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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
UN
NIT
T FO
OU
UR
Dy
ynam
mic E
Earthh
*Ded
dicated to: __
____________
___________
____
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
ABSTRACT
A
T AND RATIIONALE
To ddesign structu
ures that can
n withstand earthquakes,
e
, engineers m
must understtand the stressses caused bby shaking.
To thhis end, scientists and en
ngineers placce instrumen
nts in structuures and nearrby on the grround to measure how
the sstructures resspond during
g an earthqu
uake to the motion
m
of the ground benneath. Every time a stronng
earthhquake occurs, the new information
i
gathered enaables engineeers to refinee and improvve structural designs and
d
buildding codes. Today
T
there are instrumeents installed
d in hospitalls, bridges, ddams, aqueduucts, and othher structures
throuughout the earthquake-prone areas of
o the United
d States incluuding other sseismically aactive regionns of the
natioon.
TASK
K STATEMEN
ENT/PROBLE
EM BASED LEARNING
G/REAL WO
ORLD PROBL
LEM:
After this unit, you and yo
our group members
m
will explore eaarthquake haazards and damage to bbuildings by
y
consstructing mo
odel building
gs and subjeecting the bu
uildings to gground vibraation (shakinng similar too earthquakee
vibraations) on a small shakee table. The buildings
b
wiill be construucted by twoo- or three-pperson teamss of studentss.
After constructio
on, the build
dings are tested by subjeecting them to earthquakke shaking tto see whichh designs and
d
consstructions aree successful..
Rulees:
11. Materialss are limited
d (realistic)
22. Completee constructio
on in limited
d time (realisstic)
Matterial:
11. Posterboard (lightweeight posterb
board; note: there
t
is a diffference in qquality and thherefore streength of
ght pasteboaard; the best posterboard
p
has one smoooth, almostt glossy side and on dull side;
lightweig
lightweig
ght posterboaard can be purchased at most booksttores, convennience stores, Wal-Martt and KMart.)
22. Scotch Tape
T
(2 cm orr 3/4” wide) 100 cm leng
gth (Plan acccordingly!)
33. Scissors
44. Ruler
55. 4 – 8 x 8 cm squares
66. 12 – 1½ x 10 cm strip
ps
77. 12 – 1½ x 15 cm strip
ps
88. 1 – 30 x 8 cm
Topiccs that we’lll cover in deetail to help
p on your tassk statemen
nt:





Cause off earthquakess
Movement of earthqu
uakes
Earthquaake intensity
Calculatiing earthquake’s arrival time, origin time and disstance from the origin.
Effects of
o earthquakee
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Read
d page#172-194 in your Ea
arth Science textbook.
t
Answer the que
estions below (specifically ffor each sectiion of the
readiing). Remem
mber, try to be
e honest and not
n make up any
a answers.. This is a wa
ay for me to u
understand wh
here you are
havin
ng difficulty.
Page
e #172
1. Exxplain Wegn
ner’s hypothe
esis AND list three obse
ervations tha
at supported his idea.
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e#173
Page
2. W
What does ea
arthquake an
nd volcanoes
s relate to th
he theory of plate tectonics?
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Page
e #174
3. To
o your best ability,
a
expla
ain how study
ying the mag
gnetic prope
erty of igneo
ous rock on tthe ocean flo
oor supports
the ttheory of pla
ate tectonics
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4. W
Write down tw
wo questions
s you have on
o that sectio
on
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5. W
Write down th
hree vocabularies you stumbled on while
w
reading
g the text.
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Page
e#174
How does the
e age of the rock at the center
c
of the
e mid ocean ridge comp
pare to the siide?
6. H
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Page
e 194
7. S
Summarize where
w
and ho
ow volcanoe
es form
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
INTERIOR
R OF THE E
EARTH
Lithosphe
ere: ______
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Asthenos
sphere: ____
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
How
w do we know
w about eartth’s interiorr?
ANS
S: _________
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Refraction: ____
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Use pa
age 10 of th
he Earth Science Referrence Table
e to answer the following question
ns.
1
1. Approxim
mately how thick is the litthosphere?
2
2. What are
e the two ma
ajor types of crust on Earth’s surface
e?
3
3. Which type of the cru
ust is the denser? How much dense
er?
4
4. How hot is the Earth at 3000km deep?
5
5. What’s th
he pressure 1000km dee
ep?
6
6. In which Earth layer does the pre
essure reach
h 3.5 million atmosphere
es?
7
7. Which layer is responsible for ca
ausing plate tectonics?
8
8. What forms as a resu
ult of subduc
ction zone between
b
two plates?
9
9. What is the
t name of the boundarry between the
t crust and
d the mantle
e?
Name:_________________Date: _____________ Plate Tectonic Notes Types of plates and features of interactions Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Plate Tec
ctonics Cla
ass Exercisse (ESRT pg. 5)
1. Liist three pieces of evvidence of continenta
al drift:
a.
b.
c.
2. W
What is believed to ca
ause the pllates to mo
ove?
3. D
Describe th
he differen
nce betwee
en a contine
ental plate
e and an oce
ean plate:
4. W
Write the name
n
of eac
ch type of plate boun
ndary and tthe main fe
eatures th
hat form.
Nam
me _______
_________
Name: ___________________
Keyy Features: __________
_
________
Key Feattures: ________________
Nam
me: _______
_________
Name: _______________
Keyy Features: __________
_
____
Key Feeatures: ________________
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
5. a
a. What type
e of bounda
ary exists be
etween the North Ame
erican Plate and the Eu
urasian Plate
e?
________
____
b
b. What feature is form
ming at thatt boundary?
? ________
_________
________
6. a
a. What type
e of bounda
ary exists be
etween the Philippine PPlate and th
he Pacific
Plate? _________
_
__________
___
b
b. What feature is form
ming at thatt boundary?
? _______
__________
_________
7. a
a. What type
e of bounda
ary exists be
etween the Nazca and South Ame
erican Platess? _______
_____
b
b. What feature is form
ming at thatt boundary?
? _______
__________
_____
8. a
a. What type
e of plate boundary exists on the west coast of the USA
A in Californ
nia? ______
_____
b.. What featture is occurring at tha
at boundary? _______
__________
_________
_
9. a
a. Name fourr hot spots:: ________
_________
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_
10. a. When an ocean plate
e collides with a contine
ental plate, which plate
e will go und
derneath
tthe other? _______
__________
_________
______
b
b. Why?
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_
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11. a
a. What do we know about the age
e of the rocks at mid-occean ridgess?
b
b. What happens to the
e age as you get farther from the ridges?
12. Look at the
e Nazca and South Ame
erican plate. Which platte is going uunderneath the other?
?
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
ots
Define Hot Spo
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Mid--ocean Ridg
ge:
How
w do the rock
ks at MOR in
ndicate abou
ut the Earth’s
s magnetic ffield?
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Name:_________________Date: _____________ Name:_________________Date: _____________ Name:_________________Date: _____________ Name:_________________Date: ____________
Read page#214-220 in your Earth Science textbook. Answer the questions below (specifically for each section of the reading).
Remember, try to be honest and not make up any answers. This is a way for me to understand where you are having difficulty.
Page #214
1. Write a summary that explains the cause of earthquakes
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Page#215
2. Write down three things you learned about P and S waves
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3. Write down two questions for each section of the reading
Question about reading on page 216:
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Page #217
4. To your best ability, explain how seismograph works
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Page#219
5. How many seismographs are needed to find the epicenter of an earthquake?____________________________
Page#220
6. Write down two questions you have on that section
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6. Write down three vocabularies you stumbled on while reading the text.
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
1
1. Where do
d most of the
t earthqu
uakes and volcanoes
v
h
happen?
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2
2. Define an
a epicenter? _______
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3
3. Define a focus:
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P wave
S wav
ve
1)
1)
2)
2)
3)
3)
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
EXA
AMPLE#1

How lon
ng does it ta
ake for S-W
Wave to trav
vel 5,000km
m? _______
__________
______
EXA
AMPLE #2

The reco
ording station tells us it took 6 minutes and 2
20 secondss for the P-W
Wave to re
each them.
How far away from the epicen
nter of the earthquake
e
must they be?
__________
_________
__________
_
ANS:___
EXA
AMPLE#3

How lon
ng does it ta
ake for P-wa
ave to trave
el 6000km?
? ________
__________
________
EXA
AMPLE#4

The reco
ording station tells us it took 3 minutes and 4
40 secondss for the S w
wave to rea
ach them,
how far away from the epicenter of the earthquake must they b
be?
ANS: __
__________
_________
__________
___
AT IF BOTH
H P AND S WAVE AR
RE KNOWN
N?
WHA
Station A:
A San Fra
ancisco, Ca
alifornia
P-Wa
ave arrival 3:02:20
3
S-W
Wave arrival 3:06:30
What
W
is the
e time difference betw
ween P and
d S wave a
arrivals?
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________
ANS:____
Distance to th
he Epicenterr? ________
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Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Station
S
B: Denver, C
Colorado
P-Wa
ave arrival 3:01:40
3
S-W
Wave arrival 3:04:10
What
W
is the
e time difference betw
ween P and
d S wave a
arrivals?
__________
_________
__________
________
ANS: ___
Distance
e to the Epic
center? ____
__________
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__________
__
Station
S
C: Missoula,, Montana
P-Wa
ave arrival 3:01:20
3
S-W
Wave arrival 3:03:00
What
W
is the
e time difference betw
ween P and
d S wave a
arrivals?
ANS: ___
__________
_________
__________
________
Distanc
ce to the Epic
center? ____
__________
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___________
__
Individual Practice
Find th
he epicente
er of each se
eismic statiion
P arrival time
S arrival time
4:10:25
4:13:05
4:05:00
4:10:00
4:03:30
4:09:00
Lag Tiime
center Dista
ance
Epic
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
(Seismogra ph from a seiismic station)) 1. In addition to
o the seismic station above, how manyy additional onnes scientist need to predict an earthquake? ________
____________
__ 2. Which plate motions are involved in th
he earthquake
e in Sumatra and Japan?
_____________
___________
____________
___________
___________________________________________________ 3. How can the distance from
m an epicente
er determine
e the level of ddanger? _____________
____________
___________
___________
____________________________________________________ 4. In United Staates, where could be a pottential danger for Tsunam i and how sho
ould you prep
pare? ______________
___________
___________
____________
____________________________________________________ 5. How does the
e speed of seismic waves cchange? ________________
___________
____________
___________
______________________________________
Traveel time:
Arrivval time:
Origiin time:
6
6. Which graaphs above sh
hows the stattion is located
d farthest fro m the epicen
nter distance?? Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
1. Ba
ase your ans
swer to the following
f
que
estion on the
e cross secttion of a porttion of Earth
h’s interior be
elow. The
cross section shows the foca
al depth of some
s
earthquakes that o
occurred went of the Ton
nga Trench Data were
colle
ected along the
t 22 paralllel.
a
a. State the
e relationship
p between th
he depth of an
a earthqua ke’s focus a
and the earth
hquake’s disstance from
the Tong
ga Trench.
b
b. The Tong
ga Trench is
s the crustal surface bou
undary betwe
een two tecttonic plates. State the n
names of the
e
two plate
es.
cc. Describe
e the relative
e motion of th
he plates alo
ong this bou ndary
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
ase your ans
swer to the following
f
que
estion on the
e map below
w which show
ws the locattion of the ep
picenter of
2. Ba
an earthquake th
hat occurred
d on April 20, 2002, abou
ut 29 kilome
eters southwest of Plattsburgh, New York
he map show
ws the epice
enter of an earthquake happening
h
ne
ear Plattsburgh, New Yo
ork on April 2
20, 2002.
a. Th
b
b. State the
e latitude and
d longitude of
o this earthq
quake epice
enter. Express your answ
wers to the nearest
tenth of a degree and
d include the
e compass directions.
d
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
cc. What is the
t minimum
m number of seismograp
phic stations needed to lo
ocate the ep
picenter of a
an
earthqua
ake?
d
d. Explain why
w this eartthquake was
s most likely felt with gre
eater intensitty by people
e in Peru, Ne
ew York,
than by people
p
in Lake Placid, New York.
he epicenterr recorded th
he P-wave a
and S-wave a
arrival times
s
3. A seismic stattion located 1,800 kilometers from th
ke. Notice th
he difference
e between P and S wave
e arrival time at station A and statio
on B.
of this earthquak
a
a. Explain how
h
the seis
smograph recorded at station A is fa
arther from th
he earthquakke epicenterr than station
n
B.
b
b. Seismic station
s
A is located
l
5,40
00 kilometers
s from the ep
picenter of the earthqua
ake. How mu
uch time
would it take
t
for the first
f
S-wave produced by this earthq
quake to rea
ach seismic sstation A?
Nam
me:________
____________Date: ______________
_
Station
San Jose
P-wave
arrival
13:17:50
0
S-wa
ave
arriv
val
13:21:00
New
w York
13:19:10
0
13:23:20
San Francisco
13:19:35
5
13:23:35
Station
San Jose
P-wave
arrival
01:17:00
0
S-wa
ave
arriv
val
01:22
2:30
New
w York
01:24:00
0
01:29:40
San Francisco
01:20:50
0
01:24
4:10
Station
San Jose
P-w
wave
arrrival
03:13:40
S-wave
arrival
03:17:00
New
w York
03:14:10
03:16:50
San Francisco
03:14:00
03:20:00
S-P
S
Diistance
P wave trave
el time
Oriigin Time
S-P
S
Diistance
P wave trave
el time
Oriigin Time
S-P
Distance
P wave tra
avel
time
O
Origin Time
Name:_________________Date: _____________
Base your answers to questions 1 through 4 on the generalized map below, which shows a portion of the
Atlantic Ocean floor located between South America and Africa. Isolines show the approximate age, in
million years, of the ocean-floor bedrock on each side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Points A, B, and X
represent locations on the ocean floor.
1. On the grid in your answer booklet, construct a line graph of bedrock age by plotting the age of the
bedrock shown by each isoline that crosses line AB. Points A and B are plotted on the grid. Connect
the plots from A to B with a line.
2. Estimate the age of the ocean-floor bedrock at point X.
3.
Name:_________________Date: _____________
4. Explain why the age of the ocean-floor bedrock increases as the distance from the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge increases.
5. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge separates pairs of crustal plates, such as the South American Plate and the
AfricanPlate. Identify one other pair of crustal plates separated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
6. What is the approximate time difference between the first P-wave and the first S-wave recorded at
a seismic station located 8000 kilometers from an earthquake’s epicenter?
(1) 8 minutes 40 seconds
(2) 9 minutes 20 seconds
(3) 11 minutes 20 seconds
(4) 20 minutes 40 seconds
7. Which surface feature was produced by crustal movements at a transform plate boundary?
(1) East African Rift
(2) Aleutian Trench
(3) Tasman Hot Spot
(4) San Andreas Fault
8. A model of Earth’s internal structure is shown below. Analysis of which type of data led to the
development of this model?
(1) seismic waves
(2) depth of Earth’s oceans
(3) electromagnetic radiation
(4) isobar gradients
Name:_________________Date: _____________
Name:_________________Date: _____________
Name:_________________Date: _____________
Name:_________________Date: _____________
Name:_________________Date: _____________
Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the cross section below, which shows the type of seismic
waves recorded at various locations after an earthquake has occurred. Point A is a location on Earth’s
surface and X is the epicenter of the earthquake.
1. Point A is located 7600 kilometers from the epicenter of this earthquake. How many minutes did it
take the first S-wave to reach point A?
(1) 9 min
(3) 16 min
(2) 11 min
(4) 20 min
2. How many kilometers did the seismic waves travel from the earthquake directly to the outside of
the outer core?
(1) 800 km
(3) 2900 km
(2) 1400 km
(4) 6400 km
Name:_________________Date: _____________
The Great Rift Valley
Rifting of Earth’s crust in eastern Africa began during the Neogene Period as the
Ethiopian and Kenyan Domes formed. These two huge domes were created as Earth’s
mantle pushed up the overlying crust. As the crust was forced upward, the resulting
tension cracked the crust, resulting in the eruption of volcanoes and the formation of
large rifts. The crust continued to pull apart, forming rift valleys. These valleys have
become deeper and are currently becoming filled with sediments, igneous rock, and
water.
1. How many million years ago did the Ethiopian and Kenyan Domes form? ______mya
2. On the diagram, draw two curved arrows, one on each side of the dashed line, to show the
direction of movement of the convection currents within the asthenosphere that caused the
formation of the dome and the rift valley near location X.
3. Which two lithospheric plates are separated by a mid-ocean ridge in the northeastern portion of
the Ethiopian Dome? _____________________________________________
4. Which cross section best represents the convection currents in the mantle beneath the Peru-Chile
Trench?
Rubric for plate tectonic and earthquake unit/Learning objectives
JUST STARTING
Novice
GETTING THERE
Apprentice
YOU’VE MADE IT
Practitioner
ABOVE AND BEYOND
Expert
Explain why earthquakes
happen and where they happen
Explain how earthquakes
happen, where they happen and
how they travel through the
earth.
Understand the basic
vocabularies of an earthquake:
Epicenter, origin, focus,
Practitioner Plus
Students built successful
posterboard buildings models to
with stand low to medium
frequency shake test .
Describe the motion of p and s
P and S wave
(earthquake energy) wave
Not only describe the motion
and understand the definitions.
Students are able to explain
how p and s waves behave as
they travels through the
interior of the earth
 Identify the different plate boundaries
 Explain the motions of the plates and how
they create different intensity of
earthquakes
 Identify and explain the different features
along the plate boundaries
 Identify the different interactions of
earthquakes
 Able to use the reference table to describe
the motion and definition of p and s wave
 Calculate the p and s wave travel time
 Calculate and find the distance to the
epicenter using the p and s wave arrival
time or travel time
 Find the p and s wave travel time using the
distance to the epicenter data
 Calculate, find and draw the epicenter
location(s)
INDICATORS
Cause of
earthquakes
Able to know which wave
arrives to the seismic station
first.
Result of an
Earthquake
Explain 1-2 cause and effect of
an earthquake
Understand why p and s waves
are important for discovering
the composition of the earth’s
interior.
Understand that tsunami is
formed from underwater
earthquakes
 Describe other possible nature disasters
from the result of an earthquake.
 Use P and S waves to detect the arrival of
a tsunami and the effects of a tsunami
 Understand in detail how the Japan
tsunami and Sumatra tsunami are formed
and the impact on the people
Practitioner Plus
Calculate the origin of the
earthquake using epicenter
distance data or from p and s
wave travel time and arrival
time data
Understand Love and Raleigh
waves.
Practitioner Plus
Describe in detail what a
tsunami is and how it forms
underwater
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