Chapter 14: World War I and Its Aftermath, 1914-1920

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 11.9 MB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Amitav Ghosh
Amitav Ghosh

wikipedia, lookup

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt

wikipedia, lookup

William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan

wikipedia, lookup

Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson

wikipedia, lookup

Jack Kevorkian
Jack Kevorkian

wikipedia, lookup

George Gershwin
George Gershwin

wikipedia, lookup

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

wikipedia, lookup

Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich

wikipedia, lookup

Rajendra K. Pachauri
Rajendra K. Pachauri

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

World War I and
Its Aftermath
1914–1920
Why It Matters
The United States reluctantly entered World War I after German submarines violated American
neutrality. After the war ended, President Wilson supported the Treaty of Versailles, believing its
terms would prevent another war. The U.S. Senate, however, rejected the treaty. It did not want
the country to be tied to European obligations. Instead, Americans turned their attention to the
difficult adjustment to peacetime.
The Impact Today
The experience of World War I had a long-term effect on American history.
• The United States continues to be involved in European affairs.
• The horrors of the conflict helped reshape how people view warfare.
The American Republic Since 1877 Video The Chapter 14 video,
“Cousins: Royalty and World War I,” explains how royal marriages and
complex political alliances contributed to the outbreak of war in Europe.
1913
• Woodrow Wilson begins his
first presidential term
1915
• The Lusitania is sunk
1917
• U.S. enters war
▲
Wilson
1913–1921
1913
▼
1914
• Archduke Franz
Ferdinand
assassinated; war
begins in Europe
446
▲
▲
1915
1917
▼
1915
• Italy joins Allies
in war
• Japan gains
rights in Chinese
territory
1916
• British suppress
Easter Rebellion
in Ireland
▼
• Battle of the Somme
begins in July
1917
• Russian Revolution
begins in October
▼
• Balfour Declaration
favors setting up a Jewish
homeland in Palestine
1918
• Congress passes Sedition Act
American soldiers in the 23rd Infantry fire on German
positions in the Argonne Forest.
• Battle of Argonne Forest
begins in September
• Armistice ends fighting on
November 11
1920
• Red Scare and Palmer
raids target Communists
in the U.S.
1919
• Race riots and strikes
take place in Northern
cities
▲
▲
▲
1919
▼
▼
HISTORY
Harding
1921–1923
1921
▼
1918
1920
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
• Civil war breaks
ends Russian-German war
out in Ireland
1919
• Treaty of Versailles
conference begins
▼
1921
• Irish Free State
established
Chapter Overview
Visit the American Republic
Since 1877 Web site at
tx.tarvol2.glencoe.com and
click on Chapter Overviews—
Chapter 14 to preview chapter
information.
447
The United States
Enters World War I
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
Although the United States tried to
remain neutral, events soon pushed the
nation into World War I.
Organizing As you read about the start
of World War I, complete a graphic
organizer similar to the one below by
identifying the factors that contributed to
the conflict.
• Discuss the causes and results of
American intervention in Mexico and
the Caribbean.
• Explain the causes of World War I and
why the United States entered the war.
Key Terms and Names
Pancho Villa, guerrilla, nationalism,
self-determination, Franz Ferdinand,
Allies, Central Powers, propaganda,
contraband, U-boat, Sussex Pledge,
Zimmermann telegram
✦1914
Section Theme
Factors Contributing
to World War I
✦1915
April 1914
U.S. Marines occupy
Veracruz, Mexico
June 1914
Assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand
Continuity and Change Ties with the
British influenced American leaders to
enter World War I on the side of the
Allies.
✦1916
July 1914
World War I begins
May 1915
Sinking of the
Lusitania
✦1917
April 1917
United States
enters the war
Edith O’Shaughnessy could not sleep on the rainy night of April 20, 1914. Living at the
American embassy in Mexico City, the wife of diplomat Nelson O’Shaughnessy was well
aware of the growing crisis between Mexico and the United States. Earlier that day, President
Wilson had asked Congress to authorize the use of force against Mexico. In her diary,
O’Shaughnessy described the tensions in the Mexican capital:
I can’t sleep. National and personal potentialities [possibilities] are surging through my
“
brain. Three stalwart railroad men came to the Embassy this evening. They brought reports of
a plan for the massacre of Americans in the street to-night, but, strange and wonderful thing,
a heavy rain is falling. . . . Rain is as potent as shell-fire in clearing the streets, and I don’t
think there will be any trouble.
”
The next day, O’Shaughnessy reported that the conflict had begun: “We are in Mexico, in
full intervention! . . . Marines are due to-day in Vera Cruz. . . .”
—adapted from A Diplomat’s Wife in Mexico
Raising the flag at Veracruz
Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy
As president, Wilson resolved to “strike a new note in international affairs” and to see
that “sheer honesty and even unselfishness . . . should prevail over nationalistic selfseeking in American foreign policy.” Wilson strongly opposed imperialism. He also
448
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
believed that democracy was essential to a nation’s
stability and prosperity, and that the United States
should promote democracy in order to ensure a
peaceful world free of revolution and war. During
Wilson’s presidency, however, other forces at work at
home and abroad frustrated his hope to lead the
world by moral example. In fact, Wilson’s first international crisis was awaiting him when he took office
in March 1913.
The Mexican Revolution From 1884 to 1911, a dictator, Porfirio Díaz, ruled Mexico. Díaz encouraged foreign investment in Mexico to help develop the
nation’s industry. A few wealthy landowners dominated Mexican society. The majority of the people
were poor and landless, and they were increasingly
frustrated by their circumstances. In 1911 a revolution
erupted, forcing Díaz to flee the country.
Francisco Madero, a reformer who appeared to
support democracy, constitutional government, and
land reform, replaced Díaz. Madero, however,
proved to be an unskilled administrator. Frustrated
with Mexico’s continued decline, army officers plotted against Madero. Shortly before Wilson took
office, General Victoriano Huerta seized power in
Mexico, and Madero was murdered—presumably on
Huerta’s orders.
Huerta’s brutality repulsed Wilson, who refused
to recognize the new government. Wilson was convinced that without the support of the United States,
Huerta soon would be overthrown. Wilson therefore
tried to prevent weapons from reaching Huerta, and
he permitted Americans to arm other political factions within Mexico.
Wilson Sends Troops Into Mexico
In April 1914,
American sailors visiting the city of Tampico were
arrested after entering a restricted area. Though they
were quickly released, their American commander
demanded an apology. The Mexicans refused. Wilson
used the refusal as an opportunity to overthrow
Huerta. He sent marines to seize the Mexican port of
Veracruz.
Although the president expected the Mexican
people to welcome his action, anti-American riots
broke out in Mexico. Wilson then accepted international mediation to settle the dispute. Venustiano
Carranza, whose forces had acquired arms from the
United States, became Mexico’s president.
Mexican forces opposed to Carranza were not
appeased, and they conducted raids into the United
States hoping to force Wilson to intervene. Pancho
Villa (VEE · yah) led a group of guerrillas—an
History
Moral Imperialism President Wilson sent
General John Pershing (below) to stop Pancho
Villa’s (right) raids into the United States.
Why was Villa conducting these raids?
armed band that uses surprise attacks and sabotage
rather than open warfare—that burned the town of
Columbus, New Mexico, and killed a number of
Americans. Wilson responded by sending 6,000
U.S. troops under General John J. Pershing across
the border to find and capture Villa. The expedition
dragged on as Pershing failed to capture the guerrillas. Wilson’s growing concern over the war raging in Europe finally caused him to recall
Pershing’s troops in 1917.
Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign
relations. The British ridiculed the president’s attempt
to “shoot the Mexicans into self-government.” Latin
Americans regarded his “moral imperialism” as no
improvement on Theodore Roosevelt’s “big stick”
diplomacy. In fact, Wilson followed Roosevelt’s
example in the Caribbean. During his first term,
Wilson sent marines into Nicaragua, Haiti, and the
Dominican Republic to preserve order and to set up
governments that he hoped would be more stable and
democratic than the current regimes.
Reading Check Examining Why did President
Wilson intervene in Mexico?
The Outbreak of World War I
Despite more than 40 years of general peace, tensions among European nations were building in 1914.
Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, a number
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
449
of factors created problems among the powers of
Europe and set the stage for a monumental war.
The Alliance System The roots of World War I
date back to the 1860s. In 1864, while Americans
fought the Civil War, the German kingdom of
Prussia launched the first of a series of wars to
unite the various German states into one
nation. By 1871 Prussia had united Germany
and proclaimed the birth of the German Empire.
The new German nation rapidly industrialized
and quickly became one of the most powerful nations
in the world.
The creation of Germany transformed European
politics. In 1870, as part of their plan to unify
Germany, the Prussians had attacked and defeated
France. They then forced the French to give up territory along the German border. From that point forward, France and Germany were enemies. To protect
itself, Germany signed alliances with Italy and with
Austria-Hungary, a huge empire that controlled
much of southeastern Europe. This became known as
the Triple Alliance.
The new alliance alarmed Russian leaders, who
feared that Germany intended to expand eastward into
Russia. Russia and Austria-Hungary were also competing for influence in southeastern Europe. Many of
the people of southeastern Europe were Slavs—the
same ethnic group as the Russians—and the Russians
wanted to support them against Austria-Hungary. As
a result, Russia and France had a common interest in
opposing Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1894 they
signed the Franco-Russian Alliance.
While the other major powers of
Europe divided into competing alliances, Great
Britain remained neutral. Then, in 1898, the Germans
began to build a navy challenging Great Britain’s historical dominance at sea. By the early 1900s, an arms
race had begun between Great Britain and Germany,
as both sides raced to build warships. The naval race
greatly increased tensions between Germany and
Britain and convinced the British to establish closer
relations with France and Russia. The British refused
to sign a formal alliance, so their new relationship
with the French and Russians became known as an
“entente cordiale”—a friendly understanding.
Britain, France, and Russia became known as the
Triple Entente.
primary emphasis on promoting their homeland’s
culture and interests above those of other countries.
Nationalism was one of the reasons for the tensions
among the European powers. Each nation viewed the
others as competitors, and many people were willing
to go to war to expand their nation at the expense of
others.
One of the basic ideas of nationalism is the right
to self-determination—the idea that people who
belong to a nation should have their own country
and government. In the 1800s, nationalism led to a
crisis in southeastern Europe in the region known as
the Balkans. Historically, the Ottoman Empire and
the Austro-Hungarian Empire had ruled the
Balkans. Both of these empires were made up of
many different nations. As nationalism became a
powerful force in the 1800s, the different national
groups within these empires began to press for
independence.
Among the groups pushing for independence
were the Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, and Slovenes.
These people all spoke similar languages and had
come to see themselves as one people. They called
themselves South Slavs, or Yugoslavs. The first of
these people to obtain independence were the
Serbs, who formed a nation called Serbia between
the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires. Serbs
believed their nation’s mission was to unite the
South Slavs.
Russia supported the Serbs, while AustriaHungary did what it could to limit Serbia’s growth.
In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, which at
the time belonged to the Ottoman Empire. The Serbs
were furious. They wanted Bosnia to be part of their
nation. The annexation demonstrated to the Serbs
that Austria-Hungary had no intention of letting the
Slavic people in its empire become independent.
The Balkan Crisis
A Continent Goes to War
The Naval Race
By the late 1800s, nationalism,
or a feeling of intense pride of one’s homeland, had
become a powerful idea in Europe. Nationalists place
450
Fateful Couple Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife
Sophia visit Sarajevo the day of the assassination.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
In late June 1914, the
heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, the Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, visited the Bosnian capital
of Sarajevo. As he and his wife rode through
the city, a Bosnian revolutionary named Gavrilo
Princip rushed their open car and shot the couple to
death. The assassin was a member of a Serbian
nationalist group nicknamed the “Black Hand.”
The assassination took place with the knowledge of
Serbian officials who hoped to start a war that
would bring down the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Austro-Hungarian government blamed
Serbia for the attack and decided the time had come
to crush Serbia in order to prevent Slavic nationalism from undermining its empire. Knowing an
European Alliances, 1914
60°N
500 miles
0
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal
Equal-Area projection
UNIT E D
KIN G DO M
50
°N
London
North
Sea
DENMARK
NETH.
BELG.
ATLaNTIC
OCEaN
NORWAY
Moscow
Baltic
Sea
N
S
Vienna
June 28, 1914
Budapest Archduke Franz Ferdinand
assassinated by Serb nationalist.
AUSTRIAHUNGARY
Black Sea
ROMANIA
Sarajevo
PORTUGAL
Corsica
ITALY
SERBIA
Fr.
Rome
Sardinia
Bulgaria joined the Central
in 1915. Romania
BULGARIA Powers
joined the Allies in 1916.
MONTENEGRO
Constantinople
ALBANIA
It.
10°W
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
GREECE
Italy refused to honor
Central Powers alliance
and joined Allied Powers
on May 23, 1915.
SPANISH
MOROCCO
MOROCCO
Fr.
E
W
LUX.
Paris
SPAIN
N
RUSSIA
Berlin
GERMANY
FRANCE SWITZ.
40°
St. Petersburg
(Petrograd)
SWEDEN
TUNISIA
Sicily
It.
Greece did not enter
the war until 1917.
Fr.
Me d i t e r r a n ean
ALGERIA
Fr.
Crete
Cyprus
Gr.
U.K.
Se a
LIBYA
It.
0°
Allied Powers
20°E
EGYPT 30°E
U.K.
40°E
Central Powers
Neutral nations
1. Interpreting Maps Which nations comprised the
Central Powers in 1914?
2. Applying Geography Skills What was the name of
the southeastern European region that sparked the
beginning of the war?
Initial troop movements
of Central Powers
June 28
Assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand
July 28
Austria-Hungary
declares war on Serbia
✦July 1914
July 30
Russia begins mobilizing
troops in defense of Serbia
August 3
Germany declares war on France,
begins invasion of Belgium
August 6
Austria-Hungary declares war
on Russia
✦August 1914
August 1
Germany declares
war on Russia
August 4
Britain declares
war on Germany
CHAPTER 14
August 12
France and Great Britain
declare war on Austria-Hungary
World War I and Its Aftermath
451
attack on Serbia might trigger a war with Russia,
the Austrians asked their German allies for support. Germany promised to support AustriaHungary if war erupted.
Austria-Hungary then issued an ultimatum to the
Serbian government. The Serbs counted on Russia to
back them up, and the Russians, in turn, counted on
France. French leaders were worried that they might
someday be caught alone in a war with Germany, so
they were determined to keep Russia as an ally. They
promised to support Russia if war began.
On July 28, Austria declared war on Serbia. Russia
immediately mobilized its army, including troops
stationed on the German border. On August 1,
Germany declared war on Russia. Two days later, it
declared war on France. World War I had begun.
The German plan had one major problem. It
required the German forces to advance through neutral Belgium in order to encircle the French troops.
The British had guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality.
When German troops crossed the Belgian frontier,
Britain declared war on Germany.
Those fighting for the Triple Entente were called
the Allies. France, Russia, and Great Britain formed
the backbone of the Allies along with Italy, which
joined them in 1915 after the other Allies promised to
cede Austro-Hungarian territory to Italy after the war.
What remained of the Triple Alliance—Germany and
Austria-Hungary—joined with the Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria to form the Central Powers.
The German plan seemed to work at first. German
troops swept through Belgium and headed into
France, driving back the French and British forces.
Germany’s Plan Fails Germany had long been preThen, to the great surprise of the Germans, Russian
pared for war against France and Russia. It immeditroops invaded Germany. The Germans had not
ately launched a massive invasion of France, hoping
expected Russia to mobilize so quickly. They were
to knock the French out of the war. It would then be
forced to pull some of their troops away from the
able to send its troops east to deal with the Russians.
attack on France and send them east to stop the
Russians. This weakened the German
forces just enough to give the Allies a
chance to stop them. The Germans
drove to within 30 miles (48 km) of
Paris, but stubborn resistance by British
and French troops at the Battle of the
Jeannette Rankin
Marne finally stopped the German
1880 –1973
advance. Because the swift German
As he addressed the “Gentlemen of
attack had failed to defeat the French,
the Congress” on April 2, 1917,
both sides became locked in a bloody
President Woodrow Wilson actually
misspoke. Sitting in the chamber listenstalemate along hundreds of miles of
ing to the president’s request for a dectrenches that would barely change
laration of war against Germany was
position for the next three years.
Representative Jeannette Rankin—the
The Central Powers had greater sucfirst woman ever elected to Congress.
cess on the Eastern Front. German and
Rankin was born in Missoula,
Austrian forces stopped the Russian
Montana, in 1880. She became a social
worker and participated in the woman
attack and then went on the offensive.
suffrage movement. In 1916 she was
They swept across hundreds of miles
elected to the U.S. House of
of territory and took hundreds of thouRepresentatives from Montana—one of
sands of prisoners. Russia suffered
In 1940 Rankin ran again for
the few states at that time that allowed
2 million killed, wounded, or captured
Congress
as
a
representative
from
women to vote. As a representative,
in 1915 alone, but it kept fighting.
Montana. She ran on an isolationist polRankin sponsored legislation to grant
in History
federal voting rights for women and to
provide health services for them.
Apart from her title as the first
woman in Congress, Rankin is remembered most for her strong pacifism.
She was one of 56 legislators who voted
against the nation’s entry into World
War I. “I want to stand by my country,”
she said, “but I cannot vote for war.”
452
CHAPTER 14
icy and won. In 1941 she was the only
member of Congress to vote against
declaring war on Japan and entering
World War II.
After leaving Congress in 1943,
Rankin continued working for peace.
In 1968, at 87 years of age, she led
thousands of women in the March on
Washington to oppose the Vietnam War.
World War I and Its Aftermath
Reading Check Explaining What
incident triggered the beginning of World War I?
American Neutrality
When the fighting began, President
Wilson declared the United States to
be neutral in an attempt to keep the
country from being drawn into a foreign war. “We
must be impartial in thought as well as in action,”
Wilson stated. For many Americans, however, that
proved difficult to do.
Americans Take Sides
Despite the president’s
plea, many Americans showed support for one side
or the other. This was especially true for recent immigrants from Europe. Many of the 8 million German
Americans, for example, supported their homeland.
The nation’s 4.5 million Irish Americans, whose
homeland endured centuries of British rule, also
sympathized with the Central Powers.
In general, though, American public opinion
favored the Allied cause. Many Americans valued
the heritage, language, and political ideals they
shared with Britain. Others treasured America’s historic links with France, a great friend to America during the Revolutionary War.
never for one moment been neutral: we did not know
how to be. From the very start we did everything that
we could to contribute to the cause of the Allies.”
Many American banks began to invest heavily in an
Allied victory. American loans to the cash-hungry
Allies skyrocketed. By 1917 such loans would total
over $2 billion. Other American banks, particularly in
the Midwest, where pro-German feelings were
strongest, also lent some $27 million to Germany. Even
more might have been lent, but most foreign loans
required the approval of William McAdoo, the secretary of the Treasury. McAdoo was strongly pro-British
and did what he could to limit loans to Germany. As a
result, the country’s prosperity was intertwined with
the military fortunes of Britain, France, and Russia.
If the Allies won, the money would be paid back; if
not, the money might be lost forever.
Reading Check Evaluating How was American
prosperity intertwined with the military fortunes of the Allies?
Pro-British Sentiment One select group of Americans was decidedly pro-British: President Wilson’s
cabinet. Only Secretary of State William Jennings
Bryan favored neutrality. The other cabinet members,
as well as Bryan’s chief adviser, Robert Lansing, and
Walter Hines Page, the American ambassador to
London, argued forcefully on behalf of Britain.
American military leaders also backed the British.
They believed that an Allied victory was the only
way to preserve the international balance of power.
British officials worked diligently to win American
support. One method they used was propaganda, or
information designed to influence opinion. Both the
Allies and the Central Powers used propaganda, but
German propaganda was mostly anti-Russian and
did not appeal to most Americans. British propaganda, on the other hand, was extremely skillful.
Furthermore, Britain cut the transatlantic telegraph
cable from Europe to the United States, limiting news
about the war mainly to British reports. Stories
arrived depicting numerous German war atrocities,
including the charge that Germans used corpses from
the battlefield to make fertilizer and soap. Although
many such reports were questionable, enough
Americans believed them to help sway American
support in favor of the Allies.
ECONOMICS
Business Links
American business interests also
leaned toward the Allies. Companies in the United
States, particularly on the East Coast, had strong ties
with businesses in the Allied countries. As business
leader Thomas W. Lamont stated, “Our firm had
Moving Toward War
Although most Americans supported the Allies and
hoped for their victory, they did not want to join the
conflict. However, a series of events gradually eroded
American neutrality and drew the nation into the war
firmly on the side of the Allies.
The British Blockade
Shortly after the war began,
the British deployed their navy to blockade
Germany and keep it from obtaining supplies. The
British planted mines in the North Sea and forced
neutral ships into port for inspections in case they
were trying to transport
valuable materials to Germany or its neutral neighHISTORY
bors. British officials also
expanded their definition of
contraband, or prohibited
Student Web
materials, to prevent neutral
Activity Visit the
American Republic
countries from shipping
Since 1877 Web site at
food to Germany.
tx.tarvol2.glencoe.com
The Germans knew that
and click on Student
the Allies depended on food,
Web Activities—
equipment, and other supChapter 14 for an
plies from both the United
activity on World War I.
States and their overseas
empires. If Germany could
strangle that trade, it could
starve the British and French into surrendering. To get
around Britain’s blockade, the Germans deployed
submarines known as U-boats—from the German
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
453
word Unterseeboot (meaning “underwater boat”). In
February 1915, the Germans announced that they
would attempt to sink without warning any ship they
found in the waters around Britain.
Germany’s announcement triggered outrage in
the United States and elsewhere. Attacking civilian
vessels without warning violated an international
treaty stipulating that military vessels must reveal
their intentions to merchant ships and make provisions for the safety of the targeted ship’s crew and
passengers before sinking it. The Germans claimed
that many merchant ships were actually warships in
disguise and that their U-boats would be placed at
great risk if they revealed themselves before firing.
The issue reached a crisis on May 7, 1915.
Despite warnings from Germany, the British passenger liner Lusitania entered the war zone. A submerged German submarine fired on the ship,
killing nearly 1,200 passengers—including 128
Americans. Many Americans were outraged and
regarded the attack as an act of terrorism, not war.
Others argued that the passengers traveling on
ships of foreign nations did so at their own risk.
Wilson steered a middle course on the issue of the
U-boats. He refused to take extreme measures
against Germany, saying that the United States was
“too proud to fight.” Nevertheless, he sent several
diplomatic notes to Germany insisting that its government safeguard the lives of noncombatants in the
war zones.
Late in March 1916, Wilson’s policy was tested
when a U-boat torpedoed the French passenger ship
Sussex, injuring several Americans on board. Although
Wilson’s closest advisers favored breaking off diplomatic relations with Germany immediately, the president, busy with the crisis in Mexico, chose to issue one
last warning. He demanded that the German government abandon its methods of submarine warfare or
risk war with the United States.
Germany did not want to strengthen the Allies by
drawing the United States into the war. It promised
with certain conditions to sink no more merchant
ships without warning. The Sussex Pledge, as it was
called, met the foreign-policy goals of both Germany
and President Wilson by keeping the United States
out of the war a little longer.
Wilson’s efforts to keep American soldiers at home
played an important part in his re-election bid in
1916. Campaigning as the “peace” candidate, his
campaign slogan, “He kept us out of the war,”
helped lead Wilson to a narrow victory over the
Republican nominee, Charles Evans Hughes.
The United States Declares War
History
The Sinking of the Lusitania In May 1915, German U-boats sank
the British passenger liner Lusitania. Among those who drowned were 128
Americans. Here the Los Angeles Tribune reports the attack, and a newspaper
advertisement warns ship passengers to travel the Atlantic at their own risk.
Why were the Germans sinking passenger liners?
454
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
Following
Wilson’s re-election, events quickly brought the
country to the brink of war. In January 1917, a
German official named Arthur Zimmermann cabled
the German ambassador in Mexico, instructing him to make an offer to the Mexican government. Zimmermann proposed that Mexico
ally itself with Germany in the event of war
between Germany and the United States. In
return, Mexico would regain its “lost territory
in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” after the
war. Germany hoped Mexico would tie down
the American forces and prevent them from
being sent to Europe. British intelligence intercepted the Zimmermann telegram. Shortly
afterward, it was leaked to American newspapers. Furious, many Americans now concluded war with Germany was necessary.
Then, on February 1, 1917, Germany resumed
unrestricted submarine warfare. German military
leaders believed that they could starve Britain into
“The world must
be made safe for
democracy.”
—Woodrow Wilson, April 1917
History
Americans Go to War Congress
voted heavily in favor of entering the
European war. Here, excited Americans
wave from an Army recruitment truck.
What events pushed the United States
to finally declare war?
submission in four to six months if their U-boats
could return to a more aggressive approach of sinking all ships on sight. Although they recognized that
their actions might draw the United States into the
war, the Germans did not believe that the Americans
could raise an army and transport it to Europe in
time to prevent the Allies from collapsing.
In the first three weeks of March 1917, German
U-boats sank four American merchant ships without
warning. Finally roused to action, President Wilson
appeared before a special session of Congress on
April 2, 1917, to ask for a declaration of war against
Germany.
It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful
“
people into war. . . . But the right is more precious
than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we
have always carried nearest to our hearts—for
democracy, for the right of those who submit to
authority to have a voice in their own governments,
for the rights and liberties of small nations. . . .
”
—quoted in the Congressional Record, 1917
After a spirited debate, the Senate passed the resolution on April 4 by a vote of 82 to 6. The House concurred 373 to 50 on April 6, and Wilson signed the
resolution. America was now at war.
Reading Check Summarizing How did Germany’s
use of unrestricted submarine warfare lead to American entry
into World War I?
Checking for Understanding
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
1. Define: guerrilla, nationalism,
self-determination, propaganda,
contraband, U-boat.
2. Identify: Pancho Villa, Franz Ferdinand,
Allies, Central Powers, Sussex Pledge,
Zimmermann telegram.
3. Name the two alliances that Europe was
divided into at the start of World War I.
5. Synthesizing How did European
nationalism contribute to the outbreak
of World War I?
6. Organizing Use a graphic organizer
similar to the one below to identify the
events that led the United States to
enter World War I.
7. Analyzing Time Lines Examine the
time line on page 451. How does the
order in which countries declared war
reflect the European alliance system?
Reviewing Themes
4. Continuity and Change Why did most
of President Wilson’s cabinet members
support the British?
Events
U.S. Enters
World War I
Writing About History
8. Expository Writing Imagine that you
are a Mexican citizen living in Mexico
between 1914 and 1917. Write a script
for a radio newscast in which you
express your feelings about American
actions in Mexico. Include reasons for
your feelings.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
455
The Home Front
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
To successfully fight the war, the United
States had to mobilize the entire nation.
Taking Notes As you read about how
the United States mobilized for war, use
the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one below.
• Analyze how the United States raised
an army and won support for World
War I.
• Explain how the economy was controlled to support the war.
Key Terms and Names
conscription, War Industries Board,
Bernard Baruch, victory garden, Liberty
Bond, Victory Bond, Committee on Public
Information, espionage
The Home Front
I. Building Up the Military
A.
B.
C.
II.
A.
B.
✦1917
Section Theme
Government and Democracy To fight
the war, the federal government created
new agencies to mobilize the economy,
draft soldiers, and build public support.
✦1918
1917
Selective Service Act and
Espionage Act passed
Eugene Debs
May 1918
Sedition Act passed
✦1919
September 1918
Eugene Debs imprisoned
1919
Schenck v. United States
Even as he began to address the crowd of about 1,200 people, Eugene Debs suspected he
was heading for trouble with the authorities. The 62-year-old Socialist leader had traveled to
Canton, Ohio, on June 16, 1918, to speak at the state’s convention of the Socialist Party. The
time had come, Debs decided, to condemn American participation in World War I.
“I realize that in speaking to you this afternoon,” he told the crowd, “there are certain limitations placed upon the right of free speech. I must be exceedingly careful, prudent, as to
what I say, and even more careful as to how I say it.” Laughter came from the crowd, and
then applause. “But I am not,” Debs continued, “going to say anything that I do not think. I
would rather a thousand times be a free soul in jail than to be a . . . coward in the streets!”
When the transcript of Debs’ speech arrived at the federal office in Cleveland, a grand jury
indicted him for violating the newly passed Espionage Act. The Socialist leader was arrested
and imprisoned. Said Debs, “I had a hunch that speech was likely to settle the matter.”
—adapted from Echoes of Distant Thunder
Building Up the Military
When the United States declared war against Germany in April 1917, progressives
controlled the federal government. They did not abandon their ideas simply because a
war had begun. Instead, they applied progressive ideas to fighting the war.
Selective Service
When the United States entered the war in 1917, the army and
National Guard together had slightly more than 300,000 troops. Although many men
volunteered after war was declared, many felt more soldiers needed to be drafted.
456
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
Many progressives believed that conscription—
forced military service—was a violation of democratic and republican principles. Realizing a draft
was necessary, however, Congress, with Wilson’s
support, created a new conscription system called
selective service. Instead of having the military run
the draft from Washington, D.C., the Selective Service
Act of 1917 required all men between 21 and 30 to
register for the draft. A lottery randomly determined
the order they were called before a local draft board
in charge of selecting or exempting people from military service.
The thousands of local boards were the heart of the
system. The members of the draft boards were civilians from local communities. Progressives believed
local people, understanding community needs,
would know which men to draft. Eventually about 2.8
million Americans were drafted. Approximately
2 million others volunteered for military service.
African Americans in the War
Of the nearly
400,000 African Americans who were drafted, about
42,000 served overseas as combat troops. African
American soldiers encountered discrimination and
prejudice in the army, where they served in racially
segregated units almost always under the supervision of white officers.
Despite these challenges, many African American
soldiers fought with distinction in the war. For
example, the African American 92nd and 93rd
Infantry Divisions fought in bitter battles along
the Western Front. Many of them won
praise from both the French commander,
Marshal Henri Pétain, and the United
States commander, General John Pershing.
The entire 369th Infantry Division won
the highly prized French decoration, the
Croix de Guerre (“war cross”), for gallantry
in combat.
Women in the Military World War I was
the first war in which women officially
served in the armed forces, although only in
noncombat positions. Women nurses had
served in both the army and navy since the
early 1900s, but as auxiliaries. Nurses were
not assigned ranks, and the women were
not technically enlisted in the army or navy.
As the military prepared for war in 1917, it
faced a severe shortage of clerical workers
because so many men were assigned to active
duty. Early in 1917, the navy authorized the
enlistment of women to meet its clerical
needs. The women wore a standard uniform and were
assigned the rank of yeoman. By the end of the war,
over 11,000 women had served in the navy. Although
most performed clerical duties, others served as radio
operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers,
chemists, and torpedo assemblers.
Unlike the navy, the army refused to enlist
women. Instead, it began hiring women as temporary employees to fill clerical jobs. The only women
to actually serve in the army were in the Army
Nursing Corps. Army nurses were the only women
in the military to be sent overseas during the war.
Over 20,000 nurses served in the army during the
war, including more than 10,000 overseas.
Reading Check Describing How did Congress
ensure that the United States would have enough troops to
serve in World War I?
Organizing Industry
The progressive emphasis on careful planning and
scientific management shaped the federal government’s approach to mobilizing the American war
economy. To efficiently manage the relationship
between the federal government and private companies, Congress created special boards to coordinate
mobilization of the economy. Instead of having
the government control the economy, these boards
emphasized cooperation between big business
and government. Business executives, professional
History
Women and War Although not allowed in combat, many women served in auxiliary positions, such as nursing. Here, Birmingham, Alabama, women collect money during a Red Cross
parade in 1918. In what other capacities did women serve during the war?
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
457
managers, and government representatives staffed
the boards. Their goal was to ensure the most efficient
use of national resources to further the war effort.
The War Industries Board
One of the first agencies
established was the War Industries Board (WIB).
Created in July 1917, the WIB’s job was to coordinate
the production of war materials. At first, President
Wilson was reluctant to give the WIB much authority
over the economy, but by March 1918, he decided
industrial production needed better coordination. The
WIB was reorganized and Bernard Baruch was
appointed to run it. Under this Wall Street stockbroker’s supervision, the WIB told manufacturers what
they could and could not produce. It controlled the
flow of raw materials, ordered the construction of new
factories, and occasionally, with the president’s
approval, set prices.
Food and Fuel Perhaps the most successful government agency was the Food Administration, run by
Herbert Hoover. This agency was responsible for
increasing food production while reducing civilian
consumption. Instead of using rationing, Hoover
encouraged Americans to save food on their own.
Using the slogan “Food Will Win the War—Don’t
Waste It,” the Food Administration encouraged families to “Hooverize” by “serving just enough” and
by having Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays,
and Porkless Thursdays. Hoover also encouraged
citizens to plant victory gardens to raise their own
vegetables, leaving more for the troops.
While Hoover managed food production, the Fuel
Administration, run by Harry Garfield, tried to manage the nation’s use of coal and oil. To conserve
energy, Garfield introduced daylight savings time
and shortened workweeks for factories that did not
make war materials. He also encouraged Americans
to observe Heatless Mondays.
Paying for the War
By the end of World War I, the
United States was spending about $44 million a
day—leading to a total expenditure of about $32 billion for the entire conflict. To fund the war effort,
Congress raised income tax rates. Congress also
placed new taxes on corporate profits and an extra
tax on the profits of arms factories.
Taxes, however, could not cover the entire cost of
the war. To raise the money it needed, the government borrowed more than $20 billion from the
American people by selling Liberty Bonds and
Victory Bonds. By buying the bonds, Americans were
loaning the government money. The government
agreed to repay the money with interest in a specified
number of years. Posters, rallies, and “Liberty Loan
sermons” encouraged people to buy the bonds as an
act of patriotism.
Reading Check Summarizing What federal agencies helped control American industries during the war?
History
Propaganda Posters George Creel’s
Committee on Public Information encouraged
Americans to do all they could to support the
war effort. What is the general theme of
these posters? Do you think the posters
were effective?
Mobilizing the Workforce
While the WIB and other agencies tried to build
cooperation between the government and business,
officials knew that they also needed workers to cooperate if mobilization was to succeed. To prevent
strikes from disrupting the war effort, the government established the National War Labor Board
(NWLB) in April 1918. Chaired by William Howard
Taft and Frank Walsh, a prominent labor attorney, the
NWLB attempted to mediate labor disputes that
might otherwise lead to strikes.
The NWLB frequently pressured industry to grant
important concessions to workers, including wage
increases, an eight-hour workday, and the right of
unions to organize and bargain collectively. In
exchange, labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war
production with strikes or other disturbances. As a
result, membership in unions increased by more than
1.5 million between 1917 and 1919.
Women Support Industry
The war increased
work opportunities for women, who filled industrial
jobs vacated by men serving in the military. These
included factory and manufacturing jobs and various
positions in the shipping and railroad industries.
War-generated changes in female employment, however, were not permanent. After the war, when the
servicemen returned home, most women returned to
their previous jobs or stopped working.
The Great Migration Begins
With the flow of
immigrants from Europe cut off and large numbers
of white workers being drafted, the war also opened
new doors for African Americans. Wartime job openings and high wages drew thousands of African
Americans to factories producing war materials.
Encouraged by recruiting agents promising high
wages and plentiful work, between 300,000 and
500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in
Northern cities. This became known as the “Great
Migration.” This massive population movement
altered the racial makeup of such cities as Chicago,
New York, Cleveland, and Detroit.
Mexican Americans Head North
African Americans were not the only group to migrate north during the war. Continuing political turmoil in Mexico
and the wartime labor shortage in the United States
convinced many Mexicans to head north. Between
1917 and 1920, over 100,000 Mexicans migrated into
Texas, Arizona, California, and New Mexico, providing labor for the farmers and ranchers of the
Southwest.
Federal Mobilization Agencies
Agency
Purpose
War Industries
Board
Organized industry to increase
efficiency, maximizing production
Railroad
Administration
Assumed temporary control of
rail lines to modernize equipment
and increase operating efficiency
Food
Administration
Supervised agricultural production,
promoted food conservation and
rationing
Fuel
Administration
Increased production of coal and
oil; maintained conservation of fuel
with such innovations as daylight
savings time
National War
Labor Board
Maintained cooperation between
industry management and labor
unions; acted as mediator to
prevent and quickly settle disputes
Committee
on Public
Information
Provided propaganda to rally
citizen support for all aspects
of the war effort
1. Interpreting Charts Which agency
worked with manufacturers and labor
unions?
2. Analyzing How did the Fuel Administration’s daylight savings time plan
achieve its goal?
Meanwhile, tens of thousands of Mexican
Americans headed north to Chicago, St. Louis,
Omaha, and other cities to take wartime factory jobs.
Many Mexican Americans faced hostility and discrimination when they arrived in American cities.
Like other immigrants before them, they tended to
settle in their own separate neighborhoods, called
barrios, where they could support each other.
Reading Check Evaluating How permanent were
women’s advances in the wartime workplace?
Ensuring Public Support
Progressives in the government did not think
coordinating business and labor was enough to
ensure the success of the war effort. They also
believed that the government should take steps to
shape public opinion and build support for the war.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
459
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., dissenting:
Abrams v. United States, 1919
The Espionage Act of 1917 made it a crime to “willfully
utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous
or abusive language about the government.” Although the act
limited First Amendment freedoms, many Americans believed
winning World War I was more important. ; (See page 962
for more information on Abrams v. the United States.)
Justice John H. Clarke delivered the majority opinion:
It is argued, somewhat faintly, that the acts charged
against the defendants were not unlawful because within
the protection of that freedom . . . of speech and of the
press . . . and that the entire Espionage Act is
unconstitutional. . . .
. . . the plain purpose of their propaganda was to
excite, at the supreme crisis of the war, disaffection, sedition, riots, and, as they hoped, revolution, in this country
for the purpose of embarrassing, and, if possible, defeating the military plans of the Government in Europe. . . .
[T]he language of these circulars was obviously intended
to provoke and to encourage resistance to the United
States in the war, as the third count runs, and the defendants, in terms, plainly urged and advocated a resort to a
general strike of workers in ammunition factories for the
purpose of curtailing the production of ordnance and
munitions necessary and essential to the prosecution of
the war. . . . Thus, it is clear not only that some evidence,
but that much persuasive evidence, was before the jury
tending to prove that the defendants were guilty as
charged. . . .
Selling the War
A new government agency, the
Committee on Public Information, had the task of
“selling” the war to the American people. The head
of the CPI was journalist George Creel, who recruited
advertising executives, commercial artists, authors,
songwriters, entertainers, public speakers, and
motion picture companies to help sway public opinion in favor of the war.
The CPI distributed pamphlets and arranged for
thousands of short patriotic talks, called “four-minute
speeches,” to be delivered at movie theaters and public halls and gathering places. The Four-Minute Men
urged audiences to support the war in various ways,
from buying war bonds to reporting draft dodgers to
the proper authorities.
460
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
It is only the present danger of immediate evil or an intent
to bring it about that warrants Congress in setting a limit to the
expression of opinion where private rights are not concerned.
Congress certainly cannot forbid all effort to change the mind
of the country. Now nobody can suppose that the surreptitious
publishing of a silly leaflet by an unknown man, without more,
would present any immediate danger that its opinions would
hinder the success of the government arms or have any appreciable tendency to do so.
In this case, sentences of twenty years’ imprisonment have
been imposed for the publishing of two leaflets that I believe
the defendants had as much right to publish as the
Government has to publish the Constitution of the United
States now vainly invoked by them. . . . I regret that I cannot
put into more impressive words my belief that, in their conviction upon this indictment, the defendants were deprived of
their rights under the Constitution of the United States.
Amendment I
—Congress shall make no law respecting
an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,
or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably
to assemble, and to petition the Government for a
redress of grievances.
Learning From History
1. What were the charges against the
defendants?
C19 20C
664118
2. On what key point did Holmes and
Clarke disagree?
Civil Liberties Curtailed In addition to using propaganda and persuasion, the government also passed
legislation to fight antiwar activities or enemies at
home. Espionage, or spying to acquire secret government information, was addressed in the Espionage Act
of 1917, which established penalties and prison terms
for anyone who gave aid to the enemy. This act also
penalized disloyalty, giving false reports, or otherwise
interfering with the war effort. The Post Office even
hired college professors to translate foreign periodicals
to find out if they contained antiwar messages.
The Sedition Act of 1918 expanded the meaning
of the Espionage Act to make illegal any public
expression of opposition to the war. In practice, it
allowed officials to prosecute anyone who criticized
the president or the government. Combined, these
laws generated over 1,500 prosecutions and 1,000
convictions.
A Climate of Suspicion
of men and some women have been tarred and
feathered, and a portion of the press is urging with
great vehemence more strenuous efforts at detection
and punishment.
”
The fear of spies and
—quoted in Echoes of Distant Thunder
emphasis on patriotism quickly led to the mistreatment and persecution of German Americans. To
avoid German-sounding names, advertisers began to
The Supreme Court Limits Free Speech Despite
call sauerkraut “Liberty cabbage” and hamburger
protests against the government’s tactics, however,
“Salisbury steak.” Many schools dropped German
the courts generally upheld the principle behind
language classes from their curricula, and orchesthem. Although the First Amendment specifically
tras stopped performing the music of
states that “Congress shall make no law . . .
Beethoven, Schubert, Wagner, and other
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the
German composers. Anti-German feelings
press,” the Supreme Court decided othersometimes led to violence. Some citizens
wise, departing from a strict literal interbeat neighbors who were German-born.
pretation of the Constitution.
In Collinsville, Illinois, a mob lynched a
In the landmark case of Schenck v.
German-born man whom they susthe United States (1919), the Supreme
pected of disloyalty.
Court ruled that an individual’s freeGerman Americans were not the only
dom of speech could be curbed when
ones under suspicion. Mobs attacked
the words uttered constitute a “clear
labor activists, socialists, and pacifists.
and present danger.” The Court used
Newspapers ads urged Americans to
as an example someone yelling “Fire!”
monitor the activities of their fellow citiin a crowded theater as a situation in
zens. Americans even formed private
George Creel
which freedom of speech would be
organizations, such as the American
superseded by the theater-goers’ right
Protective League and the Boy Spies of America, to
to safety. The Court’s majority opinion stated,
spy on neighbors and coworkers. Secretary of War
“When a nation is at war, many things that might be
Newton Baker expressed concern about the growing
said in times of peace are such a hindrance to its
intolerance:
effort that their utterance will not be endured so
long as [soldiers] fight. . . .” ; (See page 965 for more
There is a growing frenzy of suspicion and hostilinformation on Schenck v. the United States.)
ity toward disloyalty. I am afraid we are going to have
Reading Check Explaining Why did Congress pass
a good many instances of people roughly treated on
the Espionage Act in 1917?
very slight evidence of disloyalty. Already a number
“
Checking for Understanding
1. Define: conscription, victory garden,
espionage.
2. Identify: War Industries Board, Bernard
Baruch, Liberty Bond, Victory Bond,
Committee on Public Information.
3. Describe the contributions of African
Americans during the war.
Reviewing Themes
4. Government and Democracy How did
government efforts to ensure support
for the war conflict with democratic
ideals?
Critical Thinking
5. Analyzing How did World War I cause
the federal government to change its
relationship with the business world?
6. Organizing Use a graphic organizer
similar to the one below to identify the
effects of the war on the American
workforce.
Effects of War on
U.S. Workforce
Analyzing Visuals
7. Analyzing Posters Examine the
posters on page 458. How do these
images encourage support for the war?
How effective do you think they would
be today?
Writing About History
8. Persuasive Writing Imagine that you
are working for the Committee on
Public Information. Write text for an
advertisement or lyrics to a song in
which you attempt to sway public opinion in favor of the war.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
461
N O T E B O O K
VERBATIM
“
My message was one of
death for young men. How odd
to applaud that.
”
WOODROW WILSON,
on returning to the White House
after asking Congress for a
declaration of war, 1917
“ ”
Food is Ammunition—Don’t
Waste It
BROWN BROTHERS
POSTER FROM U.S. FOOD
ADMINISTRATION,
administered by Herbert Hoover
“
I have had a hard time getting
over this war. My old world died.
”
RAY STANNARD BAKER,
journalist
American soldiers set sail for Europe.
World War Firsts
Let us, while this war lasts,
“forget
our special grievances
Human ingenuity goes to work in the service of war:
and close our ranks shoulder
to shoulder with our own white
fellow citizens and the allied
nations that are fighting for
democracy.
AERIAL COMBAT, 1914. War takes to the air. Two Allied aircraft chase
two German planes across Britain.
GAS ATTACKS, 1915. The German High Command admits to using
chlorine gas bombs and shells on the field of combat. Deadly mustard
gas is used in 1917.
”
W.E.B. DU BOIS,
African American scholar
and leader, 1918
GAS MASKS. Issued to Allied soldiers in 1915.
“
America has at one bound
become a world power in a sense
she never was before.
DONKEY’S EARS. A new trench periscope enables soldiers to observe
the battleground from the relative safety of a trench without risking
sniper fire.
BROWN BROTHERS
LEON GIMPLE/SOCIETE FRANCAISE
DE PHOTOGRAPHIE/LIFE
Color My World
Some bright spots in a dark decade:
462
Color newspaper supplements (1914)
3-D films (1915)
Nail polish (1916)
Three-color traffic lights (1918)
Color photography introduced by Eastman Kodak (1914)
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
”
BRITISH PRIME MINISTER
DAVID LLOYD GEORGE,
on the U.S. entry into World War I, 1917
BIG BERTHA. Enormous howitzer gun
bombards Paris. “Big Bertha,” named
after the wife of its manufacturer, is
thought to be located nearly 63 miles
behind German lines. Moving at night
on railroad tracks, the gun is difficult
for the Allies to locate.
One of the first color photographs
In the camps I saw barrels
“mounted
on sticks on which
zealous captains were endeavoring
to teach their men how to ride
a horse.
”
THEODORE ROOSEVELT,
on touring U.S. military
training facilities, 1917
“
The war was over, and it seemed
as if everything in the world were
possible, and everything was new,
and that peace was going to be all
we dreamed about.
”
FLORENCE HARRIMAN,
Red Cross volunteer, in Paris on
Armistice Day, 1918
A WAR TO END ALL WARS: 1914–1 9 1 8
NUMBERS 1915
How to Make a Doughboy
$1,040
Take one American infantryman.
Average annual
income for workers in finance,
insurance, and real estate
1. Arm with 107 pieces of fighting equipment,
including:
rifle
gas mask
rifle cartridges
wire cutters
cartridge belt
trench tool
steel helmet
bayonet and scabbard
clubs
grenades
knives
$687
Average income
for industrial workers (higher
for union workers, lower for
nonunion workers)
$510 Average income for
retail trade workers
2. Add 50 articles of clothing, including 3
wool blankets and a bedsack.
$355 Average income for
3. Equip with eating utensils and 11
cooking implements.
farm laborers
BROWN BROTHERS
4. Train well.
$342 Average income for
TOTAL COST: $156.30
domestic servants
(not including training and transportation to Europe)
$328 Average income for
Milestones
public school teachers
$11.95 Cost of a bicycle
REPATRIATED, APRIL 10, 1917.
VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN, to
Russia, after an 11-year absence.
The leader of the leftist Bolshevik
party hopes to reorganize his
revolutionary group.
BROWN BROTHERS
BROWN BROTHERS
CULVER PICTURES
Jeannette Rankin
Vladimir Lenin
SHOT DOWN AND KILLED,
APRIL 22, 1918. “THE RED
BARON,” Manfred von Richthofen,
Germany’s ace pilot. Von Richthofen
destroyed more than 80 Allied
aircraft. On hearing of the Red
Baron’s death, English fighter pilot
Edward Mannock said, “I hope
he roasted all the way down.”
ELECTED, MARCH 4, 1917.
JEANNETTE RANKIN of Montana,
to the U.S. Congress. The first
woman congressional
representative explained her victory
by saying that women “got the vote
in Montana because the spirit of
pioneer days was still alive.”
EXECUTED, OCTOBER 15, 1917.
MATA HARI, in France, for
espionage. The famous Dutch
dancer was sentenced to death
for spying for the Germans.
$1.15 Cost of a baseball
$1 Average cost of a hotel room
39¢ Cost of one dozen eggs
5¢ Cost of a glass of cola
7¢ Cost of a large roll of
toilet paper
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
463
A Bloody Conflict
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
After four years of fighting, the war in
Europe ended in November 1918.
Organizing As you read about the
battles of World War I, complete a
graphic organizer similar to the one
below by listing the kinds of warfare and
technology used in the fighting.
• Discuss the fighting techniques used in
World War I.
• Characterize the American response to
the Treaty of Versailles.
Key Terms and Names
“no man’s land,” convoy, Vladimir Lenin,
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, armistice,
Fourteen Points, League of Nations,
Treaty of Versailles, reparations
Warfare and
Technology
Used in World War I
✦1915
Section Theme
Individual Action American troops
played a major role in helping end the
war, while President Wilson played a
major role in the peace negotiations.
✦1917
July 1916
Battle of the
Somme begins
March 1918
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ends war
between Russia and Germany
November 1917
Communists seize
power in Russia
✦1919
September 1918
Beginning of Battle of the
Argonne Forest
November 1918
Armistice ends war
General John J. Pershing, commander of the American forces in World War I, could not
help but feel a sense of pride and excitement as he watched the Second Battalion of the First
Division’s 16th Infantry march through the streets of Paris on July 4, 1917:
“
. . . The battalion was joined by a great crowd, many women forcing their way into the
ranks and swinging along arm in arm with the men. With wreaths about their necks and bouquets in their hats and rifles, the column looked like a moving flower garden. With only a
semblance of military formation, the animated throng pushed its way through avenues of
people to the martial strains of the French band and the still more thrilling music of cheering
voices.
”
—quoted in The Yanks Are Coming
John J. Pershing
While his men marched through Paris, Pershing raced to Picpus Cemetery, the burial place
of the Marquis de Lafayette, a French noble who had fought in the American Revolution. One
of Pershing’s officers, Colonel Charles E. Stanton, raised his hand in salute and acknowledged
the continuing American-French relationship by proclaiming, “Lafayette, we are here!”
Combat in World War I
By the spring of 1917, World War I had devastated Europe and claimed millions of
lives. Terrible destruction resulted from a combination of old-fashioned strategies and
new technologies. Despite the carnage Europeans had experienced, many Americans
believed their troops would make a difference and quickly bring the war to an end.
464
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
Trench Warfare
The early offensives of 1914
quickly demonstrated that the nature of warfare had
changed. Troops that dug themselves in and relied
upon modern rifles and a new weapon—the rapidfire machine gun—could easily hold off the attacking
forces. On the Western Front, troops dug a network
of trenches that stretched from the English Channel
to the Swiss border. The space between the opposing
trenches was known as “no man’s land,” a rough,
barren landscape pockmarked with craters from
artillery fire.
To break through enemy lines, both sides began
with massive artillery barrages. Then bayonetwielding soldiers would scramble out of their
trenches, race across no man’s land, and hurl
grenades into the enemy’s trenches. The results were
often disastrous. The artillery barrages rarely
destroyed the enemy defenses, and troops crossing
no man’s land were easily stopped by enemy
machine guns and rifle fire. These kind of assaults
caused staggeringly high casualties. In major battles,
both sides often lost several hundred thousand men.
These battles produced horrific scenes of death and
destruction, as one American soldier noted in his diary:
An American Hero
Although the brutal trench
warfare of World War I led to
many acts of astonishing
bravery, the heroism of one
American, Corporal Alvin York,
captured the nation’s imagination. Born in 1887, York grew up
poor in the mountains of Tennessee,
where he learned to shoot by hunting wild game.
On October 8, 1918, during the Battle of the
Argonne Forest, York’s patrol lost its way and ended up
behind enemy lines. When a German machine gun
emplacement on a fortified hill fired on the patrol and
killed nine men, York took command and charged the
machine gun. Although the details of the battle are
unclear, when it ended, York had killed between 9 and
25 Germans, captured the machine guns, and taken
132 prisoners. For his actions, he received the Medal of
Honor and the French Croix de Guerre. After returning
home, he used his fame to raise money for the Alvin
York Institute—a school for underprivileged Tennessee
children.
Many dead Germans along the road. One heap
“
on a manure pile . . . Devastation everywhere. Our
barrage has rooted up the entire territory like a
ploughed field. Dead horses galore, many of them
have a hind quarter cut off—the Huns [Germans]
need food. Dead men here and there.
”
—quoted in The American Spirit
New Technology As it became clear that charging
enemy trenches could bring only limited success at
great cost, both sides began to develop new technologies to help them break through enemy lines. In April
1915, the Germans first used poison gas in the Second
Battle of Ypres. The fumes caused vomiting, blindness,
and suffocation. Soon afterward the Allies also began
using poison gas, and gas masks became a necessary
part of a soldier’s equipment.
In 1916 the British introduced the tank into battle.
The first tanks were very slow and cumbersome,
mechanically unreliable, and fairly easy to destroy.
They could roll over barbed wire and trenches, but
there were usually not enough of them to make a
Battles of World War I, 1914–1918
60°N
10°W
N
0°
20°E
S
E
Battles of Ypres
3 Oct.–Nov. 1914
4 Apr.–May 1915
6 Lusitania sunk
May 7, 1915
50
°N
X
North
Sea
London
July–Nov. 1916
Paris
Atlantic
Battle
Ocean 2 First
of the Marne
Sept. 1914
Ba lt
NETH.
8 Battle of the Somme
Central Powers
Petrograd
(St. Petersburg)
Neutral nations
1 Tannenberg
DENMARK
UNITED
KINGDOM
Allied Powers
NORWAY
SWEDEN
W
German unrestricted
submarine warfare zone
Allied offensives
Central Powers'
offensives
Farthest advance
of Central Powers
Line of trench
warfare, 1915–1917
Allied victory
Aug. 1914
Se
a
20°W
ic
RUSSIA
Berlin
GERMANY
BELG.
LUX.
7 Battle of Verdun
Eastern
Front
Feb.–Dec. 1916
Western
Front
Vienna
Budapest
FRANCE SWITZ.
Central Powers' victory
Indecisive battle
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
9 Caporetto
Oct.–Dec. 1917
PORTUGAL
Ad
40°
N
Italian
Front Sarajevo
SPAIN
Caspi an
Se a
ROMANIA
Bl ack Se a
SERBIA
at MONTE- Balkan Campaign
ic NEGRO BULGARIA
S
Constantinople
ri
ITALY
Rome
ea
Caucasus
Campaign PERSIA
ALBANIA
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
GREECE
SPANISH
MOROCCO
5 Gallipoli
Apr. 1915–Jan. 1916
MOROCCO
0
ALGERIA
500 miles
TUNISIA
0
500 kilometers
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Me d i t e r r a n e a n Se a
LIBYA
difference. While tanks did help troops, they did not
revolutionize warfare in World War I.
World War I also saw the first use of airplanes in
combat. At first, planes were used mainly to observe
enemy activities. Soon, the Allies and Central
Powers used them to drop small bombs. As technology advanced, they also attached machine guns to
aircraft to engage in deadly air battles known as
dogfights.
Reading Check Describing What new technologies
were introduced in World War I?
The Americans and Victory
Wave upon wave of American troops marched
into this bloody stalemate—nearly 2 million before
the war’s end. These “doughboys,” a nickname for
American soldiers, were largely inexperienced, but
they were fresh, so their presence immediately
boosted the morale of Allied forces.
466
CHAPTER 14
Mesopotamian
Campaign
Baghdad
World War I and Its Aftermath
Jerusalem
Palestinian
Campaign
EGYPT
Winning the War at Sea
No American troopships
were sunk on their way to Europe—an accomplishment due largely to the efforts of American Admiral
William S. Sims. For most of the war, the British preferred to fight German submarines by sending warships to find them. Meanwhile, merchant ships would
race across the Atlantic individually. The British
approach had not worked well, and submarines had
inflicted heavy losses on British shipping.
Sims proposed that merchant ships and troop
transports be gathered into groups, called convoys,
and escorted across the Atlantic by warships. If submarines wanted to attack a convoy, they would have
to get past the warships protecting it. The convoy system greatly reduced shipping losses and ensured that
American troops arrived safely in Europe. They
arrived during a pivotal time in late 1917.
Russia Leaves the War
In March 1917, riots broke
out in Russia over the government’s handling of the
war and over the scarcity of food and fuel. On March
Western Front, 1914–1918
0
50 miles
4°E
0
50 kilometers
Albers Conic Equal-Area projection
52°N
World War I Military Deaths*
NETHERLANDS
N
R.
En
gli
ine
s
Rh
Ypres
E
W
Oct.–Nov. 1914
Apr.–May 1915
l
e
S
Antwerp
a n n July 1917
Ch
Sept. 1914
h Neuve
Mons
Chapelle
Aug. 1914
Mar. 1915
BE LGIU M
GERMANY
So
Le Cateau
m
Aug. 1914
m e R.
Somme
July–Nov. 1916
Guise
LUX.
Se
Aug. 1914
in
Verdun
Aisne
Offensive
Somme Offensive
Feb.-Dec. 1916
1918
1918
.
St. Mihiel
Belleau Wood
Argonne Forest
Sept. 1918
June 1918
Sept.–Nov. 1918
Morhange
Paris
Aug. 1914
FRANCE
First Battle
Chˆateau–Thierry of the Marne
May 1918 Sept. 1914
eR
Allied Powers
Central Powers
Neutral nations
Allied victory
Central Powers' victory
Indecisive battle
Allied offensives
Central Powers'
offensives
Farthest advance
of Central Powers
Line of trench
warfare, 1915–1917
Armistice Line, 1918
15, Czar Nicholas II, the leader of the Russian
Empire, abdicated his throne. Political leadership in
Russia passed into the hands of a provisional, or temporary, government, consisting largely of moderate
representatives who supported Russia’s continued
participation in World War I. The government, however, was unable to adequately deal with the major
problems, such as food shortages, that were afflicting
the nation.
The Bolsheviks, a group of Communists, soon
competed for power in Russia. In November 1917,
Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik Party,
overthrew the Russian government and established a
Communist government.
Germany’s military fortunes improved with the
Bolshevik takeover of Russia. Lenin’s first act after
seizing power was to pull Russia out of the war and
concentrate on establishing a Communist state. He
accomplished this by agreeing to the Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk with Germany on March 3, 1918.
Under this treaty, Russia lost substantial territory,
Italy
650,000
France
British Empire 1,385,000
908,400
Romania
335,700
Russia
1,700,000
Allies
United States
107,000
Others
74,200
Central Powers
Bulgaria
87,500
Ottoman
Empire
325,000
Austria-Hungary
1,200,000
Germany
1,773,000
* Figures are approximate
1. Interpreting Maps Where did the majority of World
War I battles occur?
2. Interpreting Charts Which nation suffered the largest
number of military deaths during World War I?
giving up Ukraine, its Polish and Baltic territories,
and Finland. However, the treaty also removed the
German army from the remaining Russian lands.
With the Eastern Front settled, Germany was now
free to concentrate its forces in the west.
The German Offensive Falters
On March 21, 1918,
the Germans launched a massive attack along the
Western Front, beginning with gas attacks and a
bombardment by over 6,000 artillery pieces. German
forces, reinforced with troops transferred from the
Russian front, pushed deeply into Allied lines. By
late May, they were less than 40 miles (64 km) from
Paris.
American troops played an important role in containing the German offensive. Seven days after the
German offensive began, American troops launched
their first major attack, quickly capturing the village
of Cantigny. On May 31, American and French troops
blocked the German drive on Paris at the town of
Château-Thierry. On July 15, the Germans launched
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
467
one last massive attack in a determined attempt to
take Paris, but American and French troops held their
ground.
The Battle of the Argonne Forest
With the
German drive stalled, French Marshal Ferdinand
Foch, supreme commander of the Allied forces,
ordered massive counterattacks all along the front. In
mid-September, American troops drove back
German forces at the battle of Saint-Mihiel. The
attack was a prelude to a massive American offensive
in the region between the Meuse River and the
Argonne Forest. General Pershing assembled over
600,000 American troops, some 40,000 tons of supplies, and roughly 4,000 artillery pieces for the most
massive attack in American history.
The attack began on September 26, 1918. Slowly,
one German position after another fell to the advancing American troops. The Germans inflicted heavy
casualties on the American forces, but by early
November, the Americans had shattered the German
defenses and opened a hole in the German lines.
The War Ends
While fighting raged along the
Western Front, a revolution engulfed AustriaHungary, and the Ottoman Turks surrendered. Faced
with the surrender of their allies and a naval mutiny
at Kiel in early November, the people of Berlin rose in
rebellion on November 9 and forced the German
emperor to step down. At the 11th hour on the 11th
day of the 11th month, 1918, the fighting stopped.
Germany had finally signed an armistice, or ceasefire, that ended the war.
Reading Check Explaining What was Vladimir
Lenin’s first goal after controlling Russia in 1917?
History
American Artillery This photo shows some of the materials used to fight
World War I. Artillery shells are piled at the feet of these American soldiers.
What American battle demanded the largest amount of supplies and
artillery pieces?
A Flawed Peace
In January 1919, a peace conference began in Paris
to try to resolve the complicated issues arising from
World War I. The principal figures in the negotiations
were the “Big Four,” the leaders of the victorious
Allied nations: President Wilson of the United States,
British prime minister David Lloyd George, French
premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando. Germany was not invited to
participate.
Wilson had presented his plan, known as the
Fourteen Points, to Congress in January 1918. The
Fourteen Points were based on “the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities.” In the first five
points, the president proposed to eliminate the general causes of the war through free trade, disarmament, freedom of the seas, impartial adjustment of
colonial claims, and open diplomacy instead of secret
agreements. The next eight points addressed the
right of self-determination. They also required the
Central Powers to evacuate all of the countries
invaded during the war, including France, Belgium,
and Russia. The fourteenth point, perhaps the most
important one to Wilson, called for the creation of a
“general association of nations” known as the
League of Nations. The League’s member nations
would help preserve peace and prevent future wars
by pledging to respect and protect each other’s territory and political independence. ; (See page 956 for the
text of the Fourteen Points.)
The Treaty of Versailles As the peace talks progressed in the Palace of Versailles (vehr·SY), it
became clear that Wilson’s ideas did not coincide
with the interests of the other Allied governments.
They criticized his plan as too lenient toward
Germany.
Despite Wilson’s hopes, the terms of peace were
harsh. The Treaty of Versailles, signed by Germany
on June 28, 1919, had weakened or discarded many
of Wilson’s proposals. Under the treaty, Germany
was stripped of its armed forces and was made to
pay reparations, or war damages, in the amount of
$33 billion to the Allies. This sum was far beyond
Germany’s financial means. Perhaps most humiliating, the treaty required Germany to acknowledge
guilt for the outbreak of World War I and the devastation caused by the war.
The war itself resulted in the dissolution of four
empires: the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire,
which lost territory in the war and fell to revolution
in 1922, the German Empire after the abdication of
the emperor and loss of territory in the treaty, and
Austria-Hungary, which was split into separate
countries. Furthermore, nine new countries were
established in Europe, including Yugoslavia, Poland,
and Czechoslovakia.
While Wilson expressed disappointment in the
treaty, he found consolation in its call for the creation
of his cherished League of Nations. He returned
home to win approval for the treaty.
The U.S. Senate Rejects the Treaty
The Treaty
of Versailles, especially the League of Nations,
faced immediate opposition from numerous U.S.
lawmakers. A key group of senators, nicknamed
“the Irreconcilables” in the press, assailed the
League as the kind of “entangling alliance” that
Washington, Jefferson, and Monroe had warned
against. These critics feared that the League might
supersede the power of Congress to declare war
and thus force the United States to fight in numerous foreign conflicts.
A larger group of senators, known as the
“Reservationists,” was led by the powerful chairman
of the Foreign Relations committee, Henry Cabot
Lodge. This group supported the League but would
ratify the treaty only with amendments that would
preserve the nation’s freedom to act independently.
Wilson feared such changes would defeat the basic
purpose of the League and insisted that the Senate
ratify the treaty without changes.
Convinced that he could defeat his opposition by
winning public support, Wilson took his case directly
to the American people. Starting in Ohio in September
1919, he traveled 8,000 miles and made over 30 major
speeches in three weeks. The physical strain of his
tour, however, proved too great. Wilson collapsed in
Colorado on September 25 and returned to the White
Global War
Although World War I was fought mainly in Europe, it
touched the lives of peoples throughout the world,
including those in Africa and India. By the time the war
broke out, both African and Indian society had been
turned upside down by European imperialism. While the
British controlled much of India, no less than seven
European powers had divided up Africa among themselves. In addition to living under the rule of Europeans,
Africans and Indians were forced to take part in their
great war as well. About one million Indians fought for
the British in Europe, while nearly as many Africans
served in the French army. The fighting also spread to
Africa, as the Allies fought to seize control of Germany’s
African colonies. How do you think the average
Indian or African felt about World War I?
House. There, he suffered a stroke and was bedridden
for months, isolated from even his closest advisers but
determined not to compromise with the Senate.
The Senate voted in November 1919 and again in
March 1920, but it refused to ratify the treaty. After
Wilson left office in 1921, the United States negotiated separate peace treaties with each of the Central
Powers. The League of Nations, the foundation of
President Wilson’s plan for lasting world peace, took
shape without the United States.
Reading Check Examining What major issues did
Wilson’s Fourteen Points address?
Checking for Understanding
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
1. Define: convoy, armistice, reparations.
2. Identify: “no man’s land,” Vladimir
Lenin, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Fourteen
Points, League of Nations, Treaty of
Versailles.
3. List the four nations that dominated the
Paris peace conference in 1919.
5. Analyzing What impact did John J.
Pershing and the Battle of the Argonne
Forest have on World War I?
6. Organizing Use a graphic organizer to
list the results of World War I.
7. Analyzing Maps and Charts Examine
the map and chart on page 467.
Prepare a quiz with questions based on
information from both. Give the quiz to
some of your classmates.
Reviewing Themes
4. Individual Action Why did President
Wilson propose his Fourteen Points?
Results of
World War I
Writing About History
8. Descriptive Writing Imagine that you
are an American soldier fighting in
Europe during World War I. Write a letter home describing your situation and
how you feel about fighting there.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
469
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Information
Why Learn This Skill?
The ability to analyze information is important in
deciding your position on a subject. For example,
you need to analyze a political decision to determine if you should support it. You would also analyze a candidate’s position statements to determine
if you should vote for him or her.
Learning the Skill
To analyze information, use the following steps:
• Identify the topic that is being discussed.
• Examine how the information is organized. What
are the main points?
• Summarize the information in your own words,
and then make a statement of your own based on
your understanding of the topic and on what you
already know.
Practicing the Skill
Read the following information taken from Henry
Cabot Lodge’s On the
League of Nations speech.
Use the steps listed above
to analyze the information
and answer the questions
that follow.
I am as anxious as any
human being can be to have the United States render
every possible service to the civilization and the peace
of mankind. But I am certain that we can do it best by
not putting ourselves in leading strings, or subjecting
our policies and our sovereignty to other nations. The
independence of the United States is not only more precious to ourselves, but to the world, than any single
possession.
I will go as far as anyone in world service that the
first step to world service is the maintenance of the
United States. You may call me selfish if you will, conservative or reactionary, or use any other harsh adjective
you see fit to apply. But an American I was born, an
470
American I’ve remained all my life. I can never be anything else but an American, and I must think of the
United States first. And when I think of the United
States first in an argument like this, I am thinking of
what is best for the world. For if the United States fails,
the best hope of mankind fails with it. I have never had
but one allegiance; I cannot divide it now. I have loved
but one flag and I cannot share that devotion and give
affection to the mongrel banner invented for a league.
Internationalism, illustrated by the Bolshevik and by the
men to whom all countries are alike, provided they can
make money out of them, is to me repulsive. National I
must remain and in that way I, like all Americans, can
render the amplest service to the world.
The United States is the world’s best hope, but if you
fetter her in the interest through quarrels of other
nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you
will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very
existence.
1 What topic is being discussed?
2 What are the main points of this excerpt from
Senator Lodge’s speech?
3 Summarize the information in this excerpt, and
then provide your analysis based on this information and what you know from the rest of the
chapter.
Skills Assessment
Complete the Practicing Skills questions on
page 477 and the Chapter 14 Skill Reinforcement
Activity to assess your mastery of this skill.
Applying the Skill
Analyzing Information Find a short, informative piece
of news, such as a political candidate’s position paper,
an editorial in a newspaper, or an explanation of a new
law that will be enacted soon. Analyze the information
and make a statement of your own.
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook
CD-ROM, Level 2, provides instruction and
practice in key social studies skills.
The War’s Impact
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives:
As American society moved from war to
peace, turmoil in the economy and fear
of communism caused a series of domestic upheavals.
Organizing As you read about the war’s
aftermath, complete a graphic organizer
similar to the one below to list the effects
of the end of World War I on the
American economy.
• Describe the effects of the postwar
recession on the United States.
• Discuss the causes of and reaction to
the Red Scare.
Key Terms and Names
cost of living, general strike, Red Scare,
A. Mitchell Palmer, J. Edgar Hoover,
deport
✦1917
1917
Riots erupt in East
St. Louis, Illinois
Effects of
World War I
on Economy
✦1918
1918
House approves Nineteenth Amendment
giving women the right to vote
Section Theme
Continuity and Change The postwar
period proved a difficult readjustment
period for the United States, in part
because of economic turmoil and the
fear of communism.
✦1919
✦1920
1919
Race riots and strikes erupt in
numerous northern cities
1920
Red Scare and
Palmer raids
On August 20, 1919, Mary Harris Jones, also known as “Mother” Jones, was
thrown in jail in Homestead, Pennsylvania. The 89-year-old had just finished
delivering a fiery, impassioned speech in an attempt to gain support for steel
unions. Referring to the owners of the big steel companies, she said:
Our Kaisers sit up and smoke seventy-five cent cigars and have lackeys with
“
knee pants bring them champagne while you starve, while you grow old at
forty, stoking their furnaces. You pull in your belts while they banquet. They
have stomachs two miles long and two miles wide and you fill them. . . . If Gary
[chair of U.S. Steel] wants to work twelve hours a day, let him go in the blooming mill and work. What we want is a little leisure, time for music, playgrounds,
a decent home, books, and the things that make life worthwhile.
”
“Mother” Jones
—quoted in Labor in Crisis
An Economy in Turmoil
The end of World War I brought great upheaval to American society. When the war
ended, government agencies removed their controls from the American economy. This
released pent-up demand in the economy. People raced to buy goods that had been
rationed, while businesses rapidly raised prices they had been forced to keep low during
the war. The result was rapid inflation. Through most of 1919 and 1920, prices rose at an
average of more than 15 percent per year. Inflation greatly increased the cost of living—
the cost of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials that people need to survive.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
471
Inflation Leads to Strikes
Many companies had
been forced to raise wages during the war, but inflation now threatened to wipe out all the gains workers
had made. While workers wanted higher wages to
keep up with inflation, companies wanted to hold
down wages because inflation was also driving up
their operating costs.
During the war, the number of workers in unions
had increased dramatically. By the time the war ended,
workers were better organized and much more capable
of organizing strikes than they had been before. Many
business leaders, on the other hand, were determined
to break the power of the unions and roll back the gains
labor had made. These circumstances led to an enormous wave of strikes in 1919. By the end of the year,
more than 3,600 strikes involving more than 4 million
workers had taken place.
The Seattle General Strike
The first major strike
took place in Seattle, when some 35,000 shipyard
workers walked off the job demanding higher wages
and shorter hours. Soon other unions in Seattle
MOMENT
in HISTORY
HERO’S HOMECOMING
A wounded soldier of the
369th Regiment, the Harlem
“Hell-Fighters,” accepts congratulations during a victory
parade through New York City
in 1919. Facing discrimination
within their own army, African
American soldiers at the front
received a warm reception
from their French allies.
“I have never before experienced what it meant really to
be free, to taste real liberty,”
one soldier wrote home,“in a
phrase,‘to be a man.’ ” Two
African American infantry
divisions suffered some 6,000
casualties, but at war’s end,
they still came home to a
segregated American society.
472
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
joined the shipyard workers and organized a general
strike. A general strike is a strike that involves all
workers living in a certain location, not just workers
in a particular industry. The Seattle general strike
involved more than 60,000 people and paralyzed the
city for five days. Although the strikers returned to
work without making any gains, their actions worried many Americans because the general strike was
a common tactic used in Europe by Communists and
other radical groups.
The Boston Police Strike
Perhaps the most famous
strike of 1919 took place in Boston, when roughly 75
percent of the police force walked off the job. Riots
and looting soon erupted in the city, forcing the governor of Massachusetts, Calvin Coolidge, to send in
the National Guard. When the strikers tried to return
to work, the police commissioner refused to accept
them. He fired the strikers and hired a new police
force instead.
Despite protests, Coolidge agreed the men should
be fired. He declared, “There is no right to strike
Effects of World War I on the United States
Developments in the War
•
•
•
•
War-torn economies of Europe
Russian Revolution
Industrial demand of wartime
Sacrifices of wartime; disappointment with Versailles
Peace Treaty
Effects on U.S.
• Boom in U.S. economy; emergence of U.S. as
world industrial leader
• “Red Scare” in postwar U.S.; suspicion
of immigrants
• Internal migration in U.S., especially African
American migration to Northern cities
• Failure to join League of Nations
World War I had profound effects on the United States.
Interpreting Why did the destruction of European economies
cause an industrial boom in the United States?
against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” Coolidge’s response brought him to national
attention and earned him widespread public support.
It also convinced the Republicans to make Coolidge
their vice presidential candidate in the 1920 election.
The Steel Strike
Shortly after the police strike
ended, one of the largest strikes in American history
began when an estimated 350,000 steelworkers went
on strike for higher pay, shorter hours, and recognition of their union. Elbert H. Gary, the head of U.S.
Steel, refused even to talk to union leaders. Instead,
the company set out to break the union by using antiimmigrant feelings to divide the workers.
Many steelworkers were immigrants. The company blamed the strike on foreign radicals and called
for loyal Americans to return to work. Meanwhile, the
company hired African Americans and Mexicans as
replacement workers and managed to keep its steel
mills operating despite the strike. Clashes between
company guards and strikers were frequent, and in
Gary, Indiana, a riot left 18 strikers dead. In early
January, the strike collapsed. The failure of the strike
set back the union cause in the steel industry.
Steelworkers remained unorganized until 1937.
Reading Check Explaining What caused the wave
of strikes in 1919?
Racial Unrest
Adding to the nation’s economic turmoil was the
return of hundreds of thousands of American soldiers from Europe who needed to find employment.
Many African Americans who had moved north during the war were also competing for jobs and housing. Frustration and racism combined to produce
violence. In the summer of 1919, race riots broke out
in over 20 northern cities.
The worst violence occurred in Chicago. An African
American teenager swimming in Lake Michigan on a
hot July day happened to drift toward a beach
restricted to whites. Whites on shore allegedly stoned
him unconscious, and he drowned. Angry African
Americans almost immediately marched into white
neighborhoods to retaliate, while white mobs roamed
African American neighborhoods attacking people and
destroying property. For almost two weeks, Chicago
was virtually at war. In the end, 38 people died—15
white and 23 black—and over 500 were injured.
Reading Check Analyzing Why did the end of the
war lead to race riots?
The Red Scare
The wave of strikes in 1919 helped to fuel fears
that Communists were conspiring to start a revolution in the United States. Americans had been
stunned when Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized
power and withdrew Russia from the war.
Americans had become very anti-German as the war
progressed, and when the Communists withdrew
Russia from the war, they seemed to be helping
Germany. American anger at Germany quickly
expanded into anger at Communists as well.
Americans began to associate communism with
being unpatriotic and disloyal.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
473
History
Terror in the Streets After the House of Morgan—a bank in New York City—was damaged by a bomb in 1920,
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer instituted raids on antigovernment activists and many immigrants, often violating
their civil liberties in the process. Whom did Palmer appoint to coordinate these investigations?
Americans had long been suspicious of Communist
ideas. Throughout the late 1800s, many Americans had
accused immigrants of importing radical socialist and
Communist ideas into the United States and blamed
them for labor unrest and violence. Now Communists
had seized control of an entire nation, and fears surged
that they would try to incite revolutions elsewhere.
These fears seemed to be confirmed in 1919, when the
Soviet Union formed the Communist International—
an organization for coordinating the activities of
Communist parties in other countries.
The Red Scare Begins As strikes erupted across
the United States in 1919, the fear that Communists,
or “reds,” as they were called, might seize power led
to a nationwide panic known as the Red Scare.
Seattle’s mayor, Ole Hanson, spoke for others when
he condemned the leaders of the Seattle general
strike as revolutionaries who wanted to “take possession of our American government and try to duplicate the anarchy of Russia.”
In April the postal service intercepted more than
30 parcels addressed to leading businesspeople and
474
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
politicians that were triggered to explode when
opened. In June eight bombs in eight cities exploded
within minutes of one another, suggesting a nationwide conspiracy. One of them damaged the home of
United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
in Washington, D.C. Most people believed the bombings were the work of Communists or other revolutionaries trying to destroy the American way of life.
The Palmer Raids Declaring that a “blaze of revolution” was “burning up the foundations of society,”
Palmer took action. He established a special division
within the Justice Department, the General
Intelligence Division, headed by J. Edgar Hoover.
This division eventually became the Federal Bureau
of Investigation (FBI). From late 1919 to the spring of
1920, Palmer organized a series of raids on the headquarters of various radical organizations. Although
evidence pointed to no single group as the bombers,
Palmer’s agents focused on foreign residents and
immigrants. The authorities detained thousands of
suspects and deported, or expelled from the country,
nearly 600 of them.
Palmer’s agents often disregarded the civil liberties of the suspects. Officers entered homes and
offices without search warrants. People were mistreated and jailed for indefinite periods of time and
were not allowed to talk to their attorneys.
For a while, Palmer was regarded as a national
hero. His raids, however, failed to turn up any hard
evidence of revolutionary conspiracy. When his dire
prediction that violence would rock the nation on
May Day 1920—a popular European celebration of
workers—proved wrong, Palmer lost much of his
credibility and soon faded from prominence.
The Red Scare greatly influenced people’s attitudes during the 1920s. Americans often linked radicalism with immigrants, and that attitude led to a call
for Congress to limit immigration.
Reading Check Examining After World War I, why
were Americans suspicious of some union leaders?
Economic problems, labor unrest, and racial tensions, as well as the fresh memories of World War I, all
combined to create a general sense of disillusionment
in the United States. By 1920 Americans wanted an
end to the upheaval. During the 1920 campaign, Ohio
Governor James M. Cox and his running mate,
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt,
ran on a platform of keeping alive Woodrow Wilson’s
progressive ideals. The Republican candidate, Warren
G. Harding, called for a return to “normalcy.” He
urged that what the United States needed was a return
to the simpler days before the Progressive Era reforms:
Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Themes
4. Continuity and Change Why did
Republican Warren G. Harding win the
election of 1920?
[Our] present need is not heroics, but healing; not
“
nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but
serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; . . .
not submergence in internationality, but sustainment
in triumphant nationality.
An End to Progressivism
1. Define: cost of living, general strike,
deport.
2. Identify: Red Scare, A. Mitchell Palmer,
J. Edgar Hoover.
3. Describe the conditions that African
Americans faced after the end of World
War I.
A. Mitchell Palmer
and J. Edgar Hoover
”
—quoted in Portrait of a Nation
Harding’s sentiments struck a chord with voters,
and he won the election by a landslide margin of
over 7 million votes. Americans were weary of more
crusades to reform society and the world. They
hoped to put the country’s racial and labor unrest
and economic troubles behind them and build a more
prosperous and stable society.
Reading Check Explaining How was Harding able
to win the presidential election of 1920?
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
5. Analyzing How did the Palmer raids
deprive some citizens of their civil
rights?
6. Organizing Use a graphic organizer
similar to the one below to list the
causes of the Red Scare in the United
States.
Causes
Red Scare
7. Analyzing Photographs Study the
photograph on page 472. How might
parades such as this one mobilize
African Americans to work for an end
to discrimination?
Writing About History
8. Descriptive Writing Imagine that you
are a European immigrant working in
a factory in the United States in 1919.
Write a letter to a relative in Europe
describing the feelings of Americans
toward you and other immigrants.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
475
Reviewing Key Terms
On a sheet of paper, use each of these terms in a sentence.
1. guerrilla
9. espionage
19. What did the American government do to solve the problem
of supplying its troops?
20. What were the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
21. What were the Palmer raids?
2. nationalism
10. convoy
3. self-determination
11. armistice
Critical Thinking
4. propaganda
12. reparations
5. contraband
13. cost of living
6. U-boat
14. general strike
22. Analyzing Themes: Government and Democracy Do you
think government action to suppress opposition to World
War I was justified? Why or why not?
7. conscription
15. deport
23. Interpreting Primary Sources On September 12, 1918,
Socialist leader Eugene V. Debs was convicted of violating the
Espionage Act. Debs later spoke to the court at his sentencing. Read his speech and answer the questions that follow.
8. victory garden
Reviewing Key Facts
16. Identify: Pancho Villa, Franz Ferdinand, Zimmermann
telegram, Bernard Baruch, Committee on Public Information,
“no man’s land,” Vladimir Lenin, Fourteen Points, League of
Nations, A. Mitchell Palmer, J. Edgar Hoover.
17. What factors contributed to the start of World War I in
Europe?
18. What role did American women play in the war effort during
World War I?
“
I look upon the Espionage laws as a despotic enactment in flagrant conflict with democratic principles and
with the spirit of free institutions. . . . I am opposed to
the social system in which we live. . . . I believe in
fundamental change, but if possible by peaceful and
orderly means. . . .
I am thinking this morning of the men in the mills
and factories, . . . of the women who for a paltry wage
Mobilizing for War
Armed Forces
Domestic Front
• Congress passed Selective Service Act
which required young men ages 21–30
to register for the draft
• Employed women in non-combat roles
• War Industries Board controlled war
materials and production
• Committee on Public Information
created war propaganda
• Government worked with employers
and labor to ensure production
• Congress passed Espionage and Sedition
Acts to limit opposition to the war
• Congress increased taxes and sold
Liberty Bonds to pay for war
Postwar Problems
• Cost of living greatly increased
• Economic problems led to racial violence and
widespread strikes
• Fear of communism led to Red Scare and Palmer raids
Europe After
World War I, 1920
HISTORY
are compelled to work out their barren lives; of the little
children who in this system are robbed of their childhood and . . . forced into industrial dungeons. . . . In
this high noon of our twentieth century Christian civilization, money is still so much more important than the
flesh and blood of childhood. In very truth, gold is
god. . . .
”
—quoted in Echoes of Distant Thunder
a. According to Debs, what were some problems in
American society at this time? How did he believe change
should be brought about?
b. How did Debs seem to feel about the Espionage Act? Do
you agree with him? Why or why not?
24. Organizing Use a table like the one below to list the
significant events of each year from 1914 to 1918.
Year
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
Event
Significance
ED
E
SW
500 miles
S
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
RW
AY
0
FINLAND
Helsinki
NO
Visit the American Republic Since 1877 Web site at
tx.tarvol2.glencoe.com and click on Self-Check Quizzes—
Chapter 14 to assess your knowledge of chapter content.
W
EN
N
Self-Check Quiz
Stockholm
North Oslo
Tallinn
Baltic ESTONIA
UNITED Sea
Sea
KINGDOM
IRELAND
LATVIA Riga
DENMARK
Indep. 1922
50
LITHUANIA
°N
Copenhagen
Dublin
E. Prussia
Kaunas
Amsterdam
Byelorussia
Danzig
Berlin
London NETH.
POLAND
Brussels
GERMANY
Warsaw
ATLaNTIC
BELG. SAAR
RUSSIA
Paris
Prague
OCEaN
LUX.
Bessarabia
Rhineland CZECH.
Alsace-Lorraine
Vienna
Budapest
FRANCE
Bern AUSTRIA
HUNGARY ROMANIA
SWITZ.
Tirol
40
Bucharest
Belgrade
°N
ITALY
PORTUGAL
Corsica
BULGARIA
YUGOSLAVIA
Fr.
Madrid
Rome
Lisbon
Tirana Sofia
SPAIN
Constantinople
Sardinia
ALBANIA
Balearic Is.
It.
TURKEY
Sp.
GREECE
Med
ite
r ra
Athens
Sicily
Former Austria-Hungary
ne
boundary
an It.
Former German boundary
Se a
Crete
Gr.
Former Russian boundary
Dodecanese
Island It.
National boundary
Capital city
0°
10°E
20°E
Chapter Activity
28. Research Project Both the British and the American governments used propaganda to garner support for the war. Use
the library and other resources to find examples of these
propaganda techniques. Compile your research in an illustrated and captioned poster, and display it in the classroom.
Practicing Skills
25. Analyzing Information Read the subsections titled “The
Treaty of Versailles” and “The U.S. Senate Rejects the Treaty”
on pages 468 and 469. Using the information on these
pages, write an analysis of the effects of the treaty in the
form that it was finally accepted.
Geography and History
26. The map on this page shows the geographical changes in
Europe after World War I. Study the map and answer the
questions below.
a. Interpreting Maps After World War I, what new countries were formed using territory that had belonged to
Austria-Hungary?
b. Applying Geography Skills What countries acquired
territory from the former Russian Empire?
Writing Activity
27. Persuasive Writing Take on the role of a newspaper editor
in 1919. Write an editorial favoring or opposing ratification of
the Treaty of Versailles.
Directions: Choose the best answer to the
following question.
Which of the following was one of the primary causes of
World War I?
F A complex set of alliances among European nations
G The exile of Mexican General Victoriano Huerta
H The dissatisfaction of Russian peasants
J The breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Test-Taking Tip: Eliminate answers you know are incorrect.
For example, the breakup of Austria-Hungary took place
after World War I, so you can eliminate that answer.
Similarly, the exile of Huerta occurred in Mexico, which had
little effect on European nations. You also can eliminate that
answer.
CHAPTER 14
World War I and Its Aftermath
477
×

Report this document