Past simple of the verbs BE, HAVE, DO
He, she, it
• I was in Japan last year
• She had a headache yesterday.
• We did our homework last night.
• They weren't in Rio last summer.
• We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
• We didn't do our exercises this morning.
• Were they in Iceland last January?
• Did you have enough money?
• Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?
Past simple of regular and irregular verbs
Regular verb + ed
Did you work?
I did not work.
Yes, I did,
I did not speak. Did you speak? No, I didn´t.
completed action in a time before now
(He visited his parents last week.)
often, sometimes, always
last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago.
the other day, ages ago, a long time ago etc.
Exceptions in spelling when adding ed
love – loved, like
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
hurry – hurried , carry
actions which started in the past and continue to the present or they are still importnant at present
have + past participle (3. tvar slovesa)
I loved you 10 years ago…(we split up)
….but you've still been on my mind... (now)
I loved you
Present perfect – positive, negative, questions
I / you / we /they
I have spoken.
I have not
Have I spoken?
he / she / it
He has spoken.
He has not
He's gone out.
They've lost their way.
We haven't met. (Ještě) jsme se nesetkali.
I haven't finished. (Ještě) jsme neskončili.
He hasn't gone out. Nešel ven.
They haven't lost their way. Neztratili se.
Have you two met? Už jste se vy dva setkali?
Have you finished? Už jsi skončil?
Where has he gone? Kam šel?
Have they lost their way? Ztratili se?
Has he spoken?
Present perfect simple x Past simple
started in past and not completed
I have lived in Prague.
x completed in past (you
cannot change it anymore)
I lived in Prague.
Present Perfect x Past Simple + for
• I lived in Hradec Králové for 20 years.
• I have lived in Prague for 25 years.
Started in past (in 1986) and still continue
Signal Words for Present Perfect A2
already, ever, never, just, yet, so far
today, this week, this month, this year
for 10 years (period of time)
since 2001 (point of time)
I have already / just / never seen him.
I haven't seen him yet.
I have gone there twice this year.
I have known him for 10 years.
I have known him since 2001.
Oceans, seas, rivers, canals, gulfs, bays
the Pacific, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea,
the Mississippi, the River Elbe, the Missouri River
Mountains (pohoří), group of islands, deserts
the Alps, the Himalayas
the Shetlands, the British Isles
the Sahara, the Great Sandy Desert
Europe, Australia, Asia, Africa, America,
Central Asia, medieval Europe, South America
the continent of Africa (africký kontinent)
Mountain, lakes, islands..
Mount Everest, Mount St. Helen,
Lake Eyrie, Lake Michigan, Loch Ness
Madagaskar, Holy Island, Java
Streets, squares, parks
Wall Street, Broadway, Madison Avenue,
Trafalgar Square, Picadilly Circus,
Hyde Park, Yosemite National Park
0 / THE
1) Začíná-li název budovy na vlastní jméno – 0Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace
2) Začíná-li název budovy na obecné podstatné jméno nebo
přídavné jméno - THE –
the World Trade Center, The National Museum, the White House,
BUT!!!: the Charles Bridge, the Eiffel Tower, Big Ben
1) Jednoslovné názvy států v jednotném čísle -0Italy, France, Russia, Britain BUT!!!: the Netherlands
2) Víceslovné názvy států, které mají v názvu obecné podstatné
jméno – THE
the Czech Republic, the USA, the European Union
Cities and towns
New York, New York City, Sydney, Prague, Washington DC
BUT!!! the city of ..., the town of …the city of New York
by car, by bus, by train
at home, at school, at work
to work, to school
in bed, in hospital, in prison, in
a few - několik
a little, a bit - trochu
a couple of - pár
a lot of - spousta
half an hour - půl hodiny
twice a week - dvakrát týdně
5 kilometres an hour – 5 km/h
at the top, at the bottom
in the morning, in the afternoon
x at night
in the south, in the north
in the word
on the left
on the coast
COUNTABLES AND UNCOUNTABLES
COUNTABLE nouns are for things we can count: dog, horse, man, shop, idea.
have a singular and plural form: 2 dogs, 10 horses, a man, 6 men
UNCOUNTABLE nouns - for the things that we cannot count: tea, sugar,
water, air, rice.
abstract ideas or qualities: knowledge, beauty, anger, fear, love
WITH a singular verb (knowledge is, love is)
NOT!!! plural (We cannot say sugars, breads, knowledges)
common uncountable nouns:
alcohol, coffee, butter, energy, strategy, bread, luggage, fruit, information,
time, wine, cheese, stress, relaxation, music, money, furniture, happiness,
sadness, research, evidence, safety, beauty, knowledge, accommodation,
advice, behaviour, news, traffic, travel, trouble, weather, work, energy,
tennis, plastic, hair, sand, electricity, juice, shopping, damage, progress
U/C --/ ?
A lot of/lots of U/C +
U -- / ?
C -- / ?
I bought some coffee/cakes
I didn’t buy any tea. There are not any visitors here.
There is a lot of traffic today.
There are a lot of cars in the city.
I drink only a little wine
We had a few problems.
We do not have much work.
There are not many cars in the streets.
There is too much noise.
There are too many people here.
We have enough students.
There are not enough chairs for everyone.