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Learning Guide: Molecular Genetics
Central Dogma
Bill Activity #42
To Think About: How is DNA, and in some cases RNA, the primary source of heritable information? How
is heritable information passed to the next generation in eukaryotes, and how do changes in genotype
result in changes in phenotype of an organism?
1st Interact: Take notes on Mr. Andersen’s Transcription and Translation Video
2nd Study Transcription and Translation: Use your class note handouts and text
Ch. 17 From Gene to Protein: Pgs. 328-350 Campbell’s Biology 9th edition
3rd Interact: Take notes on Mr. Andersen’s Genotype and Phenotype Video using the flow chart and
video guide
Supplementary Resources: Click the links below for more information to help you learn more about this
lesson.
 Crash Course Biology: DNA Transcription and Translation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itsb2SqR-R0


DNA From the Beginning: Molecules of Genetics
University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center: DNA to Protein
Learn More: For more information about DNA, RNA, their processes and their history, follow the links
below:
 Nobelprize.org: DNA – The Double Helix Game
 Nobelprize.org: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962—Watson, Crick and Wilkins
 Nobelprize.org: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968—Holley, Khorana and
Nirenberg (genetic code)
Central Dogma Review
To Think About: How is genetic information translated into polypeptides? How do changes in genotype
result in changes in phenotype of an organism?
Review Transcription and Translation: Use your class note handouts, text and video notes
Ch. 17 From Gene to Protein: Pgs. 328-350 Campbell’s Biology 9th edition to answer the following
questions in your BILL
1. Explain the relationship between protein synthesis and an organism’s phenotype.
2. Explain how the “one-gene-one protein” hypothesis was derived by Beadle and Tatum. Why
has this hypothesis been refined to “one gene-one polypeptide,” and now “one gene-one
(protein) domain?”
3. Create a graphic organizer that illustrates the differences between the processes of
transcription and translation, including how they operate in prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes.
4. Create a diagram illustrating the following mutations:
a. Silent mutation
b. Missense mutation
c. Nonsense mutation
d. Frameshift mutation
5. Explain what would happen to the process of gene expression if the gene for RNA polymerase
was mutated.
6. Each amino acid has a tRNA synthetase enzyme that is responsible for attaching it to a tRNA
molecule. Explain what would happen if there was a mutation in the gene encoding one of
these enzymes.
7. Describe how proteins can be altered once they have been synthesized at the ribosome and
what organelles are involved.
8. Explain how retroviruses modify the central dogma.
Supplementary Resources: Click the links below for more information to help you learn more about this
lesson.
 Crash Course Biology: DNA Transcription and Translation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itsb2SqR-R0


DNA From the Beginning: Molecules of Genetics
University of Utah Genetic Science Learning Center: DNA to Protein
Learn More: For more information about DNA, RNA, their processes and their history, follow the links
below:
 Nobelprize.org: DNA – The Double Helix Game
 Nobelprize.org: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962—Watson, Crick and Wilkins
 Nobelprize.org: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968—Holley, Khorana and
Nirenberg (genetic code)
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