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Fox DataDiode
Frequently Asked Questions
A document for certified
Fox-IT partners
Version 1.0
April 9th, 2015
Pages: 17
Author: Andre Post
Classification: CONFIDENTIAL
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party or damage caused by its contained information.
Fox-IT BV
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FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 2
DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT
Version management
Project name
Fox DataDiode
Subject:
Frequently Asked Questions
Date:
April 9th, 2015
Version:
1.0
Author(s):
Andre Post
This version replaces all previous versions of this document. Please destroy all previous copies!
Changes
Version
Date
By
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FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 3
I NTRODUCTION
This document is a compilation of frequently asked questions and their respective answers concerning the Fox
DataDiode. The intended audience for this document is every Fox-IT approved commercial partner that is
authorized by Fox-IT to sell the Fox DataDiode.
The overall structure of this document is ordered in such a way, that it will begin with questions on a higher,
conceptual level. The DataDiode system consists of hardware and software. The physical product side of the
DataDiode is quite fundamental, and as such the DataDiode system hardware is explained prior to the various
software aspects.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
Concepts .................................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 What is a Fox DataDiode? ................................................................................................. 7
1.2 What is a unidirectional network? .................................................................................... 7
1.3 How are the separated networks designated? ................................................................. 7
1.4 How does the Fox DataDiode work? ................................................................................. 7
1.5 When is a Fox DataDiode needed? ................................................................................... 7
1.6 What is the standard hardware setup of a Fox DataDiode system? ................................. 7
1.7 What is the function of the proxy servers? ....................................................................... 8
1.8 What is protocol break? .................................................................................................... 8
1.9 How does a protocol break benefit the DataDiode? ......................................................... 8
1.10 What are the primary use cases for the DataDiode? ........................................................ 8
1.10.1 How does the DataDiode protect secrets? ......................................................... 8
1.10.2 How does the DataDiode protect assets? .......................................................... 9
Hardware................................................................................................................................. 10
2.1 Fox DataDiode – Government edition............................................................................. 10
2.1.1
What is the Fox DataDiode - Government edition? ......................................... 10
2.1.2
Which certifications does the Fox DataDiode - Government edition hold? ..... 10
2.1.3
What is CC EAL7+ certification?........................................................................ 10
2.1.4
Why is CC EAL7+ certification significant? ........................................................ 10
2.1.5
Which customers require the Fox DataDiode - Government edition? ............. 11
2.2 Fox DataDiode - Business edition .................................................................................... 11
2.2.1
What is the Fox DataDiode - Business edition? ................................................ 11
2.2.2
Which certifications does the Fox DataDiode - Business edition hold? ........... 11
2.2.3
Which customers would require the Fox DataDiode - Business edition? ........ 11
2.3 Proxy servers ................................................................................................................... 11
2.3.1
What is the purpose of the proxy servers? ...................................................... 11
2.3.2
What are the hardware requirements? ........................................................... 12
2.3.3
Dell R610 .......................................................................................................... 12
2.3.4
Dell R320 .......................................................................................................... 12
Proxy server software ............................................................................................................. 13
3.1 The Fox DataDiode Appliance (version 1) ....................................................................... 13
3.2 The Linux core ................................................................................................................. 13
3.2.1
Which Linux versions are supported by the Linux core? .................................. 13
3.2.2
What is the maximum throughput of the Linux core? ..................................... 13
3.3 The Windows core ........................................................................................................... 13
3.3.1
Are there any known limitations to the Windows core? .................................. 13
3.3.2
Which Windows versions are supported? ........................................................ 14
3.3.3
Are the required Windows licences included? ................................................. 14
3.4 The Fox DataDiode Appliance (version 2) ....................................................................... 14
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 5
4
5
6
7
3.4.1
What are the distinguishing features between the Fox DataDiode Appliance version 2 and
version 1? ........................................................................................................................ 14
The Demo Kit ........................................................................................................................... 14
4.1.1
What is included in the demo kit? .................................................................... 14
4.1.2
Are there any restrictions or special conditions for using the Demo Kit? ........ 14
4.1.3
What is the delivery time of the Demo Kit? ..................................................... 14
4.1.4
How to use the Demo Kit? ................................................................................ 15
Replication software ............................................................................................................... 15
5.1.1
Can Windows updates (WSUS) be replicated? ................................................. 15
5.1.2
Can SCCM managed Windows machine updates (WSUS) be replicated? ........ 15
5.1.3
Can file transfer users authenticate using Active Directory? ........................... 15
5.1.4
Can file transfer users authenticate using Kerberos?....................................... 15
5.1.5
Is it possible to include replicators in the Appliance? ...................................... 15
5.1.6
Can Oracle Databases be replicated through the DataDiode? ......................... 15
General features ..................................................................................................................... 16
6.1 Which network protocols can be sent through the DataDiode?..................................... 16
6.2 What are the maximum data transfer speeds?............................................................... 16
Miscellaneous topics ............................................................................................................... 16
7.1 Is the IEC-60870-5-104 protocol supported? .................................................................. 16
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 6
1 C ONCEPTS
This section represents frequently asked questions regarding top-level concepts about the Fox DataDiode.
1.1
What is a Fox DataDiode?
The Fox DataDiode is computer hardware that enforces unidirectional flow of network traffic.
1.2
What is a unidirectional network?
A unidirectional network connection is a link between two networks for which guarantee can be given that the
information only flows from the one network to the other, and that it is not possible in the opposite direction.
1.3
How are the separated networks designated?
The source network is typically referred to as "upstream" and the destination network as "downstream",
following the analogy how water flows from upstream to downstream. Although in many government and
military environments, the source network is referred to as “black” and the destination network as “red”.
1.4
How does the Fox DataDiode work?
The Fox DataDiode works by enforcing the use of a single strand of a fiber optic connection in conjunction with
fiber optic processing electronics that are especially designed for unidirectional signal flow. This lack of full
duplex communication breaks the use of bidirectional traffic such as TCP/IP. This problem is addressed by using
proxy servers that transmit data in a connectionless way.
1.5
When is a Fox DataDiode needed?
By using a one-way connection, the Fox DataDiode helps you to prevent data leakage of confidential or
classified information, while still having access to critical data sources you need for your daily job. Think about
updates for your Anti-Virus products or Microsoft Windows, Databases, web feeds, email, video streams and
operational information for your Security Operation Centers. Once you start thinking about it you can come up
with a lot more. The Fox Data Diode can also prevent unwanted access to your Industrial Control Systems (ICS),
including SCADA systems and DCSs, while still allowing ICSs to send out Critical Operational Data, Performance
Metering and other Events and Alarms.
1.6
What is the standard hardware setup of a Fox DataDiode system?
The next picture (figure 1) schematically shows the standard hardware setup of a Fox DataDiode system.
Located in the center, the Fox DataDiode optical diode hardware connects and isolates the upstream (sending)
network from the downstream (receiving) network. Located on the left-hand side the upstream proxy server
ensures sending data from the upstream network through the optical diode to the downstream proxy server.
On the right-hand side the downstream proxy server ensures receiving data from the optical diode for further
handling in the downstream network.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 7
Figure 1: Conceptual setup of a Fox DataDiode system.
1.7
What is the function of the proxy servers?
The proxy servers are the primary point of contact for the networks on both ends of the optical diode
hardware. Looking outward to their respective networks, they are responsible for interfacing with designated
systems and will provide any forwarding services as pre-configured. Facing inward to the optical diode they
facilitate protocol break and handle internal diode communications.
1.8
What is protocol break?
A protocol break consists of two components that reside between the sender and the receiver of a message.
The first component is a "catcher", which, while adhering to the protocol, strips all traffic control data from the
data it receives, and only retains the payload data. The second component is a "thrower". The thrower does
the opposite: it takes bare payload data, and sends the payload to another system by means of some chosen
protocol. In order to do this successfully, the thrower performs all the complicated tasks that are necessary to
adhere to the protocol specifications, including the creation of traffic control data.
1.9
How does a protocol break benefit the DataDiode?
The attacks that are caused by one of the parties not adhering to a protocol can only be prevented by ensuring
that within the environment where attacks are unacceptable, both parties in the protocol are trusted. For
unidirectional communication scenarios, that implies that the side sending the payload (upstream) should be
trustworthy, at least from the perspective of the receiver (downstream). The only way to ensure this is by the
use of a protocol break.
1.10 What are the primary use cases for the DataDiode?
There are two primary use cases for deploying the DataDiode:
1. Protect secrets (See “How does the DataDiode protect secrets?” for details)
2. Protect assets (See “How does the DataDiode protect assets?” for details)
1.10.1 How does the DataDiode protect secrets?
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 8
The next picture (figure 2) schematically depicts how an example setup may allow information to enter a
secure network, but prevent information from leaving the secure network. This configuration is often found in
government and other high-security operations.
Figure 2: Conceptual representation of the “protecting secrets” scenario.
1.10.2 How does the DataDiode protect assets?
The next picture (figure 3) schematically depicts how an example setup may allow information (normally
monitoring data) to leave a network of valuable assets, but prevent potential harmful data from reaching those
same assets. This configuration is often found in critical industrial environments.
Figure 3: Conceptual representation of the “protecting assets” scenario.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 9
2 H ARDWARE
The Fox DataDiode fiber optic hardware is available in 2 editions: the government edition and the business
edition. This chapter explains both editions as well as the extra proxy server hardware that connects to the
fiber optic DataDiode.
2.1
Fox DataDiode – Government edition
Government organizations and agencies often require that hardware in a high security area holds specific
certifications. Confidential information is usually stored on disconnected, isolated networks to prevent data
leakage. Often this is mandated by rules and regulations. The act of adding information to this network
typically involves offline transportation of data on removable media such as optical discs. This is not real-time,
not 24×7 and cumbersome so that users dislike it. Moreover it’s error prone and insecure.
The Fox DataDiode automates and accelerates the process of adding information to confidential networks
without compromising security. It offers guaranteed one-way network connectivity so that you can securely,
smoothly transfer information in real-time, 24×7. The Fox DataDiode is the highest certified product in the
world in terms of security.
2.1.1 What is the Fox DataDiode - Government edition?
The hardware of the Fox DataDiode - Government edition is certified by NATO for use up to SECRET level and
by Common Criteria up to EAL7+ level. In addition, the Fox DataDiode has been accredited by many local
authorities such as the Dutch General Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD) and the German Bundesamt für
Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik (BSI).
2.1.2 Which certifications does the Fox DataDiode - Government edition hold?
The government edition holds the following certifications and approvals:
 Common Criteria EAL7+
 EU Approval by Germany and The Netherlands up to State Secret networks
 UK Common Criteria SOGIS Mutual Recognition Agreement
 India and Norway Common Criteria EAL4+
 NATO Secret networks
2.1.3 What is CC EAL7+ certification?
The levels are the numerical rating describing the depth and rigor of an evaluation. Each EAL (Evaluation
Assurance Level) corresponds to a package of security assurance requirements which covers the complete
development of a product, with a given level of strictness. Common Criteria lists seven levels, with EAL 1 being
the most basic and EAL 7 being the most stringent. Evaluation Assurance Levels can be “augmented” with
requirements from a higher assurance level. In the case of the Fox DataDiode, the EAL 7+ stands for a complete
evaluation based on all classes within the Common Criteria.
2.1.4 Why is CC EAL7+ certification significant?
CC EAL7+ is a significant certification because the Fox DataDiode was subjected to and passed the most
rigorous tests available in IT security.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 10
2.1.5 Which customers require the Fox DataDiode - Government edition?
As the name implies, government agencies and organizations often require IT infrastructure equipment that
conforms to certain certifications. The Fox DataDiode - Government edition is often found in military
organizations such as the air force, and in agencies such as the ministry of information and the ministry of
defense, as well as in international organizations such as NATO.
2.2
Fox DataDiode - Business edition
In addition to the Government edition offering, Fox-IT also provides the Fox DataDiode - Business edition which
is specifically developed for protecting industrial control systems. Modern multi-staged attacks hop from one
network to the next by any means, both by network and by storage device. Every connected system stands the
risk of being compromised. At the same time, business needs require the increased levels of integration with
industrial automation. Industrial Control Systems are targeted by well-funded adversaries that want to cripple
society. Often, attacks remain active and undetected for months or even years, as the Stuxnet attack clearly
illustrates.
2.2.1 What is the Fox DataDiode - Business edition?
The Business edition is technically identical to the Government edition, however it does not require all the
production certifications. This makes the business edition extremely affordable to companies and organizations
that have to operate on constrained budgets.
2.2.2 Which certifications does the Fox DataDiode - Business edition hold?
The Business edition does not have official certifications. However, the hardware on the inside is identical to
the Government edition.
2.2.3 Which customers would require the Fox DataDiode - Business edition?
The Business edition is the obvious choice for businesses and organizations that do not have the need for the
rigorously certified Government edition. Usually, the Business edition is the product of choice for companies in
the energy sector (oil and gas production, nuclear facilities, electricity distribution) and other critical
infrastructure providers (i.e. water management systems, airports, viaducts etc.).
2.3
Proxy servers
The proxy servers play a crucial role in the correct working of any Fox DataDiode system. This section provides
details on the proxy servers.
2.3.1 What is the purpose of the proxy servers?
The proxy servers are the only devices connected to the optical diode box, making them the first devices in the
upstream and downstream networks from the optical diode box point of view. The proxy servers therefore
provide the first point of contact with either network, ensuring the additional functionality and security
features in the Fox DataDiode setup. Some of the most important features are:
 Provide an infrastructural interface to the upstream/downstream network
 Provide enhanced security by means of protocol break (See “What is protocol break?” for details)
 Manage the data flow through the optical diode
 Offer functional integration with other network components, such as file servers
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 11
2.3.2 What are the hardware requirements?
All Fox DataDiode software has been tested to work on either a Dell R610 server or Dell R320 server.
2.3.3 Dell R610
The Dell R610 is the main operational hardware platform for the Appliance 1.x software. The Appliance 1.x is
based on the OpenBSD operating system that has driver support for the Dell R610. The other Fox DataDiode
Core software products are naturally compatible with the Dell R610 as well. The Dell R610 was introduced in
2009 and as such is no longer actively sold; current stock will be utilized as needed and will provide a supply for
replacement units.
2.3.4 Dell R320
All of the Fox DataDiode Core software modules operate on the Dell R320 hardware platform, with the
exception of the Appliance 1.x. The Dell R320 is versatile and can be configured flexibly to cover a wide range of
deployment requirements. The technical specifications (table 1) of the Dell R320 are as follows:
Form factor
Processors
1U rack
Intel® Xeon® processor E5-2400 product
family
Intel Xeon processor E5-1410
Intel Pentium® processor 1400 product
family
Memory
Up to 192GB (6 DIMM slots):
2GB/4GB/8GB/16GB/32GB DDR3 up to
1600MT/s
Maximum internal storage
Up to 16TB
Power supply
Redundant
Table 1: Technical specifications of the Dell R320 rack mount server.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 12
3 P ROXY SERVER SOFTWARE
The proxy servers on each side of the optical diode box provide an interface to the rest of the infrastructure
where the Fox DataDiode is operational.
3.1
The Fox DataDiode Appliance (version 1)
The Fox DataDiode Appliance is a complete implementation solution, without the need for any prerequisites.
The Appliance consists of one Fox DataDiode hardware device and two proxy servers.
Both Appliance servers come with the software pre-installed enabling seamless integration
into office environments and industrial networks. Support for many common file transfer
protocols is built in as a standard, as well as SMTP (email) forwarding. Additionally, the servers’ health can be
monitored over SNMP. The Appliance version 1 is based on OpenBSD, which does not support TCP forwarding,
is limited to a maximum transfer speed of 100 Mbit/second, and does not provide data transfer redundancy.
Version 1 will be considered end of life when version 2 is released (see “The Appliance (version 2)” for details).
3.2
The Linux core
The Linux Core proxy software provides a high reliability and high performance proxy forwarding solution for
TCP, UDP, and file transfers. Data transfer redundancy is implemented by sending all packets in duplicate. This
means that over the 1Gbit/second optical connection, a maximum net data transfer speed of 500Mbit/second
can be attained.
3.2.1 Which Linux versions are supported by the Linux core?
The Linux Core supports the following Linux operating system versions:
 Ubuntu 12.04
 Ubuntu 14.04
 RedHat 6
 RedHat 7
 Debian Wheezy
3.2.2 What is the maximum throughput of the Linux core?
The Linux core proxy software allows utilizing the maximum bandwidth of 1 Gbit/second. However due to data
duplication for forward error correction purposes, the effective throughput is 500 Mbit/second.
3.3
The Windows core
The Windows core proxy software is suited for deployment in a Microsoft Windows enforced infrastructure.
The proxy software boasts a graphical user interface to configure the proxy servers, and as such is a logical
option for any low technology, low learning curve work environment.
3.3.1 Are there any known limitations to the Windows core?
The Windows core was developed specifically with ease of use and ease of maintenance in mind. These choices
do have consequences; the maximum throughput is more limited than that of the Linux core, and the number
of forwarded network streams is limited to 24.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 13
3.3.2 Which Windows versions are supported?
The Windows core supports the following Windows versions:
 2003
 2008 (R2)
 2012 (R2)
3.3.3 Are the required Windows licences included?
No, they have to be obtained separately.
3.4
The Fox DataDiode Appliance (version 2)
In Concept similar to the Fox DataDiode Appliance version 1 (See “The Fox DataDiode Appliance (version 1)” for
details), version 2 is a complete solution and enhanced with all the improvements learned from lessons with
version 1.
3.4.1 What are the distinguishing features between the Fox DataDiode Appliance version
2 and version 1?
When looking at the implementation choices, the Appliance version 2 is a completely different product from
version 1. The key features that make version 2 stand out are:
 The integrated interactive web interface, giving a modern look and feel
 Improved new Linux core software with increased effective throughput of 800Mbit/second
 Modular buildup paving the road for data handler plug-ins
4 T HE D EMO K IT
Fox DataDiode business partners are encouraged to procure one or more Fox DataDiode demo kits. This
enables them to become familiar with all the technical aspects of the Fox DataDiode and test specific
deployment setups as needed.
4.1.1 What is included in the demo kit?
The Demo Kit is a package that is built on the Appliance version of the DataDiode. This means that the set
comes with 1 DataDiode, 2 Proxy servers and all additional hardware and fiber-cables. The set also comes with
ALL Diode software meaning, aside from the Appliance setup, you can also set it up to demonstrate the Linux
Core or Windows Core and all replicators come with it.
4.1.2 Are there any restrictions or special conditions for using the Demo Kit?
The Demo Kit is a NOT FOR RESALE unit and cannot be used or placed at a customer or partner for long periods
of time. Use of the Demokit is solely intended for demonstration and pre-agreed upon time limited POC (proofof-concept) purposes.
4.1.3 What is the delivery time of the Demo Kit?
Delivery time of the Demo Kit is approx. 10 working days.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 14
4.1.4 How to use the Demo Kit?
The Demo Kit comes together with a full day of instruction by one of our pre-sales engineers. Upon request we
can also provide a Fox DataDiode sales training for your team.
5 R EPLICATION SOFTWARE
Quite often, the nature of the data that needs to be transferred through the Fox DataDiode surpasses that of
basic files, TCP or UDP streams and is bidirectional in nature. For some of these protocols and data types, FoxIT has developed additional software that can handle replication of the most popular protocols available.
5.1.1 Can Windows updates (WSUS) be replicated?
Yes. We provide WSUS replication software for Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008. Additionally
the WSUS replicator software is scheduled to support Windows Server 2012 no earlier than Q2 2015.
5.1.2 Can SCCM managed Windows machine updates (WSUS) be replicated?
A replicator software module for WSUS updates is available (See “Can Windows updates (WSUS) be replicated”
for details), effectively providing Windows updates through the DataDiode. Take note however that SCCM is
highly bidirectional in nature and therefore the need to replicate SCCM metadata through a DataDiode is
questionable.
5.1.3 Can file transfer users authenticate using Active Directory?
File transfer user authentication using Active Directory is on the roadmap, development is not scheduled
earlier than Q3 2015.
5.1.4 Can file transfer users authenticate using Kerberos?
See “Can file transfer users authenticate using Active Directory?”.
5.1.5 Is it possible to include replicators in the Appliance?
No, not in the current version. We are currently working on a new version of the Appliance (version 2), that is
scheduled for release at the beginning of Q2 2015. Version 2 is built from the ground up with flexibility and
customization possibilities in mind. The feature to provide an interface that will easily integrate custom
replicators/filters is on the roadmap. There is a “Yes, depends…” for the current 1.x Appliance: Any replicators
that need to send data through the DataDiode Appliance would need to run outside the Appliance and have to
be able to process data transmission on the basis of TCP/UDP forwarding or file-based transfers.
5.1.6 Can Oracle Databases be replicated through the DataDiode?
Yes, Oracle databases can be replicated through the Fox DataDiode. For Windows operating systems, Fox-IT
provides Oracle database replication software that works with 3rd party tools. Dell provides Oracle database
replication software “Dell SharePlex Secure” for the Linux operating system that interoperates natively with
Oracle databases.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 15
6 G ENERAL FEATURES
This section covers questions related to Fox DataDiode product features.
6.1
Which network protocols can be sent through the DataDiode?
All Fox DataDiode proxy products except the Fox DataDiode Appliance version 1 natively support forwarding of
the TCP and UDP network protocols. The Fox DataDiode Appliance version 1 does not support TCP streams. The
Appliance (both versions) additionally support the following network protocols:
 SMB/CIFS (Windows file sharing)
 FTP
 FTPS
 SFTP
 SCP
 SMTP (email)
6.2
What are the maximum data transfer speeds?
Maximum data transfer speed vary per proxy server platform. The following list summarizes these speeds and
list the effective data transfer rate (measured end user data going over the wire).
 Fox DataDiode Appliance version 1  100 Mbit/second
 Windows core  variable, tested to average 250 Mbit/second
 Linux core  500Mbit/second
 Fox DataDiode Appliance version 2  800 Mbit/second
7 M ISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
This section provides answers to frequently asked questions that do not fit in any of the other sections.
7.1
Is the IEC-60870-5-104 protocol supported?
As of Q1 2015, no. However, given sufficient requests, support for the IEC-60870-5-104 protocol can be added
within a 3 month time frame.
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 16
FOX CONFIDENTIAL- 17

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