Cell Parts Vocab ONLY

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Cell
Structure and
Function
Chapter 7
http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/cell.gif
Vocab Review
Process in which cells change
and develop into different
kinds of cells doing different
jobs
Differentiation OR cell specialization
Idea that all living things are made of
cells; cells are the basic units of structure
and function in living things; and new cells
are produced from existing cells
Cell theory
Sac of digestive enzymes used
by cells to break down food,
cell parts, or whole cells
lysosomes
Membrane stacks found inside
chloroplasts where the enzymes
for photosynthesis are found
thylakoids
Molecule found in the cell
walls of fungi that makes
them sturdy
chitin
Membrane sacs stacked like
pancakes in a Golgi body
cisternae
Collection of living material enclosed by a
barrier that separates it from its
surroundings; the basic unit of life
cell
Log-like structures that help organize
the spindle and guide the chromosomes
apart during cell division in animal cells
centrioles
Sac of digestive enzymes used
by cells to break down food,
cell parts, or whole cells
lysosomes
Membrane stacks found inside
chloroplasts where the enzymes
for photosynthesis are found
thylakoids
Control center of the cell that
contains the genetic material
nucleus
Stack of membranes in cells that
modifies, sorts, and packages
proteins from the ER for transport
Golgi body (apparatus)
DNA with attached proteins found
spread out in the nucleus of
non-dividing cells
chromatin
Describes molecules that try to
stay away from water…
means “water fearing”
hydrophobic
Nucleotide molecules used by cells
to store and transfer energy
ATP
Membrane protein with sugars
attached that help cells identify “self”
glycoproteins
DNA with proteins attached that is
tightly scrunched up into compact bundles
seen in the nucleus of dividing cells
chromosomes
Molecule with a polar head and
two hydrophobic tails used to
make cell membranes
phospholipid
Space used to store water, food,
molecules, enzymes, or waste
vacuole
Many, small hair-like structures made
of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement
that extend from the surface of cells
and help in movement
cilia
Dark spot in the cell nucleus where
RNA for ribosomes is made
Nucleolus
Network of microtubules and
microfilaments that give the
cell shape and support it
cytoskeleton
Organism whose cells have a
nucleus and organelles
surrounded by membranes
eukaryote
Gel-like material and the organelles
found between the nucleus and cell
membrane
cytoplasm
Double membrane that
surrounds the cell nucleus
Nuclear envelope
OR nuclear membrane
Small particles that make proteins
ribosomes
Membrane system without
ribosomes attached involved in
lipid synthesis, calcium regulation,
and the break down of toxins
Smooth ER
Power plant of the cell that burns
glucose and stores the energy
released in ATP
mitochondria
Folded inner membrane inside a
mitochondrion
cristae
System of membranes with
ribosomes attached where proteins
are produced and modified and
transported throughout the cell
Rough ER
Organelle where photosynthesis
happens
chloroplast
Bilayer made of phospholipids
and proteins which surrounds all
cells and controls what enters
and leaves Plasma membrane
Double layer formed when phospholipids
line up with their hydrophillic heads to
the outside and their hydrophobic tails
toward the center
bilayer
Molecule with an uneven pattern
of charges… slightly positive on
one side, slightly negative on
the other
polar
Small structure inside eukaryotic cells
which carries out a specific function
organelle
Unicellular organism that does NOT
have a nucleus and or organelles
surrounded by membranes
prokaryote
A living thing composed of
many organ systems
organism
Structure found outside the
cell membrane that provides
support and protection
Cell wall
Polysaccharide found in plant
cell walls that makes them sturdy
cellulose
Molecule made by joining amino
acid subunits that is used to
make cell membranes
protein
Molecule used to build bacterial
cell walls instead of cellulose
peptidoglycan
Programmed cell death;
“cell suicide”
apoptosis
A few, long hair-like structures made
of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement
that extend from the surface of cells
and help in movement
flagella
Small openings in the nuclear
membrane that allow molecules
to pass through
Nuclear pores
A group of similar cells working
together
tissue
Organism made of many cells
multi-cellular
Group of different organs
working together
organ system
Protein found in cell membranes
which helps molecules get across
the membrane
transport protein
“Walking proteins that interact with
the microtubules in the cytoskeleton
to move chromosomes or cell parts
Motor proteins
Protein found on the inside or outside
surface of cell membranes
Peripheral proteins
Theory that suggests that mitochondria
and chloroplasts evolved from
prokaryotic ancestors that were
engulfed and stayed to live in an
ancient host cell
Endosymbiotic theory
Protein found embedded in the
phospholipid bilayer in cell membranes;
these can go part way or all the way
across the membrane
integral proteins
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