Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire

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CHAPTER 7
Rome and Its Empire
World Civilizations: The Global Experience
Fifth Edition
Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
I. The Development of Rome’s Republic
II. Roman Culture
III. The Institutions of Empire
IV. The Evolution of Rome’s Economic and Social Structure
V. The Origins of Christianity
VI. The Decline of Rome
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
I. The Development of Rome’s Republic.
Aristocracy v. people
Senatusque populus romanorum
The senate and people of Rome
Tradition v. expansion
A. Etruscan Beginnings and the Early Republic
Complex racial makeup
Indigenous Italians
Indo-Europeans from north
Greek colonies in the south
Etruscan
City-states
Rome
Independent from Etruscans c. 510 B.C.E.
Republic
v. monarchy
Senate holds most power
Two consuls
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Italy and the Aegean
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
I. The Development of Rome’s Republic
B. The Expansion of Rome
Rivalry with neighbors
Central, southern Italy by mid-4th century B.C.E.
Parallel developments as territory expands
Extension of citizenship
Growth of military
The Expansion of the Roman Empire, 133 B.C.E.
Punic Wars
146 B.C.E., Roman victory
C. The Results of Expansion
Polarization of rich and poor
Weakens traditional balance
Larger estates
Numbers of slaves increase
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
I. The Development of Rome’s Republic
D. The Crisis of the Republic
Class conflict
Tiberius Gracchus
Program to redistribute land
Assassinated
Gaius Gracchus
Brother of Tiberius
Attempts to continue program
Enforced suicide
Generals take the initiative
Marius forces Senate's hand
Sulla supports Senate, defeats Marius
Julius Caesar
49 B.C.E., takes power
44 B.C.E., assassination
Civil War follows
Caesar's nephew, Octavian victorious, 31 B.C.E.
Initiates period of Roman Empire
Augustus
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
II. Roman Culture
Period of social and constitutional crisis
Increased borrowing from Greece, Hellenistic world
A. The Range of Roman Art
Much inspired or copied from Greece
Roman differences
Emphasis on rhetoric
Roman engineering superior
Arches
Urban planning
B. Major Themes in Roman Literature
General move to court patronage
Away from public
Horace
Ovid
Livy
Histories
Vergil
Aeneid
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
III. The Institutions of Empire
A. Imperial Rule
Unification
Inclusion, citizenship
Protection of one law
Appeal of Roman culture
Military, especially at margins
B. Augustus and His Successors
Reforms
Mystery religions banned
Laws supporting marriage, family
Building program
Restructured provincial government
Rewards to veterans
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
III. The Institutions of Empire
C. Government and Expansion
Control of economy
Commerce regulated
especially grain supply
Taxations system
Public works: baths, stadiums, aqueducts
Official religions supported
Expansion
Trajan (101-106 C.E.)
Greatest extent
The Expansion of the Roman Empire, 133 B.C.E.
Stagnation, difficulties by 180 C.E.
D. Roman Law
Codification
Precedent
Principles
Citizens gain protection of law
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
IV. The Evolution of Rome’s Economic and Social Structure
Agrarian initially
Merchant class added
Family important
Patriarchal
Fathers had power of life and death in Republic
Women had relative freedom
Right to divorce
A. Slavery in Rome
Increases as a result of empire
From captives
Leads to stagnation in technology
Farmers displaced by slavery
Turn to military for employment
B. Rome’s Economic Structure
Variations across empire
Some areas kept pre-Roman traditions
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
V. The Origins of Christianity
Christianity arises in Roman Empire
but distanced from Roman culture
A. Life and Death of Jesus
Called for reform in Judaism
Taught importance of love, charity, humility
Especially popular among lower classes
Antagonized leaders
Crucified, 30 C.E.
Popular following, but many Jews remain loyal to Judaism
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
V. The Origins of Christianity
B. Christianity Gains Converts and Religious Structure
Approx. 10 % of Roman Empire by 4th century C.E.
Offered salvation to all
Filled spiritual needs as had mystery religions
Spread via communication offered by empire
Used roman-style structure
Paul of Tarsus
Greek follower
Important in spread of Christianity
C. Relations with the Roman Empire
Christian religion
Synthesis with Greek and Roman ideologies
Refused to recognize imperial cult
Persecution
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 7: Rome and Its Empire
VI. The Decline of Rome
Challenges
Declining revenue
Borders threatened
Fewer slaves result from lack of new conquest
Epidemics
A. The Classical Mediterranean Heritage
Passed on Greek culture
With contributions in law, architecture, empire
Stearns et al., World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
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