Economy on an ongoing basis to
ensure a sufficient supply of skills is available as the trigger points for accelerated growth of a
sub-sector are reached.
When the International Shipping Services Centre (ISSC) is established with the predicted creation of 3,500
jobs, measures will need to be put in place to ensure there is a sufficient supply of qualified personnel,
such as shipping brokers, legal and business professionals with knowledge of the maritime industry.
As the process for aquaculture licensing becomes streamlined and the number, size of farms and
production increases there will be an increased demand for the skills in aquaculture.
As activity increases facilitated by the 2015 licensing round for oil and gas exploration and proposals for a
new fiscal regime which would accelerate if there was a find, there will be a greater demand for skills.
While the time scales for this process will give sufficient time to put measures in place the situation will
need to be monitored.
Lead: Marine Co-ordination Group
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April 2015
3 Update Marine Economy data regularly to ensure accurate data
The SEMRU (Socio Economic Maritime Research Unit, NUIG) publication “Ireland’s Ocean Economy” which
was published in December 2013, with 2010 as the data reference year and the 2010 publication with
2007 reference data is a cross cutting look at the entire marine economy and which was the reference
data used in HOOW. However, there is a considerable time lag with the data owing to a time lag with the
CSO data. The HOOW Development Task Force is addressing this issue as the need to have more up to
date information to enable monitoring the performance of the Ocean Economy is accepted as being an
imperative.
BIM surveys provide information on the seafood sector that could be used to monitor development and
growth of employment and IMDO are piloting a survey scheme in relation to maritime shipping
companies.
Ireland’s Ocean Economy should be updated, at a minimum every 2 years, to provide a more accurate
and up-to-date set of figures of the economic profile of the marine economy which would facilitate a
watching brief of the growing areas and the likely areas that will need more skills.
Lead: Marine Co-ordination Group, Marine Institute and SEMRU
4 Develop a mentoring programme for the Seafood sector.
The seafood subsector has an ageing workforce and the development of a mentoring programme so that
those who will be retiring over the next few years can pass on their knowledge and experience to those
younger than them would ensure their experience and expertise won’t be lost to the sector. It could also
include the possibility of retaining the retirees as mentors for a period so the depth of expertise can be
passed on.
Lead: BIM
5 Develop a data-collection and biological sampling course for fishermen
Fishermen trained in data-collection and biological sampling would be in a position to provide consistent
and valuable data to researchers and industry/science partnership initiatives. Scientists and fishery
managers are aware of the problems arising from lack of sufficient good quality data and using fishermen
to provide timely and accurate data would be a significant advantage.
Lead: BIM
6 Provide ICT Training to coastal communities and workers in the marine economy
ICT skills need to be more broadly available to the coastal community as many people living in these
areas have little knowledge or experience of ICT. An outcome from this initiative would be more
mainstream use of ICT with the marine economy
Lead: BIM, in conjunction with SOLAS, ETBs and NALA
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April 2015
Appendices
Appendix I: Marine Governance
Responsibility for marine activities is spread across a number of government departments and
agencies depending on their functions.
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Briefing document, Part 1: Context (courtesy of the Marine Institute)
MI: Marine Institute
DAFM: Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine
EI: Enterprise Ireland
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
SFI: Science Foundation Ireland
DCENR: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources
HEIs: Higher Education Institutions
NMCI: National Maritime College of Ireland
HEA: Higher Education Authority
FSAI: Food Safely Authority of Ireland
HRB: Health Research Board
DECLG: Department for the Environment, Community and Local
Government
GSI: Geological Survey of Ireland
SFPA: Sea Fisheries Protection Authority
IFI: Inland Fisheries Ireland
SEAI: Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
DD: Department of Defence
DTTS: Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport
UnaG: Údarás na Gaeltachta
DAHG: Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht
BIM: Bord Iascaigh Mhara
CER: Commission for Energy Regulation
IDA: Industrial Development
Authority
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Appendix 2: Marine Economy NACE Codes (Rev 2)138
The Ocean Economy is extremely diverse and comprises multiple NACE codes, some of which are
A
3
A
Marine Share:
Class
Division
Section
fully in the Ocean Economy and some only partially.
F=Fully
Description
P=Partial
3.11
Marine fishing
F
3.21
Marine aquaculture
F
B
6
6. 1
Extraction of crude petroleum
P
B
6
6.2
Extraction of natural gas
P
B
8
8.12
Operation of gravel and sand pits; mining of clays and kaolin
P
B
8
8.93
Extraction of salt
F
B
9
9.1
Support activities for petroleum and natural gas extraction
P
B
9
9.9
Support activities for other mining and quarrying
P
C
10
10.2
Processing and preserving of fish, crustaceans and molluscs
F
C
30
30.11
Building of ships and floating structures
F
C
30
30.12
Building of pleasure and sporting boats
F
C
33
33.15
Repair and maintenance of ships and boats
F
D
35
35.11
Production of electricity
P
D
35
35.12
Transmission of electricity
P
E
38
38.31
Dismantling of wrecks
P
E
39
39
Remediation activities and other waste management services
P
F
42
42.21
Construction of utility projects for fluids
P
F
42
42.22
Construction of utility projects for electricity and communication
P
F
42
42.91
Construction of water projects
P
F
42
42.99
Construction of other civil engineering projects n.e.c.
P
F
43
43.99
Other specialised construction activities n.e.c.
P
G
46
46.38A
Wholesale of other food, including fish, crustaceans and molluscs
P
G
47
47.23
Retail sale of fish, crustaceans and molluscs in specialised stores
F
H
49
49.5
Transport via pipeline
P
H
50
50.1
Sea and coastal passenger water transport
F
H
50
50.2
Sea and coastal freight water transport
F
H
50
50.3
Inland passenger water transport
P
138
NACE Code is a Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Glossary:Statistical_classification_of_economic_activities_in_the_European_Community_(NACE)
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Class
Division
Section
Marine Share:
F=Fully
Description
P=Partial
H
52
52.22
Service activities incidental to water transportation
F
H
50
50.4
Inland freight water transport
P
H
52
52.24
Cargo handling
P
H
52
52.29
Other transportation support activities
P
I
55
55.1
Hotels and similar accommodation
P
I
55
55.2
Holiday and other short-stay accommodation
P
I
55
55.3
Camping grounds, recreational vehicle parks and trailer parks
P
I
56
56.1
Restaurants and mobile food service activities
P
I
56
56.3
Beverage serving activities
P
K
65
65.12
Non-life insurance
P
K
65
65.2
Reinsurance
P
M
71
71.11
Architectural activities
P
M
71
71.12
Engineering activities and related technical consultancy
P
M
71
71.2
Technical testing and analysis
P
M
72
72.19
Other research and experimental development on natural sciences and
engineering
P
N
77
77.21
Renting and leasing of recreational and sports goods
P
N
77
77.34
Renting and leasing of water transport equipment
P/F
O
84
84.13
Regulation of and contribution to more efficient operation of businesses
P
O
84
84.22
Defence activities
P
O
84
84.24
Public order and safety activities
P
P
85
85.32
Technical and vocational secondary education
P
P
85
85.41
Post-secondary non-tertiary education
P
P
85
85.42
Tertiary education
P
P
85
85.51
Sports and recreation education
P
R
93
93.11
Operation of sports facilities
P
R
93
93.12
Activities of sport clubs
P
R
93
93.19
Other sports activities
P
R
93
93.21
Activities of amusement parks and theme parks
P
R
93
93.29
Other amusement and recreation activities
P
Source: SEMRU’s Ireland’s Ocean Economy - Ref year 2010, published Dec 2013
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Appendix 3: Marine Economy Occupations
Jobs in the Marine Economy straddle the full range of occupations from Managerial and Professional
to Operatives. Many of the skills are also common to land based jobs and individuals can upskill for
a marine environment. The following list was taken from Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing
Document, Part III.
Ocean economy subsector
Jobs
Seafood and Bio-Products:
Food technologists, microbiologists, food production, food

Sea Fisheries
processing, food analysts,; marine biology, fishery scientists,

Aquaculture
botanists, environmental scientists, maintenance technicians,

Seafood Processing
fishermen, ships officers, marine engineers, boat crew, radio
operators, animal nutritionist, veterinarians, geneticists,
environmental management, nature conservation, pollution control,
environmental consultancy, quality assurance technicians, quality
auditors, lab technicians ,food process engineers, new product
development technologists, food economist, production supervisor,
process technician, market development staff, production
managers, general operatives, mechanical and electrical trades

Marine Biotechnology and
Product and process development, quality analysts, safety officers,
bio-processing
geneticists, chemists, biologists, botanists, biotechnologists,
molecular biologists, biochemists, geneticists, laboratory and
medical technicians and mathematicians, biostatisticians and
statisticians, bioinformatics, process engineers, food technologists
and scientists, nutritionists, veterinarian., medical doctors,
microbiologists, fishery scientists, sales and marketing, data
analysis, synthetic biologists, wide range of process technicians and
plant operators, chemical engineers and process engineers.
Maritime Transport,
Ship brokers, commodity traders, bunker brokers, charterers, ship
Shipbuilding and Services:
operations, maritime analysts, fleet managers, Ship agents, pilots,
Shipping & Maritime
tug operators, STCW training providers (health and safety training
Transport;
aboard), Ship Chandlers and equipment suppliers, Freight
Marine Manufacturing,
Forwarder, Marine Economics, crew, naval architects, marine
Engineering & Construction
surveyors, hull surveyors, cargo surveyors master mariners and



Marine Retail Services

Marine Commerce
Energy

other deck officers, chief engineers and marine engineers, shipping
lawyers, radio operators, marine insurance (marine underwriters,
hull and machinery, cargo claims), shipping accountants.
Geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, mineralogists, drilling
Oil and Gas Exploration and
engineers reservoir engineers production engineers facilities
Production
engineers energy economists environmental engineering, riggers,
rough-necks and general operatives, network systems and data
systems analysts, chemical engineers, naval architects, marine
surveyors, master mariners and other deck officers.
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Ocean economy subsector
Jobs
Energy
Software development engineer, market data analysis, IT

Marine Renewable Energy -
controller, hardware developer, turbine monitoring and diagnostic
Offshore wind, Wave and
engineer, smart grid engineer, power systems software engineer,
Tidal
electrical engineer, process engineer, marine energy engineer, site
development manager, marine operations manager, economist,
structural engineer, hydrologists, mechanical design engineer, wave
scientists, fabrication and welding technicians.
Marine Tourism
Guides, hotel and catering management, chefs, bar staff, beauty
therapists, boat builders, sports and fitness trainers, retailer staff,
marketing and public relations, accountants, drivers, maintenance
staff, translators, tour operators, angling instructors, environmental
management. marine park and oceanarium management, museum
curatorship, teaching/training and teaching support (filmmaking,
etc.)
Maritime Monitoring, Security
and Surveillance including
Marine ICT and Smart Ocean
Programmer/software developers, systems analysts, web developer,
network engineers, telecoms engineers, technical sales, marketing,
software engineers, project manager, mechanical, electrical,
electronic and civil/structural engineers, geoscientists,
maintenance technicians, mechanical and electrical trades, general
operatives, divers and dive support.
Source: Our Ocean Wealth – Background Briefing Document, Part III, Enablers-Getting the Conditions
Right for Growth
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Appendix 4: National Framework of Qualifications
The National Framework of Qualifications (NFQ) is a ten-level system giving an academic or
vocational value to qualifications obtained in Ireland. The NFQ levels help indicate how an award
can be used for training, education and employment opportunities (see fan diagram). Each level is
based on nationally agreed standards of what a learner is expected to know and be able to do after
receiving an award.
QQI (Quality and Qualifications Ireland) is Ireland's guardian of the NFQ system. It is a state agency
established by the Quality Assurance and Qualifications (Education and Training) Act 2012 with a
board appointed by the Minister for Education and Skills. QQI’s functions include those previously
carried out by the Further Education and Training Awards Council (FETAC); the Higher Education
and Training Awards Council (HETAC); the Irish Universities Quality Board (IUQB) and the National
Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI). QQI also validates education and training programmes
and makes extensive awards in the Further Education and Training sector including in the Education
and Training Boards.
NFQ serves several purposes.

It ensures awards obtained in Ireland are quality-assured and recognised internationally;

It supports lifelong learning by recognising knowledge and skills within a comparative framework
even if they are not recognised by a formal award;

It provides a system of establishing eligibility in the learning processes for access, transfer and
progression

It recognises awards made by professional bodies (see Qualifications Recognition Service below)
NFQ is linked to similar frameworks in Europe.
Source: www.qqi.ie
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Appendix 5: Steering Group Members
Name
Organisation
Brendan Murphy - Chair
President, Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) and EGFSN Member
Peter Heffernan
CEO, Marine Institute
Archie Donovan
Dept. Communication, Energy, and Natural Resources (DCENR)– GSI
(Geological Survey of Ireland)
Kevin McCann
DCENR – Petroleum Affairs Division
Yvonne Shields
CEO, Commissioners for Irish Lights (CIL)
Gearóid Mooney
Divisional Manager, Research and Innovation, Enterprise Ireland
John Bolton
IDA Ireland
Meadbh Seoighe
Údarás na Gaeltachta
Conor Mowlds
Head of National Maritime College of Ireland (NMCI)
John McGrath
Head of SLMRU (Skills and Labour Market Research Unit), Solas
Graham Brennan
Programme Manager, Ocean Energy, Sustainable Energy Authority of
Ireland (SEAI)
Andrew Parish
Sound and Sea Technology
John Connaughton
Head of Training Services, BIM (Bord Iascaigh Mhara)
Sean O’Donoghue
Federation of Irish Fishermen (Killybegs Fisherman’s Organisation
(KFO)
Lorcán Ó'Cinnéide
Irish Fish Processors and Exporters Association (IFPEA)
Jan Feenstra
Marine Harvest
Liam Lacey
Director of Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO)
Glenn Murphy
Irish Shipbrokers
Mary Stack
Fáilte Ireland
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Appendix 6: Members of the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
Name
Organisation
Una Halligan
Chairperson
Marie Bourke
Head of Secretariat and Department Manager, Department of Jobs,
Enterprise and Innovation
Inez Bailey
Director, National Adult Literacy Agency
Peter Baldwin
Assistant Secretary, Department of Education and Skills
Ray Bowe
IDA Ireland
John Burke
Department of Public Expenditure and Reform
Liz Carroll
Training and Development Manager, ISME
Ned Costello
Chief Executive, Irish Universities Association
Margaret Cox
Managing Director, I.C.E. Group
Bill Doherty
Executive Vice President, EMEA, Cook Medical
Tony Donohoe
Head of Education, Social and Innovation Policy, IBEC
Bryan Fields
Director, Curriculum Development / Programme Innovation, SOLAS
Joe Hogan
Founder, Chief Technology Officer and VP Openet Labs and IP
Management
Declan Hughes
Assistant Secretary, Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation
Colm Mac Fhionnlaoich
Manager CMD and Client Skills, Enterprise Ireland
Deirdre McDonnell
Principal Officer, Department of Education and Skills
Frank Mulvihill
Former President of the Institute of Guidance Counsellors
Brendan Murphy
President, Cork Institute of Technology
Alan Nuzum
CEO, Skillnets
Peter Rigney
Industrial Officer, ICTU
Mary-Liz Trant
Higher Education Authority
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
Appendix 7: Recent Publications by the Expert Group on
Future Skills Needs, 2012 - 2015
Report
Publication Date
The Expert Group on Future Skills Needs Statement of Activity 2014
April 2015
Addressing the Demand for Skills in the Freight Transport, Distribution and
Logistics Sector in Ireland 2015 - 2020
February 2015
Guidance for Higher Education Providers on Current and Future Skills Needs of
Enterprise: Springboard 2015
February 2015
Regional Labour Markets Bulletin 2014
September 2014
Monitoring Ireland’s Skills Supply: Trends in Education and Training Outputs 2014
August 2014
National Skills Bulletin 2014
July 2014
Vacancy Overview 2013
May 2014
Assessing the Demand for Big Data and Analytics Skills, 2013 - 2020
May 2014
The Expert Group on Future Skills Needs Statement of Activity 2013
March 2014
Regional Labour Markets Bulletin 2013
March 2014
Guidance for Higher Education Providers on Current and Future Skills Needs of
Enterprise: Springboard 2014
February 2014
Addressing Future Demand for High-Level ICT Skills
November 2013
Monitoring Ireland’s Skills Supply: Trends in Education and Training Outputs 2013
July 2013
National Skills Bulletin 2013
July 2013
Future Skills Requirements of the Manufacturing Sector to 2020
April 2013
The Expert Group on Future Skills Needs Statement of Activity 2012
April 2013
Guidance for Higher Education Providers on Current and Future Skills Needs of
Enterprise: Springboard 2013
February 2013
Vacancy Overview 2012
February 2013
Regional Labour Markets Bulletin 2012
January 2013
Monitoring Ireland’s Skills Supply: Trends in Education and Training Outputs 2012
July 2012
National Skills Bulletin 2012
July 2012
Key Skills for Enterprise to Trade Internationally
June 2012
EGFSN Statement of Activity 2011
April 2012
Vacancy Overview 2011
February 2012
Guidance for Higher Education Providers on Current and Future Skills Needs of
Enterprise (Forfás report based on EGFSN identified future skills needs)
February 2012
Addressing High–Level ICT Skills Recruitment Needs: Research Findings
January 2012
Skills in the Marine Economy
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April 2015
A Study of the Current and Future
Skills Requirements of the Marine/
Maritime Economy to 2020
April 2015
Expert Group on Future Skills Needs
c/o Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation
Kildare Street
Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 631 2881
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.skillsireland.ie
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