Understanding Our Circulatory System

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 541.0 kB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Organizations

Places

Transcript

What Is This Module About?
Have you ever cut yourself accidentally? What came out of the wound?
The fluid that came out of your wound is blood. Blood is red and quite viscous
(thick). Blood is called the fluid of life. If you had no blood, you would not be alive.
Blood reaches the different parts of your body, through your circulatory system.
In this module, you will study the parts of the circulatory system. You will also
know more about the functions of the circulatory system. You will also find out some
injuries and diseases that can affect the circulatory system and ways by which to take
care of this system.
This module is divided into four lessons. These are:
Lesson 1 – The Circulatory System
Lesson 2 – Blood
Lesson 3 – Diseases That Can Affect The Circulatory System
Lesson 4 – Taking Care Of The Circulatory System
What Will You Learn From This Module?
After studying this module, you should be able to:
♦
describe the parts of the circulatory system;
♦
understand the functions of the circulatory system of the human body;
♦
explain the functions and properties of blood;
♦
cite some diseases that can affect the circulatory system; and
♦
practice proper care of the circulatory system.
1
Let’s See What You Already Know
To find out what you already know about the topics to be discussed in this
module, answer the questions below. Write your answers on the blank lines.
1. Enumerate the two components structures of the circulatory system.
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
2. State the functions of blood.
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________
3. What produces the sound of a heartbeat?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. Name three diseases that can affect the circulatory system.
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________
5. What is hypertension?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
6. State five ways to take care of the circulatory system.
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________
d. ______________________________________________________
e. ______________________________________________________
Well, how was it? Do you think you fared well? Compare your answers with those
found in the Answer Key on page 40 to find out.
2
If all your answers are correct, very good! This shows that you already know
much about the topics in this module. You may still study the module to review what
you already know. Who knows, you might learn a few more new things as well.
If you got a low score, don’t feel bad. This means that this module is for you. It
will help you to understand some important concepts that you can apply in your daily
life. If you study this module carefully, you will learn the answers to all the items in
the test and a lot more! Are you ready?
You may go now to the next page to begin Lesson 1.
3
LESSON 1
The Circulatory System
Without your being aware of it, your organ systems are working continuously to
keep you alive. One of these organ systems is the circulatory system.
In this lesson, you will study the parts and functions of the circulatory system.
You will discover the many wonderful things it does to keep you alive. The heart never
stops beating as long as a person is alive. It starts beating when a child is still inside its
mother’s womb. When you are excited your heart beats faster. Can you feel it beating
now? Are you ready to learn more about your circulatory system?
Let’s Try This
You will need a plastic bottle with straw for this activity. If you can’t find one,
just use your imagination. The picture below can help you visualize what will happen.
Plastic bottle with
straw and water
Fill the bottle with water. Then, fill a small empty cup with water from the bottle.
Determine how long it takes you to fill the cup. Then, return the water to the bottle.
Fill the cup again with water but this time, do it faster. Note what action you do in
order to accomplish this.
4
Let’s Think About This
Answer the following questions:
1. What action did you make in order to let the water out of the bottle?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2. How long did it take you to fill the cup at a normal pace?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3. What did you do in order to fill the cup faster?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 41.
Let’s Learn
In the previous activity you used a plastic bottle as a container for water. In order
for the water to pass from the plastic bottle to the empty cup, you had to squeeze the
bottle. In order to fill the cup faster, you had to squeeze the bottle even harder.
The action that you did can be likened to the action of the heart, which
continuously pumps blood throughout the body. Indeed, the heart is the most
hardworking organ of the body. Consider the following facts:
♦
The heart pumps approximately 70 times a minute. In this period, it is able to
pump around 5 liters of blood. That is about 100,800 times each day!
♦
When you are exercising rigorously and your body cells need a higher rate
of blood flow to obtain more oxygen, nutrients and food, the heart pumps
more rapidly to force more blood around your body faster. The heart will
pump up to 200 times per minute to move 40 liters of blood around your
body if it has to.
5
The heart is the most important organ of the circulatory system.
Do you know what your heart looks like? Clench your fist and look at it. That’s
approximately the same size as your heart. Your heart is a pear-shaped organ that lies
between your lungs. It is slightly tilted to the left. Look at the picture below. It shows
the major parts of the heart.
Aortic arch
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary arch
Pulmonary vein
Left
atrium
Flaps of
tricuspid
valve
Right
atrium
Bicuspid valve
Left
ventricle
Right
ventricle
Septum
The heart is actually made up of two pumps that work together. These two pumps
are separated by a muscular wall called septum. The right pump collects blood from
the body and sends it to the lungs. The left pump collects blood from the lungs and
sends it to the rest of the body.
Each pump has two chambers: the atrium and the ventricle. The atrium has a
thin wall while the ventricle has a thick one. Each atrium receives and stores blood.
Each ventricle, on the other hand, pumps blood away from the heart. The atria and the
ventricles are separated by one-way valves.
6
Do you know how a heartbeat sounds? It usually sounds like lub-dub. This sound
is produced by the closing and opening of the valves in the heart.
Closing of
the valves
Opening of
the valves
Let’s Try This
1. The rate at which the heart beats can be determined by taking the pulse. To
take your pulse, place the middle and index fingers of one hand on the wrist of
the other hand. Move your fingers slightly until you feel a throbbing point.
See the picture below.
7
2. Count the number of beats in 15 seconds. Multiply this number by 4. The
value you will get is the number of times your heart beats per minute. For
example, if you counted 17 beats in 15 seconds and multiplied this by 4, this
means that your heart beats 68 beats per minute.
3. Sit quietly on a chair. Take your pulse.
4. Walk briskly around the room for around one minute. Then immediately take
your pulse. What did you notice? Is it faster or slower than the one you took
previously?
Why do you think your heart rate changed?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 41.
Let’s Learn
How does blood travel throughout the body? There is a network of small tubes
that carries blood through the body. These tubes are called blood vessels. Do you
know that if you were to take out all your blood vessels and line them up end to end,
they would be able to go around the earth twice?
There are three types of blood vessels in the body: the arteries, veins and
capillaries. Arteries are what we call efferent vessels because they carry blood away
from the heart. Every time your heart beats, blood is pumped into your arteries. The
walls of the arteries stretch as the blood comes in. As it passes by, the walls relax. The
stretching and relaxation of the artery wall is the pulse. You feel your pulse at your
temples, neck and wrists.
8
Superficial temporal
Vertebral
External carotid
Right subclavian
Internal carotid
Brachiocephalic
(innominate)
Common carotid
Internal thoracic
(mammary)
Thyrocervical trunk
Axillary
Celiac
Superior
mesenteric
Suprarenal
Brachial
Renal
Spermatic
Inferior
mesenteric
Radial
Middle
sacral
Common
iliac
Ulnar
Internal
iliac
Volar
arch
Digital
External iliac
Femoral
Popliteal
Peroneal
Anterior tibial
Posterior tibial
Dorsalis pedis
The Blood Vessels of the Human Circulatory System
Each of the blood vessels listed in the above diagram bring blood to the parts of
the body through the arteries and bring back blood from the body to the heart through
the veins.
Example: Dorsalis Pedis Artery bring blood to the foot.
Renal Artery bring blood to the kidneys.
Most arteries carry oxygenated blood (blood containing a large amount of
oxygen) except the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood (blood
containing little oxygen) from the heart to the lungs.
9
The veins are called afferent vessels because they bring back blood toward the
heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood except for the pulmonary vein which
carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart.
Look at the table below. It is a comparison of the properties and functions of the
arteries and veins.
Arteries
Veins
♦
Carry blood away from the heart
♦
Carry blood toward the heart
♦
♦
Blood is not under great pressure here, so it
flows more slowly and smoothly
♦
Have relatively thin, slightly muscular walls
♦
Blood is under great pressure here,
hence it flows fast and in spurts,
reflecting the rhythmic pumping
action of the heart
Have thick and elastic muscular walls
♦
♦
Have valves that prevent blood from flowing
backward
Have no valves
♦
♦
Carry red oxygen-rich blood (except
pulmonary artery)
Carry bluish-red oxygen-depleted blood
toward the heart (except for the pulmonary
vein)
Capillaries
Capillaries
Large arteries branch into smaller arteries called arterioles; large veins branch
into smaller veins called venules. These arterioles and venules lead into capillaries,
the smallest of all blood vessels. Capillaries, as you can see in the picture above, are
located mostly between the veins and the arteries. Their job is to distribute oxygenrich blood that comes from the arteries out into the tissues of the body. Then, they
move the oxygen-depleted blood from the tissues back into the veins.
10
Let’s Try This
Do you have any idea how your veins look? Some of your veins lie close to your
skin. Look at your hands and arms carefully. Do you see the bluish green vessels just
beneath the surface of your skin? These are some of your veins. Why do they appear
bluish green? That’s because they carry oxygen-depleted blood. Oxygen-depleted
blood is blue, oxygen-rich is red.
Let’s Remember
♦
The circulatory system carries blood to all parts of the body. This function
allows cells to receive oxygen, an important source of energy. It also allows
waste products to be removed from the body.
♦
The heart is a hollow muscular organ located between the lungs. It is a
tireless pump, which provides pressure to propel blood through the
circulatory system.
♦
The blood vessels are hollow tubes that serve as passages for blood.
♦
Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins bring blood to the heart.
♦
Capillaries are the smallest vessels of the circulatory system.
11
Let’s See What You Have Learned
In the space provided before each statement, write True if the statement is
correct. Write False if the statement is incorrect.
______ 1.
The circulatory system is composed of the heart and blood vessels.
______ 2.
The heart is located in the abdomen.
______ 3.
The heart is the most hardworking organ in the body.
______ 4.
The heart stops beating every now and then.
______ 5.
The heart pumps about 5 liters of blood every minute.
______ 6.
The heart is made up of two pumps that work together.
______ 7.
Arteries bring blood to the heart.
______ 8.
Capillaries are efferent vessels.
______ 9.
The pulse is the stretching and relaxing of the artery wall.
______10.
The heart has four chambers.
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 41. If your
score is 7 or higher, congratulations! You are getting to know your circulatory system
better. Review the parts you missed to refresh your memory. You may proceed to the
next lesson afterward.
If your score is 5 or below, you need to study this lesson again. After doing so,
you may proceed to the next lesson.
12
LESSON 2
Blood
Blood is called the fluid of life. Without blood, human life would not be possible.
The sight of blood might make a lot of people feel sick or scared, but you shouldn’t be
afraid of blood. This is the fluid needed by every cell in your body in order to live.
In this lesson, you will learn more about blood. You will discover its components
that enable it to perform its functions. Are you ready to know more about the fluid of
life?
Let’s Try This
Do you know what fresh blood looks like? You can visit the meat section of a
market. Ask the seller to show you some blood from a newly slaughtered animal.
Study the appearance of the blood. Smell and touch it as well. Afterward, answer the
questions in the next section.
Let’s Think About This
1. What was the color of the blood?
__________________________________________________________
2. How did it smell? Where do you think this odor came from?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3. Does blood flow as easily as water does?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 41.
13
Let’s Learn
Blood is the red fluid circulated throughout the body by the circulatory system.
In human beings, blood is considered a connective tissue. It is a connective tissue
because it is produced by the bone marrow inside bones, which are connective tissues.
However, compared to other connective tissues, like ligaments and cartilages, blood
is liquid. This enables blood to have special properties that other connective tissues
do not have.
Blood is red.
Blood is a connective tissue.
Blood is a fluid.
Blood contains substances needed by the body to maintain normal cell function.
The lives of all the cells in your body depend on the jobs done by your circulatory
system.
The blood exchanges nutrients and water with all the cells found in the body.
Study the diagram below.
Cells of the body.
Nutrients
Blood
Waste products
In the above diagram, nutrients carried by the blood pass through blood vessels
and go to the cells of the body. Conversely, waste products from these cells enter
through the blood vessels to be transported out of the body.
Blood also serves as the carrier of waste products to be transported out of the
body through the urinary or excretory system.
14
Adrenal gland
Right kidney
Left renal artery
Right renal vein
Hilus
Renal pelvis
Left kidney
Inferior vena
cava
Abdominal aorta
Urinary bladder
Right and left
ureters
Ureteral orifices
Urethra
External urethral
orifice
The above diagram shows the urinary system. Blood, containing waste products,
enters the kidneys through the renal arteries where it is filtered. “Clean” blood reenters bloodstream through the renal vein. Filtered waste travels downwards as urine,
to be ultimately excreted out of the body through the other parts of the urinary
system.
An average of 5 to 6 liters of blood flows through the body at any one time. This
blood is composed of several kinds of cells suspended in plasma. Plasma makes up
55% of the volume of the blood. Hence, if 100 milliliters (ml) of blood is extracted
from the human body, 55 ml of it would be plasma. Plasma is composed mostly of
water, proteins, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other substances such as sodium,
potassium and calcium. The water in plasma serves as a carrier for ions such as
sodium, chloride and potassium. It also dissolves nutrients like simple sugar and
vitamins. The substances in plasma are also important for maintaining the chemical
balance inside the body and help in fighting off diseases.
We can easily separate blood into its separate components by taking a small
amount in a test tube and allowing the heavier components to settle to the bottom. The
plasma remains above. The components that settle are the blood cells and platelets.
55% plasma
45% cellular components
A sample of blood
15
The red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are the three major
components of blood.
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets
The Red Blood Cells
The red blood cells (RBCs) are also called erythrocytes. These cells form the
largest group of cells in the blood. There are about 25 trillion of these tiny cells in the
human body. If you would look at red blood cell under a microscope, this is how it
would look.
Flat
Red blood cell
What do you notice about the red blood cell? Write down your observations on
the line below.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
If you noted that the red blood cells are disc-shaped, you are correct. These cells
are biconcave, meaning, they have a slight depression in the center.
16
If you wrote that the red blood cell has no nucleus, that’s very good! Erythrocytes
are unusual because unlike other cells, they do not have nuclei. In fact, only human
beings have red blood cells without nuclei. This is so because, having a nucleus
decreases the surface area where oxygen can come in to be transported by the cells.
If you observed that the red blood cells look uniform all throughout, you’re right
again. This characteristic is due to the very thin membrane or covering of the red
blood cells. Because of this, oxygen can come in quite easily.
The function of the erythrocytes is primarily to carry oxygen to the cells of the
body. Small as the red blood cells are, each one carries about 250 million molecules
of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a special substance that attracts oxygen and keeps it
inside the erythrocytes. When erythrocytes reach the capillaries, the oxygen they
carry is given up and transferred to the cells of the body.
body
red blood cell
oxygen
hemoglobin
Red blood cells carry oxygen to the cells of the body
The other group of cells found in blood are the white blood cells (WBCs) which
are also called leukocytes. Unlike red blood cells, white blood cells contain nuclei.
They defend the body against invading harmful microorganisms. Most white cells
carry out phagocytosis, that is, they gather at the site of infection and engulf and eat
up bacteria. They also dispose of dead cells.
Dark nucleus
Granules
White blood cells
17
Let’s Think About This
If you did not have leukocytes in your blood, what would happen to your body?
What would be the effect of not having a functioning or disease-fighting immune
system in the body?
Let’s Learn
The third group of cells are the platelets. Actually, platelets are not real cells.
They are fragments of cell materials that come from certain bone marrow cells.
Platelets play an important part in blood clotting.
A
bleeding
wound.
Coagulation helped
stop the bleeding.
Blood clotting is also known as blood coagulation. This process helps stop
bleeding. Suppose you cut yourself. As the blood escapes from your wound, the
platelets stick to the edges of the broken blood vessels, and a complex series of steps
begins.
The platelets pile up and break apart. Chemicals are released from the broken
platelets and damaged blood vessels. These chemicals trigger the growth of a
threadlike material called fibrin. This material forms a net that traps red blood cells.
As it traps more cells, a clot is formed, which seals off the damaged blood vessel and
stops the bleeding.
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets
18
So far you have learned about the cellular components of human blood — the red
blood cells (erythrocytes), the white blood cells (leukocytes) and the platelets. These
cells float in plasma.
Now it’s time for us to trace the path of blood through the body. We’ll do this by
joining a red blood cell named Hardy in his journey through the body.
Hardy was born inside the bone marrow, along with trillions of other red blood
cells. Hardy starts working immediately. He feels himself being dragged toward the
heart as he floats in the plasma.
The dotted line shows the outline of the heart beneath the bones of the ribcage.
Hardy reaches the heart. He does not yet have oxygen to bring to the cells of the
body. He first enters the right atrium, which passes him through a valve into the right
ventricle. The right ventricle then pumps him and his brothers through the pulmonary
artery towards the lungs.
19
Hardy then passes through the capillaries of one of the lungs. These capillaries
are close to the air sacs, which are called alveoli. Inside the lung, Hardy passes
through the alveoli where gas exchange takes place. Remember that red blood cells,
like Hardy, contain hemoglobin that picks up oxygen as it passes through the alveoli.
The cells also discard carbon dioxide, which passes through the alveoli into the lungs
to be excreted out of the body.
Now that he already carries oxygen, Hardy has turned bright red. He now travels
back toward the heart, this time, passing through the pulmonary vein to the left side of
the heart. The left atrium receives Hardy, then he passes through a valve into the left
ventricle. This is the most powerful chamber of the heart.
20
The left ventricle contracts, giving Hardy a powerful push into the aorta, the
largest artery in the body. He is then dragged into the smaller arteries. Hardy now
carries a heavy pack of oxygen and food.
Hardy passes through smaller and smaller arteries until he reaches the capillaries.
In the capillaries, he has to fall in line because only one red blood cell at a time can
pass through the very small passage.
He waits for his turn and when his turn comes, Hardy is very happy to deliver the
oxygen to the cell that lies near the capillaries. In exchange for the oxygen, the cell
gives him carbon dioxide.
21
Once more, Hardy finds himself traveling through the veins toward the heart. The
whole cycle is repeated again and again.
Hardy will live for only 120 days, but he is very happy. He knows that he is doing
a very important job in bringing life to the body. He also meets friends along the way
— the white blood cells and platelets.
You have just discovered through Hardy’s adventures how the parts of your
circulatory system work together to keep all the cells of your body alive. How do you
feel now about your circulatory system? Remember that it is a very hardworking
system that keeps you alive. All day long, Hardy and other cells like him work
tirelessly to keep life going.
22
Let’s See What You Have Learned
Fill in the blanks.
1.
Blood is a type of ______________________ tissue.
2.
Red blood cells are also called _________________________.
3.
Red blood cells are formed in the __________________________.
4.
The white blood cells are also known as ________________________.
5.
______________________________ is the primary function of white
blood cells.
6.
Platelets are needed for ___________________________________.
7.
A red blood cell only survives for _______________________ days.
8.
______________________ is the liquid part of the body.
9.
The largest artery in the body is the _______________________.
10.
Red blood cells contain _____________________, which picks up oxygen.
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 42. If your
score is 7or higher, congratulations! You have done well. You learned a lot from this
lesson. Review the parts that you missed to refresh your memory. You may proceed to
the next lesson afterwards.
If your score is 6 or lower, you need to study this lesson again. Don’t worry. You
just need to put in more time and effort in studying. Go back to the parts you missed
and study them again. If you think you have already learned the lesson well, proceed to
Lesson 3.
23
Let’s Remember
♦
Blood is the fluid of life. It is a kind of connective tissue produced by the
bone marrow inside bones. It is composed of 55% plasma and 45% cellular
components.
♦
Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It contains water that serves as a carrier
for substances such as sodium, potassium and chloride and it dissolves
nutrients such as simple sugar and vitamins.
♦
The cellular components of blood are the red blood cells, white blood cells
and platelets.
– Red blood cells or erythrocytes are the largest group of cells in the
blood. They contain hemoglobin, which picks up oxygen. RBCs have no
nuclei.
– White blood cells or leukocytes defend the body against harmful
microorganisms through phagocytosis. They engulf and eat up bacteria
that invade the body cells.
– Platelets are not real cells; they are fragment of cell material from bone
marrow. They play an important role in blood clotting, which is a series
of steps taken by blood cells in order to stop bleeding.
♦
Deoxygenated blood first enters the heart through the right atrium. It then
passes through a valve into the right ventricle, which pumps it toward the
lungs through the pulmonary artery. It then enters the lungs through
capillaries, which are close to the alveoli. Oxygen diffuses through the
alveoli and is picked up by hemoglobin in the RBCs. Carbon dioxide diffuses
from the blood into the alveoli, from which it is expelled into the
environment.
♦
Oxygenated blood now returns to the heart via the pulmonary vein. It enters
the left atrium and passes through a valve into the left ventricle. The left
ventricle contracts powerfully to push the blood into the aorta, which then
leads it into smaller arteries. The smaller arteries then lead to capillaries
that lie close to different cells of the body. Blood delivers oxygen and food
into these cells. Then, it returns once more to the heart and the cycle is
repeated.
24
LESSON 3
Diseases That Can Affect
The Circulatory System
In the previous lessons, you learned about the parts of the circulatory system and
their functions, as well as the properties and components of blood. You discovered
how the circulatory system works tirelessly to deliver blood to and remove wastes
from the different parts of your body. This hardworking system is very important to
the human body. However, it is prone to a lot of diseases that can cause it to break
down. This could affect the rest of the body as well.
In this lesson, you will study some diseases that can affect the circulatory system
and how to best take care of it. If you feel your heart beating fast, don’t worry. It just
means that you are excited to know more.
Let’s Read
Mely Goes to the Doctor
Mely paid her doctor a visit. “I haven’t been feeling well lately,” she said to
Doctor Reyes. “I feel tired most of the time.”
“You must be working too hard,” Doctor Reyes said as she prepared to take
Mely’s blood pressure.
Doctor Reyes brought out a sphygmomanometer, an instrument for measuring
blood pressure. A sphygmomanometer looks like this:
Gauge
Stethoscope
Valve
Cuff
Doctor Reyes wrapped the blood pressure cuff around Mely’s left upper arm. She
then inflated the cuff.
25
“This is to stop the flow of blood in your artery for a few seconds,” she explained
to Mely. She then opened the valve, which released the air from the cuff. She listened
to the sound of blood rushing through Mely’s artery by using the stethoscope, which
she placed over the cuff.
The first sound Doctor Reyes heard and which registered in the gauge was Mely’s
systolic blood pressure. The value was 131. The last sound the doctor heard as more
air was released from the cuff was Mely’s diastolic blood pressure. The value was 85.
“Your blood pressure’s 131/85, Mely,” Doctor Reyes said. “It’s normal, but it
would be bettter if it was lower.”
“What should I do, Doctor?” Mely asked.
“Try not to tire yourself out. And check what you eat as well; too much salt is not
good for your health.”
Let’s Think About This
1.
What do you think is the importance of knowing your blood pressure? If we
say a person has “high blood,” what does this mean?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 42.
Let’s Learn
What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing
against the walls of the arteries. Each time the heart beats, it pumps blood out into the
arteries. The blood pressure is at its greatest when the heart contracts and is pumping
blood. This is called systolic pressure. When the heart is at rest, the blood pressure
falls. This is the diastolic pressure.
Blood pressure is always given as two numbers, the systolic and diastolic
pressures. For example, if your blood pressure is 120/80, that means your systolic
pressure is 120 and your diastolic pressure is 80.
26
If your blood pressure is lower than 140/90, it is considered normal. It is better
though to have a blood pressure lower than 120/80. When the blood starts pushing
against the walls of the arteries with higher-than-normal force, the blood pressure
turns higher.
High blood pressure or hypertension is caused by many factors. Having too
much salt in the diet increases blood pressure. Being overweight also increases one’s
chances of having high blood pressure and so does old age. Too much stress can also
lead to this condition.
If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious medical problems such as:
♦
Arteriosclerosis — literally means “hardening of the arteries.” High blood
pressure makes the arteries thick and stiff. This leads cholesterol and fats to
build up in the blood vessels. This then prevents blood from flowing through
the body that can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
♦
Enlarged heart — High blood pressure causes the heart to work harder.
This causes the heart to thicken and stretch over time. Eventually, the heart
fails to function normally. This then causes fluids to flow back into the
lungs.
Let’s Try This
Go to the kitchen sink in your house. Turn on the faucet so that water flows
smoothly. Then cover half the opening of the faucet with your finger. What do you
notice about the pressure or force of the water coming out of the faucet?
27
Think of the faucet as a blood vessel. When it is clogged (usually with fatty
deposits), the pressure of the blood increases. This causes blood to surge downward
because it is forcing itself through a small opening. This pressure is too much for the
tissues of the body. Sooner or later, damage can occur. Blood pressure also increases
when there is an increase in the pumping action of the heart. In the example, this is
similar to attaching a pump to the waterpipe. Even if the blood vessel is wide enough,
if the heart is pumping too strongly, hypertension still occurs, leading to organ
damage. A stressful life can increase the pumping action of the heart. This is the
reason why relaxation is important.
Relaxed life
Stressful life
Heart Attack
Mr. Jose was 60 years old. He was fond of eating fatty foods,
although he did not really get fat. Mr. Jose stayed home most of the time
and hated exercise. One day, he suddenly felt a squeezing pain in his
chest. He perspired profusely and was unable to breathe. He lost
consciousness. By the time he was brought to a hospital, it was already
too late.
Mr. Jose suffered from a condition called myocardial infarction or what we
commonly know as heart attack. A heart attack is a potentially fatal condition that is
caused by blockage of arteries. A person experiencing a heart attack feels sudden
chest pain, usually radiating to the left shoulder and arm, and even to the back,
accompanied by sweating and difficulty in breathing. The patient can also experience
jaw pain and nausea. A person who shows these symptoms must be brought to a
hospital immediately.
Angina Pectoris
Kardo weighed almost 200 pounds. He drank and smoked a lot. His
doctor warned him that he should take things slowly, because his blood
pressure had climbed over the past few months. However, he went on with
his habits, until one day, after a heavy meal, he felt a crushing, squeezing
pain in his chest. The pain radiated to his jaw, neck, shoulders, back and
arms. He went to his doctor, who gave him some medicine that eased the
pain after a while.
28
Angina pectoris, or simply angina, is a recurring pain in the chest caused by a
lack of blood flow to the heart. It is often triggered by physical exertion, but can also
be brought on by extreme heat and cold, heavy meals, cigarette smoking, excessive
alcohol consumption and emotional stress. The symptoms of angina are similar to
those of heart attack, but an attack of angina eases after some time or after
medication. However, when one suffers from angina, it usually means that he/she is
suffering from a heart disease and therefore, must see a doctor immediately for
diagnosis.
Varicose Veins
Sally works as a saleslady in a popular department store. She stands
all day at work while wearing high-heeled shoes. One day, her friend
noticed bluish lumps on her legs.
Varicose
veins
Varicose veins are large, twisted, swelled up and bulging blood vessels, which
usually occur on the inside of the legs and the back of the calf. They are usually
caused by the slow blood flow in the veins of the legs, causing the veins to pile up
with blood. They can also be caused by malfunctioning valves in the veins. These
valves are supposed to help blood flow upward to the heart, but because of
malfunction, some of the blood flows back down into the legs — the wrong direction.
Over a period of time, the additional pressure of blood causes the veins to bulge and
become visible.
29
Varicose veins are usually hereditary, but are also common among obese people
and pregnant women. This disorder is treated either through the injection of a
chemical into the affected veins or by surgical removal of the larger veins.
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Anna is 14 years old. She is very thin and weak. When she was
younger, she suffered from a throat infection from which she never
recovered. Her chest heaves even when she is resting. Anna was
diagnosed to have a rheumatic heart disease.
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves are permanently
damaged due to rheumatic fever. The disease usually starts as a throat infection caused
by a kind of bacteria called streptococcus. This then leads to rheumatic fever.
Rheumatic fever is more common among children 5 to 15 years old. It affects
the connective tissues of the body, especially those of the heart, joints, brain and skin.
If untreated, the disease can damage the heart valves. A damaged heart valve doesn’t
completely close or doesn’t completely open. Rheumatic heart disease can lead to
disabling problems and can even cause heart failure.
Anemia
Aling Selya is thin and pale. She often feels tired and breathless. Her heart
rate is also rapid. When she consulted a doctor, she found out that she has anemia.
30
Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the
body falls from the normal level. There are many types of anemia, but the most
common is iron deficiency anemia. This is caused by the lack of iron in the diet,
which is needed in the production of hemoglobin.
Leukemia
Nena is 10 years old. Lately, she has grown pale and weak. She also
bleeds and bruises easily. She also often suffers from bouts of fever and
chills. She throws up a lot and complains of headaches. When her parents
brought her to a doctor, they found out that she has leukemia.
Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. The bone marrow is
the spongy center of the bone that produces blood cells. In a leukemia patient, the
process of blood cell production gets out of control. The marrow produces too many
immature blood cells that are abnormally shaped and cannot perform their usual
duties. This explains why the disease is called leukemia, which means “white blood.”
As these abnormal cells multiply and crowd the bone marrow, they tend to interfere
with the production of other blood cells. When they move into the body they collect
in different places, causing swelling and pain.
Let’s Remember
♦
The blood and the circulatory system can be affected by many diseases.
Some of these diseases are hypertension, heart attack, angina pectoris,
rheumatic heart disease, varicose veins, anemia and leukemia.
31
Let’s See What You Have Learned
Match the items in Column A with those in Column B. Write only the letters in
the blanks before the numbers.
Column A
_____ 1.
leukemia
_____ 2.
hypertension
_____ 3.
heart attack
_____ 4.
varicose veins
_____ 5.
rheumatic heart disease
_____ 7.
rheumatic fever
_____ 8.
Column B
a.
occurs commonly among children
5 to 15 years old
b.
enlarged leg veins
c.
important for the production of
hemoglobin
d.
caused by low iron level in the
body
angina pectoris
e.
high blood pressure
_____ 9.
iron
f.
heart valve defect
_____10.
throat infection
g.
usual cause of rheumatic heart
disease
h.
cancer of the bone marrow
i.
also known as myocardial
infarction
j.
recurring pain in the chest
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 42. If your
score is 6 or higher, very good! You are now familiar with some diseases that can
affect the circulatory system. Review the parts you missed to refresh your memory.
If your score is 5 or lower, don’t worry. You just need to study the lesson again.
You may proceed to the next lesson after you finished going through the items you
missed. If you think you have already learned the lesson well, proceed to Lesson 4.
32
LESSON 4
Taking Care of the
Circulatory System
In the previous lesson, you learned about the many diseases that can affect the
circulatory system. You found out that the circulatory system is a hardworking but
fragile system.
In this lesson, you will learn how to take proper care of your circulatory system.
Study this topic well so you can keep your heart, blood vessels and blood healthy and
functioning well.
Let’s Try This
How well do you take care of your circulatory system? Answer the following
questionaire to find out.
Check the box beside the appropriate answer.
1. Are you overweight? Yes
No
2. Do you eat foods low in calories and fats, such as fresh vegetables, plain
rice, and fresh or canned fruits? Yes
No
3. Do you eat foods high in starch and fiber, such as fruits, vegetables, rice
and dry beans? Yes
No
4. Do you spend most of your time sitting or lying down? Yes
5. Do you drink a lot of alcoholic beverages? Yes
No
No
6. Do you eat foods containing iron, such as beans, nuts and seafood?
Yes
No
7. Do you go to the doctor regularly for a checkup? Yes
Here is the score guide:
1. Yes: 3 points; No: 6 points
2. Yes: 6 points; No: 3 points
3. Yes: 6 points; No: 3 points
4. Yes: 6 points; No: 3 points
33
No
5. Yes: 3 points; No: 6 points
6. Yes: 3 points; No: 6 points
7. Yes: 6 points; No: 3 points
If you got a score of 30 or higher, that means you’re taking care of your
circulatory system well. If you got a lower score, that means that you might suffer
from some disorders in the circulatory system if you don’t start practicing good
health habits soon. Read on to find out how you can take care of your circulatory
system.
Let’s Learn
To maintain a healthy circulatory system, practice the following habits.
Eat low-fat, low-calorie foods to avoid fat deposits from clogging your blood
vessels. Eating vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains and rice can help prevent high blood
pressure and other diseases of the circulatory system. Avoid too much salt in your
diet as well, because too much salt increases the risk of heart disease.
Eating foods rich in iron such as red meat, beans and nuts helps prevent iron
deficiency anemia.
34
Avoid smoking and drinking too much
alcohol. Smoking increases your risk of
having high blood pressure, heart attacks or
angina.
Learn to relax. Stress puts more work
on your heart.
Exercise regularly. Exercise makes your heart stronger. Aerobic exercises such
as running, dancing and brisk walking are good for the heart when done correctly.
Be wary of throat infections,
especially among children. These
could develop into rheumatic heart
disease. Seek medical attention
immediately.
Have your blood pressure checked
regularly.
35
Maintain your ideal body weight. Obesity
will make you prone to hypertension and
other heart problems.
Always maintain proper hygiene.
Infections can affect the circulatory
system, too.
Let’s See What You Have Learned
Here’s something for you to do: Make a list of the things that you will do in order
to take care of your circulatory system. Make a resolution to carry out everything in
your list. Show your list to your Instructional Manager or Facilitator.
A. Write True in the blank if the statement is correct and False if it is
incorrect.
______1. Eating salted peanuts is healthier than eating unsalted ones.
______2. Iron helps you avoid anemia.
______3. Smoking is bad for the circulatory system.
______4. Infections can cause diseases of the heart.
______5. Hypertension and other heart problems are linked to obesity and
high-fat diet.
36
B. Enumerate five ways to take care of your circulatory system.
1. ______________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on pages 42–43. If
your score is 6 or higher, congratulations! You now know how to take care of your
circulatory system. Review the points you missed to refresh your memory.
If your score is 5 or below, you need to review this lesson. Go back and study the
parts you missed.
You have now reached the end of the module. Congratulations! Did you enjoy
studying this module? Did you learn a lot from it? The following are a summary of its
main points to help you remember them better.
37
Let’s Sum Up
♦
The main function of the circulatory system is to carry blood to all parts of
the body. It is made up of the heart and blood vessels.
♦
The heart is the most important part of the circulatory system. It is a
muscular organ located between the lungs. It pumps blood throughout the
body.
♦
Blood vessels are tubes, through which blood passes to and from the heart.
There are three kinds of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries.
♦
Blood is a kind of connective tissue that serves to bring food and oxygen to
the cells of the body. It also collects waste products from the cells. It is
made up of plasma, the liquid part, and cellular components—red blood
cells, white blood cells and platelets.
♦
The circulatory system is prone to many diseases. Among these diseases are
hypertension, myocardial infarction or heart attack, angina pectoris, varicose
veins, rheumatic heart disease, anemia and leukemia.
♦
You can take care of your circulatory system by: eating low-fat, low-calorie,
low-salt, high-iron foods; avoiding smoking and drinking too much alcohol;
finding time to relax and exercise; having your blood pressure checked
regularly; seeking medical attention at once in case of throat infections;
maintaining proper hygiene; and maintaining your normal weight.
38
What Have You Learned?
To find out what you have learned from this module, answer the following
questions in the blanks provided.
1. What are the three kinds of blood vessels and their functions?
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________
2. Name the three cellular components of blood and their functions.
a. ______________________________________________________
b. ______________________________________________________
c. ______________________________________________________
3. What is plasma?
_________________________________________________________
4. Which of the following is bad for the circulatory system? Encircle the letter
before the item that shows an unhealthy practice.
a. Smoking
b. Eating fish and vegetables
c. Exercise
d. Tension
e. Eating fatty foods
5. Name one disease that can affect the circulatory system. Describe its causes
and symptoms.
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 43.
If your score is:
10 – 13
Congratulations! You learned a lot from this module.
6 –
9
Well done. A review of the items you missed will help you
remember better what you learned from this module.
0 –
5
You need to study the module again. This time, focus more on
the parts that you find difficult.
39
Answer Key
A. Let’s See What You Already Know (page 2)
1.
a. heart
b. blood vessels
2.
a. transports oxygen and food to the cells of the body
b. helps fight against harmful organisms like bacteria
c. serves to carry waste products to be excreted by the body
3.
The sound of a heart beating is caused by the closing of the valves of the
heart.
4.
a. hypertension
b. heart attack
c. varicose veins
Other possible answers: rheumatic heart disease, angina pectoris,
anemia, and leukemia.
5.
Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It is caused by
the increased pressure of the blood as it passes through the blood
vessels. Hypertension is common among the elderly, obese, and
physically inactive individuals.
6.
a. avoiding fatty and salty foods
b. regular exercise
c. avoiding stress
d. observing proper hygiene
e. avoiding smoking and drinking too much alcohol
Other possible answers: Having blood pressure checked regularly,
being physically active, maintaining normal weight, and having
infections treated at once.
40
B. Lesson 1
Let’s Think About This (page 5)
1.
I squeezed the bottle in order to let the water out.
2.
(Answers will depend on how long it took the learner to fill the cup.)
3.
I squeezed the bottle harder in order to fill the cup faster.
Let’s Try This (pages 7–8)
(The values obtained will differ among learners. However, the learner’s
heart rate after he/she walked briskly should be higher than when he/she sat
in a chair.)
My heart rate changed because I exerted more physical effort, my heart
worked harder to pump blood that will supply oxygen to the different parts
of my body.
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 12)
1.
True
2.
False. The heart is located in the chest.
3.
True
4.
False. A healthy heart never stops working.
5.
True
6.
True
7.
False. Veins bring blood to the heart. Arteries carry blood away from
the heart.
8.
False. Arteries are the efferent vessels, meaning they carry blood away
from the heart.
9.
True
10.
True
C. Lesson 2
Let’s Think About This (page 13)
(Answers will depend on the learners’ observations. The following are
sample answers.)
1.
The blood that I studied was reddish brown.
2.
The blood had a slightly metallic odor. This was caused by the presence
of iron in the blood.
3.
No, blood does not flow as easily as water does.
41
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 23)
1.
connective
2.
erythrocytes
3.
bone marrow
4.
leukocytes
5.
Defending the body against harmful microorganisms
6.
blood coagulation or clotting.
7.
120
8.
Plasma
9.
aorta
10.
hemoglobin
D. Lesson 3
Let’s Think About This (page 26)
(Answers will depend on learners’ perception. The following, however,
is the expected answer.)
Knowing my blood pressure is important for me to find out if I am
suffering from any heart disorder. If we say that a person has “high blood,”
this usually means the person is suffering from a heart disorder, or is in
danger of having a heart disease.
Let’s See What You Have Learned (page 32)
1.
h
6.
d
2.
e
7.
a
3.
i
8.
j
4.
b
9.
c
5.
f
10.
g
E. Lesson 4
Let’s See What You Have Learned (pages 36–37)
A. 1.
2.
False. Eating unsalted peanuts is a healthier practice than eating
salted ones. Too much salt in the diet can cause hypertension.
True
42
3.
True
4.
True
5.
True
B. 1.
F.
exercising regularly
2.
avoiding smoking
3.
avoiding stress
4.
having the blood pressure checked regularly
5.
avoiding fatty and salty foods
What Have You Learned? (page 39)
1. (Answers may be in any order.)
a. arteries—carry blood away from the heart
b. veins—bring blood to the heart
c. capillaries—bring oxygenated blood to the tissues of the body
2. (Answers may be in any order.)
a. red blood cells or erythrocytes—contain hemoglobin, which picks up
oxygen from the lungs
b. white blood cells or leukocytes—defend the body against harmful
microorganisms
c. platelets—help in blood clotting
3. Plasma is the liquid component of blood.
4. The following letters should be encircled: a, d, e.
5. (Answers will vary according to the learners’ choices. The following is a
sample answer.)
One disease that can affect the circulatory system is angina pectoris.
Angina pectoris is caused by the lack of blood flowing to the heart. Its
symptoms include a squeezing, crushing pain in the chest that radiates to
the jaw, neck, shoulders, arms and back.
43
Glossary
Anemia A disease that occurs when the concentration of red blood cells or
hemoglobin fall below normal; characterized by weakness and paleness
Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Blood A fluid that is a kind of connective tissue; brings oxygen to the cells of
the body and carries away waste products to be excreted from the body.
Capillary The smallest type of blood vessel in the body
Carbon dioxide A gas produced as waste from the utilization of energy by the
cells of the body
Circulatory system The organ system that brings blood to the different parts of
the body
Erythrocyte Red blood cell
Heart A muscular organ located between the lungs, which pumps blood
throughout the body
Heart attack Also known as myocardial infarction, a potentially fatal condition
caused by the blockage of the arteries
Hemoglobin A substance found inside red blood cells, which picks up oxygen
Hypertension High blood pressure
Leukocyte White blood cell
Oxygen A gas which is needed by the cells in order to utilize energy from food
Plasma The liquid component of blood
Platelet A component of blood, which comes from fragments of cell material
from bone marrow cells; helps in blood clotting
Pulse The stretching and relaxation of the walls of the arteries
Rheumatic heart disease A condition characterized by malfunctioning heart
valves, brought on by rheumatic fever
Varicose veins Enlarged, bulging and swelled up veins caused by the slow blood
flow in the veins of the legs
Vein A blood vessel that brings blood toward the heart
44
References
Campbell, N. Biology. 4th edition. USA: The Benjamin and Cummings Publishing
Company, Inc., 1988.
Van de Graaff, K. and Stuart I. F. Forx. Concepts of Human Anatomy and
Physiology. 2nd edition. Iowa: W.M. Brown Publishers, 1985.
Vellacott. Jane and S. Side. Understanding Advanced Human Biology. USA:
Hodden and Stoughton, 1998.
45
×

Report this document