Preganglionic fibers

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Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
Systematic Anatomy
Nervous system
Visceral Nervous System
Dr.Hongqi Zhang (张红旗)
Email: [email protected]
1
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
The Visceral
Nervous System
2
The Visceral nervous system
Function: It control the visceral functions. And
also helps control blood pressure, gastrointestinal motility & secretion, urinary bladder
emptying, sweating,body tempreature & many
other activities.
Composition
 Visceral motor (efferent) nerves
(autonomic nervous system)
Sympathetic part
Parasympathetic part
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
Glands
 Visceral sensory (afferent) nerves
3
Visceral motor (efferent) nerves
(Autonomic nervous system)
 Sympathetic part
 Parasympathetic part
4
Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System
5
Comparison of somatic & visceral efferent pathway
acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
Norepinephrine
acetylcholine
6
Main Differences Between Somatic Motor
and Visceral Motor Nerve
Somatic
Visceral
Effectors
Skeletal muscles
Cardiac, smooth muscles and glands
Control
Voluntary
(consciousness)
Involuntary (unconsciousness )
Single neuron
Two neurons:
Preganglionic neuron,
Postganglionic neuron
One
Two: sympathetic & parasympathetic
Thick myelinated
Preganglionic: thin myelinated
postganglionic: unmyelinated
Nerve trunk
Nerve plexuses
Acetylcholine
Preganglionic: acetylcholine
postganglionic: Ach or NE
From lower
center to effector to require
Kind of fibers
Fibers
Distributive form
Transmitter
Ach-acetylcholine. NE-nonepinephrine
7
Neurotransmitters-Learn by yourself
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic
ACh
ACh
Ach- acetylcholine;
Striated
muscle
NE
Heart
Sm. mus.
Glands
ACh
Sweat
glands
ACh
Heart
Sm. mus.
Glands
E,


NE
ACh
Parasympathetic
ACh
ACh
E-epinephrin;
NE-norepinephrine
8
Sympathetic Nerve
Institution
Lower center Lateral horn in gray matter of T1~L3
Peripheral
part
Sympathetic trunk
Sympathetic ganglia
Branches from sympathetic ganglia
Sympathetic plexus
9
Sympathetic Part

Lower center:
located in intermediolateral nucleus (lateral gray horn) of spinal cord
segments T1~L2 or L3

Sympathetic ganglia

Paravertebral ganglia

Prevertebral ganglia
Transverse section of upper lumbar segment
10
Paravertebral Ganglia
 Arranged on either side
of vertebral column
 Consist of 19~24 of ovalshaped ganglia
 3 in cervical part
 11~12 in thoracic part
 4-5 in lumbar part
 3~4 in sacral part
 Ganglion impar
unpaired on the anterior
surface of coccyx
11
Paravertebral Ganglia in the neck
 1-Sup. cervical ganglion: largest,
situated in front of transverse
processes of C1~C3 vertebra
 2-Mid. cervical ganglion: smallest, is
1
at level of transverse processes of
C6 vertebra
 3-Inf.cervical ganglion: situated at
2
level of C7 vertebra, and may be
fused with first thoracic ganglion to
3
form cervicothoracic ganglion
12
Paravertebral ganglia in the thorax & lumbar
Thoracic paravertebral ganglia
lumbar paravertebral ganglia
13
Sympathetic Trunk
Formed by paravertebral
ganglia & interganglionic
branches
Lie on either side of
vertebral column from base
of skull to coccyx
The trunks of two side unite
in front of the coccyx at a
small swelling, the ganglion
impar
Sympathetic trunk in thorax
14
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
Mediastinum-lateral view (from left & right side)
Sympathetic trunk
Lateral view (left)
Lateral view (right)
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
Prevertebral Ganglia
1
 Lie anteriorly to vertebral column
and near the arteries for which
they are named
2
1
3
2
4
 1-Celiac ganglia (2)
 2-Aorticorenal ganglia(2)
 3-Sup.mesenteric ganglion
 4-Inf. mesenteric ganglion
16
Communicating branches
Concept : communicating branches is the nerve
between sympathetic trunk and ant.branches of
spinal nerves.
White communicating branches: myelinated
preganglionic fiber looks like white in fresh.
Gray communicating branches: unmyelinated
postganglionic fiber looks like gray in fresh.
Grey communicating branch
White communicating branch
17
Preganglionic Fibers
Preganglionic fibers
15 pairs white communicating branches
Sympathetic trunk
(only spinal levels T1~L3 have
white communicating branch)
18
Three Fates of Preganglionic Fibers
1. Relay in corresponding
ganglion
2. Ascend or descend in
sympathetic trunk and
relay in higher or lower
ganglion
3. Pass without synapse to
a prevertebral ganglion
for relay
2
1
3
2
19
Comparison of somatic & visceral efferent pathway
20
Preganglionic Fibers
 1-Greater splanchnic nerve
formed by preganglionic fibers
from T5~T9 ganglia, and relay in
celiac ganglion.
 2-Lesser splanchnic nerve
formed by preganglionic fibers
1
2
from T10~T12 ganglia, and relay
in aorticorenal ganglion.
 Their postganglionic fibers
supply the liver, spleen, kidney
and alimentary tract as far as the
left colic flexure.
21
Right view of thoracic cavity
22
Preganglionic Fibers
Lumbar splanchnic nerve
 Formed by preganglionic fibers from
L1~L4 ganglia, and relay in
prevertebral ganglia.
 The postganglionic fibers supply
descending and sigmoid colon,
rectum, pelvic viscera and lower
limbs.
23
Three Fates of Postganglionic Fibers
②
① Back to a spinal nerve along gray
communicating branches to
terminate in blood vessels,
arrectores pilorum m. & sweat
①
glands of head, neck, trunk and
limbs
② The fibers form their network
around blood vessels passing to
visceral end organs
③
③ Terminate directly in certain
organs
24
Distribution of Sympathetic Nerve
Preganglionic fibers
Postganglionic fibers
T1~T5
Head, neck, upper limb and
thoracic viscera
T5~T12
Abdominal viscera
L1~L3
Pelvic viscera and lower limb
25
General description of sympathetic system
Arrectores
pilorum
Postganglionic
fiber:
Skin
Sweat gland
Arrectores
pilorum
Blood vessel
①celiac ganglion
②sup.mesenteric ganglion
③inf.mesenteric ganglion
Preganglionic fiber-red
Postganglionic fiber-black:
26
Parasympathetic
portion
27
Parasympathetic Part
 Lower center
located in four pairs parasympathetic nuclei in brain stem and the
sacral parasympathetic nucleus in segments S2~S4 of spinal cord
 Parasympathetic ganglia: terminal ganglia are near or
within the wall of a visceral organ


Para-organ ganglia

Ciliary ganglion

Pterygopalatine ganglion

Submandibular ganglion

Otic ganglion
Intra-organ ganglia
28
General description of parasympathatic nerve
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
29
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
Cranial portion of parasympathetic nerve
Ⅲ
sphincter pupillae and
ciliary muscles
ciliary ganglion
①
②
Ⅶ
lacrimal gland
pterygopalatine ganglion
③
Ⅸ
④
submandibular ganglion
Ⅹ
sublingual gland
submandibular gland
parotid gland
otic ganglion
① Accessory n of Ⅲ
② Sup.solivatory n.
terminal ganglia
③ Inf.solivatory n.
In or near the target organs
④ Dorsal n.of Ⅹ
heart, lungs, liver, spleen
kidneys,alimentary tract
as far as left colic flexure
30
(b)
(a)
The abdominal componets of sympathetic nervous system (a)collateral
ganglia and the abdominal aortic plexus(b)the adrenal gland ,frontal section
showing the sympathetic adrenal medulla.
31
Sacral Portion of Parasympathetic Nerve
 Preganglionic fibers from sacral
parasympathetic nucleus leave
spinal cord with ant.roots of the
spinal n. S2~S4,
 Then leave sacral n. & form pelvic
splanchnic n. & travel by way of
pelvic plexus to terminal ganglia in
pelvic cavity
 Postganglionic fibers terminate in
descending & sigmoid colon,
rectum (below the left colic flexure)
& pelvic viscera
32
Main differences between
sympathetic & parasympathetic nerve
Content
Sympathetic n.
Parasympathetic n.
Location of lower
center
Intermediolateral nucleus
(lateral gray horn) of spinal
cord segments T1~L3
Four pairs parasympathetic nuclei
and sacral parasympathetic
nucleus
Ganglia position
Paravertebral, prevertebral
Para-organ or intra-organ ganglia
Length of
preganglionic fiber.
Shorter
Longer
Length of
postganglionic fiber.
Longer
Shorter
Ratio of Pre. to
postganglionic neuron
1 to many
1 to a few
Distributions
Wider. throughout the body
viscera of head. thorax,
abdomen, and pelvis
Limited .No in blood vessel.sweat
glands, arrectores pilorum,
medullary part of suprerenal
gland.
Different effects to
visceral organs
Prepares for emergency
situation (expends energy)
Conserve and restore body
energy (conserves energy)
33
General description of parasympathatic nerve
34
Main differences between sympathetic
and parasympathetic nerve
The location of ganglia
35
Functional differences between
sympathetic & parasympathetic nerve
Content
Sympathetic n.
Parasympathetic n.
Different action
Prepares for emergency
situation
( Fight or flight )
Conserve and restore
body energy
(Silence and sleep)
Pupil
Dilates
Constricts
Heart contraction
force
Increases
Decreases
Heart rate
Become more rapid
Become slow
Respiration rate
Increase
Decrease
Blood pressure
Increase
Decrease
Bronchi
Dilates
Constricts
36
Functions of the iris
Dim light:-iris dilates
Sympathetic neurone
Normal light
Dilator pupillae
Sphincter pupillae
Pupil
Parasympathetic neurone
Ganglion
Bright light:-iris constricts
37
Sympathetic and vasomotor tone
38
Blood pressure
reflex regulation
39
Visceral plexus
 The plexus are aggregations of the
sympathetic & parasympathetic &
visceral sensory nerve.
 Cardiac plexuses
Superficial plexus
below aortic arch
Deep plexus
Ant. to bifurcation of trachea
 Pulmonary plexus
Ant. Pulmonary plexus
in front of pulmonary root
Post.pulmonary plexus
in rear of pulmonary root
40
Visceral Plexuses
Celiac plexus
Celiac plexus
Largest plexus
Located around the root celiac
a. & Sup.mesenteric a.
Abdominal aortic plexus
Located below celiac plexus
Hypogastric plexus


Superior hypogastric plexus
lie between common iliac aa.
Inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic
plexus)
Lie in both side of rectum
41
Functions of the Autonomic NS
Sympathetic
nerve
3-F
Parasympathetic
nerve
3-S
Fight
Flight
Fright
Silence
Sleep
Sex
-42-
Visceral Sensory (afferent) n.
Conduct the impulses from enteroceptors of the viscera
to the CNS.
The CNS adjusts the visceral action by the visceral
motor nerve.
Three conductive pathway.
1.Synapse with the visceral efferent neuron to form the
viscero-visceral reflex.
2,Synapse with the somatomotor neurons to form the
viscero-somatic reflex.
3.Conduct the impulse to the cortex through a complex
pathway to give birth to the visceral sensation.
43
Feature of Visceral Sensory n.
With higher pain threshold:
Contrast to the somatosensory fibers,
the number of the visceral sensory fibers
is less,and most fibers is thinner & have a
higher pain threshold.
Not sensitive to pain,but sensitive to hungry,
dialation (bladder,rectum)
Not sensitive to cutting but sensitive to
temperature,ischemia & stretch
44
Feature of Visceral Sensory n.
Diffusive visceral pain:
The afferent pathway of the visceral sensation is
more diffusive than the somatosensory ones.
e.g.the sensory fibers from a visceral organ pass
through several segments of spinal n.to the central
centres.& a spinal n.may contain the sensory
fibers from several organ.so the visceral pain is
diffusive and can not be orientated preferably.
45
Visceral Sensory Nerves
Nucleus of solitary tract
Ⅶ,Ⅸ, Ⅹ
Thalamus
Enteroceptors
Posterior horn
Cerebral
cortex
Hypothalamus
Effectors
Sympathetic nerve
Pelvic splanchnic nerve
Somatic motor neurons
visceral motor neuclei
46
Centers of Visceral Sensory Nerves
There are a few representative motor areas in
the limbic lobe of the cerebrum:
Respiration; Blood pressure ;Gastrointestine;
Bladder pupil etc.
Hypothalamus also regulate visceral activity:
low center of sympathetic and parasympathetic n.
Brain stem and cerebellum:
Brain stem directly regulate the functions of the
respiration and cardiovascular activities.
47
Referred Pain

Sometimes,when a viscera is in phthological
conditions or received excessive stimulation,a
certain region innervated by somatic n.will feel
pain. The phenomena is called the referred
pain.

Pain originating from organs perceived as
coming from skin.Site of pain may be distant
from organ
For example:
When patient suffers from heart discease may
feel pain in on the medial side of the left arm.
patient suffering from hepatic or cystic disease
may feel pain in the right shoulder.
48
Mechanism of referred Pain
The mechanism of the referred pain is thought
that same spinal segment controls both the diseased
viscera and the surface region,and the impulse from
the diseased viscera can pervade to the adjacent
somatic sensory neurons & produce pain.
49
From the viscera is often felt in specific areas of the skin
When some viscera suffer from disease,related referred pain area
50
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
体重达550公斤的曼努埃尔
Weight 550kg
Weight 465kg,lose weight 272kg
Within five years
据英国《每日邮报》11月20日报道,
来自美国德克萨斯州的梅拉·罗萨莱斯
(Mayra Rosales)体重460kg。在五年
内成功减掉272公斤。
Copy Right- Hongqi ZHANG-Department of Anatomy-Fudan University
The end
6.1kg newborn
The fattest person’family
Whose name is liang yong
(210kg)
52
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