Analog Devices

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Analog Devices
2
Overview
This chapter describes the analog devices supported by PSpice A/D and PSpice. The following
information is provided:
• device type
• format
• usage
• library location
2-2 Analog Devices
Analog Devices
This chapter describes the different types of analog devices supported by PSpice
and PSpice A/D. These device types include analog primitives, independent and
controlled sources, and subcircuit calls. Each device type is described separately,
and each description includes the following information as applicable:
• A description, and example of, the proper netlist syntax.
• The corresponding model types and their description.
• The corresponding list of model parameters and their descriptions.
• The equivalent circuit diagram and characteristic equations for the model (as
required).
• References to publications on which the model is based.
These analog devices include all of the standard circuit components that normally
are not considered part of the two-state (binary) devices that are found in the digital
devices.
The model library consists of analog models of off-the-shelf parts that can be used
directly in circuits that are being developed. Refer to the Library Reference Manual
for device models and in which library they can be found. The model library includes
models implemented using the .MODEL statement and macromodels implemented
as subcircuits with the .SUBCKT statement.
This chapter includes a summary table, Table 2-1, which lists all of the analog
device primitives supported by the simulator. Each primitive is described in detail in
the sections following the table.
Device Types 2-3
Device Types
PSpice supports many types of analog devices, including sources and general
subcircuits. PSpice A/D also supports digital devices. The supported devices are
categorized into device types. each of which can have one or more model types.
For example, the BJT device type has three model types: NPN, PNP, and LPNP
(Lateral PNP). The description of each devices type includes a description of any of
the model types it supports.
The device declarations in the netlist always begin with the name of the individual
device (instance). The first letter of the name determines the device type. What
follows the name depends on the device type and its requested characteristics.
Table 2-1 summarizes the device types and the general form of their declaration
formats.
Note The “Device Type” column in the table includes the designator (letter)
used in the device modeling.
Table 2-1 Analog Device Summary
Device Type
Letter
Declaration Format
Page
Bipolar Transistor
Q
Q<name> <collector node> <base node> <emitter node> +
2-54
[substrate node] <model name> [area value]
Capacitor
C
C<name> <+ node> <- node> [model name] <value> +
2-13
[IC=<initial value>]
Voltage-Controlled
E
E<name> <+ node> <- node> <+ controlling node> + <-
2-18
controlling node> <gain> (additional Analog Behavioral
Voltage Source
Modeling forms: VALUE, TABLE, LAPLACE, and FREQ;
additional POLY form)
Voltage-Controlled
G
G<name> <+ node> <- node> <+ controlling node> + <-
2-18
controlling node> <transconductance> (additional Analog
Current Source
Behavioral Modeling forms: VALUE, TABLE, LAPLACE, and
FREQ; additional POLY form)
Current-Controlled
F
2-20
<gain> (additional POLY form)
Current Source
Current-Controlled
F<name> <+ node> <- node> <controlling V device name> +
W
Switch
2-4 Analog Devices
W <name> <+ switch node> <- switch node> + <controlling V
device name> <model name>
2-67
Table 2-1 Analog Device Summary (continued)
Device Type
Letter
Declaration Format
Page
CurrentControlled
Voltage Source
H
H<name> <+ node> <- node> <controlling V device
name> + <transresistance>
(additional POLY form)
2-20
Digital Input
N
N<name> <interface node> <low level node> <high level
node> + <model name> <input specification>
2-47
Digital Output
O
O<name> <interface node> <low level node> <high level
node> + <model name> <output specification>
2-50
Digital Primitive*
U
U<name> <primitive type> ([parameter value]*) + <digital
power node> <digital ground node> <node>* + <timing
model name>
2-66
Diode
D
D<name> <anode node> <cathode node> <model name> 2-15
[area value]
GaAsFET
B
B<name> <drain node> <gate node> <source node> +
<model name> [area value]
2-6
I<name> <+ node> <- node> [[DC] <value>] + [AC
<magnitude value> [phase value]] [transient specification]
2-21
V<name> <+ node> <- node> [[DC] <value>] + [AC
<magnitude value> [phase value]] [transient specification]
2-21
L<name> <+ node> <- node> [model name] <value> +
[IC=<initial value>]
2-35
Inductor Coupling K
K<name> L<inductor name> <L<inductor name>>* +
<coupling value>
K<name> <L<inductor name>>* <coupling value> +
<model name> [size value]
2-31
JFET
J<name> <drain node> <gate node> <source node> +
<model name> [area value]
2-26
Independent
I
Current Source &
Stimulus
Independent
V
Voltage Source &
Stimulus
Inductor
L
J
Device Type 2-5
Table 2-1 Analog Device Summary (continued)
Device Type
Letter
Declaration Format
Page
MOSFET
M
M<name> <drain node> <gate node> <source node> +
<bulk/substrate node> <model name> + [common model
parameter]*
2-36
Resistor
R
R<name> <+ node> <- node> [model name] <value>
2-61
Subcircuit Call
X
X<name> [node]* <subcircuit name>
2-70
Transmission
Line
T
T<name> <A port + node> <A port - node> + <B port +
node> <B port - node>
2-64
Transmission
Line Coupling
K
K<name> T<line name> <T<line name>>* +
CM=<coupling capacitance> LM=<coupling inductance>
2-31
S<name> <+ switch node> <- switch node> + <+
controlling node> <- controlling node> <model name>
2-62
VoltageS
Controlled Switch
*The Digital Primitive and Digital Stimulus device types are generic in form. They have flexible
syntax, and can refer to numerous different devices.
2-6 Analog Devices
B
GaAsFET
General Form
B<name> <drain node> <gate node> <source node>
+
<model name> [area value]
Examples
BIN 100 10 0 GFAST
B13 22 14 23 GNOM 2.0
Model Form
.MODEL <model name> GASFET [model parameters]
As shown in Figure 2-1, the GaAsFET is modeled as an intrinsic FET
using an ohmic resistance (RD/area) in series with the drain, another
ohmic resistance (RS/area) in series with the source, and another
ohmic resistance (RG) in series with the gate. The [area value] is the
relative device area and defaults to 1.
Figure 2-1 GaAsFET Mode
B
B
GaAsFET 2-7
The LEVEL model parameter selects between different models for the intrinsic GaAsFET:
GaAsFET
LEVELS
LEVEL=1
Definition
LEVEL=2
“Raytheon” or “Statz” model (see reference [3]) and is equivalent to the
GaAsFET model in SPICE3.
“Curtice” model (see reference [1]).
Model Parameters
Table 2-2 GaAsFET Model Parameters for All Levels
Model Parameters
Description
LEVEL
Model index (1 or 2)
Units
Default
1
-2
.5
-1
2.0
VTO
Pinchoff voltage
volt
ALPHA
Saturation voltage parameter
volt
BETA
Transconductance coefficient
amp/volt
B
volt
LAMBDA
Doping tail extending parameter
(LEVEL=2 only)
Channel-length modulation
volt
TAU
Conduction current delay time
sec
0
RG
Gate ohmic resistance
ohm
0
RD
Drain ohmic resistance
ohm
0
RS
Source ohmic resistance
ohm
0
IS
Gate p-n saturation current
amp
1E-14
N
Gate p-n emission coefficient
1
M
Gate p-n grading coefficient
0.5
VBI
Gate p-n potential
volt
1.0
CGD
Zero-bias gate-drain p-n capacitance
farad
0
CGS
Zero-bias gate-source p-n capacitance
farad
0
CDS
Drain-source capacitance
farad
0
FC
Forward-bias depletion capacitance coefficient
VTOTC
VTO temperature coefficient
volt/°C
0
BETATCE
BETA exponential temperature coefficient
%/°C
0
KF
Flicker noise coefficient
0
AF
Flicker noise exponent
1
2
0.1
-1
0.3
-1
0
0.5
2-8 Analog Devices
B
Equations
In the following equations:
Vgs
= intrinsic gate-intrinsic source voltage
Vgd
= intrinsic gate-intrinsic drain voltage
Vds
= intrinsic drain-intrinsic source voltage
Vt
= k·T/q (thermal voltage)
k
= Boltzmann constant
q
= electron charge
T
= analysis temperature (°K)
Tnom = nominal temperature (set using .OPTIONS TNOM=)
These equations describe an N-channel GaAsFET.
Positive current is current flowing into a terminal (for example, positive drain
current flows from the drain through the channel to the source).
B
GaAsFET 2-9
DC Currents
Ig = gate current = area·(Igs+Igd)
Igs = gate-source leakage current
Igd = gate-drain leakage current
Vgs/(N·Vt)
-1)
Igs = IS·(e
Vgd/(N·Vt
Igd = IS·(e
) -1)
Equations for Idrain: LEVEL=1
For: Vds ≥ 0
(normal mode)
and: Vgs - VTO < 0
(cutoff region)
Idrain = 0
and: Vgs - VTO ≥ 0
(linear & saturation region)
Idrain = BETA·(1+LAMBDA·Vds)·(Vgs-VTO)2 ·tanh(ALPHA·Vds)
For: Vds < 0
(inverted mode)
Switch the source and drain in equations (above).
Equations for Idrain: LEVEL=2
For: Vds ≥ 0
(normal mode)
and: Vgs - VTO < 0
(cutoff region)
Idrain = 0
and: Vgs - VTO ≥ 0
(linear & saturation region)
Idrain = BETA·(1+LAMBDA·Vds)·(Vgs-VTO)2 ·Kt/(1+B·(Vgs-VTO))
where Kt (a polynomial approximation of tanh) is:
for: 0 < Vds < 3/ALPHA (linear region)
Kt = 1 - (1 - Vds·ALPHA/3)3
for: Vds ≥ 3/ALPHA
(saturation region)
Kt = 1
For: Vds < 0
(inverted mode)
Switch the source and drain in equations (above).
2-10 Analog Devices
Capacitance1
Cds = drain-source capacitance = area·CDS
Equations for Cgs and Cgd: LEVEL=1
Cgs = gate-source capacitance
For: Vgs ≤ FC·VBI
Cgs = area·CGS·(1-Vgs/VBI) -M
For: Vgs > FC·VBI
Cgs = area·CGS·(1-FC) -(1+M) ·(1-FC·(1+M)+M·Vgs/VBI)
Cgd = gate-drain capacitance
For: Vgd ≤ FC·VBI
Cgd = area·CGD·(1-Vgd/VBI) -M
For: Vgd > FC·VBI
Cgd = area·CGD·(1-FC) -(1+M) ·(1-FC·(1+M)+M·Vgd/VBI)
Equations for Cgs and Cgd: LEVEL=2
Cgs = gate-source capacitance = area·(CGS·K2·K1/(1-Vn/VBI)1/2 + CGD·K3)
Cgd = gate-drain capacitance = area·(CGS·K3·K1/(1-Vn/VBI)1/2 + CGD·K2)
where
K1 = (1 + (Ve-VTO)/((Ve-VTO)2 +VDELTA 2 ) 1/2 )/2
K2 = (1 + (Vgs-Vgd)/((Vgs-Vgd)2 +(1/ALPHA)2 ) 1/2 )/2
K3 = (1 - (Vgs-Vgd)/((Vgs-Vgd)2+(1/ALPHA)2 ) 1/2 )/2
Ve = (Vgs + Vgd + ((Vgs-Vgd)2 +(1/ALPHA)2 ) 1/2 )/2
If: (Ve + VTO + ((Ve-VTO)2 +VDELTA 2 ) 1/2 )/2 < VMAX
Vn = (Ve + VTO + ((Ve-VTO)2 +VDELTA 2 ) 1/2 )/2
else: Vn = VMAX
1. All capacitances are between terminals of the intrinsic GaAsFET (that is, to the inside of the ohmic drain, source,
and gate resistances).
B
B
GaAsFET 2-11
Temperature Effects
For all levels:
VTO(T) = VTO+VTOTC·(T-Tnom)
BETA(T) = BETA·1.01 BETATCE·(T-Tnom)
IS(T) = IS·e
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(N·Vt)
·(T/Tnom)XTI/N
VBI(T) = VBI·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - EG(Tnom)·T/Tnom + EG(T)
where EG(T) = silicon bandgap energy = 1.16 - .000702·T 2 /(T+1108)
CGS(T) = CGS·(1+M·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-VBI(T)/VBI)))
CGD(T) = CGD·(1+M·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-VBI(T)/VBI)))
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth, using the following spectral power densities
(per unit bandwidth):
the parasitic resistances, RS, RD, and RG generate thermal noise ...
2
Is = 4·k·T/(RS/area)
2
Id = 4·k·T/(RD/area)
2
Ig = 4·k·T/RG
the intrinsic GaAsFET generates shot and flicker noise ...
2
Id = 4·k·T·gm·2/3 + KF·Id AF /FREQUENCY
where gm = dIdrain/dVgs (at the DC bias point)
2-12 Analog Devices
B
References
For more information on this GaAsFET model, refer to:
[1] W. R. Curtice, “A MESFET model for use in the design of GaAs integrated
circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, MTT-28, 448456 (1980).
[2] S. E. Sussman-Fort, S. Narasimhan, and K. Mayaram, “A complete GaAs
MESFET computer model for SPICE,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, MTT-32, 471-473 (1984).
[3] H. Statz, P. Newman, I. W. Smith, R. A. Pucel, and H. A. Haus, “GaAs FET
Device and Circuit Simulation in SPICE,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices,
ED-34, 160-169 (1987).
[4] A. J. McCamant, G. D. McCormack, and D. H. Smith, “An Improved GaAs
MESFET Model for SPICE,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, June 1990 (est).
[5] A. E. Parker and D. J. Skellern “Improved MESFET Characterization for Analog
Circuit Design and Analysis,” 1992 IEEE GaAs IC Symposium Technical Digest, pp.
225-228, Miami Beach, October 4-7, 1992.
[6] A. E. Parker, “Device Characterization and Circuit Design for High Performance
Microwave Applications,” IEE EEDMO’93, London, October 18, 1993.
[7] D. H. Smith, “An Improved Model for GaAs MESFETs,” Publication forthcoming.
(Copies available from TriQuint Semiconductors Corporation or MicroSim.)
C
Capacitor
2-13
Capacitor
General Form
C<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> [model name] <value>
+
Examples
[IC=<initial value>]
CLOAD 15 0 20pF
C2 1 2 .2E-12 IC=1.5V
CFDBCK 3 33 CMOD 10pF
Model Form
.MODEL <model name> CAP [ model parameters]
Table 2-3 Capacitor Model Parameters
Model Parameters*
Description
C
Capacitance multiplier
VC1
Linear voltage coefficient
volt
-1
0
VC2
Quadratic voltage coefficient
volt
-2
0C
TC1
Linear temperature coefficient
°C
-1
0
TC2
Quadratic temperature coefficient
°C
-2
0
(+) and (-) nodes
Units
Default
1
Define the polarity when the capacitor has a positive voltage across
it. The first node listed (or pin one in Schematics), is defined as
positive. The voltage across the component is therefore defined as
the first node voltage less the second node voltage.
Positive current flows from the (+) node through the capacitor to the
(-) node. Current flow from the first node through the component to
the second node is considered positive
2-14 Analog Devices
[model name]
C
If [model name]is left out then <value> is the capacitance in farads.
If [model name] is specified, then the capacitance is given by the
formula
<value>·C·(1+VC1·V+VC2·V 2 )·(1+TC1·(T-Tnom)+TC2·(T-Tnom)2 )
where <value> is normally positive (though it can be negative, but
not zero). “Tnom” is the nominal temperature (set using TNOM
option).
<initial value>
The initial voltage across the capacitor during the bias point
calculation. It can also be specified in a circuit file using a .IC
command as follows:
.IC V(+node, -node) <initial value>
For details on using the .IC command in a circuit file, see page 1-12
of this manual, and refer to your PSpice user’s guide, for more
information.
Noise
The capacitor does not have a noise model.
D
Diode
2-15
Diode
General Form
D<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> <model name> [area value]
Examples
DCLAMP 14 0
DMOD D13 15 17 SWITCH 1.5
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> D [ model parameters]
Figure 2-2
Diode Model
As shown, the diode is modeled as an ohmic resistance (RS/area) in
series with an intrinsic diode. The < (+) node> is the anode and <(-)
node> is the cathode. Positive current is current flowing from the
anode through the diode to the cathode. The [area value] scales IS,
ISR, IKF,RS, CJO, and IBV, and defaults to 1. IBV and BV are both
specified as positive values.D
2-16 Analog Devices
D
Model Parameters
Table 2-4 Diode Model Parameters
Model Parameters* Description
Unit
Default
amp
1E-14
IS
Saturation current
N
Emission coefficient
ISR
Recombination current parameter
NR
Emission coefficient for ISR
IKF
High-injection “knee” current
amp
infinite
BV
Reverse breakdown “knee” voltage
volt
infinite
IBV
Reverse breakdown “knee” current
amp
1E-10
RS
Parasitic resistance
ohm
0
TT
Transit time
sec
0
CJO
Zero-bias p-n capacitance
farad
0
VJ
p-n potential
volt
1
M
p-n grading coefficient
0.5
FC
Forward-bias depletion capacitance coefficient
0.5
EG
Bandgap voltage (barrier height)
XTI
IS temperature exponent
1
amp
0
2
eV
1.11
3
TIKF
IKF temperature coefficient (linear)
°C
-1
TRS1
RS temperature coefficient (linear)
°C
-1
0
TRS2
RS temperature coefficient (quadratic)
°C
-2
0
KF
Flicker noise coefficient
0
AF
Flicker noise exponent
1
D
0
Diode
2-17
Equations
In the following equations:
Vd
= voltage across the intrinsic diode only
Vt
= k·T/q (thermal voltage)
k
= Boltzmann’s constant
q
= electron charge
T
= analysis temperature (°K)
Tnom = nominal temperature (set using TNOM option)
Other variables are from the model parameter list.
DC Current
Id = area·(Ifwd - Irev)
Ifwd = forward current = Inrm·Kinj + Irec·Kgen
Vd/(N·Vt)
Inrm = normal current = IS·(e
-1)
Kinj = high-injection factor
For: IKF > 0
1/2
Kinj = (IKF/(IKF+Inrm))
otherwise
Kinj = 1
Vd/(NR·Vt)
Irec = recombination current = ISR·(e
-1)
2
M/2
Kgen = generation factor = ((1-Vd/VJ) +0.005)
Irev = reverse current = Irevhigh + Irevlow
-(Vd+BV)/(NBV·Vt)
Irevhigh = IBV·e
-(Vd+BV)/(NBVL·Vt)
Irevlow = IBVL·e
Capacitance
Cd = Ct + area·Cj
Ct = transit time capacitance = TT·Gd
where Gd = DC conductance
Cj = junction capacitance
For: Vd ≤ FC·VJ
-M
Cj = CJO·(1-Vd/VJ)
For: Vd > FC·VJ
-(1+M)
Cj = CJO·(1-FC)
·(1-FC·(1+M)+M·Vd/VJ)
2-18 Analog Devices
E/G
Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source and
Voltage-Controlled Current Source
Note
The Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (E) and the VoltageControlled Current Source (G) devices have the same syntax.
For a Voltage-Controlled Current Source just substitute a “G”
for the “E”. The “G” device generates a current, whereas, the
“E” device generates a voltage.
General Form
E<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> <(+) controlling node> <(-)
controlling node> <gain>
E<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> POLY(<value>)
+
< <(+) controlling node> <(-) controlling node> >*
+
< <polynomial coefficient value> >*
E<name> <(+) <node> <(-) node> VALUE = { <expression> }
E<name> <(+) <node> <(-) node> TABLE { <expression> } =
+
< <input value>,<output value> >*
E<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> LAPLACE { <expression> } =
+ { <transform> }
E<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> FREQ { <expression> } =
[KEYWORD] + < <frequency value>,<magnitude
value>,<phase value> >* + [DELAY = <delay value>]
Examples
EBUFF 1 2 10 11 1.0
EAMP 13 0 POLY(1) 26 0 0 500
ENONLIN 100 101 POLY(2) 3 0 4 0 0.0 13.6 0.2 0.005
The first form and the first two examples apply to the linear case. The
second form and the last example are for the nonlinear case.
E/G Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source and Voltage-Controlled Current Source
POLY(<value>)
2-19
Specifies the number of dimensions of the polynomial. The number
of pairs of controlling nodes must be equal to the number of
dimensions.
(+) and (-) nodes
Output nodes. Positive current flows from the (+) node through the
source to the (-) node.
The <(+) controlling node> and <(-) controlling node> are in pairs
and define a set of controlling voltages. A particular node can
appear more than once, and the output and controlling nodes need
not be different. The TABLE form has a maximum size of 2048
input/output value pairs.
For the linear case, there are two controlling nodes and these are
followed by the gain. For all cases, including the nonlinear case
(POLY), refer to your PSpice user’s guide.
Expressions cannot be used for linear and polynomial coefficient
values in a voltage-controlled voltage source device statement.
2-20 Analog Devices
F/H
Current-Controlled Current Source and
Current-Controlled Voltage Source
Note The Current-Controlled Current Source (F) and the CurrentControlled Voltage Source (H) devices have the same syntax.
For a Current-Controlled Voltage Source just substitute a “H”
for the “F”. The “H” device generates a voltage, whereas, the
“F” device generates a current.
General Form
F<name> <(+) node> <(-) node>
+
<controlling V device name> <gain>
F<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> POLY(<value>)
+
<controlling V device name>*
+
< <polynomial coefficient value> >*
(+) and (-)
These nodes are the output nodes. A positive current flows from the
(+) node through the source to the (-) node. The current through the controlling voltage source
determines the output current. The controlling source must be an independent voltage source (V
device), although it need not have a zero DC value.
For the linear case, there must be one controlling voltage source and its name is followed
by the gain. For all cases, including the nonlinear case (POLY), refer to your PSpice user’s guide.
Note
Examples
Expressions cannot be used for linear and polynomial
coefficient values in a current-controlled current source device
statement.
FSENSE 1 2 VSENSE 10.0
FAMP 13 0 POLY(1) VIN 0 500
FNONLIN 100 101 POLY(2) VCNTRL1 VCINTRL2 0.0 13.6 0.2 0.005
The first form and the first two Examples apply to the linear case.
The second form and the last example are for the nonlinear case.
POLY(<value>) specifies the number of dimensions of the polynomial.
The number of controlling voltage sources must be equal to the number of dimensions.F/H
I/V Independent Current Source & Stimulus and Independent Voltage Source & Stimulus
2-21
Independent Current Source &
Stimulus and Independent Voltage
Source & Stimulus
Note The Independent Current Source & Stimulus (I) and the
Independent Voltage Source & Stimulus (V) devices have the
same syntax. For an Independent Voltage Source & Stimulus
just substitute a “V” for the “I”. The “V” device functions
identically and has the same syntax as the “I” device, except
that it generates voltage instead of current.
General Form
Examples
I<name> <(+) node> <(-) node>
+
[ [DC] <value> ]
+
[ AC <magnitude value> [phase value] ]
+
[transient specification]
IBIAS
13
IAC
2
IACPHS 2
IPULSE 1
I3
26
0
3
3
0
77
2.3mA
AC .001
AC .001 90
PULSE(-1mA 1mA 2ns 2ns 2ns 50ns 100ns)
DC .002 AC 1 SIN( .002 .002 1.5MEG)
This element is a current source. Positive current flows from the (+)
node through the source to the (-) node: in the first example, IBIAS
drives node 13 to have a negative voltage. The default value is zero
for the DC, AC, and transient values. None, any, or all of the DC, AC,
and transient values can be specified. The AC phase value is in
degrees. The pulse and exponential examples are explained later in
this section.
[transient specification]
If present, they must be one of:
EXP (<parameters>) for an exponential waveform
PULSE (<parameters>) for a pulse waveform
PWL (<parameters>) for a piecewise linear waveform
SFFM (<parameters>) for a frequency-modulated waveform
SIN (<parameters>) for a sinusoidal waveform I/V
2-22 Analog Devices
I/V
The variables TSTEP and TSTOP, which are used in defaulting some
waveform parameters, are set by the .TRAN command. TSTEP is
<print step value> and TSTOP is <final time value>. The .TRAN
command can be anywhere in the circuit file; it need not come after
the voltage source.
Independent Current Source & Stimulus (EXP)
General Form
EXP (<i1> <i2> <td1> <tc1> <td2> <tc2>)
Example
IRAMP 10 5 EXP(1 5 1 .2 2 .5)
Table 2-5 Independent Current Source and Stimulus Exponential
Waveform Parameters
Parameters
Description
Units Default
<i1>
Initial current
amp
none
<i2>
Peak current
amp
none
<td1>
Rise (fall) delay
sec
0
<tc1>
Rise (fall) time constant
sec
TSTEP
<td2>
Fall (rise) delay
sec
<td1>+TSTEP
<tc2>
Fall (rise) time constant
sec
TSTEP
The EXP form causes the current to be <i1> for the first <td1>
seconds. Then, the current decays exponentially from <i1> to <i2>
using a time constant of <tc1>. The decay lasts td2-td1 seconds.
Then, the current decays from <i2> back to <i1> using a time
constant of <tc2>.
Independent Current Source & Stimulus (PULSE)
General Form
PULSE (<i1> <i2> <td> <tr> <tf> <pw> <per>)
Examples
ISW 10 5 PULSE(1A 5A 1sec .1sec .4sec .5sec 2sec)
I/V Independent Current Source & Stimulus and Independent Voltage Source & Stimulus
2-23
Table 2-6 Independent Current Source and Stimulus Pulse
Waveform Parameters
Parameters
Description
Units Default
<i1>
Initial current
amp
none
<i2>
Pulsed current
amp
none
<per>
Period
sec
TSTOP
<pw>
Pulse width
sec
TSTOP
<td>
Delay
sec
0
<tf>
Fall time
sec
TSTEP
<tr>
Rise time
sec
TSTEP
The PULSE form causes the current to start at <i1>, and stay there
for <td> seconds. Then, the current goes linearly from <i1> to <i2>
during the next <tr> seconds, and then the current stays at <i2> for
<pw> seconds. Then, it goes linearly from <i2> back to <i1> during
the next <tf> seconds. It stays at <i1> for per-(tr+pw+tf) seconds, and
then the cycle is repeated except for the initial delay of <td> seconds.
Independent Current Source & Stimulus (PWL)
General Form
PWL (corner_points)
where corner_points are: (<tn>, <in>)
Examples
I1 1 2 PWL (0
1
1.2
5
1.4
2
2
4
3
1)
Table 2-7 Independent Voltage Source and Stimulus PWL
Waveform Parameters
Parameters*
Description
Units
Default
<tn>
Time at corner
seconds
None
<vn>
Voltage at corner
volts
None
2-24 Analog Devices
I/V
The PWL form describes a piecewise linear waveform. Each pair of
time-current values specifies a corner of the waveform. The current
at times between corners is the linear interpolation of the currents at
the corners.
Independent Current Source & Stimulus (SFFM)
General Form
SFFM (<ioff> <iampl> <fc> <mod> <fm>)
Examples
IMOD 10 5 SFFM(2 1 8Hz 4 1Hz)
Table 2-8 Independent Current Source and Stimulus Frequency-
Modulated Waveform Parameters
Parameter
Description
Units
Default
<ioff>
Offset current
amp
none
<iampl>
Peak amplitude of current
amp
none
<fc>
Carrier frequency
hertz
1/TSTOP
<mod>
Modulation index
<fm>
Modulation frequency
0
hertz
1/TSTOP
The SFFM (Single-Frequency FM) form causes the current, to follow
this formula
ioff + iampl·sin(2π·fc·TIME + mod·sin(2π·fm·TIME))
Independent Current Source & Stimulus (SIN)
General Form
SIN (<ioff> <iampl> <freq> <td> <df> <phase>)
Examples
ISIG 10 5 SIN(2 2 5Hz 1sec 1 30)
I/V Independent Current Source & Stimulus and Independent Voltage Source & Stimulus
2-25
Table 2-9 Independent Current Source and Stimulus Sinusoidal
Waveform Parameters
Parameters
Description
Units
Default
<ioff>
Offset current
amp
none
<iampl>
Peak amplitude of current
amp
none
<freq>
Frequency
hertz
1/TSTOP
<td>
Delay
sec
0
<df>
Damping factor
sec
<phase>
Phase
degree
-1
0
0
The sinusoidal (SIN) waveform causes the current to start at <ioff>
and stay there for <td> seconds.
Then, the current becomes an exponentially damped sine wave. The
waveform could be described by the following formulas.
-(TIME-td)·df
ioff+iampl·sin(2π·(freq·(TIME-td)+phase/360°))·e
Note
The SIN waveform is for transient analysis only. It does not
have any effect during AC analysis. To give a value to a current
during AC analysis, use an AC specification, such as
IAC 3 0 AC 1mA
where IAC has an amplitude of one milliampere during AC analysis,
and can be zero during transient analysis. For transient analysis use
(for example)
ITRAN 3 0 SIN(0 1mA 1kHz)
where ITRAN has an amplitude of one milliampere during transient
analysis and is zero during AC analysis. Refer to your PSpice user’s
guide.
2-26 Analog Devices
J
Junction FET
General Form
J<name> <drain node> <gate node> <source node>
+
<model name> [area value]
Examples
JIN 100 1 0 JFAST
J13 22 14 23 JNOM 2.0
Model Form
.MODEL <model name> NJF [ model parameters]
.MODEL <model name> PJF [ model parameters]
Figure 2-3 JFET Model
As shown in Figure 2-3, the JFET is modeled as an intrinsic FET
using an ohmic resistance (RD/area) in series with the drain, and
using another ohmic resistance (RS/area) in series with the source.
Positive current is current flowing into a terminal. The [area value] is
the relative device area and defaults to 1.J
J
Junction FET 2-27
Table 2-10 Junction FET Model Parameters
Model Parameters
Description
AF
Flicker noise exponent
ALPHA
Ionization coefficient
volt
BETA
Transconductance coefficient
amp/volt
BETATCE
BETA exponential temperature coefficient
%/°C
0
CGD
Zero-bias gate-drain p-n capacitance
farad
0
CGS
Zero-bias gate-source p-n capacitance
farad
0
FC
Forward-bias depletion capacitance coefficient
IS
Gate p-n saturation current
amp
1E-14
ISR
Gate p-n recombination current parameter
amp
0
KF
Flicker noise coefficient
LAMBDA
Channel-length modulation
M
Gate p-n grading coefficient
N
Gate p-n emission coefficient
1
NR
Emission coefficient for ISR
2
PB
Gate p-n potential
volt
RD
Drain ohmic resistance
ohm
0
RS
Source ohmic resistance
ohm
0
VK
Ionization “knee” voltage
volt
0
VTO
Threshold voltage
volt
-2.0
VTOTC
VTO temperature coefficient
volt/°C
XTI
IS temperature coefficient
Note
Units
Default
1
-1
0
2
1E-4
0.5
0
volt
-1
0
0.5
VTO < 0 means the device is a depletion-mode JFET (for both Nchannel and P-channel) and VTO > 0 means the device is an
enhancement-mode JFET. This conforms to U.C. Berkeley SPICE.
1.0
0
3
2-28 Analog Devices
J
Equations
In the following equations:
Vgs
= intrinsic gate-intrinsic source voltage
Vgd
= intrinsic gate-intrinsic drain voltage
Vds
= intrinsic drain-intrinsic source voltage
Vt
= k·T/q (thermal voltage)
k
= Boltzmann’s constant
q
= electron charge
T
= analysis temperature (°K)
Tnom = nominal temperature (set using TNOM option)
Other variables are from the model parameter list. These equations describe an Nchannel JFET. For P-channel devices, reverse the sign of all voltages and currents.
DC Currents
Note
Positive current is current flowing into a terminal.
Ig = gate current = area·(Igs + Igd)
Igd = gate-drain leakage current = In + Ir·Kg + Ii
In = normal current = IS·(e
Vgd/(N·Vt)
Ir = recombination current = ISR·(e
-1)
Vgd/(NR·Vt)
2
-1)
Kg = generation factor = ((1-Vgd/PB) +0.005)
M/2
Ii = impact ionization current
For: 0 < Vgs-VTO < Vds (forward saturation region)
Ii = Idrain·ALPHA·vdif·e
-VK/vdif
where vdif = Vds - (Vgs-VTO)
otherwise
Ii = 0
Id = drain current = area·(-Idrain-Igd)
Is = source current = area·(Idrain-Igs)
J
Junction FET 2-29
Equation for Idrain
For: Vds ≥ 0
(normal mode)
and: Vgs-VTO ≤ 0
(cutoff region)
Idrain = 0
and: Vds ≤ Vgs-VTO
(linear region)
Idrain = BETA·(1+LAMBDA·Vds)·Vds·(2·(Vgs-VTO)-Vds)
and: 0 < Vgs-VTO < Vds
(saturation region)
Idrain = BETA·(1+LAMBDA·Vds)·(Vgs-VTO)
For: Vds < 0
2
(inverted mode)
Switch the source and drain in equations (above).
Capacitance
Note All capacitances are between terminals of the intrinsic JFET (that is, to the inside of the
ohmic drain and source resistances).
Cgs = gate-source depletion capacitance
For: Vgs ≤ FC·PB
Cgs = area·CGS·(1-Vgs/PB)
-M
For: Vgs > FC·PB
Cgs = area·CGS·(1-FC)
-(1+M)
·(1-FC·(1+M)+M·Vgs/PB)
Cgd = gate-drain depletion capacitance
For: Vgd ≤ FC·PB
Cgd = area·CGD·(1-Vgd/PB)
-M
For: Vgd > FC·PB
Cgd = area·CGD·(1-FC)
-(1+M)
·(1-FC·(1+M)+M·Vgd/PB)
2-30 Analog Devices
J
Temperature Effects
VTO(T) = VTO+VTOTC·(T-Tnom)
BETA(T) = BETA·1.01
IS(T) = IS·e
BETATCE·(T-Tnom)
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(N·Vt)
·(T/Tnom)
XTI/N
where EG = 1.11
ISR(T) = ISR·e
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(NR·Vt)
·(T/Tnom)
XTI/NR
where EG = 1.11
PB(T) = PB·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
where Eg(T) = silicon bandgap energy = 1.16 - .000702·T
2
/(T+1108)
CGS(T) = CGS·(1+M·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-PB(T)/PB)))
CGD(T) = CGD·(1+M·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-PB(T)/PB)))
The drain and source ohmic (parasitic) resistances have no temperature dependence.
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth, using the following spectral power densities
(per unit bandwidth):
the parasitic resistances, Rs and Rd, generate thermal noise ...
Is
Id
2
2
= 4·k·T/(RS/area)
= 4·k·T/(RD/area)
the intrinsic JFET generates shot and flicker noise ...
Idrain 2 = 4·k·T·gm·2/3 + KF·Idrain
AF
/FREQUENCY
where gm = dIdrain/dVgs (at the DC bias point)
K
Inductor Coupling (transformer core)
2-31
Inductor Coupling (transformer core)
General Form
K<name> L<inductor name> < L<inductor name> >*
+
<coupling value>
K<name> < L<inductor name> >* <coupling value>
+
<model name> [size value]
Examples
KTUNED L3OUT L4IN .8
KTRNSFRM LPRIMARY LSECNDRY .99
KXFRM L1 L2 L3 L4
Model Form
.98 KPOT_3C8
.MODEL < model name> CORE [ model parameters]
This device can be used to define coupling between inductors
(transformers). This device also refers to a nonlinear magnetic
core (CORE) model to include magnetic hysteresis effects in the
behavior of a single inductor (winding), or in multiple coupled
windings.
Table 2-11 Inductor Coupling Model Parameters
Model
Description
Parameters*
A
Thermal energy parameter
AREA
Mean magnetic cross-section
Units
Default
amp/meter
1E+3
cm
2
0.1
C
Domain flexing parameter
GAP
Effective air-gap length
K
Domain anisotropy parameter amp/meter
500
MS
Magnetization saturation
1E+6
PACK
Pack (stacking) factor
1.0
PATH
Mean magnetic path length K cm
1.0
*See .MODEL statement.
0.2
cm
amp/meter
0
2-32 Analog Devices
K
Inductor Coupling
K<name> couples two, or more, inductors. Using the “dot” convention, place a “dot”
on the first node of each inductor. In other words, given:
I1
L1
L2
R2
K12
1
1
2
2
L1
0
0
0
0
L2
AC 1mA
10uH
10uH
.1
.9999
the current through L2 is in the opposite direction as the current through L1. The
polarity is determined by the order of the nodes in the L device(s) and not by the
order of inductors in the K statement.
<coupling value>
This is the “coefficient of mutual coupling” which must be between 0 and 1.
Note that iron-core transformers have a very high coefficient of coupling, greater
than .999 in many cases.
For U.C. Berkeley SPICE2: if there are several coils on a transformer, then there
must be K statements coupling all combinations of inductor pairs. For instance, a
transformer using a center-tapped primary and two secondaries would be written:
* PRIMARY
L1 1 2 10uH
L2 2 3 10uH
* SECONDARY
L3 11 12 10uH
L4 13 14 10uH
* MAGNETIC COUPLING
K12 L1 L2 1
K13 L1 L3 1
K14 L1 L4 1
K23 L2 L3 1
K24 L2 L4 1
K34 L3 L4 1
This “older” technique is still supported, but not required, for simulation. The same
transformer can now be written:
K
Inductor Coupling (transformer core)
2-33
* PRIMARY
L1 1 2 10uH
L2 2 3 10uH
* SECONDARY
L3 11 12 10uH
L4 13 14 10uH
* MAGNETIC COUPLING
KALL L1 L2 L3 L4 1
Note Do not mix the two techniques.
<model name>
If < model name> is present, four things change:
1 The mutual coupling inductor becomes a nonlinear, magnetic core device. The
magnetic core’s B-H characteristics are analyzed using the Jiles-Atherton model
(see Reference [1] below).
2 The inductors become “windings,” so the number specifying inductance now
specifies the “number of turns.”
3 The list of coupled inductors could be just one inductor.
4 A model statement is required to specify the model parameters.
[size value]
Defaults to one and scales the magnetic cross-section. It is intended to represent
the number of lamination layers, so only one model statement is needed for each
lamination type. For example
L1 5 9 20
; inductor having 20 turns
K1 L1 .9999 K528T500_3C8
; Ferroxcube toroid core
L2 3 8 15
; primary winding having 15 turns
L3 4 6 45
; secondary winding having 45 turns
K2 L2 L3 .9999 K528T500_3C8
; another core (not the same as K1)
The Jiles-Atherton model is based on existing ideas of domain wall motion,
including flexing and translation. The model derives an anhysteric magnetization
curve using a mean field technique in which any domain is coupled to the magnetic
field (H) and the bulk magnetization (M). This anhysteric value is the magnetization
which would be reached in the absence of domain wall pinning. Hysteresis is
modeled by the effects of pinning of domain walls on material defect sites. This
2-34 Analog Devices
K
impedance to motion and flexing due to the differential field exhibits all of the main
features of real, nonlinear magnetic devices, such as: the initial magnetization curve
(initial permeability), saturation of magnetization, coercivity, remanence, and
hysteresis loss.
These features are shown in Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4 Probe B-H display of 3C8 ferrite (Ferroxcube)
The simulator uses the Jiles-Atherton model to analyze the B-H curve of the
magnetic core, and calculate values for inductance and flux for each of the
“windings.”
The state of the nonlinear core can be viewed in Probe by specifying B(Kxxx), for
the magnetization, or H(Kxxx), for the magnetizing influence. These values are not
available for .PRINT or .PLOT output.
Reference
For a description of the Jiles-Atherton model, refer to:
[1]
D.C. Jiles, and D.L. Atherton, “Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis,” Journal of Magnetism
and Magnetic Materials, 61, 48 (1986).
L
Inductor 2-35
Inductor
General Form
L<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> [model name] <value>
+
[IC=<initial value>]
Examples
LLOAD 15 0 20mH
L2 1 2 .2E-6
LCHOKE 3 42 LMOD .03
LSENSE 5 12 2UH
IC=2mA
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> IND [ model parameters]
Table 2-12
Model
Parameters*
L
IL1
IL2
TC1
TC2
Inductor Model Parameters
Description
Units
Inductance multiplier
Linear current coefficient
Quadratic current coefficient
Linear temperature coefficient
Quadratic temperature coefficient
amp
-2
amp
-1
°C
-2
°C
-1
Default
1
0
0
0
0
* see the .MODEL statement
(+) and (-)
The (+) and (-) nodes define the polarity when the inductor has a
positive voltage across it.
Positive current flows from the (+) node through the inductor to the
(-) node.
[model name]
If [model name] is left out, then the effective value is <value>.
If [model name] is specified, then the effective value is given by the
formula
2
2
<value>·L·(1+IL1·I+IL2·I )·(1+TC1·(T-Tnom)+TC2·(T-Tnom) )
where <value> is normally positive (though it can be negative, but
not zero). “Tnom” is the nominal temperature (set using TNOM
option).
<initial value> The initial current through the inductor during the bias point
calculation. L
Noise
The inductor does not have a noise model.
2-36 Analog Devices
M
MOSFET
General Form
M<name> <drain node> <gate node> <source node>
+
<bulk/substrate node> <model name>
+
[L=<value>] [W=<value>]
+
[AD=<value>] [AS=<value>]
+
[PD=<value>] [PS=<value>]
+
[NRD=<value>] [NRS=<value>]
+
[NRG=<value>] [NRB=<value>]
+
[M=<value>]
Examples
M1 14 2 13 0 PNOM
L=25u W=12u
M13 15 3 0 0 PSTRONG
M16 17 3 0 0 PSTRONG M=2
M28 0 2 100 100 NWEAK L=33u W=12u
+ AD=288p AS=288p PD=60u PS=60u NRD=14 NRS=24 NRG=10
Model Form
.MODEL < model name>
.MODEL < model name>
Figure 2-5
M
NMOS [ model parameters]
PMOS [ model parameters]
MOSFET Model M
Mosfet 2-37
As shown in Figure Model Form, the MOSFET is modeled as an
intrinsic MOSFET using ohmic resistances in series with the drain,
source, gate, and bulk (substrate). There is also a shunt resistance
(RDS) in parallel with the drain-source channel.
The simulator provides four MOSFET device models, which differ in
the formulation of the I-V characteristic. The LEVEL parameter selects
between different models:
Table 2-13 MOSFET Levels
MOSFET LEVELS
LEVEL=1
LEVEL=2
LEVEL=3
LEVEL=4
L and W
Model Definition
Shichman-Hodges model (see reference
[1])
geometry-based, analytic model (see
reference [2])
semi-empirical, short-channel model (see
reference [2])
BSIM model (see reference [3])
These are the channel length and width, and are decreased to get
the effective channel length and width.
L and W can be specified in the device, model, or .OPTIONS
statements. The value in the device statement supersedes the value
in the model statement, which supersedes the value in the .OPTIONS
statement.
AD and AS
These are the drain and source diffusion areas.
PD and PS
These are the drain and source diffusion perimeters.
The drain-bulk and source-bulk saturation currents can be specified
either by JS, which is multiplied by AD and AS, or by IS, which is an
absolute value. The zero-bias depletion capacitances can be
specified by CJ, which is multiplied by AD and AS, and by CJSW,
which is multiplied by PD and PS. Or they can be set by CBD and
CBS,
which are absolute values.
2-38 Analog Devices
M
NRD, NRS, NRG, and NRB
These are the relative resistivities of the drain, source, gate, and
substrate in squares. These parasitic (ohmic) resistances can be
specified either by RSH, which is multiplied by NRD, NRS, NRG, and
NRB respectively or by RD, RS, RG, and RB, which are absolute
values.
PD and PS default to 0, NRD and NRS default to 1, and NRG and
NRB default to 0. Defaults for L, W, AD, and AS can be set in the
.OPTIONS statement. If AD or AS defaults are not set, they also
default to 0. If L or W defaults are not set, they default to 100u.
M
Device “multiplier” (default = 1), which simulates the effect of multiple
devices in parallel.
The effective width, overlap and junction capacitances, and junction
currents of the MOSFET are multiplied by M. The parasitic resistance
values (e.g., RD and RS) are divided by M. Note the third example
showing a device twice the size of the second example.
Model Levels 1, 2, and 3
The DC characteristics of the first three model levels are defined by
the parameters VTO, KP, LAMBDA, PHI, and GAMMA. These are
computed by the simulator if process parameters (e.g., TOX, and
NSUB)
are given, but the user-specified values always override (Note:
The default value for TOX is 0.1 µ for model levels two and three, but
is unspecified for level one which “turns off” the use of process
parameters). VTO is positive (negative) for enhancement mode and
negative (positive) for depletion mode of N-channel (P-channel)
devices.
M
Mosfet 2-39
Table 2-14 MOSFET Level 1, 2, and 3 Model Parameters
Model
Parameters*
DELTA
Description
ETA
Static feedback (LEVEL=3)
Units
Default
Width effect on threshold
0
0
1/2
GAMMA
Bulk threshold parameter
volt
KP
Transconductance coefficient
amp/volt
KAPPA
Saturation field factor (LEVEL=3)
LAMBDA
LD
Channel-length modulation
(LEVEL=1 or 2)
Lateral diffusion (length)
2
0.2
0
meter
0
volt
NFS
1/cm
NSS
Surface state density
1/cm
NSUB
Substrate doping density
1/cm
PHI
Surface potential
volt
1.0
2
0
2
none
3
none
0.6
-1
THETA
Mobility modulation (LEVEL=3)
volt
TOX
Oxide thickness
meter
TPG
Gate material type:
+1 = opposite of substrate
-1 = same as substrate
0 = aluminum +1
UCRIT
Mobility degradation critical field
(LEVEL=2)
Mobility degradation exponent
(LEVEL=2)
(not used) Mobility degradation
transverse field coefficient
Surface mobility. (The second
character is the letter O, not the
numeral zero.)
UEXP
UTRA
UO
2E-5
-1
Channel charge coefficient
(LEVEL=2)
Fast surface state density
NEFF
calculated
0
see above
+1
volt/cm
1E4
0
0
2
cm /volt·
600
sec
VMAX
Maximum drift velocity
meter/sec
0
VTO
Zero-bias threshold voltage
volt
0
WD
Lateral diffusion (width)
meter
0
meter
0
Metallurgical junction depth
(LEVEL=2 or 3)
Fraction of channel charge
XQC
attributed to drain
* See .MODEL statement.
XJ
1.0
2-40 Analog Devices
M
Model Level 4
The LEVEL=4 (BSIM1) model parameters are all values obtained from
process characterization, and can be generated automatically. Reference [4]
describes a means of generating a “process” file, which mut then be
converted into .MODEL statements for inclusion in the Model Library or
circuit file. (The simulator does not read process files.)
In the following list, parameters marked using a “ζ” in the L&W column also
have corresponding parameters with a length and width dependency. For
example, VFB is a basic parameter using units of volts, and LVFB and
WVFB also exist and have units of volt·µ. The formula
Pi = P0 + PL/Le + PW /W e
is used to evaluate the parameter for the actual device, where
Le = effective length = L - DL
W e = effective width = W - DW
Note Unlike the other models in PSpice, the BSIM model is designed for use
with a process characterization system that provides all parameters:
there are no defaults specified for the parameters, and leaving one out
can cause problems.
Table 2-15 MOSFET Level 4 Model Parameters
Model
Parameters*
DELL
Description
Units
Drain, source junction length
reduction
meter
DL
Channel shortening
µ
DW
Channel narrowing
µ
ETA
Zero-bias drain-induced barrier
lowering coefficient
K1
Body effect coefficient
K2
Drain/source depletion charge
sharing coefficient
MUS
Mobility at zero substrate bias and
Vds=Vdd
L&W
ζ
volt
½
ζ
ζ
2 2
cm /v ·sec ζ
M
Mosfet 2-41
MUZ
Zero-bias mobility
N0
Zero-bias subthreshold slope
coefficient
Sens. of subthreshold slope to
substrate bias
Sens. of subthreshold slope to drain
bias
Surface inversion potential
NB
ND
PHI
TEMP
TOX
Temperature at which parameters
were measured
Gate-oxide thickness
2
cm /v·sec
ζ
ζ
ζ
ζ
volt
°C
µ
-1
ζ
µ/volt
ζ
volt
U1
Zero-bias transverse-field mobility
degradation
Zero-bias velocity saturation
VDD
Measurement bias range
volts
VFB
Flat-band voltage
volt
WDF
Drain, source junction default width
meter
U0
Sens. of drain-induced barrier
lowering effect to substrate bias
Sens. of mobility to substrate bias @
X2MS
Vds=0
Sens. of mobility to substrate bias @
X2MZ
Vds=0
Sens. of transverse-field mobility
X2U0
degradation effect to substrate bias
Sens. of velocity saturation effect to
X2U1
substrate bias
Sens. of drain-induced barrier
X3E
lowering effect to drain bias @ Vds =
Vdd
Sens. of mobility to drain bias @
X3MS
Vds=Vdd
Sens. of velocity saturation effect on
X3U1
drain
Gate-oxide capacitance charge
XPART
model flag. XPART=0 selects a
40/60 drain/source charge partition
in saturation, while XPART=1
selects a 0/100 drain/source charge
partition.
*See .MODEL statement
X2E
volt
ζ
ζ
-1
2 2
cm /v ·sec ζ
2 2
cm /v ·sec ζ
volt
µ/volt
volt
ζ
-2
2
ζ
ζ
-1
2 2
cm /v ·sec ζ
µ/volt
2
ζ
ζ in L&W column indicates that parameter may have corresponding parameters
exhibiting length and width dependence. See discussion under Model Level 4 on
page 2-40.
2-42 Analog Devices
M
For All Model Levels
The following list describes the parameters common to all model levels,
which are primarily parasitic element values such as series resistance,
overlap and junction capacitance, and so on.
Table 2-16 MOSFET Model Parameters for All Levels
Model
Parameters*
AF
CBD
CBS
CGBO
CGDO
CGSO
CJ
CJSW
FC
IS
JS
JSSW
KF
L
LEVEL
MJ
MJSW
N
PB
PBSW
RB
RD
RDS
RG
RS
RSH
TT
W
Description
Flicker noise exponent
Zero-bias bulk-drain p-n
capacitance
Zero-bias bulk-source p-n
capacitance
Gate-bulk overlap
capacitance/channel length
Gate-drain overlap
capacitance/channel width
Gate-source overlap
capacitance/channel width
Bulk p-n zero-bias bottom
capacitance/area
Bulk p-n zero-bias sidewall
capacitance/length
Bulk p-n forward-bias
capacitance coefficient
Bulk p-n saturation current
Bulk p-n saturation current/area
Bulk p-n saturation sidewall
current/length
Flicker noise coefficient
Channel length
Model index
Bulk p-n bottom grading
coefficient
Bulk p-n sidewall grading
coefficient
Bulk p-n emission coefficient
Bulk p-n bottom potential
Bulk p-n sidewall potential
Bulk ohmic resistance
Drain ohmic resistance
Drain-source shunt resistance
Gate ohmic resistance
Source ohmic resistance
Drain, source diffusion sheet
resistance
Bulk p-n transit time
Channel width
Units
Default
farad
1
0
farad
0
farad/meter
0
farad/meter
0
farad/meter
0
farad/meter
2
farad/meter
0
0
0.5
amp
2
amp/meter
amp/meter
meter
1E-14
0
0
0
DEFL
1
0.5
0.33
volt
volt
ohm
ohm
ohm
ohm
ohm
ohm/square
1
0.8
PB
0
0
infinite
0
0
0
sec
meter
0
DEFW
M
Mosfet 2-43
Equations
In the following equations:
Vgs
= intrinsic gate-intrinsic source voltage
Vgd
= intrinsic gate-intrinsic drain voltage
Vds
= intrinsic drain-intrinsic source voltage
Vbs
= intrinsic substrate-intrinsic source voltage
Vbd
= intrinsic substrate-intrinsic drain voltage
Vt
= k·T/q (thermal voltage)
k
= Boltzmann’s constant
q
= electron charge
T
= analysis temperature (°K)
Tnom = nominal temperature (set using TNOM option)
Other variables are from the model parameter list. These equations describe an N-channel
MOSFET. For P-channel devices, reverse the signs of all voltages and currents. Positive
current is current flowing into a terminal (for example, positive drain current flows from the
drain through the channel to the source).
DC Currents 1
Ig = gate current = 0
Ib = bulk current = Ibs+Ibd
Ibs = bulk-source leakage current = Iss·(e
Ibd = bulk-drain leakage current = Ids·(e
Vbs/(N·Vt)
Vbd/(N·Vt)
where if: JS = 0, or AS = 0, or AD = 0
Iss = IS
Ids = IS
otherwise:
Iss = AS·JS + PS·JSSW
Ids = AD·JS + PD·JSSW
Id = drain current = -Idrain+Ibd
Is = source current = Idrain+Ids
-1)
-1)
2-44 Analog Devices
M
Equations for Idrain: LEVEL=1
For: Vds ≥ 0
(normal mode)
and: Vgs-Vto < 0
(cutoff region)
Idrain = 0
and: Vds < Vgs-Vto
(linear region)
Idrain = (W/L)·(KP/2)·(1+LAMBDA·Vds)·Vds·(2·(Vgs-Vto)-Vds)
and: 0 ≤ Vgs-Vto ≤ Vds
(saturation region)
Idrain = (W/L)·(KP/2)·(1+LAMBDA·Vds)·(Vgs-Vto)
where Vto = VTO + GAMMA·((PHI-Vbs)
For: Vds < 0
1/2
2
-PHI
1/2
)
(inverted mode)
Switch the source and drain in equations (above).
For LEVEL=2, or LEVEL=3 MOSFET models, see reference [2] on 2-30 for detailed information.
1. Positive current is current flowing into a terminal.
Capacitance1
Cbs = bulk-source capacitance = area cap. + sidewall cap. + transit time cap.
Cbd = bulk-drain capacitance = area cap. + sidewall cap. + transit time cap.
For: CBS = 0 and CBD = 0
Cbs = AS·CJ·Cbsj + PS·CJSW·Cbss + TT·Gbs
Cbd = AD·CJ·Cbdj + PD·CJSW·Cbds + TT·Gds
otherwise
Cbs = CBS·Cbsj + PS·CJSW·Cbss + TT·Gbs
Cbd = CBD·Cbdj + PD·CJSW·Cbds + TT·Gds
where
Gbs = DC bulk-source conductance = dIbs/dVbs
Gbd = DC bulk-drain conductance = dIbd/dVbd
or: Vbs ≤ FC·PB
Cbsj = (1-Vbs/PB) -MJ
Cbss = (1-Vbs/PBSW) -MJSW
M
Mosfet 2-45
For: Vbs > FC·PB
Cbsj = (1-FC)
-(1+MJ)
Cbss = (1-FC)
·(1-FC·(1+MJ)+MJ·Vbs/PB)
-(1+MJSW)
·(1-FC·(1+MJSW)+MJSW·Vbs/PBSW)
For: Vbd ≤ FC·PB
Cbdj = (1-Vbd/PB)
-MJ
Cbds = (1-Vbd/PBSW)
-MJSW
For: Vbd > FC·PB
Cbdj = (1-FC)
Cbds = (1-FC)
-(1+MJ)
·(1-FC·(1+MJ)+MJ·Vbd/PB)
-(1+MJSW)
·(1-FC·(1+MJSW)+MJSW·Vbd/PBSW)
Cgs = gate-source overlap capacitance = CGSO·W
Cgd = gate-drain overlap capacitance = CGDO·W
Cgb = gate-bulk overlap capacitance = CGBO·L
See reference [2] for the equations describing the capacitances due to the channel charge.
1. All capacitances are between terminals of the intrinsic MOSFET. That is, to the inside of the ohmic drain and source
resistances.
Temperature Effects
(Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom - Eg(T))/V t
IS(T)
= IS·e
JS(T)
= JS·e
(Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom - Eg(T))/V t
JSSW(T)
= JSSW·e
(Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom - Eg(T))/V t
= PB·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
PB(T)
PBSW(T)
PHI(T)
= PBSW·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
= PHI·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
2
where Eg(T) = silicon bandgap energy = 1.16 - .000702·T /(T+1108)
CBD(T)
= CBD·(1+MJ·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-PB(T)/PB)))
CBS(T)
= CBS·(1+MJ·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-PB(T)/PB)))
CJ(T)
= CJ·(1+MJ·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-PB(T)/PB)))
CJSW(T)
= CJSW·(1+MJSW·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-PB(T)/PB)))
-3/2
KP(T)
= KP·(T/Tnom)
UO(T)
= UO·(T/Tnom)
MUS(T)
-3/2
= MUS·(T/Tnom)
-3/2
2-46 Analog Devices
MUZ()
M
= MUZ·(T/Tnom)
X3MS(T)
-3/2
= X3MS·(T/Tnom)
-3/2
The ohmic (parasitic) resistances have no temperature dependence.
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth, using the following spectral power densities
(per unit bandwidth):
the parasitic resistances (Rd, Rg, Rs, and Rb) generate thermal noise ...
2
Id = 4·k·T/Rd
2
Ig = 4·k·T/Rg
2
Is = 4·k·T/Rs
2
Ib = 4·k·T/Rb
the intrinsic MOSFET generates shot and flicker noise ...
2
AF
Idrain = 4·k·T·gm·2/3 + KF·Idrain /(FREQUENCY·Kchan)
where
gm = dIdrain/dVgs (at the DC bias point)
2
Kchan = (effective length) ·(permittivity of SiO2)/TOX
References
For a more complete description of the MOSFET models, refer to:
[1] H. Shichman and D. A. Hodges, “Modeling and simulation of insulated-gate field-effect
transistor switching circuits,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, SC-3, 285, September
1968.
[2] A. Vladimirescu, and S. Lui, “The Simulation of MOS Integrated Circuits Using SPICE2,”
Memorandum No. M80/7, February 1980.
[3] B. J. Sheu, D. L. Scharfetter, P.-K. Ko, and M.-C. Jeng, “BSIM: Berkeley Short-Channel
IGFET Model for MOS Transistors,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, SC-22, 558-566,
August 1987.
[4] J. R. Pierret, “A MOS Parameter Extraction Program for the BSIM Model,”
Memorandum No. M84/99 and M84/100, November 1984.
N
Digital input 2-47
Digital Input
General Form
Example
N<name> <interface node> <low level node> <high level node>
+
<model name>
+
DGTLNET = <digital net name>
+
<digital I/O model name>
+
SIGNAME=<digital signal name>
+
[IS = initial state]
NRESET 7 15 16 FROM_TTL
N12
Model Form
18
0 100 FROM_CMOS SIGNAME=VCO_GATE IS=0
.MODEL < model name> DINPUT [ model parameters]
Table 2-17 Digital Input Model Parameters
Model
Description
Parameters*
CHI
Capacitance to high level node
CLO
Capacitance to low level node
FILE
Digital input file name (Digital Files only)
FORMAT
Digital input file format (Digital Files only)
S0NAME
State “0” character abbreviation
S0TSW
State “0” switching time
S0RLO
State “0” resistance to low level node
S0RHI
State “0” resistance to high level node
S1NAME
State “1” character abbreviation
S1TSW
State “1” switching time
S1RLO
State “1” resistance to low level node
S1RHI
State “1” resistance to high level node
S2NAME
State “2” character abbreviation
S2TSW
State “2” switching time
S2RLO
State “2” resistance to low level node
S2RHI
State “2” resistance to high level node
..
.
S19NAME
State “19” character abbreviation
S19TSW
State “19” switching time
S19RLO
State “19” resistance to low level node
S19RHI
State “19” resistance to high level node
TIMESTEP
Digital input file step-size (Digital Files only)
* See .MODEL statement.
Units Default
farad
farad
0
0
1
sec
ohm
ohm
sec
ohm
ohm
sec
ohm
ohm
sec
ohm
ohm
sec
1E-91
2-48 Analog Devices
Note
For more information on using the digital input device to simulate
mixed analog/digital systems refer to your PSpice user’s guide.
As shown in Figure 2-6, the digital input device is modeled as a time
varying resistor from <low level node> to <interface node>, and another
time varying resistor from <high level node> to <interface node>. Each
of these resistors has an optional fixed value capacitor in parallel: CLO
and CHI. When the state of the digital signal changes, the values of the
resistors change (exponentially) from their present values to the values
specified for the new state over the switching time specified by the new
state. Normally the low and high level nodes would be attached to
voltage sources which would correspond to the highest and lowest logic
levels. (Using two resistors and two voltage levels, any voltage between
the two levels can be created at any impedance.
Figure 2-6 Digital Input Model
N
N
Digital input 2-49
If SIGNAME = <digital signal name> is specified, this is the name of the
digital signal in the input file which controls this digutal input device.
Otherwise, the portion of the device name after the leading N identifies the
name of the digital signal.
If IS=<initial state name> is specified, then the initial state of the input (for
the bias-point calculation, and TIME=0) is not the value specified
by the input file (or the digital simulator) but the value specified by <initial
state>. The digital input will remain in this state until a value is read, or
received, which is different than the state at TIME=0. The value of < initial
state> must be one of the state names (S0NAME through S19NAME)
specified by the model.
The state of the digital input may be viewed in Probe by specifying B(Nxxx). The value of
B(Nxxx) is 0.0 if the current state is S0NAME, 1.0 if the current state is S1NAME, and so on
through 19.0. For this reason it is convenient to use S0NAME for the lowest logic level, and
S19NAME for the highest logic level. These values are not available for .PRINT or .PLOT output.
If the file name Is DGTLPSPC, and the Parallel Analog/Digital Simulation option in included, then
Pspice will obtain the digital input data from the digital simulator (for example, VIEWsimA/D). In
this case the digital simulator must be running concurrently with Pspice, and they must both be
simulating the same time interval.
The format parameter is ignored if DGTLPSPC is specified for the file.
Any number of digital input models may be specified. Different digital input models may reference
the same file, or different files. (If the models reference the same file, the file must be specified in
the same way, or unpredictable results will occur: for example, if the default drive is C:, then one
model should not have FILE=C:TEST.DAT if another has FILE=TEST.DAT).
2-50 Analog Devices
O
Digital Output
General Form
Example
O<name>
<interface node> <reference node> <model name>
+
[DGTLNET = <digital I/O model name>]
+
[SIGNAME = <digital signal name>]
OVCO 17
0 TO_TTL
O5
22 100 TO_CMOS
SIGNAME=VCO_OUT
Table 2-18 Digital Output Model Parameters
Model Parameters * Description
Units
Defaul
t
CHGONLY
CLOAD
0: write each timestep,
1: write upon change 0
Output capacitor
FILE
Digital input file name (Digital Files only)
FORMAT
Digital input file format (Digital Files only)
RLOAD
Output resistor
S0NAME
State “0” character abbreviation
S0VLO
State “0” low level voltage
volt
S0VHI
State “0” high level voltage
volt
S1NAME
State “1” character abbreviation
S1VLO
State “1” low level voltage
volt
S1VHI
State “1” high level voltage
volt
S2NAME
State “2” character abbreviation
S2VLO
State “2” low level voltage
volt
S2VHI
State “2” high level voltage
volt
.
.
S19NAME
State “19” character abbreviation
S19VLO
State “19” low level voltage
volt
S19VHI
State “19” high level voltage
volt
TIMESTEP
Digital input file step-size
sec
TIMESCALE
Scale factor for TIMESTEP
(Digital Files only)
•
See .MODEL statement
farad
0
1
ohm
1000
1E-9
1
O
Digital Output 2-51
Note The digital output device is part of the mixed analog/digital simulation
options for Pspice. For more information see the “Digital Files” chapter.
As shown in Figure 2-7, the digital output device is modeled as a resistor
and capacitor, of the values specified in the model statement, connected
between <interface node> and <reference node>. At times which are
integer multiples of TIMESTEP, the “state” of the device node is
determined and written to the specified file.
Figure 2-7 Digital Output Model
The state of the node is determined by taking the difference in voltage
between the <interface node> and the <reference node>, and comparing it
(first) to the voltage range for the current state. If it is within the range, then
the new state is the same as the old state. If it is not within the range for the
current state, then the states are examined starting with S0NAME. The new
state is the first one which contains the voltage within its range. (If none
contain it, then the state is ‘?’ ). This allows the user to specify hysteresis for
the state changes.
If SIGNAME = <digital signal name> is specified, this is the name of the
digital signal in the output file. Otherwise, the portion of the device name
after the leading O identifies the name of the digital signal.
2-52 Analog Devices
O
The state of each device will be written to the output file at times which are
integer multiples of TIMESTEP. The “time” which is written will be the
integer
time = TIMESCALE * TIME/TIMESTEP
TIMESCALE defaults to 1, but if the digital simulator is using a very small
timestep compared to the Pspice timestep, it can speed up the Pspice
simulation to increase the value of both TIMESTEP and TIMESCALE. This
is because Pspice must take time-steps no greater than the digital
TIMESTEP size when a digital output is about to change, in order to
accurately determine the exact time that the state changes. The value of
TIMESTEP should therefore be the time resolution required at the analogdigital interface. The value of TIMESCALE is then used to adjust the output
time to be in the same units as the digital simulator uses. For example, if you
are doing a digital simulation with a timestep of 100ps, but your circuit has a
clock rate of 1us, setting TIMESTEP to 0.1us should provide enough
resolution. Setting TIMESCALE to 1000 will scale the output time to be in
100ps units.
If CHGONLY=1 only those time-steps in which an digital output state
changes are written to the file.
The state of the digital output may be viewed in Probe by specifying
B(Oxxx). The value of B(Oxxx) is 0.0 if the current state is S0NAME, 1.0 if
the current state is S1NAME, and so on through 19.0. For this reason it is
convenient to use S0NAME for the lowest logic level, and S19NAME for the
highest logic level. These values are not available for .PRINT or .PLOT
output.
If the file name is PSPCDGTL, and the Parallel Analog/Digital Simulation
option in included, then Pspice will obtain the digital input data from the
digital simulator (for example, VIEWsimA/D ). In this case the digital
simulator must be running concurrently with Pspice, and they must both be
O
Digital Output 2-53
simulating the same time interval. The format parameter is ignored if
PSPCGTL is specified for the file.
Any number of digital output models may be specified. Different digital input
models may reference the same file, or different files. (If the models
reference the same file, the file must be specified in the same way, or
unpredictable results will occur: for example, if the default drive is C:, then
one model should not have FILE=C:TEST.DAT if another has
FILE=TEST.DAT).
2-54 Analog Devices
Q
Bipolar Transistor
General Form
Q<name> < collector node> <base node> <emitter node>
+
Examples
[substrate node] <model name> [area value]
Q1 14 2 13 PNPNOM
Q13 15 3 0 1 NPNSTRONG 1.5
Q7 VC 5 12 [SUB] LATPNP
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> NPN [ model parameters]
.MODEL < model name> PNP [ model parameters]
.MODEL < model name> LPNP [ model parameters]
Figure 2-8 Bipolar Transistor Model (enhanced Gummel-Poon)
As shown, the bipolar transistor is modeled as an intrinsic transistor using ohmic resistances in
series with the collector (RC/area), the base (value varies with current, see equations below), and
with the emitter (RE/area). Positive current is current flowing into a terminal. The [area value] is
the relative device area and defaults to 1. For those model parameters which have alternate
names, such as VAF and VA (the alternate name is shown by using parentheses), either name
can be used.
Q
Bipolar Transistor 2-55
The substrate node is optional, and if not specified it defaults to ground. Because the
simulator allows alphanumeric names for nodes, and because there is no easy way to distinguish
these from the model names, it makes it necessary to enclose the name (not a number) used for
the substrate node using square brackets “[ ]”. Otherwise it is interpreted as a model name. See
the third example.
For model types NPN and PNP, the isolation junction capacitance is connected between
the intrinsic-collector and substrate nodes. This is the same as in SPICE2, or SPICE3, and works
well for vertical IC transistor structures. For lateral IC transistor structures there is a third model,
LPNP, where the isolation junction capacitance is connected between the intrinsic-base and
substrate nodes.
Table 2-19 Bipolar Transistor Model Parameters
Model
Description
Parameters
Units
Default
AF
Flicker noise exponent
BF
Ideal maximum forward beta
100
BR
Ideal maximum reverse beta
1
CJC
Base-collector zero-bias p-n capacitance
farad
0
CJE
Base-emitter zero-bias p-n capacitance
farad
0
Substrate zero-bias p-n capacitance
farad
0
CJS(CCS)
1
EG
Bandgap voltage (barrier height)
eV
1.11
FC
Forward-bias depletion capacitor coefficient
IKF (IK)
Corner for forward-beta high-current roll-off
amp
infinite
IKR
Corner for reverse-beta high-current roll-off
amp
infinite
IRB
Current at which Rb falls halfway to RBM
amp
infinite
IS
Transport saturation current
amp
1E-16
ISC (C4)
Base-collector leakage saturation current
amp
0
ISE (C2)
Base-emitter leakage saturation current
amp
0
ISS
Substrate p-n saturation current
amp
0
ITF
Transit time dependency on Ic
amp
0
KF
Flicker noise coefficient
MJC (MC)
Base-collector p-n grading factor
0.33
MJE (ME)
Base-emitter p-n grading factor
0.33
MJS (MS)
Substrate p-n grading factor
0
NC
Base-collector leakage emission coefficient
2
0.5
0
2-56 Analog Devices
Q
Table 2-19 Bipolar Transistor Model Parameters (continued)
Model
Parameters
Description
Units
Default
NE
Base-emitter leakage emission coefficient
1.5
NF
Forward current emission coefficient
1
NR
Reverse current emission coefficient
1
NS
Substrate p-n emission coefficient
1
PTF
Excess phase @ 1/(2p·TF)Hz
degree
0
QCO
Epitaxial region charge factor
coulomb
0
RB
Zero-bias (maximum) base resistance
ohm
0
RBM
Minimum base resistance
ohm
RB
RC
Collector ohmic resistance
ohm
0
RE
Emitter ohmic resistance
ohm
0
TF
Ideal forward transit time
sec
0
TR
Ideal reverse transit time
sec
0
-1
0
-2
0
-1
0
-2
0
-1
0
-2
0
-1
0
-2
0
TRB1
RB temperature coefficient (linear)
°C
TRB2
RB temperature coefficient (quadratic)
°C
TRC1
RC temperature coefficient (linear)
°C
TRC2
RC temperature coefficient (quadratic)
°C
TRE1
RE temperature coefficient (linear)
°C
TRE2
RE temperature coefficient (quadratic)
°C
TRM1
RBM temperature coefficient (linear)
°C
TRM2
RBM temperature coefficient (quadratic)
°C
VAF (VA)
Forward Early voltage
volt
infinite
VAR (VB)
Reverse Early voltage
volt
infinite
VJC (PC)
Base-collector built-in potential
volt
0.75
VJE (PE)
Base-emitter built-in potential
volt
0.75
VJS (PS)
Substrate p-n built-in potential
volt
0.75
VTF
Transit time dependency on Vbc
volt
infinite
XCJC
Fraction of CJC connec. internally to Rb
1
XTB
Forward and reverse beta temp coeff.
0
XTF
Transit time bias dependence coefficient
0
XTI (PT)
IS temperature effect exponent
3
Q
Bipolar Transistor 2-57
The parameters ISE (C2) and ISC (C4) can be set to be greater than one. In this case, they are
interpreted as multipliers of IS instead of absolute currents: that is, if ISE is greater than one then it
is replaced by ISE·IS. Likewise for ISC.
Equations
In the following equations:
Vbe = intrinsic base-intrinsic emitter voltage
Vbc = intrinsic base-intrinsic collector voltage
Vbs = intrinsic base-substrate voltage
Vbx = extrinsic base-intrinsic collector voltage
Vce = intrinsic collector-intrinsic emitter voltage
Vjs
= (NPN) intrinsic collector-substrate voltage
= (PNP) intrinsic substrate-collector voltage
= (LPNP) intrinsic base-substrate voltage
Vt
= k·T/q (thermal voltage)
k
= Boltzmann’s constant
q
= electron charge
T
= analysis temperature (°K)
Tnom = nominal temperature (set using TNOM option)
Other variables are from the model parameter list. These equations describe an NPN
transistor. For the PNP and LPNP devices, reverse the signs of all voltages and currents.
DC Currents
Note: Positive current is current flowing into a terminal.
Ib = base current = area·(Ibe1/BF + Ibe2 + Ibc1/BR + Ibc2)
Ic = collector current = area·(Ibe1/Kqb - Ibc1/Kqb - Ibc1/BR - Ibc2)
Vbe/(NF·Vt)
Ibe1 = forward diffusion current = IS·(e
-1)
Vbe/(NE·Vt)
Ibe2 = non-ideal base-emitter current = ISE·(e
-1)
Vbc/(NR·Vt)
Ibc1 = reverse diffusion current = IS·(e
-1)
Vbc/(NC·Vt)
Ibc2 = non-ideal base-collector current = ISC·(e
-1)
1/2
Kqb = base charge factor = Kq1·(1+(1+4·Kq2) )/2
Kq1 = 1/(1 - Vbc/VAF - Vbe/VAR)
Kq2 = Ibe1/IKF + Ibc1/IKR
Is = substrate current = area·ISS·(e
Vjs/(NS·Vt)
-1)
Rb = actual base parasitic resistance
For: IRB = infinite (default value)
Rb = (RBM + (RB-RBM)/Kqb)/area
For: IRB > 0
2
Rb = (RBM + 3·(RB-RBM)·(tan(x)-x)/(x·tan (x)))/area
2
1/2
where x = ((1+(144/ π )·Ib/(area·IRB))
2
1/2
-1)/ ((24/ π ) ·(Ib/(area· IRB))
)
2-58 Analog Devices
Q
Capacitances
Note: All capacitances, except Cbx, are between terminals of the intrinsic
transistor which is inside of the col-lector, base, and emitter parasitic resistances.
Cbx is between the intrinsic collector and the extrinsic base.
Cbe = base-emitter capacitance = area·(Ctbe + Cjbe)
Ctbe = transit time capacitance = tf·Gbe
2
3
tf = effective TF= TF·(1+XTF·(3x -2x ) ·e
Vbc/(1.44·VTF)
)
where x= Ibe1/(Ibe1+area·ITF)
Gbe = DC base-emitter conductance = (dIbe1)/(dVbe)
For: Vbe ≤ FC·VJE
Cjbe = CJE·(1-Vbe/VJE)
-MJE
For: Vbe > FC·VJE
Cjbe = CJE·(1-FC)
-(1+MJE)
·(1-FC·(1+MJE)+MJE·Vbe/VJE)
Cbc = base-collector capacitance = area·(Ctbc+XCJC·Cjbc)
Ctbc = transit time capacitance = TR·Gbc
Gbc = DC base-collector conductance = (dIbc)/(dVbc)
For: Vbc ≤ FC·VJC
Cjbc = CJC·(1-Vbc/VJC)
-MJC
For: Vbc > FC·VJC
Cjbc = CJC·(1-FC)
-(1+MJC)
·(1-FC·(1+MJC)+MJC·Vbc/VJC)
Cbx = extrinsic-base to intrinsic-collector capacitance = area·(1-XCJC)·Cjbx
For: Vbx ≤ FC·VJC
Cjbx = CJC·(1-Vbx/VJC)
-MJC
For: Vbx > FC·VJC
Cjbx = CJC·(1-FC)
-(1+MJC)
·(1-FC·(1+MJC)+MJC·Vbx/VJC)
Cjs = substrate junction capacitance = area·Cjjs
For: Vjs ≤ 0
Cjjs = CJS·(1-Vjs/VJS)
-MJS
For: Vjs > 0
Cjjs = CJS·(1+MJS·Vjs/VJS)
(assumes FC = 0)
Q
Bipolar Transistor 2-59
Temperature Effects
IS(T)
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(N·Vt)
= IS·e
·(T/Tnom)
XTI/N
where N = 1
XTB
)·e
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(NE·Vt)
XTB
)·e
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(NC·Vt)
·(T/Tnom)
XTB
)·e
(T/Tnom-1)·EG/(NS·Vt)
·(T/Tnom)
ISE(T)
= (ISE/(T/Tnom)
ISC(T)
= (ISC/(T/Tnom)
ISS(T)
= (ISS/(T/Tnom)
BF(T)
= BF·(T/Tnom)
BR(T)
= BR·(T/Tnom)
RE(T)
= RE·(1+TRE1·(T-Tnom)+TRE2·(T-Tnom) )
RB(T)
= RB·(1+TRB1·(T-Tnom)+TRB2·(T-Tnom) )
XTI/NE
XTI/NC
XTI/NS
XTB
XTB
2
2
RBM(T)
RC(T)
·(T/Tnom)
2
= RBM·(1+TRM1·(T-Tnom)+TRM2·(T-Tnom) )
2
= RC·(1+TRC1·(T-Tnom)+TRC2·(T-Tnom) )
VJE(T)
= VJE·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
VJC(T)
= VJC·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
VJS(T)
= VJS·T/Tnom - 3·Vt·ln(T/Tnom) - Eg(Tnom)·T/Tnom + Eg(T)
2
where Eg(T) = silicon bandgap energy = 1.16 - .000702·T /(T+1108)
CJE(T)
= CJE·(1+MJE·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-VJE(T)/VJE)))
CJC(T)
= CJC·(1+MJC·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-VJC(T)/VJC)))
CJS(T)
= CJS·(1+MJS·(.0004·(T-Tnom)+(1-VJS(T)/VJS)))
The collector, base, and emitter parasitic resistances have no temperature dependence.
2-60 Analog Devices
Q
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth, using the following spectral power densities
(per unit bandwidth):
the parasitic resistances generate thermal noise ...
2
Ic = 4·k·T/(RC/area)
2
Ib = 4·k·T/Rb
2
Ie = 4·k·T/(RE/area)
the base and collector currents generate shot and flicker noise ...
2
AF
2
AF
Ib = 2·q·Ib + KF·Ib
Ic = 2·q·Ic + KF·Ic
/FREQUENCY
/FREQUENCY
References
For a more complete description of bipolar transistor models, refer to
[1] Ian Getreu, Modeling the Bipolar Transistor, Tektronix, Inc. part# 062-2841-00.
R
Resistor 2-61
Resistor
General Form
R<name> <(+) node> <(-) node> [model name] <value>
Examples
RLOAD
15
0
2K
1
2
2.4E4
R2
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> RES [ model parameters]
(+) and (-) nodes
Define the polarity when the resistor has a positive voltage across it.
Positive current flows from the (+) node through the resistor to the (-)
node.
[model name]
If this is included and TCE (in the model) is not specified, then the
resistance is given by the formula
2
<value>·R·(1+TC1·(T-Tnom)+TC2·(T-Tnom) )
where <value> is normally positive (though it can be negative, but
not zero). If [model name] is included and TCE (in the model) is
specified, then the resistance is given by the formula
<value>·R·1.01
TCE·(T-Tnom)
where <value> is normally positive (though it can be negative, but
not zero). “Tnom” is the nominal temperature (set using TNOM
option).R
Table 2-20 Resistor Model Parameters
Model
Description
Parameters
R
Resistance multiplier
Units
Default
TC1
Linear temperature coefficient
°C -1
0
TC2
Quadratic temperature coefficient
°C -2
0
TCE
Exponential temperature coefficient
%/°C
0
1
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth. The resistor generates thermal noise using
the following spectral power density (per unit bandwidth)
2
i = 4·k·T/resistance
2-62 Analog Devices
S
Voltage-Controlled Switch
General Form
S<name>
+
+
<(+) switch node> <(-) switch node>
<(+) controlling node> <(-) controlling node>
<model name>
Examples
S12
13 17 2 0 SMOD
SESET 5 0 15 3 RELAY
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> VSWITCH [ model parameters]
The voltage-controlled switch is a special kind of voltage-controlled resistor. The
resistance between the <(+) switch node> and <(-) switch node> depends on the
voltage between the <(+) controlling node> and <(–) controlling node>. The
resistance varies continuously between the RON and ROFF model parameters.
A resistance of 1/GMIN is connected between the controlling nodes to keep them
from floating. See the .OPTIONS statement (page 1-26) for setting GMIN.
We have chosen this model for a switch to try to minimize numerical
problems. However, there are a few things to keep in mind:
With double precision numbers Pspice can handle only a dynamic range of about
12 decades. So, we do not recommend making the ratio of ROFF to RON greater
than 1E+12.
Similary, we do not recommend making the transition region too narrow. Remember
that in the transition region the switch has gain. The narrower the region, the higher
the gain and the greater the potential for numerical problems.
Although very little computer time is required to evaluate switches, during transient
analysis the simulator must step through the transition region using a fine enough
step size to get an accurate waveform. Applying many transitions can produce long
run times when evaluating the other devices in the circuit at each time step.
RON and ROFF must
be greater than zero and less than 1/GMIN.
S
Voltage-Controlled Switch 2-63
Table 2-21 Voltage-Controlled Switch Model Parameters
Model
Parameters
ROFF
Description
Units
Default
“Off” resistance
ohm
1E+6
RON
“On” resistance
ohm
1.0
VOFF
Control voltage for “off” state
volt
0.0
VON
Control voltage for “on” state S
volt
1.0
Equations
In the following equations:
Vc
Lm
Lr
Vm
Vd
k
T
= voltage across control nodes
1/2
= log-mean of resistor values = ln((RON·ROFF) )
= log-ratio of resistor values = ln(RON/ROFF)
= mean of control voltages = (VON+VOFF)/2
= difference of control voltages = VON-VOFF
= Boltzmann’s constant
= analysis temperature (°K)
Switch Resistance
Rs = switch resistance
If: VON > VOFF
For: Vc ≥ VON
Rs = RON
For: Vc ≤ VOFF
Rs = ROFF
For: VOFF < Vc < VON
3
3
Rs = exp(Lm + 3·Lr·(Vc-Vm)/(2·Vd) - 2·Lr·(Vc-Vm) /Vd )
If: VON < VOFF
For: Vc ≤ VON
Rs = RON
For: Vc ≥ VOFF
Rs = ROFF
For: VOFF > Vc > VON
3
3
Rs = exp(Lm - 3·Lr·(Vc-Vm)/(2·Vd) + 2·Lr·(Vc-Vm) /Vd )
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth. The voltage-controlled switch
generates thermal noise as if it were a resistor having the same resistance that the switch
has at the bias point, using the following spectral power density (per unit bandwidth)
2
i = 4·k·T/Rs
2-64 Analog Devices
T
Transmission Line
General Form
T<name>
+
+
Examples
T1 1 2 3 4 Z0=220 TD=115ns
T2 1 2 3 4 Z0=220 F=2.25MEG
T3 1 2 3 4 Z0=220 F=4.5MEG NL=0.5
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> TRN [ model parameters]
<A port (+) node>
<A port (-) node>
<B port (-) node>
<B port (+) node>
Z0=<value> [TD=<value>] [F=<value> [NL=<value>]]
Figure 2-9 Transmission Line Model T
Table 2-22 Transmission Line Model Parameters
Model
Parameters
ZO
Description
Units
Default
Characteristic impedance
ohms
none
TD
Transmission delay
seconds
none
F
Frequency for NL
Hz
none
NL
Relative wavelength
none
.25
As shown in Figure 2-22, the transmission line device is a bidirectional, delay line. It has two ports,
A and B. The (+) and (-) nodes define the polarity of a positive voltage at a port. In Figure 2-12,
port A’s (+) and (-) nodes are one and two, and port B’s (+) and (-) nodes are three and four,
respectively.
T
Transmission Line 2-65
Z0 is the characteristic impedance. The transmission line’s length can be specified either by TD, a
delay in seconds, or by F and NL, a frequency and a relative wavelength at F. NL defaults to 0.25
(F is then the quarter-wave frequency). Although TD and F are both shown as optional, one of the
two must be specified. Examples T1, T2, and T3 all specify the same transmission line.
Note Both Z0 (“zee-zero”) and ZO (“zee-oh”) are
accepted by the simulator.
During transient (.TRAN) analysis, the internal time step is limited to
be no more than one-half the smallest transmission delay, so short
transmission lines cause long run times.
2-66 Analog Devices
U
Digital Device
General Form
Examples
U<name>
<type> ([parameter value]) <node>
+
[timing model name] <IO model name>
U<name>
STIM (<width value>,<format value>) <node>
+
<IO model name> [TIMESTEP=<stepsize value>]
+
<waveform description>
U1 NAND(2) 1 2
U2 JKFF(1)
3 5
10 DO_GATE IO_DFT
200 3 3 10 2
U3 STIM(1,1) 110
+
0nS, 1
+
40nS, 0
D_293ASTD IO_STD
STMIOMDL TIMESTEP=10NS
Table 2-23 Digital Device Model Parameters
Model
Description
Units
Default
INLD
Input load capacitance
farad
0
OUTLD
Output load capacitance
farad
0
DRVH
Output high level resistance
ohm
0
DRVL
Output low level resistance
ohm
0
AtoD
Name of AtoD subcircuit
none
DtoA
Name of DtoA subcircuit
none
Parameters
Note
The digital devices are part of the Digital Simulation option for
Pspice. For more information on these devices see the “Digital
Simulation” chapter.
W
Current-Controlled Switch 2-67
Current-Controlled Switch
General Form
W<name>
+
<(+) switch node> <(-) switch node>
<controlling V device name>
<model name>
Examples
W12
13 17
WRESET 5 0
Model Form
.MODEL < model name> ISWITCH [ model parameters]
VC WMOD
VRESET RELAY
Table 2-24 Current-Controlled Switch Model Parameters
Model
Parameters
Description
Units
Default
IOFF
Control current for “off” state
amp
0.0
ION
Control current for “on” state
amp
1E-3
ROFF
“Off” resistance
ohm
1E+6
RON
“On” resistance W
ohm
1.0
The current-controlled switch is a special kind of current-controlled resistor.
<controlling V device name>
The resistance between the <(+) switch node and <(-) switch node>
depends on the current through <controlling V device name>.
The resistance varies continuously between RON and ROFF.
RON and ROFF
Must be greater than zero and less than 1/GMIN.
A resistance of 1/GMIN is connected between the controlling nodes to keep
them from floating. See the .OPTIONS statement (page 1-26) for setting
GMIN.
2-68 Analog Devices
W
This model was chosen for a switch to try to minimize numerical
problems. However, there are a few things that must be evaluated:
Using double precision numbers, the simulator can handle only a
dynamic range of about 12 decades. Therefore, it is not
recommended making the ratio of ROFF to RON greater than 1E+12.
Similarly, it is also not recommended making the transition region too
narrow. Remembering that in the transition region the switch has
gain. The narrower the region, the higher the gain and the greater the
potential for numerical problems.
Although very little computer time is required to evaluate switches,
during transient analysis the simulator must step through the
transition region using a fine enough step size to get an accurate
waveform. Having many transitions can produce long run times when
evaluating the other devices in the circuit for many times.
In the following equations:
Ic
= controlling current
Lm
= log-mean of resistor values = ln((RON·ROFF)
Lr
= log-ratio of resistor values = ln(RON/ROFF)
Im
= mean of control currents = (ION+IOFF)/2
Id
= difference of control currents = ION-IOFF
k
= Boltzmann’s constant
T
= analysis temperature (°K)
1/2
)
W
Current-Controlled Switch 2-69
Switch Resistance
Rs = switch resistance
If: ION > IOFF
For: Ic ≥ ION
Rs = RON
For: Ic ≤ IOFF
Rs = ROFF
For: IOFF < Ic < ION
3
3
3
3
Rs = exp(Lm + 3·Lr·(Ic-Im)/(2·Id) - 2·Lr·(Ic-Im) /Id )
If: ION < IOFF
For: Ic ≤ ION
Rs = RON
For: Ic ≥ IOFF
Rs = ROFF
For: IOFF > Ic > ION
Rs = exp(Lm - 3·Lr·(Ic-Im)/(2·Id) + 2·Lr·(Ic-Im) /Id )
Noise
Noise is calculated assuming a one hertz bandwidth. The current-controlled switch
generates thermal noise as if it were a resistor using the same resistance as the
switch has at the bias point, using the following spectral power density (per unit
bandwidth)
2
i = 4·k·T/Rs
2-70 Analog Devices
X
Subcircuit Instantiation
General Form
X<name> [node]*
Examples
X12
<subcircuit name>
100 101 200 201 DIFFAMP
XBUFF 13
15
UNITAMP
<subcircuit name>
The <subcircuit name> is the name of the subcircuit’s definition (see
.SUBCKT statement).
There must be the same number of nodes in the call as in the
subcircuit’s definition. This statement causes the referenced
subcircuit to be inserted into the circuit using the given nodes to
replace the argument nodes in the definition. It allows a block of
circuitry to be defined once and then used in several places.
Subcircuit references can be nested. That is, a call can be given to
subcircuit A, whose definition contains a call to subcircuit B. The
nesting can be to any level, but must not be circular: for example, if
subcircuit A’s definition contains a call to subcircuit B, then subcircuit
B’s definition must not contain a call to subcircuit A.

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