Protocol Analysis

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 2.6 MB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Organizations

Places

Transcript

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
This Specification is provided for future development work within oneM2M only. The Partners accept no
liability for any use of this Specification.
11
12
13
The present document has not been subject to any approval process by the oneM2M Partners Type 1.
Published oneM2M specifications and reports for implementation should be obtained via the oneM2M
Partners' Publications Offices.
14
15
16
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 1 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
17
About oneM2M
18
19
20
21
The purpose and goal of oneM2M is to develop technical specifications which address the
need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various
hardware and software, and relied upon to connect the myriad of devices in the field with
M2M application servers worldwide.
22
More information about oneM2M may be found at: http//www.oneM2M.org
23
Copyright Notification
24
25
No part of this document may be reproduced, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
except as authorized by written permission.
26
The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
27
© 2014, oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC).
28
All rights reserved.
29
Notice of Disclaimer & Limitation of Liability
30
31
32
33
The information provided in this document is directed solely to professionals who have the
appropriate degree of experience to understand and interpret its contents in accordance with
generally accepted engineering or other professional standards and applicable regulations.
No recommendation as to products or vendors is made or should be implied.
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY IS MADE THAT THE INFORMATION IS
TECHNICALLY ACCURATE OR SUFFICIENT OR CONFORMS TO ANY STATUTE,
GOVERNMENTAL RULE OR REGULATION, AND FURTHER, NO
REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY IS MADE OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR AGAINST INFRINGEMENT OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. NO oneM2M PARTNER TYPE 1 SHALL BE
LIABLE, BEYOND THE AMOUNT OF ANY SUM RECEIVED IN PAYMENT BY
THAT PARTNER FOR THIS DOCUMENT, WITH RESPECT TO ANY CLAIM, AND IN
NO EVENT SHALL oneM2M BE LIABLE FOR LOST PROFITS OR OTHER
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. oneM2M EXPRESSLY ADVISES
ANY AND ALL USE OF OR RELIANCE UPON THIS INFORMATION PROVIDED IN
THIS DOCUMENT IS AT THE RISK OF THE USER.
46
47
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 2 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
48
Contents
49
Contents .............................................................................................................................................................. 3
50
1
Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 8
51
52
2
References ................................................................................................................................................ 8
53
54
55
3
56
4
Conventions,........................................................................................................................................... 14
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
5
M2M Related Protocols Overview ......................................................................................................... 14
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
6
2.1
Informative references ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Abbreviations and acronyms .................................................................................................................. 12
3.1
3.2
Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 12
Acronyms ......................................................................................................................................................... 12
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.1.1
5.1.1.2
5.2
5.2.1
Analysis of Design Styles ................................................................................................................................ 14
RESTful Style protocols............................................................................................................................. 14
REST Style ........................................................................................................................................... 14
RESTful Protocols ................................................................................................................................ 15
Data Description Standards.............................................................................................................................. 15
XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) ................................................................................................ 15
Analysis of Protocols ............................................................................................................................. 15
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.1.6
6.1.7
6.1.8
6.1.9
6.1.10
6.1.11
6.1.11.1
6.2.11.2
6.1.12
6.1.12.1
6.1.12.2
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.6.1
6.2.6.2
6.2.6.3
6.2.6.4
6.2.6.5
6.2.6.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.10
6.2.11
CoAP - Constrained Application Protocol ....................................................................................................... 15
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 15
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
Current Status ....................................................................................................................................... 16
Ongoing IETF Activity ......................................................................................................................... 16
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 17
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 17
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 18
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 18
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 19
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 20
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 20
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 20
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 20
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 20
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 21
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 21
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 21
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 21
MQTT - Message Queuing Telemetry Transport ............................................................................................ 21
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 21
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 22
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 22
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 22
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 22
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 23
Publish/Subscribe ................................................................................................................................. 23
Topics/Subscriptions ............................................................................................................................ 23
Quality of Service ................................................................................................................................. 23
Retained Messages ............................................................................................................................... 24
Durable and non-Durable sessions ....................................................................................................... 24
Wills ..................................................................................................................................................... 24
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 24
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 25
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 25
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 25
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 3 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
6.2.11.1
6.2.11.2
6.2.12
6.2.12.1
6.2.12.2
6.2.12.3
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.7
6.3.7.1
6.3.7.2
6.3.7.3
6.3.8
6.3.9
6.3.10
6.3.11
6.3.11.1
6.3.11.2
6.3.12
6.3.12.1
6.3.12.2
6.3.12.3
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
6.4.2.2
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.6.1
6.4.6.2
6.4.9
6.4.10
6.4.12
6.4.12.1
6.4.12.2
6.4.12.3
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.5.6
6.5.7
6.5.7.1
6.5.7.2
6.5.7.3
6.5.7.4
6.5.8
6.5.9
6.5.10
6.5.11
6.5.11.1
6.5.11.2
6.5.12
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 25
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 25
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 25
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 25
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 26
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 26
TIA TR-50 Protocol ......................................................................................................................................... 26
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 26
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 26
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 27
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 27
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 27
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 27
Frame Details........................................................................................................................................ 27
Request Frame Details .......................................................................................................................... 27
Response Frame Details ....................................................................................................................... 28
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 29
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 30
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 30
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 30
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 30
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 30
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 30
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 30
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 31
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 31
HTTP as RESTful API .................................................................................................................................... 31
Description ................................................................................................................................................. 31
HTTP Status ............................................................................................................................................... 31
HTTP/1.x Status ................................................................................................................................... 31
HTTP/2.0 (httpbis) Status ..................................................................................................................... 31
Intended Use............................................................................................................................................... 32
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 32
Key Features............................................................................................................................................... 32
Relevant Instance of RESTful Design .................................................................................................. 32
Using XML and JSON ......................................................................................................................... 32
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 32
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 33
Support of oneM2M Requirements ............................................................................................................ 33
Fully Supported requirements............................................................................................................... 33
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 33
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 33
XMPP: eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ..................................................................................... 33
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 33
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 33
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 34
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 34
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 34
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 35
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 36
XEP-0323 Sensor data .......................................................................................................................... 37
XEP-0324 IoT Provisioning ................................................................................................................. 38
XEP-0325 Internet of Things - Control ................................................................................................ 38
XEP-0326 Internet of Things - Concentrators ...................................................................................... 39
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 39
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 39
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 39
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 40
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 40
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 40
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 40
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 4 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
6.5.12.1
6.5.12.2
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.4
6.6.5
6.6.5.1
6.6.5.2
6.6.6
6.6.9
6.6.10
6.6.11
6.6.11.1
6.6.11.2
6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.2.1
6.7.2.2
6.7.3
6.7.4
6.7.5
6.7.5.1
6.7.5.2
6.7.5.3
6.7.6
6.7.7
6.7.7.1
6.7.8
6.7.9
6.7.10
6.7.11
6.7.11.1
6.7.11.2
6.7.12
6.7.12.1
6.7.12.2
6.7.12.3
6.8
6.8.1
6.8.1.1
6.8.2
6.8.3
6.8.4
6.8.5
6.8.6
6.8.6.1
6.8.6.2
6.8.6.3
6.8.6.4
6.8.7
6.8.8
6.8.9
6.8.10
6.8.11
6.9
6.9.1
6.9.2
6.9.3
6.9.4
6.9.5
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 40
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 40
WebSocket Protocol ........................................................................................................................................ 41
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 41
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 41
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 41
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 41
Server-Side Implementations................................................................................................................ 41
Client-Side Implementations ................................................................................................................ 41
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 42
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 42
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 42
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 42
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 42
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 42
Bluetooth® Wireless Technology .................................................................................................................... 43
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 43
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 43
Bluetooth Core Specification 4.1 .......................................................................................................... 43
Improving Usability - Bluetooth 4.1 ..................................................................................................... 43
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 44
Intended use - Personal Area Network protocols ....................................................................................... 44
Deployment Trend - Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart (low energy) ........................................................... 44
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) Technology .......................................................................................... 45
Bluetooth High Speed Wireless Technology ........................................................................................ 45
Enabling the Internet of Things ............................................................................................................ 45
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 45
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 47
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) Single mode and dual mode ................................................................. 51
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 51
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 52
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 52
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 52
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 52
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 53
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 53
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 53
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 53
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 53
Data Distribution Service (DDS) for Real-Time Systems ............................................................................... 53
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 54
Extensibility, Security and Development support ................................................................................ 54
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 55
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 55
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 56
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 56
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 56
Platform and Language Independence .................................................................................................. 56
Entity Discovery ................................................................................................................................... 56
Quality of Service ................................................................................................................................. 56
Enhanced Data Typing ......................................................................................................................... 57
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 58
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 58
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 58
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 58
Benefits ...................................................................................................................................................... 58
Modbus Protocol .............................................................................................................................................. 59
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 59
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 59
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 59
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 61
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 61
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 5 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
6.9.6
6.9.7
6.9.8
6.9.9
6.9.10
6.9.11
6.9.11.1
6.9.11.2
6.9.12
6.9.12.1
6.9.12.2
6.9.12.3
6.10
6.10.1
6.10.2
6.10.3
6.10.4
6.10.5
6.10.6
6.10.7
6.10.8
6.10.9
6.10.10
6.10.11
6.10.11.1
6.10.11.2
6.10.12
6.10.12.1
6.10.12.2
6.10.12.3
6.11
6.11.1
6.11.2
6.11.3
6.11.4
6.11.5
6.11.6
6.11.7
6.11.8
6.11.9
6.11.10
6.11.11
6.11.11.1
6.11.11.2
6.11.12
6.11.12.1
6.11.12.2
6.11.12.3
6.12
6.12.1
6.12.2
6.12.2.1
6.12.2.2
6.12.4
6.12.4.1
6.12.6
6.12.9
6.12.10
6.12.11
6.12.12
6.13
6.13.1
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 61
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 61
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 62
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 63
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 63
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 63
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 63
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 63
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 64
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 64
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 64
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 64
DNP3 Protocol ................................................................................................................................................. 64
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 64
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 64
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 65
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 66
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 66
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 66
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 66
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 68
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 68
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 68
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 69
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 69
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 69
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 69
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 69
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 69
Unsupported Requirements ................................................................................................................. 69
UPnP Cloud ..................................................................................................................................................... 69
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 69
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 70
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 71
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 72
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 72
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 73
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 74
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 75
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 75
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 75
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 76
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 76
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 76
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 76
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 77
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 77
Unsupported Requirements ................................................................................................................. 77
RESTful Network APIs (OMA & GSMA) ...................................................................................................... 77
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 77
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 78
Status of OMA RESTful Network APIs ............................................................................................... 78
Status of GSMA OneAPI ..................................................................................................................... 79
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 80
Location ................................................................................................................................................ 80
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 81
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 81
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 81
Benefits ...................................................................................................................................................... 81
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 81
ISA100.11a Protocol........................................................................................................................................ 82
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 82
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 6 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
6.13.2
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 82
6.13.3
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 82
6.13.4
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 83
6.13.5
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 84
6.13.6
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 84
6.13.7
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 84
6.13.8
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 84
6.13.9
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 84
6.13.10
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 85
6.13.11
Benefits ...................................................................................................................................................... 85
6.13.12
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 85
6.13.12.1
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 85
6.13.12.2
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 85
6.13.12.3
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 86
6.14
WirelessHART® Protocol ................................................................................................................................ 86
6.14.1
Background ................................................................................................................................................ 86
6.14.2
Status .......................................................................................................................................................... 86
6.14.3
Category and Architectural Style ............................................................................................................... 86
6.14.4
Intended use ............................................................................................................................................... 87
6.14.5
Deployment Trend ..................................................................................................................................... 87
6.14.6
Key features ............................................................................................................................................... 87
6.14.7
Protocol Stack ............................................................................................................................................ 87
6.14.8
Data Model ................................................................................................................................................. 87
6.14.9
Security ...................................................................................................................................................... 88
6.14.10
Dependencies ............................................................................................................................................. 88
6.14.11
Benefits and Constraints............................................................................................................................. 88
6.14.11.1
Benefits ................................................................................................................................................. 88
6.14.11.2
Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 88
6.14.12
Support of oneM2M requirements ............................................................................................................. 88
6.14.12.1
Fully Supported Requirements ............................................................................................................. 89
6.14.12.2
Partially Supported Requirements ........................................................................................................ 89
6.14.12.3
Unsupported Requirements .................................................................................................................. 89
320
7
321
Proforma copyright release text block ............................................................................................................. 93
322
Annex A List of M2M-related Protocols (Informative) ................................................................................... 94
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
Annex B Definitions of Radio metrics for Technologies used for M2M releated Protocols (Informative) ... 102
331
Annex Z Bibliography .................................................................................................................................... 105
332
333
History ............................................................................................................................................................ 106
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
Summary ................................................................................................................................................ 89
Bluetooth® Wireless Technology ............................................................................................................ 102
ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) ........................................................................................................................... 103
Ultra-Wideband (UWB) ........................................................................................................................... 103
Certified Wireless USB ............................................................................................................................ 103
Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) ................................................................................................................................ 103
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ................................................................................................... 104
Near Field Communication (NFC) ........................................................................................................... 104
334
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 7 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
335
1
Scope
336
The present document will:
337
338
339
 Analyse the protocols, with consideration of security aspects (in cooperation with WG4 - Security) and data
models (in cooperation with WG5 - Management, Abstraction & Semantics) widely considered for use within
oneM2M's target industry segments
340
 Create a list of those protocols with which oneM2M could encapsulate and/or interoperate
341
342
Noting that: Widely used protocol mappings may be candidates for oneM2M work;
Industry or application-specific protocol mappings to oneM2M may be done by external organizations
343
2
References
344
345
346
References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or
non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the
referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
347
2.1
348
349
The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the
user with regard to a particular subject area.
350
351
[i.1]
oneM2M Drafting Rules, http://member.onem2m.org/Static_pages/Others/Rules_Pages/oneM2M-DraftingRules-V1_0.doc
352
[i.2]
oneM2M TS-0002
353
[i.3]
IBM MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT) v3.1 Protocol Specification
354
[i.4]
IETF draft-ietf-core-coap-18 Constrained Application Protocol
355
[i.5]
TIA-4940-020, Smart Device Communications Protocol Aspects
356
[i.6]
IETF RFC6120 XMPP: Core
357
[i.7]
IETF RFC2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1
358
[i.8]
IETF RFC6690 Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format
359
[i.9]
IETF RFC4944 Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks
360
[i.10] IETF RFC0768 User Datagram Protocol
361
[i.11] IETF RFC6347 Datagram Transport Layer Security Version 1.2
362
[i.12] W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)
363
[i.13] IETF RFC4627 The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
364
365
[i.14] IETF RFC6121 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence, March
2011.
366
[i.15] IETF RFC6122 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Address Format, March 2011
367
368
[i.16] IETF RFC4492 Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Security (TLS), May
2006
369
[i.17] IETF RFC4422 Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL).
Informative references
oneM2M Requirements
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
TIA TR-50
Page 8 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
370
[i.18] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0016 Privacy Lists
371
[i.19] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0030 Service Discovery
372
[i.20] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0045 Multi-user conferencing service
373
[i.21] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0060 Publish-Subscribe service
374
[i.22] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0079 Advanced-Message Processing
375
[i.23] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0080 User Location
376
[i.24] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0136 Message Archiving
377
[i.25] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0138 Stream Compression
378
[i.26] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0149 Time Periods
379
[i.27] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0166 Jingle
380
[i.28] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0167 Jingle RTP Sessions
381
[i.29] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0177 Jingle Raw UDP Transport Method
382
[i.30] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0198 Stream Management
383
[i.31] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0199 XMPP Ping
384
[i.32] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0124 Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP (BOSH)
385
[i.33] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0206 XMPP Over BOSH
386
[i.34] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0203 Delayed Delivery
387
[i.35] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0322 Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) Format for XMPP
388
[i.36] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0323 Internet of Things – Sensor Data
389
[i.37] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0324 Internet of Things – Provisioning
390
[i.38] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0325 Internet of Things – Control
391
[i.39] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0326 Internet of Things – Concentrators
392
[i.40] IETF RFC6455 The WebSocket Protocol, 2011
393
[i.41] OMG Data Distribution Service for Real-time Systems Version 1.2, January 2007
394
395
[i.42] OMG The Real-time Publish-Subscribe Wire Protocol DDS Interoperability Wire Protocol Specification,
Version 2.1, June 2008
396
397
[i.43] - IEEE Standards for Electric Power Systems Communications – Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3), IEEE
Std 1815 – 2012
398
[i.44] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0127 Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) over XMPP
399
[i.45] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0115 Entity Capabilities
400
[i.46] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0248 PubSub Collection Nodes
401
[i.47] XMPP Standards Foundation XEP-0072 SOAP over XMPP
402
[i.48] UPnP Forum, www.upnp.org .
403
[i.49] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Located at www.iso.org
404
[i.50] International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Located at www.webstore.iec.ch
405
[i.51] ISO/IEC UPnP press release. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/news.htm?refid=Ref1500
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 9 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
406
407
[i.52] UPnP Device Architecture documents.
Available at http://upnp.org/sdcps-and-certification/standards/device-architecture-documents
408
[i.53] http://www.perfdynamics.com/Manifesto/USLscalability.html
409
[i.54] http://www.rti.com/products/dds/benchmarks-cpp-linux-scalability.html#THRUSCAL
410
411
[i.55] http://www.slideshare.net/Angelo.Corsaro/dscriptjs
412
413
414
[i.56] OMA RESTful Network API for FileTransfer
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_FileTransfer-V1_0-20130612-C.zip
415
416
417
[i.57] OMA RESTful Network API for Presence
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Presence-V1_0-20130212-C.zip
418
419
420
[i.58] OMA RESTful Network API for Notification Channel
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Presence-V1_0-20130212-C.zip
421
422
423
[i.59] OMA RESTful Network API for Chat
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Chat-V1_0-20131203-D.zip
424
425
426
[i.60] OMA RESTful Network API for Short Messaging
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Chat-V1_0-20131203-D.zip
427
428
429
[i.61] OMA RESTful Network API for Third Party Call
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_ThirdPartyCall-V1_0-20130212-C.zip
430
431
432
[i.62] OMA RESTful Network API for Address Book
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_ThirdPartyCall-V1_0-20130212-C.zip
433
434
435
[i.63] OMA RESTful Network API for Messaging
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Messaging-V1_0-20130709-C.zip
436
437
438
[i.64] OMA RESTful Network API for Payment
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Payment-V1_0-20130924-A.zip
439
440
441
[i.65] OMA RESTful Network API for Device Capabilities
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_DeviceCapabilities-V1_0-20130924-A.zip
442
443
444
[i.66] OMA RESTful Network API for Audio Call
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_AudioCall-V1_0-20130212-C.zip
445
446
447
[i.67] OMA RESTful Network API for Call Notification
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_CallNotification-V1_0-20130212-C.zip
448
449
450
[i.68] OMA RESTful Network API for Terminal Status
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_TerminalStatus-V1_0-20131008-C.zip
451
452
453
[i.69] OMA RESTful Network API for Image Share
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_ImageShare-V1_0-20130605-C.zip
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 10 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
454
455
456
[i.70] OMA RESTful Network API for Terminal Location
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_TerminalLocation-V1_0-20130924-A.zip
457
458
459
[i.71] OMA RESTful Network API for Video Share
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_VideoShare-V1_0-20130517-C.zip
460
461
462
[i.72] OMA RESTful Network API for Video Share
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_CustomerProfile-V1_0-20130305-C.zip
463
464
465
[i.73] OMA RESTful Network API for ACR (Anonymous Customer Reference)
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_ACR-V1_0-20130625-C.zip
466
467
468
[i.74] OMA RESTful Network API for Capability Discovery
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_CapabilityDiscovery-V1_0-20130701-C.zip
469
470
471
[i.75] OMA RESTful Network API for Converged Address Book
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-RDREST_NetAPI_CAB-V1_0-20130702-A.zip
472
473
474
[i.76] OMA RESTful Network API for Push
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/CD/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_Push-V1_0-20131029-A.zip
475
476
477
[i.77] OMA RESTful Network for Network Message Storage (Draft)
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/REST_NMS/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_NMS-V1_0-20131209-D.zip
478
479
480
[i.78] OMA RESTful Network for Network Message Storage (Draft)
http://member.openmobilealliance.org/ftp/Public_documents/ARCH/Permanent_documents/OMA-TSREST_NetAPI_VVoIP-V1_0-20131120-D.zip
481
482
483
[i.79] Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Technologies for Industrial Automation: The Security and Quality of
Service Perspectives, Future Internet 2010, 2, 96-125, Open Access Journal,
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/futureinternet
484
[i.80] ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute (WCI), http://www.isa100wci.org
485
486
[i.81] ISA100.11a, Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications, September
2009. Also, IEC 62734
487
[i.82] WCI Members: http://www.isa100wci.org/en-US/About-WCI/Member-Roster
488
489
[i.83] ISA100 Wireless Product Listing: http://www.isa100wci.org/en-US/End-User-Resources/ISA100-WirelessRegistered-Products
490
[i.84] ISA100 Success Stories: http://www.isa100wci.org/en-US/End-User-Resources/Company-Success-Stories
491
492
[i.85] Wireless standards in action, A Closer look at ISA-100.11a,
http://www.isa.org/InTechTemplate.cfm?template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=84319
493
[i.86] HART Communication Foundation, www.hartcomm.org
494
[i.87] HART Protocol Specifications: http://www.hartcomm.org/hcf/documents/documents_spec_list.html
495
496
497
[i.88] Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Technologies for Industrial Automation: The Security and Quality of
Service Perspectives, Future Internet 2010, 2, 96-125, Open Access Journal,
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/futureinternet
498
499
[i.89] Evolution of wireless sensor networks for industrial control, Arthur Low, Technology Innovation Management
Review, May 2013, http://timreview.ca/article/682
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 11 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
500
501
[i.90] Industrial communication networks - Wireless communication network and communication profiles WirelessHART® IEC62591
502
[i.91] Bluetooth 4.1 technical specification: https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications
503
[i.92] OASIS MQTT Version 3.1.1 Committee Specification Draft 01 18 May 2014
504
[i.93] W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.0, May 2001
505
[i.94] W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1, 5 April 2012
506
[i.95] W3C Web Application Description Language (WADL) 31 August 2009
507
3
Abbreviations and acronyms
508
3.1
Abbreviations
509
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
510
511
512
CHG
OPR
PHY
Charging Requirement
Operational Requirement
Physical layer of the OSI model
513
3.2
514
For the purposes of the present document, the following acronyms apply:
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
Acronyms
6LOWPAN
ACT
ADSU
AMI
API
ASCI
AV
BLE
BOSH
CIP
CoAP
CoRE
CP
CRPR
CRUD
DCP
DCPS
DDD
DDS
DI
DNP
DNP3
DTLS
D2D
EDR
EXI
GAP
GATT
GENA
GUI
HART
HATEOAS
HCF
IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks
Availability for Concurrent Transactions
Application Service Data Unit
Advanced Metering Infrastructure
Application Programming Interface
American Standards Compliance Institute
Audio Video (in UPnP context)
Bluetooth Low Energy
Bidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP
Common Industrial Protocol
Constrained Application Protocol
Constrained RESTful Environments
Control Point
Communications Request Processing Requirement
Create Read Update Delete
Device Control Protocol
Data Centric Publish Subscribe
Device Description Document
Data Distribution Service
Distributed Intelligence
Distributed Network Protocol
Distributed Network Protocol - 3rd Generation
Datagram Transport Layer Security
Device to device
Enhanced Data Rate
Efficient XML Interchange
Generic Access Profile
Generic ATTribute Profile
General Event Notification Architecture
Graphical User Interface
Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol
Hypermedia As The Engine Of Application State
HART Communication Foundation
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 12 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
HIDS
HTML
HTTP
IEC
IED
IESG
IETF
IBM
IGD
IoT
IP
IPSO
IPR
ISA
ISO
JSON
MAC
MIME
MQTT
M2M
OASIS
OMG
OSR
P2M
P2P
PIM
PLC
PC
QoS
RAM
REST
RF
RFC
ROM
RPC
RTPS
RTU
SASL
SCADA
SDO
SER
SIG
SIP
SMR
SMS
SOAP
SPI
SSDP
SSL
TAG
TIA
TCP
TLS
UAV
UCA
UCD
UDA
UDP
UPnP
URI
WADL
WC3
Human Interface Devices
HyperText Markup Language
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
International Electrotechnical Commission
Intelligent Electronic Devices
Internet Engineering Steering Group
Internet Engineering Task Force
International Business Machines
Internet Gateway Device
Internet of Things
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol for Smart Objects
Intellectual Property Rights
Industrial Society of Automation
International Organization for Standardization
JavaScript Object Notation
Media Access Control
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
Machine to Machine
Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
Object Management Group
Overall System Requirement
Person to Machine
Peer to Peer
Platform Independent Model
Programmable Logic Controller
Personal Computer
Quality Of Service
Random Access Memory
REpresentational State Transfer
Radio Frequency
Request For Comments
Read Only Memory
Remote Procedure Call
Real Time Publish Subscribe
Remote Terminal Unit
Simple Authentication and Security Layer
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
Standards Development Organisation
Security Requirement
Special Interest Group
Session Initiation Protocol
Semantics Requirement
Short Message Service
Simple Object Access Protocol
Service Plugin Interface
Simple Service Discovery Protocol
Secure Sockets Layer
Technical Architecture Group
Telecommunications Industry Association
Transmission Control Protocol
Transport Layer Security
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UPnP Cloud Architecture
Unicast Connectionless Data
UPnP Device Architecture
User Datagram Protocol
Universal Plug and Play
Uniform Resource Identifier
Web Application Description Language
World Wide Web Consortium
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 13 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
WCI
WEB-DDS
WG
WSN
XEP
XML
XMPP
Wireless Compliance Institute
Web Enabled DDS
Working Group
Wireless Sensory Nodes
XMPP Extension Protocol
eXtensible Markup Language
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
617
4
Conventions,
618
619
The key words “Shall”, ”Shall not”, “May”, ”Need not”, “Should”, ”Should not” in this document are to be interpreted
as described in the oneM2M Drafting Rules [i.1]
620
5
M2M Related Protocols Overview
621
5.1
Analysis of Design Styles
622
5.1.1
RESTful Style protocols
623
624
The REST architectural style was developed by W3C Technical Architecture Group (TAG) in parallel with HTTP/1.1,
based on the existing design of HTTP/1.0.
625
626
627
628
REST-style architectures conventionally consist of clients and servers. Clients initiate requests to servers; servers
process requests and return appropriate responses. Requests and responses are built around the transfer of
representations of resources. A resource can be essentially any coherent and meaningful concept that may be addressed.
A representation of a resource is typically a document that captures the current or intended state of a resource.
629
630
631
The client begins sending requests when it is ready to make the transition to a new state. While one or more requests are
outstanding, the client is considered to be in transition. The representation of each application state contains links that
may be used the next time the client chooses to initiate a new state-transition
632
5.1.1.1
633
634
The REST architectural style describes the following six constraints applied to the architecture, while leaving the
implementation of the individual components free to design:
REST Style
635
636
637
638
639
Client–server: A uniform interface separates clients from servers. This separation of concerns means that, for
example, clients are not concerned with data storage, which remains internal to each server, so that the portability of
client code is improved. Servers are not concerned with the user interface or user state, so that servers can be simpler
and more scalable. Servers and clients may also be replaced and developed independently, as long as the interface
between them is not altered.
640
641
642
Stateless: The client–server communication is further constrained by no client context being stored on the server
between requests. Each request from any client contains all of the information necessary to service the request, and
any session state is held in the client.
643
644
645
646
Cacheable: As on the World Wide Web, clients can cache responses. Responses must therefore, implicitly or
explicitly, define themselves as cacheable, or not, to prevent clients reusing stale or inappropriate data in response to
further requests. Well-managed caching partially or completely eliminates some client–server interactions, further
improving scalability and performance.
647
648
649
Layered system: A client cannot ordinarily tell whether it is connected directly to the end server, or to an
intermediary along the way. Intermediary servers may improve system scalability by enabling load-balancing and by
providing shared caches. They may also enforce security policies.
650
651
652
Code on demand (optional): Servers can temporarily extend or customize the functionality of a client by the
transfer of executable code. Examples of this may include compiled components such as Java applets and client-side
scripts such as JavaScript.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 14 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
653
654
655
Uniform interface: The uniform interface implies that the interactions between the components in a RESTful
architectural style depend on the uniformity of its interface. If any of the components do not follow these constraints,
then a RESTful architectural system can result in faults.
656
657
The components in a RESTful architectural style interoperate consistently in accordance with the uniform interface’s
four constraints as follow:
658
659
1. Identification of resources: a resource is addressed by a unique identifier, such as URI. (e.g.,
http://onem2m.com/cse1/application)
660
661
662
2. Manipulation of resources through representations: Clients manipulate representation of resources. The same
exact resource can be represented to different clients in different ways. For example, a resource can be
represented as HTML or as JSON.
663
664
3. Self-descriptive message: A resource’s desired state can be represented within a request message. A
resource’s current state may be represented within a response message.
665
666
667
4. Hypermedia as the engine of application state (HATEOAS): a resource’s state representation includes links
to related resources.
668
669
670
The only optional constraint of REST architecture is "code on demand". One can characterise applications conforming
to the REST constraints described in this clause as "RESTful". If a service violates any of the required constraints, it
cannot be considered RESTful.
671
5.1.1.2
672
The following protocols adhere to the principles of RESTful design:
RESTful Protocols
673
 HTTP as RESTful API
674
 CoAP
675
5.2
Data Description Standards
676
5.2.1
XML Schema Definition Language (XSD)
677
678
The XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) can be used to express a set of rules for validating grammatical syntax
of XML documents which is handled as specific data types.
679
680
XSD 1.0 [i.93] was published as a W3C recommendation in May 2001, and revised XSD 1.1 [i.94] was published in
April 2012.
681
XSD can be automatically referred by XML parsers or validators to check compliance of given XML document.
682
6
683
684
685
This clause includes an analysis of protocols relevant to oneM2M including: background, status (current release, under
development), category and architectural style, intended use, deployment trend, key features, protocols stack, data
model, security aspects, dependencies, benefits and constraints, and support of oneM2M requirements.
686
6.1 CoAP - Constrained Application Protocol
687
The following clauses describe the Constrained Application Protocol CoAP. [i.4]
688
6.1.1
689
690
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and
constrained (e.g., low-power, lossy) networks. The nodes often have 8-bit microcontrollers with small amounts of
Analysis of Protocols
Background
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 15 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
691
692
693
694
695
696
ROM and RAM, while constrained networks such as 6LoWPAN often have high packet error rates and a typical
throughput of 10s of Kbit/s. The protocol is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart
energy and building automation. CoAP provides a request/response interaction model between application endpoints,
supports built-in discovery of services and resources, and includes key concepts of the Web such as URIs and Internet
media types. CoAP is designed to easily interface with HTTP for integration with the Web while meeting specialized
requirements such as multicast support, very low overhead and simplicity for constrained environments.
697
698
699
700
701
702
One of the main goals of CoAP is to design a generic web protocol for the special requirements of this constrained
environment, especially considering energy, building automation and other machine-to-machine (M2M) applications.
The goal of CoAP is not to blindly compress HTTP [i.7], but rather to realize a subset of REST common with HTTP but
optimized for M2M applications. Although CoAP could be used for refashioning simple HTTP interfaces into a more
compact protocol, it more importantly also offers features for M2M such as built-in discovery, multicast support and
asynchronous message exchanges.
703
704
705
706
CoAP is designed to easily translate to HTTP for simplified integration with the web, while also meeting specialized
requirements such as multicast support, very low overhead, and simplicity. Multicast, low overhead, and simplicity are
extremely important for M2M devices, which tend to be deeply embedded and have much less memory and power
supply than traditional internet devices have.
707
708
CoAP can run on most devices that support UDP or a UDP analogue, and is intended to be used for M2M / IoT
segments such as home building automation and smart metering.
709
6.1.2
710
6.1.2.1
711
712
713
714
The IETF Constrained RESTful environments (CORE) Working Group has done the major standardization work for
this protocol. In order to make the protocol suitable to IoT and M2M applications, various new functionalities have
been added. The protocol has completed IETF last call and is in the final stages of processing for Internet Standards
documents.
715
716
717
CoAP is particularly targeted for small low power sensors, switches, valves and similar components that need to be
controlled or supervised remotely, through standard Internet networks. CoAP is an application layer protocol that is
intended for use in resource-constrained internet devices, such as wireless sensory network (NSN) nodes.
718
6.1.2.2
719
CoAP is being standardized with in the IETF CORE working group. Key IETF CoRE WG documents are as follows:
Status
Current Status
Ongoing IETF Activity
720
•
CoRE Link Format – RFC6690 [i8]
721
•
CoAP Protocol [i.4] – With IESG for publication as an RFC
722
•
Blockwise transfer in CoAP: IETF draft. WG document.
723
•
Observing resources in CoAP – IETF draft. WG document.
724
•
CoRE Resource Directory – IETF draft. WG document
725
•
Group communication for CoAP – IETF draft. WG document.
726
•
Best practices for HTTP to CoAP Mapping Implementation – IETF draft. WG document.
727
There are several options proposed for use with CoAP. Some of these are as follows:
728
•
Conditional observe in CoAP: IETF draft
729
•
CoAP Patience option: IETF draft
730
•
Enhanced sleep mode support of IoT / M2M devices: IETF draft
731
•
Stateful observation in CoAP (to optimize re-registration traffic in the network): IETF draft
732
•
Minimum request interval for successive CoAP requests – IETF draft
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 16 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
733
•
Transport of CoAP over SMS – IETF draft
734
•
TCP transport for CoAP – IETF draft
735
•
CoAP option to indicate payload length – IETF draft
736
•
CoAP over SMS – IETF draft
737
6.1.3
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and
constrained (e.g., low-power, lossy) networks. The nodes often have 8-bit microcontrollers with small amounts of ROM
and RAM, while constrained networks such as 6LoWPAN often have high packet error rates and a typical throughput of
10s of Kbit/s. The protocol is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building
automation. CoAP provides a request/response interaction model between application endpoints, supports built-in
discovery of services and resources, and includes key concepts of the Web such as URIs and Internet media types.
CoAP is designed to easily interface with HTTP for integration with the Web while meeting specialized requirements
such as multicast support, very low overhead and simplicity for constrained environments.
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
The use of web services (web APIs) on the Internet has become ubiquitous in most applications, and depends on the
fundamental Representational State Transfer [REST] architecture of the web. The Constrained RESTful Environments
(CoRE) work aims at realizing the REST architecture in a suitable form for the most constrained nodes (e.g. 8-bit
microcontrollers with limited RAM and ROM) and networks (e.g. 6LoWPAN [i.9]). Constrained networks such as
6LoWPAN support the fragmentation of IPv6 packets into small link- layer frames, however incurring significant
reduction in packet delivery probability. One design goal of CoAP has been to keep message overhead small, thus
limiting the need for fragmentation.
753
754
755
756
757
758
One of the main goals of CoAP is to design a generic web protocol for the special requirements of this constrained
environment, especially considering energy, building automation and other machine-to-machine (M2M) applications.
The goal of CoAP is not to blindly compress HTTP [i.7], but rather to realize a subset of REST common with HTTP but
optimized for M2M applications. Although CoAP could be used for refashioning simple HTTP interfaces into a more
compact protocol, it more importantly also offers features for M2M such as built-in discovery, multicast support and
asynchronous message exchanges.
759
760
761
The protocol supports the caching of responses in order to efficiently fulfil requests. Simple caching is enabled using
freshness and validity information carried with CoAP responses. A cache could be located in an endpoint or an
intermediary.
762
763
764
765
Proxying is useful in constrained networks for several reasons, including network traffic limiting, to improve
performance, to access resources of sleeping devices or for security reasons. The proxying of requests on behalf of
another CoAP endpoint is supported in the protocol. When using a proxy, the URI of the resource to request is included
in the request, while the destination IP address is set to the address of the proxy.
766
767
768
769
770
As CoAP was designed according to the REST architecture [REST] and thus exhibits functionality similar to that of the
HTTP protocol, it is quite straightforward to map from CoAP to HTTP and from HTTP to CoAP. Such a mapping may
be used to realize an HTTP REST interface using CoAP, or for converting between HTTP and CoAP. This conversion
can be carried out by a cross-protocol proxy ("cross-proxy"), which converts the method or response code, media type,
and options to the corresponding HTTP feature.
771
6.1.4
772
773
774
775
CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) over UDP is used for resource constrained, low-power sensors and devices
connected via lossy networks, especially when there is a high number of sensors and devices within the network. Soon
to be released as a suite of IETF RFCs, CoAP has already found success as a key enabling technology for electric utility
AMI (advanced metering infrastructure) and DI (distributed intelligence) applications
776
777
778
CoAP makes use of two message types, requests and responses, using a simple binary base header format. The base
header may be followed by options in an optimized Type-Length-Value format. CoAP is by default bound to UDP and
optionally to DTLS, providing a high level of communications security.
Category and Architectural Style
Intended use
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 17 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
779
6.1.5
Deployment Trend
780
781
782
783
784
A First IoT CoAP Plugtest interoperability event organized by ETSI, the IPSO Alliance, and the Probe-IT project was
held in March 2012. This interoperability event tested features that included the base CoAP specification, CoAP Block
Transfer, CoAP Observation and the CoRE Link Format. As described in draft-bormann-core-roadmap-03, it was
attended by 18 companies and more than 3000 tests were performed during this event. The 2nd CoAP plugtest event
was held in November 2012.
785
6.1.6
786
The key features of CoAP are:
Key features
787
• CoAP is a RESTful protocol.
788
• Four methods similar to HTTP: Get, Put, Post and Delete.
789
• Three types of response code: 2.xx (success), 4.xx (client error) and 5.xx (server error).
790
• Four different message types: Confirmable, Non-Confirmable, Acknowledgement and Reset (Nack).
791
• Synchronous message exchange
792
793
794
• Asynchronous message exchange via Observe / Notifications Client uses Observe option with Get request to
indicate interest in getting further updates from server. Client receives an asynchronous notification each time
state of resource changes at server.
795
796
• Conditional Observe allows CoAP clients to be informed only when certain conditions on observed resources are
met (such as inform periodically or only inform when observed value changes by a pre-specified step size)
797
• East to proxy to and from HTTP.
798
• Constrained web protocol fulfilling M2M requirements.
799
800
801
• UDP [i.10] binding with optional reliability supporting unicast and multicast requests. Confirmable and
Acknowledgement / Reset messages to provide optional reliability when required. Asynchronous message
exchanges.
802
• Low header overhead and parsing complexity.
803
• URI and Content-type support.
804
• Simple proxy and caching capabilities.
805
806
• A stateless HTTP mapping, allowing proxies to be built providing access to CoAP resources via HTTP in a
uniform way or for HTTP simple interfaces to be realized alternatively over CoAP.
807
808
• Security binding to Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) (RFC6347 [i.11]) A wide variety of key
management mechanisms may be used for this purpose.
809
810
811
• CoRE link format that defines use of Web Linking using link formats for use by constrained devices to describe
hosted resources, their attributes and relationships between links (RFC6690 [i.8]) A well-known URI “./wellknown/core” is used as a default entry point for requesting list of links about the resources hosted by a server
812
813
814
815
• A Resource Directory mechanism where IoT / M2M devices (i.e. CoAP servers) can register / update their list of
resources. It stores the URIs (called links) to resources stored on servers. If a device is in sleep mode and not
able to communicate with the network, it can be discovered via this resource directory. It could also be used if
network doesn’t support multicast traffic efficiently.
816
817
818
• Mechanism to transfer multiple blocks of information from a resource representation in multiple requestresponse pairs at CoAP message level itself (i.e. without relying on IP fragmentation). Large file transfers
(such as firmware updates) can be done using this mechanism.
819
820
821
• Group based communication using (unreliable) IP multicast by source sending non-confirmable CoAP message
to a multicast IP address (and via serial unicast for links that do not support multicast). Some other group
based communication mechanisms being explored include the following: overlay multicast that uses proxies to
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 18 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
822
823
deliver IP packets to end devices, and support of multicast at CoAP level without any explicit multicast
support from lower layers.
824
825
• CoAP Patience option that informs a recipient of the preferred time frame for a response or request depending on
usage context. Useful for time (or delay) tolerant exchanges
826
827
• Proposal for a mechanism where device can register its sleep state and related parameters (such as sleep
duration, sleep / active state etc.) with the Resource Directory
828
829
830
• Stateful Observation intends to reduce overhead in the network due to multiple re-registration requests from
CoAP client to CoAP server when server (i.e. IoT / M2M device) is not in a position to accept additional
clients
831
• Identification of Proxies between a CoAP client and CoAP server.
832
833
• Provides mechanism where a client and server can negotiate the minimum time between two subsequent
requests. Helps to reduce excessive load at the CoAP server
834
835
• An IETF draft “CoAP Payload Length Option Extension” defines a way to indicate length of the payload when
underlying transport layer (such as for RS 232, RS 422 or RS 485) doesn’t indicate payload length.
836
• Mechanism to transport CoAP over SMS for cellular networks
837
• Representation of links in JSON format in unconstrained environment
838
6.1.7
Protocol Stack
839
840
841
842
843
The interaction model of CoAP is similar to the client/server model of HTTP. However, machine-to-machine
interactions typically result in a CoAP implementation acting in both client and server roles. A CoAP request is
equivalent to that of HTTP, and is sent by a client to request an action (using a method code) on a resource (identified
by a URI) on a server. The server then sends a response with a response code; this response may include a resource
representation.
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
Unlike HTTP, CoAP deals with these interchanges asynchronously over a datagram-oriented transport such as UDP.
This is done logically using a layer of messages that supports optional reliability (with exponential back-off). CoAP
defines four types of messages: Confirmable, Non-confirmable, Acknowledgement, Reset; method codes and response
codes included in some of these messages make them carry requests or responses. The basic exchanges of the four types
of messages are somewhat orthogonal to the request/response interactions; requests can be carried in Confirmable and
Non- confirmable messages, and responses can be carried in these as well as piggy-backed in Acknowledgement
messages. One could think of CoAP logically as using a two-layer approach, a CoAP messaging layer used to deal with
UDP and the asynchronous nature of the interactions, and the request/response interactions using Method and Response
codes (see Figure 6.1 below). CoAP is however a single protocol, with messaging and request/response just features of
the CoAP header.
854
855
+----------------------+
856
|
857
+----------------------+
858
+----------------------+ \
859
| Requests/Responses | |
860
|----------------------| | CoAP
861
|
862
+----------------------+ /
863
+----------------------+
864
|
865
+----------------------+
866
Fig. 6.1. Abstract layering of CoAP
Application
Messages
UDP
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
|
| |
|
Page 19 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
867
6.1.8
Data Model
868
869
870
CoAP allows to explicitly indicate payload of the content type in its header. CoAP Content Format Registry provides
following initial entries: plain text, XML, JSON, EXI, octet stream, link-format. New Internet media types may be used
depending on the target IoT segment
871
6.1.9
872
873
874
As CoAP realizes a subset of the features in HTTP/1.1, the security considerations of RFC2616 [i.7] are also pertinent
to CoAP. This clause analyses the possible threats to the protocol. There are a number of security limitations with
CoAP, and this clause will describe those in detail. These will include:
Security
875
• Protocol Parsing, Processing URIs
876
• Proxying and Caching
877
• Risk of amplification
878
• IP Address Spoofing Attacks
879
• Cross-Protocol Attacks
880
• Constrained node considerations
881
882
COAP uses DTLS1.2 and security keys generated by DTLS are used to protect CoAP level messages. Some constraints
associated with DTLS are as follows:
883
884
885
 It may be challenging to support DTLS in constrained M2M devices that have limited memory (such as RAM ~
10 KB) and processing power. This is the reason for the current IETF initiative “DTLS In Constrained
Environments” (DICE) initiative (http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/87/slides/slides-87-dice-0)
886
 Use of DTLS (handshake protocol) results in high overhead in the network and that may not be desirable.
887
 No clear standardized definition of a constrained DTLS profile
888
889
890
No efficient support of multicast with IP DTLS. The multicast suitability of CoAP are lost when using DTLS
(point-to-point). On this aspect, there are also initiatives attempting to find solutions, e.g. “DTLS-based multicast
security for Low power Lossy Networks” (http://tools.ietf.org/id/draft-keoh-tls-multicast-security-00.txt)
891
 No standardized approaches for (dynamic) key management for group based communication
892
6.1.10
Dependencies
893
894
CoAP is designed to run over datagram transport protocol such as UDP. In this case, it uses DTLS to provide
application layer security.
895
896
An IETF draft “A TCP transport for CoAP” is exploring changes needed to run CoAP over TCP. Use of CoAP over RS
232 / 422 / 485 is also being explored.
897
6.1.11
898
6.1.11.1
899
900
901
CoAP is a lightweight application layer protocol designed for constrained devices (such as devices with 8-bit
microcontroller and limited memory) and constrained networks (such as low power, low data rate, lossy networks that
use IEEE802.15.4)
Benefits and Constraints
Benefits
902
•
It runs over UDP and avoids overhead of TCP
903
•
It is easy to do HTTP – CoAP translation
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 20 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
904
6.2.11.2
905
CoAP has:
Constraints
906
•
907
908
909
• No standardized framework for authorization and access control for CoAP exists as of now. The IETF draft
“Access Control Framework for constrained environments” (http://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-selander-coreaccess-control/?include_text=1) attempts to resolve this issue.
910
•
Constraints associated with DTLS (as listed in the Security subclause)
No explicit support for real-time IoT application at present.
911
6.1.12
Support of oneM2M requirements
912
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by CoAP is shown in the following clauses:
913
914
915
916
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 [i.2] depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and CoAP comprises
one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several assumptions
about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components. Thus, only a
subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
917
6.1.12.1
918
919
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-008, OSR-009, OSR-010, OSR-014, OSR-21, OSR-24, OSR-25, OSR-28, OSR-30, OSR-37,
SER-002, SER-003, SER-009, NFR-002.
920
6.1.12.2
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
OSR-004, OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-011, OSR-013, OSR-016, OSR-017, OSR-018, OSR-019, OSR-020,
OSR-021, OSR-022, OSR-027, OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-031, OSR-032, OSR-033, OSR-034, OSR-035, OSR-036,
OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-039, , OSR-040, OSR-041, OSR-042, OSR-043, OSR-044, OSR-045, OSR-047, OSR-048,
OSR-049, OSR-051, OSR-052, OSR-055, OSR-057, OSR-058, OSR-061, OSR-063, OSR-064, OSR-068, OSR-069,
OSR-072, SER-008
OSR-060 (depends on other components in an M2M system where CoAP is being used. For example, one could provide
synchronization via IEEE1588v2)
928
6.2 MQTT - Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
929
The following clauses describe the OASIS Message Queuing Telemetry Transport - MQTT protocol. [i.92]
930
6.2.1
931
932
MQTT was invented by IBM and Arcom (now Eurotech), in 1999. It was designed for low-bandwidth, high latency
networks. As a result, the designers made a number of key choices which influenced the way it “looks and feels”.
Fully Supported Requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
Background
933
934
1.
Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! Don't add too many “bells and whistles” but provide a solid building block
which can easily be integrated into other solutions. Be simple to implement.
935
936
2.
Publish/subscribe messaging. Useful for most sensor applications, and enables devices to come online and
publish “stuff” that hasn't been previously known about or predefined.
937
938
3.
Zero administration (or as close as possible). Behave sensibly in response to unexpected actions and enable
applications to “just work” e.g. dynamically create topics when needed.
939
940
4.
Minimise the on-the-wire footprint. Add an absolute minimum of data overhead to any message. Be
lightweight and bandwidth efficient.
941
942
5.
Expect and cater for frequent network disruption (for low bandwidth, high latency, unreliable, high cost-to-run
networks)… → Last Will and Testament
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 21 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
943
6.
Continuous session awareness → Last Will and Testament
944
7.
Expect that client applications may have very limited processing resources available.
945
8.
Provide traditional messaging qualities of service where the environment allows. Provide “quality of service”
946
9.
Data agnostic. Don't mandate content formats, remain flexible.
947
948
MQTT v3.1 was published by IBM in Aug 2010 under a royalty free license. Further pre-OASIS information is
available at MQTT.org.
949
6.2.2
950
951
952
Based on the pre-standard MQTT v3.1 specifications [i.3] there is an OASIS standardization process which started in
March 2013 to make MQTT an open, simple and lightweight standard protocol for M2M telemetry data
communication. The target for completion is 3rd quarter of 2014 to become an approved OASIS standard.
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
The OASIS MQTT TC is producing a standard for the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport Protocol compatible with
MQTT V3.1, together with requirements for enhancements, documented usage examples, best practices, and guidance
for use of MQTT topics with commonly available registry and discovery mechanisms. It operates under the NonAssertion Mode of the OASIS IPR Policy. Changes to the input document, other than editorial changes and other points
of clarification, will be limited to the Connect command, and should be backward compatible with implementations of
previous versions of the specification such that a client coded to speak an older version of the protocol will be able to
connect to, and successfully use, a server that implements a newer version of the protocol. As of 18 May 2014 the TC
approved and published MQTT Version 3.1.1.
961
962
The Eclipse foundation through their IoT working group, is providing open source MQTT client libraries via their Paho
Project. An Open Source server implementation is being developed by the Eclipse Mosquitto project.
963
6.2.3
964
965
MQTT is an M2M/Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity protocol. It is connection session reliant. It supports 14
command messages; the message format includes a fixed and variable header plus the payload.
966
The grouped commands are:
Status
Category and Architectural Style
967
968
• Client requests a connection to a server, Server acknowledges connection request & Client requests
disconnection
969
•
Publish message & Publish acknowledgment
970
•
Assured publish received (part 1), Assured publish release (part 2) & Assured publish complete (part 3)
971
•
Subscribe to named topics & Subscription acknowledgement
972
•
Unsubscribe from named topics & Unsubscribe acknowledgment
973
•
Ping request & Ping response
974
6.2.4
975
976
977
978
979
980
MQTT is designed to support messaging transport from remote locations/devices involving small code footprints (e.g.,
8-bit, 256KB ram controllers), low power, low bandwidth, high-cost connections, high latency, variable availability,
and negotiated delivery guarantees. For example, MQTT is being used in sensors communicating to a server / broker
via satellite links, SCADA, over occasional dial-up connections with healthcare providers (medical devices), and in a
range of home automation and small device scenarios. MQTT is also a fit for mobile applications because of its small
size, minimized data packets, and efficient distribution of information to one or many receivers (subscribers).
981
6.2.5
982
983
MQTT is estimated to be running on 250k devices. It is deployed in the Healthcare Industry Segment (hospitals use the
protocol to communicate with pacemakers and other medical devices) and in the Energy Industry Segment (oil and gas
Intended use
Deployment Trend
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 22 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
984
985
companies use MQTT to monitor thousands of miles of oil pipelines). It is also used in Facebook’s Messenger
application.
986
MQTT is not deployed in the largest message queue-based telemetry projects.
987
6.2.6
988
The key features of MQTT are:
Key features
989
•
Publish/Subscribe - to provide one-to-many message distribution and decoupling of applications
990
•
Topics/Subscriptions – to categorise messages into channels for delivery to subscribers
991
•
Quality of Service – to provide different assurances of message delivery
992
•
Retained messages – to provide past published messages to new subscribers
993
994
• Clean session / Durable connections – to choose whether a client’s state is to be stored between connection
sessions
995
•
996
6.2.6.1
997
998
999
1000
1001
Wills – to send messages after a client disconnects unexpectedly
Publish/Subscribe
The MQTT protocol is based on the principle of publishing messages and subscribing to topics, or "pub/sub". Multiple
clients connect to a server / broker and subscribe to topics that they are interested in. Clients also connect to the broker
and publish messages to topics. Many clients may subscribe to the same topics. The server / broker and MQTT act as a
simple, common interface for clients to connect to. A publisher may publish a message once and be received by
multiple subscribers.
1002
1003
Figure 6.2 MQTT publish-subscribe messaging
1004
6.2.6.2
Topics/Subscriptions
1005
1006
1007
1008
Messages in MQTT are published on topics. Topics are structured into topic trees, which are treated as hierarchies,
using a forward slash (/) as a separator. This allows arrangement of common themes to be created. Topics and topic
trees can be created administratively, although its more common for a server to create a topic on-demand (subject to
security policies) when a client first attempts to publish or subscribe to it.
1009
1010
A subscription may contain special characters, which allow clients to subscribe to multiple topics at once, within a
single level or within multiple levels in a topic tree.
1011
6.2.6.3
1012
1013
1014
MQTT defines three levels of Quality of Service (QoS). The QoS defines how hard the broker & client will try to
ensure that a message is received. Messages may be sent at any QoS level, and clients may attempt to subscribe to
topics at any QoS level. This means that the client chooses the maximum QoS it will receive. For example, if a message
Quality of Service
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 23 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1015
1016
1017
1018
is published at QoS 2 and a client is subscribed with QoS 0, the message will be delivered to that client with QoS 0. If a
second client is also subscribed to the same topic, but with QoS 2, then it will receive the same message but with QoS 2.
For a second example, if a client is subscribed with QoS 2 and a message is published on QoS 0, the client will receive
it on QoS 0.
1019
Higher levels of QoS are more reliable, but involve higher latency and have higher bandwidth requirements.
1020
1021
0. The server / broker & client will deliver the message once, according to the best efforts of the underlying TCP/IP
network, with no confirmation. The message arrives at the server either once or not at all.
1022
1023
1024
1. The server / broker & client will deliver the message at least once, with confirmation required. If there is an
identified failure of either the communications link or the sending device, or the acknowledgement message is
not received after a specified period of time, the sender resends the message
1025
2. The server / broker & client will deliver the message exactly once by using additional protocol flows.
1026
6.2.6.4
Retained Messages
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
Publish messages may be set to be retained. This means that the server / broker will keep the message even after
sending it to all current subscribers. If a new subscription is made that matches the topic of the retained message, then
the message will be sent to the client. This is useful as a "last known good" mechanism. If a topic is only updated
infrequently (such as for “report by exception”), then without a retained message, a newly subscribed client may have to
wait a long time to receive an update. With a retained message, the client will receive an instant update.
1032
6.2.6.5
1033
1034
1035
MQTT clients choose whether to use durable sessions or not. If a cleints requests a clean connection then a non-durable
session is created. The server / broker discards any previously maintained information about the client, the client needs
to re-subscribe to topics of interest, and the server / broker discards any state when the client disconnects.
1036
1037
If it does not request a clean session a durable session is used. When the client disconnects any subscriptions it has will
remain and any subsequent QoS 1 or QoS 2 messages will be stored until it connects again.
1038
6.2.6.6
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
When a client connects to a broker, it may inform the broker that it has a Will. This is a message that it wishes the
broker to send to interested parties when the client disconnects abnormally. The Will message has a topic, QoS and
retain status just the same as any other message. Abnormal disconnection occurs when either an I/O error is encountered
by the server / broker during communication with the client, or the client fails to communicate within the Keep Alive
timer schedule.
1044
6.2.7
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
MQTT requires an underlying network protocol that provides ordered, lossless, bi-directional connections, but the
MQTT specification does not mandate a particular underlying protocol. In practice implementations use one or more of
the following:
•
Raw TCP/IP
•
TCP/IP with Transport Level Security (TLS)
•
WebSocket – either with or without the use of TLS
Durable and non-Durable sessions
Wills
Protocol Stack
1051
MQTT
TCP
IP
1052
Figure 6.2.7 MQTT Protocol Stack
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 24 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1053
6.2.8
Data Model
1054
1055
1056
No formal data model has been published. The data elements included in the version 3.1 specification include: topic
trees, user name and password, connection state, subscriptions, retained messages, and message headers (fixed and
variable).
1057
6.2.9
1058
1059
MQTT supports user names and passwords in connection requests. Connections can be refused due to a bad user name
or password.
1060
6.2.10
1061
MQTT uses the TCP/IP layer to provide basic network connectivity.
1062
6.2.11
Security
Dependencies
Benefits and Constraints
1063
1064
6.2.11.1
Benefits
1065
 Protocol compressed into bit-wise headers and variable length fields. Typical message header size is 6 bytes.
1066
 MQTT has been implemented in devices with less than 64kb of RAM
1067
 In comparison to HTTPS, MQTT tested faster throughput, required less battery, and less network overhead.
1068
6.2.11.2
Constraints
1069
1070
 MQTT does not support comprehensive access control. MQTT does support authorization based on a single
username & password credential
1071
1072
 MQTT does not define a standard way of fragmenting application-level messages. Applications that need to
transmit large messages to constrained memory devices must come up with their own fragmentation scheme.
1073
1074
 MQTT does not support transactions; there is no way to rollback a message once it has been sent, and no way of
grouping a batch of separate messages into a single unit-of-work.
1075
1076
 MQTT does not explicitly address connection security; it relies on the transport layer to provide an appropriate
level of integrity and encryption.
1077
 MQTT does not support discovery of clients or servers
1078
 MQTT is not extensible, requiring a new protocol revision to evolve capabilities
1079
6.2.12
Support of oneM2M requirements
1080
1081
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by MQTT is shown in the following clauses: TLS is highly recommended to be
used with MQTT but is not considered in the following clauses considering requirements.
1082
1083
1084
1085
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and MQTT comprises
one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several assumptions
about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components. Thus, only a
subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
1086
6.2.12.1
1087
The following oneM2M requirements [i.2] are fully supported by MQTT [i.92]:
Fully Supported Requirements
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 25 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1088
1089
1090
OSR-001, OSR-003, OSR-008, OSR-009, OSR-012, OSR-015, OSR-016, OSR-018, OSR-019, OSR-020, OSR-021,
OSR-025, OSR-028, OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-046, OSR-047, OSR-049, OSR-55, OSR-065, ABR-001, SER-002,
SER-008, SER-011, SER-019, SER-025, SER-026, CPR-002, CPR-005.
1091
6.2.12.2
1092
The following oneM2M requirements [i.2] are partially supported by MQTT [i.92]:
1093
1094
OSR-002, OSR-010, OSR-017, OSR-022, OSR-024, OSR-041, OSR-044, OSR-045, OSR-48, OSR-053, OSR-059,
OSR-067, SER-007, SER-009, SER-017, SER-018.
1095
6.2.12.3
1096
The following oneM2M requirements [i.2] are not supported by MQTT [i.92]:
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
OSR-004, OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-011, OSR-013, OSR-014, OSR-023, OSR-026, OSR-027, OSR-031,
OSR-032, OSR-033, OSR-034, OSR-035, OSR-036, OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-039, OSR-040, OSR-042, OSR-043,
OSR-050, OSR-051, OSR-052, OSR-054, OSR-056, OSR-057, OSR-058, OSR-060, OSR-061, OSR-062, OSR-063,
OSR-064, OSR-066, OSR-68, OSR-69, OSR-70, OSR-071, OSR-072, MGR-001, MGR-002, MGR-003, MGR-004,
MGR-005, MGR-006, MGR-007, MGR-008, MGR-009, MGR-010, MGR-011, MGR-012, MGR-013, MGR-014,
MGR-016, MGR-017, ABR-002, ABR-003, SMR-001, SMR-002, SMR-003, SMR-004, SMR-005, SMR-006, SMR007, SER-001, SER-003, SER-004, SER-005, SER-006, SER-010, SER-012, SER-013, SER-014, SER-015, SER-016,
SER-020, SER-021, SER-022,SER-023, SER-024, CHG-001, CHG-002, CHG-003, CHG-004, CHG-005, CHG-006,
OPR-001, OPR-002, OPR-003, OPR-004, OPR-005, OPR-006, CRPR-001, CRPR-003, CRPR-004.
1106
6.3
TIA TR-50 Protocol
1107
6.3.1
Background
1108
1109
TR50 Protocol has been designed for easy to use. The protocol is based on a simple architecture that emphases on the
connection between the entities rather than forcing a specific architecture.
1110
1111
The intent of the protocol was to be a binding protocol not a transport protocol. In the current architecture of the
protocol, the interconnectivity between different nodes can be achieved in two way:
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
1112
1. Direct connection – in this case devices and applications (node) connect one to each other directly.
1113
2. Using a hub and spoke configuration – in this case devices and applications (nodes) connect to a broker.
1114
1115
1116
1117
In both case, the connections are established using a transport protocol (e.g. MQTT, HTTP) and can use TLS to secure
the communication. The TR50 protocol is using these, established, connections to exchange information. The transport
protocol incorporates the TR50 protocol in the payload. The TR50 is based on JSON format for easy to understand and
debug during the implementation.
1118
6.3.2
1119
1120
The TIA TR-50 Protocol [i.5] has been published by the TIA TR-50 Smart Device Communication engineering
committee in December 2012.
1121
6.3.3
1122
1123
TR-50 is an M2M binding protocol. The protocol is session oriented and authentication credentials must be supplied
every time a command is executed.
1124
The protocol consist of 2 grouped commands are:
Status
Category and Architectural Style
1125
 Basic Commands
1126
 Security Commands
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 26 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1127
The architecture includes:
1128
 One or more host nodes
1129
 One or more intermediate nodes
1130
 One or more devices
1131
 An Authentication/Authorization/Accounting node
1132
6.3.4
Intended use
1133
1134
1135
The protocol is designed to be used in conjunction with one of the common publisher/subscriber transport protocol like
MQTT or it can be used in conjunction with a simple transport protocol like HTTP. Since the protocol is based on
JSON, it can be used with any session oriented transport protocols.
1136
6.3.5
1137
The TR-50 protocol is the key feature for horizontal platforms delivering powerful, scalable and reliable architectures.
1138
6.3.6
1139
The TR-50 key features are:
Deployment Trend
Key features
1140
 Flexible to the use of JSON format
1141
 Extensible – commands/methods can be added on the core protocol or can be added specific per implementation
1142
1143
 Flexible architecture – protocol takes advantage of the flexible architecture to allow simple or complex
implementations.
1144
 Protocol can used any data format due to the on-demand definitions.
1145
 Text-based protocol that can be implemented by simple devices as well as complex applications.
1146
6.3.7
Protocol Stack
1147
1148
The TIA TR-50 Protocol is based on a frame that is flexible to provide extensions for further enhancements and/or
improvements.
1149
6.3.7.1
1150
The communication is based on:
Frame Details
1151
 Requests
1152
 Responses
1153
6.3.7.2
Request Frame Details
1154
The M2M request frames are based on a JSON structure and consist of two major clauses:
1155
 Authentication – this is the place where the entire authentication items are placed.
1156
 Command(s) – this is the place where the commands items are placed
1157
1158
1159
Below is the structure of the oneM2M frame:
{
"auth": {
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 27 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1160
"applicationToken": "<application token>",
1161
"sessionId": "<session token>"
1162
},
1163
"ref": {
1164
"command": "<command keyword>",
1165
"params": []
1166
}
1167
}
1168
1169
In order to minimize the traffic, it is possible to have M2M frames with multiple commands:
"ref1": {
1170
"command": "<first command>",
1171
"params": []
1172
},
1173
"ref2": {
1174
"command": "<second command>",
1175
"params": []
1176
}
1177
1178
Name
Description
Type
Mandatory
auth
Keyword. Identifies the authentication stanza in the M2M
request frame
String
Yes
applicationToken
Keyword. Identifies the application making the request
String
Yes
sessionId
Keyword. Unique ID received after the use of the
authentication services. Identifies the current session
between the two entities
String
Yes
ref1, ref2, ref3
Identifies the commands that are in the request. Can be
simple identifiers. They are not keyword. It is expected that
the response will contain them.
String
Yes
command
Keyword. Identifies a known command that can be
executed
String
Yes
params
Keyword. Identifies the parameters required by the
command. The field must exist, but it can be empty.
String
Yes
1179
Table 6.3.1 Request Frame Field Descriptions
1180
6.3.7.3
1181
The response frame is based on the JSON format and it has the following structure:
1182
1183
Response Frame Details
{
"ref1": {
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 28 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1184
"success": true,
1185
"params": []
1186
},
1187
"ref2": {
"success": false,
1188
"errorCodes":
1189
[
1190
1191
<errorCode1>,
1192
<errorCode2>
]
1193
"errorMessages":
1194
[
1195
1196
<errorMessage>,
1197
<errorMessage>
]
1198
},
1199
1200
}
1201
 “ref1” response is an example for a positive return of a request
1202
 “ref2” response is an example for an negative or error return of a request
1203
1204
Name
Description
Type
Mandatory
ref1,ref2, ref3
Identifies the request commands.
String
Yes
success
Keyword. Identifies the response. Can be true or false
String
Yes
errorCodes
Keyword. Identifies the error codes .
errorMessages
Keyword. Identifies the error message.
String
No
params
Keyword. Identifies the response parameters. Can be
empty.
String
Yes
1205
Table 6.3.2: Response Frame Field Descriptions
1206
6.3.8
Data Model
1207
Common data has been published which includes data types as:
1208
 INT1, INT2, INT4, INT8, UINT1,
1209
 UINT2, UINT4, UINT8, FLOAT4,
1210
 FLOAT8, STRING, BOOL, BINARY (Base64 Encoded)
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 29 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1211
6.3.9
Security
1212
The security of the protocol depends one two major factors:
1213
1. The security of the transport protocol
1214
2. The availability of intrinsic security commands/methods like:
1215

api.authenticate
1216

api.deauthenticate
1217

api.authorize
1218

api.deauthorize
1219
6.3.10
Dependencies
1220
1221
TR50 Protocol depends on a transport protocols like HTTP or MQTT. The protocol can be used using direct socket
communications via TCP or UDP.
1222
The protocol uses the transport protocol to guarantee the delivery of the data between the nodes.
1223
1224
The protocol includes session oriented features to guarantee the proper functionality during the exchange of the
information.
1225
6.3.11
1226
6.3.11.1
Benefits and Constraints
Benefits
1227
 Text-based protocol – ability to be compressed over cellular networks
1228
 JSON-based protocol – simple to understand and debug during the development phase
1229
 Extensible – methods / commands can be added on demand
1230
 Based on very loose architecture
1231
 Suitable for publishing / subscribing architectures
1232
6.3.11.2
Constraints
1233
 TR-50 is not a transport protocol
1234
 Dependent on a transport protocol
1235
6.3.12
Support of oneM2M requirements
1236
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by TR-50 is shown in the following clauses:
1237
1238
1239
1240
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and TIA-TR50 TIA4940-020 [i.5] comprises one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to
take several assumptions about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other
components. Thus, only a subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
1241
6.3.12.1
1242
OSR-001,OSR-002,OSR-003,OSR-004, OSR-007,OSR-009,OSR-010, OSR-012,OSR-013,OSR-014,OSR-015,
1243
OSR-017,OSR-019,OSR-020, OSR-021,OSR-022,OSR-023,OSR-024,OSR-025, OSR-027,OSR-029,OSR-030,
1244
OSR-034,OSR-035,OSR-036,OSR-037, OSR-041,OSR-044,OSR-046,OSR-047,OSR-049,OSR-050, OSR-053,
Fully Supported Requirements
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 30 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1245
OSR-054,OSR-055,OSR-056,OSR-057,OSR-059, OSR-064,OSR-065,OSR-066,OSR-067, OSR-071,OSR-072
1246
1247
6.3.12.2
Partially Supported Requirements
1248
OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-018, OSR-026, OSR-069, OSR-016, OSR-032, OSR-070
1249
1250
6.3.12.3
Unsupported Requirements
1251
1252
OSR-011,OSR-062,OSR-063,OSR-069, OSR-031,OSR-043,OSR-033,OSR-040,OSR-045,OSR-048,OSR-060, OSR061, OSR-038,OSR-039,OSR-042, OSR-051, OSR-052
1253
6.4
HTTP as RESTful API
1254
6.4.1
Description
1255
1256
HTTP protocol is widely used for Web Services in different ways. One of those usages is using HTTP as RESTful API
(HTTP-REST-API).
1257
1258
HTTP-REST-API, will provides CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) operational primitives naturally with its method
(e.g. POST/GET/PUT/DELETE) and well-defined status codes.
1259
HTTP-REST-API is subset of HTTP with RESTful design style.
1260
1261
HTTP-REST-API usually supports XML or JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) for passing API parameters. HTTPREST-API can handle various data formats using Content-Negotiation feature which is part of HTTP specification.
1262
6.4.2
1263
6.4.2.1
HTTP Status
HTTP/1.x Status
1264
 HTTP version 1.1 was published as RFC 2616 [i.7] (Draft Standard) in June 1999.
1265
1266
 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition) [i.12] was published as W3C Recommendation on 26
November 2008.
1267
1268
 “The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)” [i.13] was published as RFC4627 on
July 2006.
1269
6.4.2.2
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol Bis (httpbis) Working Group of the IETF is working on HTTP/2.0, which is intended
to supersede HTTP/1.1. It is expected that HTTP/2.0 will be submitted to IESG for consideration as a Proposed
Standard in Nov 2014. HTTP/2.0 is intended to retain the semantics of HTTP without the legacy of HTTP/1.x message
framing and syntax, which have been identified as hampering performance and encouraging misuse of the underlying
transport. As part of the HTTP/2.0 work, the following issues are being considered:
1275
1276
• A negotiation mechanism that is capable of not only choosing between HTTP/1.x and HTTP/2.x, but also for
bindings of HTTP URLs to other transports (for example).
1277
•
Header compression (which may encompass header encoding or tokenisation)
1278
•
Server push (which may encompass pull or other techniques)
1279
1280
HTTP/2.0 (httpbis) Status
It is expected that HTTP/2.0 will:
•
Substantially improve end-user perceived latency in most cases, over HTTP/1.1 using TCP.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 31 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1281
•
1282
1283
• Not require multiple connections to a server to enable parallelism, thus improving its use of TCP, especially
regarding congestion control
1284
1285
• Retain the semantics of HTTP/1.1, including HTTP methods, status codes, URIs, and where appropriate, header
fields.
1286
•
Define how HTTP/2.0 interacts with HTTP/1.x, (both 2->1 and 1->2).
1287
•
Identify any new extensibility points and policy for their appropriate use.
Address the "head of line blocking" problem in HTTP/1.1 created by pipelining
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
The resulting specification(s) are expected to meet these goals for common existing deployments of HTTP; in
particular, Web browsing (desktop and mobile), non-browsers ("HTTP APIs"), Web serving (at a variety of scales), and
intermediation (by proxies, corporate firewalls, "reverse" proxies and Content Delivery Networks). Likewise, current
and future semantic extensions to HTTP/1.x (e.g., headers, methods, status codes, cache directives) should be supported
in HTTP/2.0.
1293
6.4.4
1294
1295
HTTP-REST-API provides easy to understand, scalable, secure APIs for Web service in distributed computing
environments, such as the Internet.
1296
6.4.5
1297
1298
According to the ‘API Directory’ provided by independent web site ‘programableweb.com’, over 6000 RESTful APIs
are published (as of Aug 27th, 2013).
1299
1300
Since API’s value can be enhanced by combined use of other APIs, called ‘mash up’, choosing API to be ‘RESTful’
potentially increase its value as twice or more.
1301
1302
W3C published WADL specification [i.95] to describe HTTP-REST-API. Several tool can generate skeleton codes for
web application from WADL definition.
1303
6.4.6
1304
6.4.6.1
1305
1306
Since HTTP specification are designed to implement RESTful architecture, you can develop robust, secure, scalable
system with HTTP-REST-API.
1307
1308
1309
HTTP-REST-API also can be secured by applying TLS. Unlike other solutions, TLS will not imply the complexity.
Additionally, there are many hardware-based solutions to accelerate crypt graphical processing like load balancer,
embedded co-processor.
1310
6.4.6.2
1311
Both XML and JSON can carry extensible data structures easily.
1312
1313
Even JSON format can transfer same information in smaller size than XML, XML can provide strong message-level
security, like partial encryption and/or digital signature which cannot be provided by JSON.
1314
1315
REST isn't just about JSON or XML though, but any of the media types that the browser or platform can natively
handle with content negotiation mechanism which is part of HTTP specification.
1316
6.4.9
1317
1318
HTTP-REST-API is based Web services are prone to the same vulnerabilities as standard web applications, including
broken authentication, injection attacks, cross-site scripting and cross-site request forgery.
1319
Fortunately, many HTTP security practices can be successfully applied for securing HTTP-REST-API.
Intended Use
Deployment Trend
Key Features
Relevant Instance of RESTful Design
Using XML and JSON
Security
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 32 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1320
1321
The Web Service with HTTP-REST-API can be secured by those rules with configuring a policy, ensuring that access
to the service requires usage of TLS and authorizing service access based on group membership.
1322
6.4.10
1323
HTTP-REST-API depends on HTTP, XML, JSON, and MIME specifications.
1324
6.4.12
1325
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by HTTP as RESTful API is shown in the following clauses:
1326
1327
1328
1329
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and HTTP RESTful APIs
comprise one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several
assumptions about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components.
Thus, only a subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
1330
6.4.12.1
1331
1332
1333
1334
OSR-001,OSR-002,OSR-003,OSR-004, OSR-007,OSR-009,OSR-010, OSR-012,OSR-013,OSR-014,OSR-015,
OSR-017,OSR-019,OSR-020, OSR-021,OSR-022,OSR-023,OSR-024,OSR-025, OSR-027,OSR-029,OSR-030,
OSR-034,OSR-035,OSR-036,OSR-037, OSR-041,OSR-044,OSR-046,OSR-047,OSR-049,OSR-050, OSR-053,
OSR-054,OSR-055,OSR-056,OSR-057,OSR-059, OSR-064,OSR-065,OSR-066,OSR-067, OSR-071,OSR-072
1335
6.4.12.2
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-018, OSR-026,
OSR-069: (Subject to restriction based on Network Operator’s policy)
OSR-016: (possible to implement with long-polling mechanism)
OSR-032,
OSR-070: (there are no standardized ways to Notify, but it could be specified within oneM2M)
1341
6.4.12.3
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
OSR-011,OSR-062,OSR-063,
OSR-069: (Cannot control feature of underlying network)
OSR-031,
OSR-043: (There is no concept of ‘group’)
OSR-033,OSR-040,OSR-045,OSR-048,OSR-060,
OSR-061: (Not applicable)
OSR-038,OSR-039,
OSR-042: (There is no concept of ‘QoS’ )
OSR-051: (Supports only communication with request and response pairs)
OSR-052: (Multicast transport is not supported)
1352
6.5
1353
The following clauses describe the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). [i.6]
1354
6.5.1
1355
1356
1357
XMPP was first proposed by Jabber open source community and later formalized by IETF in RFC3920. It is an open
XML-based protocol for near real-time messaging, presence and request-response services. Several extensions have
been added to achieve other capabilities.
1358
6.5.2
1359
IETF RFCs and drafts:
Dependencies
Support of oneM2M Requirements
Fully Supported requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
XMPP: eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
Background
Status
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 33 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1360
1361
• RFC6120: XMPP: Core (Standards Track RFC. Obsoleted RFC3920) [i.6]. It defines the base XMPP protocol
along with RFC6121.
1362
•
RFC6121: XMPP: Instant Messaging and Presence [i.14]. Standards track RFC (obsoletes RFC 3921)
1363
•
RFC6122: XMPP Address Format (Standards Track) [i.15]. Updates RFC3920
1364
1365
XEP (XMPP Extension Protocol) documents specify extensions to XMPP and are standardized by XSF (XMPP
Standards Foundation, http://xmpp.org/extensions/).
1366
6.5.3
1367
1368
XMPP uses a federated client-server model with multiple interconnected servers as shown in Figure 6.5.1. Each server
is responsible for managing its own domain and works cooperatively with servers of other domains as peers.
1369
1370
1371
XMPP supports Availability for Concurrent Transactions (ACT) style where asynchronous end-to-end exchange of
structured data is carried out using direct and persistent XML streams among a distributed network of globally
addressable, presence aware clients and servers (RFC6120 [i.6]).
Category and Architectural Style
1372
Figure 6.5.1: XMPP Federated Client – Server Model
1373
1374
6.5.4
Intended use
1375
XMPP is intended to be used for P2P, P2M and M2M / IoT purposes.
1376
6.5.5
1377
Millions of users world-wide use XMPP for instant messaging and presence based applications.
1378
1379
1380
List of some servers that support XMPP is given at http://xmpp.org/xmpp-software/servers/. These servers provide
basic messaging, presence and XML routing features. These servers are available for different platforms such as Linux,
Solaris, Windows and Mac OS X.
1381
1382
A list of XMPP clients is available at http://xmpp.org/xmpp-software/clients/. Clients are available for different
platforms such as Linux, Windows, Android, Blackberry, iOS, Mac OS X, J2ME, Palm OS and Browser.
Deployment Trend
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 34 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1383
1384
1385
A list of XMPP software libraries is available at http://xmpp.org/xmpp-software/libraries/. These libraries are
implemented in various languages such as C, C++, Java, Perl, Ruby, PHP, Python, JavaScript, Tcl, Objective C, Flash /
Action Script and C # /.Net/Mono.
1386
XMPP is used by the Jabber messaging client. The first instant messaging service based on XMPP was Jabber.org.
1387
 Jabber is used for text conferencing of IETF meetings.
1388
 Cisco / WebEx uses XMPP.
1389
1390
 Google Talk uses XMPP protocol for instant messaging and presence. It uses extensions of XMPP for VoIP,
video and peer-to-peer communication.
1391
1392
 Microsoft provides XMPP interface to its Microsoft Messenger Service and have XMPP gateways integrated in
their messaging systems.
1393
 Facebook presents an XMPP interface to its clients for its chart feature
1394
6.5.6
Key features
1395
XMPP supports Availability for Concurrent Transactions (ACT) style (RFC6120 [i.6]).
1396
1397
1398
1399
XMPP supports a distributed client server architecture where a client needs to connect with a server to gain access to
network. Only after that, it is allowed to exchange XML stanzas with other entities in the network (e.g. in a different
domain). End-to-end communication is logically peer-to-peer but physically client-to-server, server-to-server and
server-to-client.
1400
TLS (RFC 4492 [i.16]) is supported for encryption purposes (between client – server and server – server).
1401
1402
1403
SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer, RFC 4422 [i.17]) is used for authentication of initiating entity (e.g.
an XMPP client) with the receiving entity (e.g. XMPP server) before the initiating entity is allowed to send XML
stanzas to receiving entity.
1404
Server to server model allows authenticated and secure inter-domain communication.
1405
1406
Each domain is controlled by a server in a decentralized architecture. Each domain owner can define level of security
needed, QoS and policies that are needed for that domain.
1407
Relevant XMPP Extension Protocols (XEPs) include:
1408
1409
1410
 XEP-0016 Privacy Lists [i.18]: It can be used to block communication from some XMPP users. It can be
potentially used for M2M applications as well. In some sense, it allows to implement simple policies to allow
or block access to an M2M device from another M2M device.
1411
 XEP-0030 Service Discovery [i.19]: Allows to discover XMPP entities and features supported by these entities.
1412
 XEP-0045 Multi-user conferencing service. [i.20]
1413
1414
1415
1416
 XEP-0060 Publish-Subscribe service [i.21]. It enables a service to generate notifications and deliver those to
multiple subscribers. It is more generalized than the special form of publish-subscribe model supported by
presence service. Personal Event Profile (XEP-0163) specifies a stripped down profile of pubSub. PublishSubscribe feature helps to support asynchronous communication for IoT / M2M applications.
1417
1418
 XEP-0079 Advanced-Message Processing [i.22]. Allows including message expiration feature. It can be useful
to indicate expiration time for M2M data that is cached.
1419
1420
 XEP-0080: Allows publishing location information [i.23]; Useful to associate location information with M2M
devices.
1421
1422
 XEP-0136 Message Archiving [i.24]: In addition to P2P applications, this can be potentially used for caching
M2M data at an XMPP server.
1423
 XEP-0138 – Supports application layer compression [i.25]; Useful in constrained IoT environment.
1424
 XEP-0149 – Allows XMPP entities to specify time period for state, event or activity [i.26].
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 35 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1425
1426
1427
 Jingle specifications (XEP-0166 [i.27], XEP-0167 [i.28], XEP-0177 [i.29], ….) extend XMPP for initiating and
managing peer-to-peer media sessions between two XMPP entities. It uses XMPP for signalling purposes and
uses different transport methods (such as TCP, UDP, ….) for data plane packets.
1428
 XEP-0198 Reliability, Stream Management Protocol [i.30]
1429
 XEP-0199 : Provides support for application level pings [i.31]
1430
 XEP-0124 [i.32] and XEP-0206 [i.33]: Allows use of HTTP as transport for XML streams.
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
 XEP-0203 [i.34]: In addition to P2P applications, this can potentially be also used for M2M applications. It
allows an XMPP server to store a message if corresponding XMPP client (e.g. an M2M device) is in offline
(e.g. sleep) state and send message as soon as it gets to know that the client / device is available. It gets to
know the status via presence notification as the client / device moves from offline (sleep) state to available
state.
1436
 XEP-0322 Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) Format for XMPP [i.35]. Useful for M2M applications.
1437
1438
1439
 XEP-0323 Sensor data [i.36]: It provides architecture, data structures and basic operations for sensor (M2M)
data communication over XMPP networks. This is designed for implementation in sensors that may have
limited amount of memory or processing power.
1440
 XEP-0324 IoT Provisioning [i.37]
1441
1442
 XEP-0325 Internet of Things – Control [i.38]: It provides mechanism to control actuators in XMPP based sensor
networks.
1443
 XEP-0326 Internet of Things – Concentrators [i.39]
1444
6.5.7
Protocol Stack
1445
1446
1447
As described in RFC6120 [i.6], XMPP is an application profile of XML that enables near real-time exchange of
structured yet extensible data between any two or more network aware entities. An XMPP address (called a Jabber
Identifier or JID) is represented as [email protected]/resourcepart. An example of JID is [email protected]/Laptop.
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
For client-to-server communication, client resolves FQDN of the receiving entity to an IP address and opens a TCP
connection to the advertised port at receiver’s IP address. Channel encryption is optionally supported using TLS and
authentication is done using SASL. After a client authenticates with a server, it binds a specific resource to the stream
so that server can properly address the client. Address for use over that stream is a full Jabber ID of the form
<[email protected]/resource>. Client opens an XML stream over TCP with a server (of its domain) and exchanges
XML stanzas.
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
Here, an XML stream is a container for carrying XML elements between two elements in a network. XML elements in
an XML stream carry XML stanzas (i.e. actual payload message in XML format) or the elements that are used to
negotiate the stream (e.g. for TLS and SASL purposes). Each stream is unidirectional and thus two streams are needed
between an initiating entity and a receiving entity for bidirectional transfer of XML stanzas. An XML stanza is a basic
unit of meaning in XMPP. An XML stream begins with an open tag <stream> and ends with a close tag </stream>.
Each direction of conversation is represented as a streaming XML document that ends when that connection is
terminated. Root node of that streaming document is the <stream/> element.
1461
1462
1463
For server-to-server communication, a server opens an XML stream over TCP with a server of different domain for
inter-server (or inter-domain) communication. Server-to-server streams are typically negotiated in the initialization
phase.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 36 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1464
1465
1466
1467
Figure 6.5.2: XMPP Protocol Stack
There are three core stanza types, <presence/>, <message/> and <iq/>, each with its own semantics. These three core
stanzas are briefly described below:
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
 presence stanza: A basic publish-subscribe mechanism that allows several entities to receive information (about
presence or availability) of a specific entity to which they have subscribed. In an IM application, presence
information of a user’s (or client’s) contacts is displayed in user’s contact list or roster. When a user gets
online, XMPP software announces user’s current status to server of user’s domain and that server informs
user’s contacts about its online status. It is a simple broadcast mechanism in that sense. The server also informs
the presence status of user’s contacts to user. An M2M device if not available for processing some action can
use “do not disturb” to indicate that it is not available.
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
 message stanza: This supports a push mechanism where one entity pushes information to another entity. It
supports real-time as well as delayed (i.e. store and push) delivery of messages. In an IM scenario, the message
typically encapsulates chat data. Messages are also used for group chat, event delivery and notifications.
Message type includes the following: normal, chat, groupchat, headline and error. Message type “headline” is
used to send alert and notifications. Type “chat” is used for Instant Messaging.
1480
1481
1482
1483
For IM, XMPP servers are optimized to handle large number of small messages. As an XMPP server knows
about the availability (or presence) status of XMPP clients, it can quickly take an appropriate decision. It can
either send message to that client quickly if that client is available or can store it in buffer and send as soon as
it gets to know that the client is available. This feature can also be used for M2M purposes.
1484
1485
1486
 IQ (Info/Query) stanza: A request-response mechanism that allows structured exchange of data between an
initiating entity and a requesting entity in a somewhat reliable way. It allows operations such as get (reading),
set (a variable), result and error. Values of type attribute used with IQ stanza are get, result, set and error.
1487
6.5.7.1
XEP-0323 Sensor data
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
XEP-0323 [i.36] describes framework for sensor data exchange in an XMPP based sensor network (SN). Specific
support of XMPP SN feature is indicated by including “urn”xmpp:sn” in the service discovery procedure. A sensor
device, an actuator or a gateway is an example of a node in a sensor network. A Concentrator is a device that handles
multiple nodes (e.g. a node handling multiple sensors) behind it. Field Name is name of a field of sensor data (e.g.
pressure or vibration level). Possible values of Field Type include the following: momentary value, calculated value,
peak value, status value, historical value etc.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 37 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1494
6.5.7.2
XEP-0324 IoT Provisioning
1495
1496
XEP-0324 [i.37], IoT provisioning, deals with access rights, user privileges and provisioning of services in a sensor
network. This architecture uses distributed third parties that provide the following services:
1497
 Control who can communicate with whom (i.e. control friendship)
1498
 Control read access
1499
 Control configure / write access
1500
 Provide a user interface to set / update these policies
1501
 Provide interoperability services (such as unit conversion)
1502
1503
1504
1505
A trust relationship is created between a device and a provisioning server using some mechanisms. A device, client or
user can get a token from a provisioning server that it can use to validate access rights with the server. <iq> stanza with
xmlns ‘urn:xmpp:sn:provisioning’ is used for this purpose. If a device supports provisioning feature, it advertises this
feature in service discovery.
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
If there are multiple provisioning servers, device / client / user has one token from each of the provisioning server.
While sending request to another entity (e.g. read or write some data), it includes all these tokens. As an IoT device
gets a request to read or write some data, it contacts a provisioning server with the tokens provided in the request and
validates access rights of the requesting entity (Figure 6.5.3). As an IoT device gets friendship request from a third
party, it contacts provisioning server and checks whether or not to accept that request. A provisioning server can also
delegate a secondary trust to a device by which that device can add its own friends.
1512
1513
Figure 6.5.3: Validation of access rights during a read or write operation
1514
6.5.7.3
XEP-0325 Internet of Things - Control
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
XEP-0325 [i.38] specifies mechanisms to control actuators in an XMPP based sensor network. <message> or <iq>
stanzas can be used for this purpose. Response from device is suppressed when using <message> stanza but <iq>
stanza can be used if an acknowledgement is needed from the actuator. Operation “Set” and the xmlns
“urn:xmpp:sn:control” are used for this purpose in the message stanza. A control form can also be used to set values for
various fields at the actuator. Actuators behind a concentrator can be controlled by specifying node elements for those
actuators.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 38 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1521
6.5.7.4
XEP-0326 Internet of Things - Concentrators
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
XEP-0326 [i.39] deals with IoT Concentrators. A concentrator is defined to be a device that concentrates management
of a subset of devices (of a sensor network) at a point. A concentrator can be small (e.g. a PLC managing a set of
sensors and actuators), medium (e.g. a branch of a network using a different communication protocol), large (e.g. a subsystem managed by a partner organization) or massive. A concentrator works with multiple data sources where a data
source is defined to contain a collection of nodes. There are three types of data sources: Singular, Flat and Tree. There
is only one node object in a singular data source while a flat data source contains list of node objects. Nodes are
represented in a tree structure in a tree data source. Asynchronous events are sent from a concentrator to each client
that has subscribed to these using message stanzas. A concentrator can also store data from sensors locally (or at a
remote server but controlled locally).
1531
1532
A client that needs to communicate with a concentrator can get type of commands supported by getting capabilities of
the concentrator. The xmlns ‘ ’ is used for this purpose. Some such commands are given below:
1533
 Get all data sources managed by the concentrator,
1534
 Get root data sources,
1535
 Get child data sources (of a root data source),
1536
 Given node id, check to see if a node is supported by a (given) concentrator,
1537
1538
 Get basic information about a node supported by a concentrator (e.g. is it readable? Is it configurable? what are
the parameters supported by a node e.g. location of a meter? etc.)
1539
 Change order of nodes in a tree (by moving nodes up or down among siblings),
1540
 Get and set parameters of a node,
1541
 Create or destroy a node,
1542
 Get commands that are supported by a node,
1543
 Subscribe to changes in data source by allowing devices to register for asynchronous events,
1544
 Allow retrieval of historic events
1545
6.5.8
Data Model
1546
XMPP is based on XML. EXI (Efficient XML Interchange) is also supported for M2M applications.
1547
6.5.9
1548
1549
TLS is supported for encryption of client-to-server and server-to-server communication; its use is optional. A receiving
entity (such as a client or a peer server) can mandate that the initiating entity use TLS for data encryption.
1550
1551
1552
An initiating entity needs to authenticate with the receiving entity before sending XML stanzas. If TLS is used, it is
used before negotiating for SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer Protocol). It helps protect the
authentication information exchanged during SASL negotiation.
1553
6.5.10
Security
Dependencies
1554
 XMPP streams as defined in RFC6120 [i.6] use TCP as transport
1555
 Use of HTTP as transport is allowed as per XEP-0124 [i.32] and XEP-0206 [i.33]
1556
 Uses TLS and SASL for security.
1557
1558
 Jingle extensions use XMPP for signalling but data plane packets are sent over other transport mechanisms such
as TCP, UDP, ….
1559
 XML
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 39 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1560
6.5.11
Benefits and Constraints
1561
1562
1563
XMPP is an open standard. IETF has approved XMPP RFCs for core methods (RFC6121), instant messaging and
presence technology (RFC6121 [i.14]) and address format (RFC6122 [i.15]). XMPP standard foundation and IETF
continue to extend this.
1564
6.5.11.1
Benefits
1565
1566
 XMPP is easily extensible. It provides basic set of features that can be expanded by protocol extensions (XEPs)
to provide new set of features.
1567
1568
 Resource location is specified in the address itself and that makes it easy to identify different resources of an
XMPP user.
1569
1570
1571
1572
 XMPP is already used by some devices for IM applications. In that sense, it improves Person-to-Machine (P2M)
communication as user is able to directly interact with smart object running XMPP. It does not necessarily
require use of protocol gateways as may be needed with CoAP (e.g. for HTTP to CoAP conversion) and
MQTT.
1573
1574
 It supports a federated client-server architecture where no (global) centralized server is needed. Anyone with a
domain name can run an XMPP server on its own domain. Public XMPP servers are available for everyone.
1575
 Support of message, presence and IQ stanza types helps meet needs of several IoT applications.
1576
1577
 As it uses “store and push” mechanism to transfer data, it can store contents if the receiving entity is offline (e.g.
if IoT device is in sleep mode).
1578
 <xml:lang> common attribute enables internationalization.
1579
 An XMPP address (or JID) can include any Unicode character and is not restricted to ASCII characters.
1580
1581
 Some of the existing mechanisms (such as publish-subscribe, caching, delayed delivery, support for EXI, etc.)
are applicable for IoT use cases as well.
1582
6.5.11.2
Constraints
1583
 Use of TCP may not be desirable for some IoT segments.
1584
 Overhead may be high if XML data is used but EXI extensions available for IoT applications.
1585
6.5.12
Support of oneM2M requirements
1586
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by XMPP is shown in the following clauses:
1587
1588
1589
1590
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and XMPP comprises one
aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several assumptions about
system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components. Thus, only a
subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
1591
6.5.12.1
1592
1593
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-008, OSR-009, OSR-010, OSR-012, OSR-014, OSR-015, OSR-024, OSR-025,
OSR-026, OSR-028, OSR-047, OSR-048, OSR-049, OSR-053, OSR-058, SER-002, SER-003, SER-009, NFR-002.
1594
6.5.12.2
1595
1596
1597
1598
OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-009, OSR-011, OSR-013, OSR-016, OSR-017, OSR-018, OSR-019, OSR-020,
OSR-021, OSR-022, OSR-023, OSR-027, OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-031, OSR-032, OSR-033, OSR-034, OSR-035,
OSR-036, OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-039, OSR-040, OSR-041, OSR-042, OSR-043, OSR-044, OSR-045, OSR-054,
OSR-057, OSR-063, OSR-064, SER-008.
Fully Supported Requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 40 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1599
1600
OSR-060 (depends on other components in an M2M system where XMPP is being used),
OSR-061 (depends on other components in an M2M system where XMPP is being used),
1601
6.6
1602
The following clauses describe the WebSocket Protocol.
1603
6.6.1
1604
1605
The HTTP protocol is widely used for Web Services in different ways. One of those usages is standardized as
WebSocket Protocol.
1606
1607
WebSocket Protocol provides an alternative way to ‘HTTP polling’ for two-way communication, which transmits data
with upgrading established HTTP connection with remote host.
1608
1609
WebSocket Protocol was originally introduced as part of HTML5 specification, but later the transport protocol
specification was standardized as the extension for HTTP in IETF.
1610
6.6.2
1611
WebSocket Protocol specification is published as RFC6455 [i.40] (PROPOSED STANDARD) by the IETF in 2011.
1612
SIP over WebSocket and XMPP over WebSocket are under development.
1613
6.6.4
1614
1615
WebSocket Protocol provides relatively simple transport for two-way communication with remote host, which can
coexist with HTTP and deployed HTTP infrastructure.
1616
1617
Unlike HTTP 2.0, which also possible to two-way communication over HTTP connection, WebSocket is designed for
use in Ajax applications.
1618
6.6.5
1619
Following are some of implementations which include WebSocket support:
1620
6.6.5.1
WebSocket Protocol
Background
Status
Intended use
Deployment Trend
Server-Side Implementations
1621
 Apache Tomcat 7 (or later)
1622
 Jetty 8 (or later)
1623
 Tornado
1624
 em-websocket (Ruby)
1625
 gevent-websocket (Python)
1626
 Node.js
1627
6.6.5.2
Client-Side Implementations
1628
 Google Chrome 14.0 (or later)
1629
 Firefox 10.0 (or later)
1630
 Safari 6.0 (or later)
1631
 Internet Explorer 10.0 (or later)
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 41 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1632
 Cordova (AKA PhoneGap)
1633
6.6.6
Key features
1634
NOTE: The following text is excerpted from Section “1.5 Design Philosophy” of RFC6455 [i.40]
1635
1636
1637
1638
The WebSocket Protocol is designed on the principle that there should be minimal framing (the only framing that exists
is to make the protocol frame-based instead of stream-based and to support a distinction between Unicode text and
binary frames). It is expected that metadata would be layered on top of WebSocket by the application layer, in the same
way that metadata is layered on top of TCP by the application layer (e.g., HTTP).
1639
Conceptually, WebSocket is really just a layer on top of TCP that does the following:
1640
 adds a web origin-based security model for browsers
1641
1642
 adds an addressing and protocol naming mechanism to support multiple services on one port and multiple host
names on one IP address
1643
1644
 layers a framing mechanism on top of TCP to get back to the IP packet mechanism that TCP is built on, but
without length limits
1645
1646
 includes an additional closing handshake in-band that is designed to work in the presence of proxies and other
intermediaries
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
Other than that, WebSocket adds nothing. Basically it is intended to be as close to just exposing raw TCP to script as
possible given the constraints of the Web. It's also designed in such a way that its servers can share a port with HTTP
servers, by having its handshake be a valid HTTP Upgrade request. One could conceptually use other protocols to
establish client-server messaging, but the intent of WebSockets is to provide a relatively simple protocol that can
coexist with HTTP and deployed HTTP infrastructure (such as proxies) and that is as close to TCP as is safe for use
with such infrastructure given security considerations, with targeted additions to simplify usage and keep simple things
simple (such as the addition of message semantics).
1654
The protocol is intended to be extensible; future versions will likely introduce additional concepts such as multiplexing.
1655
6.6.9
1656
Security feature on WebSocket can be independent, but HTTP can provide necessary protections in the transport layer.
1657
6.6.10
Security
Dependencies
1658
 WebSocket Protocol depends on HTTP (1.1 or later) protocol.
1659
 TCP stack should be provided for HTTP communication.
1660
6.6.11
1661
6.6.11.1
Benefits and Constraints
Benefits
1662
 Allowing co-existence with existing Web infrastructures
1663
 Reuse security solutions which is applied on HTTP Servers
1664
 HTML5 browser can supports WebSocket natively (seamless integration on HTTP based application)
1665
6.6.11.2
Constraints
1666
 Leaving WebSocket connection opened for long time periods may cause DoS attack risk
1667
 Server-side WebSocket implementation can host limited number of connections
1668
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 42 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1669
6.7
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
This clause outline the background and practical use and characteristics of Bluetooth® with particular focus on the
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) version that is well-suited to M2M type of applications. There is also a description of the
application layer and attribute protocol based on the GATT (Generic Attribute Profile) interactions and data structure
(Services and Characteristics), that is included in the Bluetooth Smart version 4.0. Finally the GATT although a general
purpose solution and well specified to be interoperable is not immediately available of plain HTTP. For this reason
there is a host of developer resources provided by the Bluetooth SIG developer portal that outline how to develop for
Bluetooth Low Energy and GATT for various popular OS and platforms. A more recent activity (Whitepaper,
publication in process) also present a practical method to transfer and interact with GATT devices using HTTP and
JSON data over Internet and Web.
1679
6.7.1
1680
1681
Bluetooth® technology is a wireless communications system intended to replace the cables connecting electronic
devices. Bluetooth technology is powerful, low energy and lower in cost to make your development faster and easier.
1682
1683
1684
The Bluetooth Core System consists of an RF transceiver, baseband, and protocol stack. The system offers services
enabling the connection of devices and the exchange of a variety of classes of data between these devices. Many
features of the core specification are optional, allowing product differentiation.
1685
1686
1687
The most recent enhancement, Bluetooth v4.0, is like three specifications in one—Classic Bluetooth technology,
Bluetooth low energy technology, and Bluetooth high speed technology—all of which can be combined or used
separately in different devices according to their functionality.
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
To use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles. Bluetooth profiles
are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviours that Bluetooth enabled devices use to
communicate with other Bluetooth devices. There is a wide range of Bluetooth profiles describing many different types
of applications or use cases for devices. By following the guidance provided by the Bluetooth specification, developers
can create applications to work with other Bluetooth devices.
1693
6.7.2
1694
1695
1696
When the Bluetooth® SIG announced the formal adoption of Bluetooth Core Specification version 4.0, it included the
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) feature. This final step in the adoption process opened the door for qualification of all
Bluetooth product types to version 4.0.
1697
1698
1699
1700
Bluetooth v.1.2 is endorsed and ratified as IEEE 802.15.1; this is based on the standard issued in 2005). Recent
versions of Bluetooth now known as 4.0 – or “Bluetooth Smart” are openly & publically available thought the
Bluetooth SIG. The specifications may be endorsed ratified & published. Publication is an option, if preferred by an
SDO or partnership project. The Bluetooth SIG is encourages direct liaison with oneM2M.
1701
1702
1703
The Bluetooth SIG considers that Version 4.0 Bluetooth Smart is frozen and stable. It is being tested against devices for
conformance, and new profiles are being added. However the core specification is being used and updated toward
version 4.1
1704
6.7.2.1
1705
1706
1707
1708
Bluetooth® Core Specification 4.1 [i.91] is an important evolutionary update to the Bluetooth Core Specification. It
rolls up adopted Bluetooth Core Specification Addenda (CSA 1, 2, 3 & 4) while adding new features and benefits as
well. Bluetooth 4.1 improves usability for consumers, empowers innovation for product developers and extends the
technology's foundation as an essential link for the Internet of Things.
1709
6.7.2.2
1710
1711
Bluetooth 4.1 extends the Bluetooth brand promise to provide consumers with a simple experience that "just works."
Major usability updates come in three areas:
1712
1713
Bluetooth® Wireless Technology
Background
Status
Bluetooth Core Specification 4.1
Improving Usability - Bluetooth 4.1
 Coexistence — engineered to work seamlessly and cooperatively with the latest generation cellular technologies
like LTE. Bluetooth and LTE radios can communicate in order to ensure transmissions are coordinated and
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 43 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1714
1715
therefore reduce the possibility of near-band interference. The coordination between the two technologies
happens automatically, while the consumer experiences the high quality they expect.
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
 Better Connections — provides manufacturers with more control over creating and maintaining Bluetooth
connections by making the reconnection time interval flexible and variable. This improves the consumer
experience by allowing devices to reconnect automatically when they are in proximity of one another. The
consumer can leave the room and upon returning, two recently used devices reconnect without user
intervention.
1721
1722
1723
 Improved Data Transfer — Bluetooth Smart technology provides bulk data transfer. For example, through this
new capability, sensors, which gathered data during a run, bike ride or swim, transfer that data more efficiently
when the consumer returns home.
1724
1725
The latest Bluetooth 4.1 technical details, tools and other information including a brand guide, visit:
https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications.
1726
6.7.3
1727
1728
1729
1730
The Bluetooth® core system covers the four lowest layers and associated protocols defined by the Bluetooth
specification as well as one common service layer protocol, the service discovery protocol (SDP) and the overall profile
requirements specified in the generic access profile (GAP). A complete Bluetooth application requires a number of
additional services and higher layer protocols defined in the Bluetooth specification.
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
To use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles. Bluetooth profiles
are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviours that Bluetooth enabled devices use to
communicate with other Bluetooth devices. There is a wide range of Bluetooth profiles describing many different types
of applications or use cases for devices. By following the guidance provided by the Bluetooth specification, developers
can create applications to work with other Bluetooth devices.
1736
At a minimum, each Bluetooth profile contains information on the following topics:
Category and Architectural Style
1737
 Dependencies on other profiles
1738
 Suggested user interface formats
1739
1740
1741
 Specific parts of the Bluetooth protocol stack used by the profile. To perform its task, each profile uses particular
options and parameters at each layer of the stack and this may include, if appropriate, an outline of the required
service record
1742
6.7.4
Intended use - Personal Area Network protocols
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) technology allows enhancement of devices like watches, toothbrushes or toys with
Bluetooth wireless technology. It also provides the ability for developers to incorporate new functionalities into devices
already enabled by Bluetooth technology such as sports & fitness, health care, human interface (HIDs) and
entertainment devices. For example, sensors in pedometers and glucose monitors will only run low energy technology.
These single mode devices benefit from the power savings provided by v4.0 as well as the low cost implementation.
Watches take advantage of both low energy technology while collecting data from body-worn fitness sensors and
Classic Bluetooth technology when sending that information to a PC, or displaying caller ID information when
wirelessly connected to a smartphone. Smartphones and PCs, which support the widest range of use cases for the
specification, utilizing the full dual-mode package with Classic, low energy and high speed versions of the technology
running side by side.
1753
6.7.5
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
Originally intended to be a wireless replacement for cables on phones, headsets, keyboards and mice, Bluetooth
technology now goes way beyond that. Bluetooth technology is bringing everyday devices into a digital and connected
world. In the health and fitness market, the use cases vary widely — from sensors that monitor activity levels to medical
and wellness devices that monitor healthcare, like a glucometer, inhaler or toothbrush. The top-selling Smartphones,
PCs and tablets all support Bluetooth technology. In-vehicle systems give the ability to make phone calls, send texts,
and even make dinner reservations. The Bluetooth SIG is also seeing developments where drivers will monitor
important information like vehicle diagnostics, traffic, even driver health — all in real time. Bluetooth technology is
creating opportunities for companies to develop solutions that make a consumer's life better.
Deployment Trend - Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart (low energy)
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 44 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready are extensions of the original Bluetooth brand introduced in 2011. The
Smart and Smart Ready designations indicate compatibility of products using the low energy feature of the Bluetooth
v4.0 specification. A Bluetooth Smart Ready product connects to both classic Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart low
energy products. By contrast, a Bluetooth Smart product collects data and runs for months or years on a tiny battery.
Think of a Smart product as a sensor that works for a long time without changing the battery (like a fitness heart rate
monitor) and a Smart Ready product as a collector (like a smart phone or tablet receiving the information and displaying
it in an application).
1769
6.7.5.1
1770
1771
1772
When the Bluetooth® SIG announced the formal adoption of Bluetooth Core Specification version 4.0, it included the
hallmark Bluetooth Smart (low energy) feature. This final step in the adoption process opened the door for qualification
of all Bluetooth product types to version 4.0.
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) technology allows it to be included in devices like watches, toothbrushes or toys to
enable the connectivity using Bluetooth wireless technology. It also provides the ability for developers to incorporate
new functionalities into devices already enabled by Bluetooth technology such as sports & fitness, health care, human
interface (HIDs) and entertainment devices. For example, sensors in pedometers and glucose monitors will only run low
energy technology. These single mode devices benefit from the power savings provided by v4.0 as well as the low cost
implementation. Watches take advantage of both low energy technology while collecting data from body-worn fitness
sensors and Classic Bluetooth technology when sending that information to a PC, or displaying caller ID information
when wirelessly connected to a smartphone. Smartphones and PCs, which support the widest range of use cases for the
specification, utilizing the full dual-mode package with Classic, low energy and high speed versions of the technology
running side by side.
1783
6.7.5.2
1784
1785
1786
1787
Bluetooth high speed wireless technology delivers new opportunities in the home entertainment and consumer
electronics markets. By enabling wireless users to quickly send video, music and other large files between devices,
Bluetooth high speed wireless technology provides a richer experience while maintaining the same familiar user
interface.
1788
Key features of Bluetooth high speed wireless technology include:
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) Technology
Bluetooth High Speed Wireless Technology
1789
1790
 Power Optimization. The new Bluetooth technology reduces power consumption. The high speed radio is used
only when necessary, which means longer battery life for your devices
1791
1792
1793
 Improved Security. The Generic Alternate MAC/PHY in Bluetooth high speed enables the radio to discover
other high speed devices only when they are needed in the transfer of music, video and other large data files.
This decreases power consumption and increases radio security
1794
1795
1796
 Enhanced Power Control. Drop-out reduction is now a reality: enhanced Bluetooth technology makes power
control faster and reduces the impact of a power or signal loss. Users are now less likely to experience a
dropped headset connection – even when a phone is deep inside a coat pocket or tote
1797
1798
 Lower Latency Rates. Unicast Connectionless Data (UCD) improves the user’s speed experience by moving
small amounts of data faster, which lowers latency rates
1799
6.7.5.3
Enabling the Internet of Things
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
By adding a standard means to create a dedicated channel, which could be used for IPv6 communications in the Core
Specification, the groundwork is laid for future protocols providing IP connectivity. With the rapid market adoption of
Bluetooth Smart and the coming addition of IP connectivity, all signs point to Bluetooth as a fundamental wireless link
in the Internet of Things. These updates make it possible for Bluetooth Smart sensors to also use IPv6, giving
developers and OEMs the flexibility they need to ensure connectivity and compatibility
1805
6.7.6
Key features
1806
 Bluetooth wireless technology is geared towards voice and data applications
1807
 Bluetooth wireless technology operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz spectrum
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 45 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1808
1809
1810
1811
 The range of Bluetooth wireless technology is application specific. The Bluetooth Specification mandates
operation over a minimum distance of 10 meters or 100 meters depending on the Bluetooth device class, but
there is not a range limit for the technology. Manufacturers may tune their implementations to support the
distance required by the use case they are enabling.
1812
 The peak data rate with EDR is 3 Mbps
1813
1814
NOTE: The term Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8DPSK schemes, each giving 2
and 3 Mbit/s respectively
1815
 EDR Profiles in steps 10 to 100 meters.
1816
 Bluetooth wireless technology is able to penetrate solid objects
1817
 Bluetooth technology is omni-directional and does not require line-of-sight positioning of connected devices
1818
1819
 Security has always been and continues to be a priority in the development of the Bluetooth specification. The
Bluetooth specification allows for three modes of security, see below for security.
1820
 Bluetooth 4.1 provides a Developer Toolkit.
1821
 A single device may act as both a Bluetooth Smart peripheral and a Bluetooth Smart Ready hub at the same time.
1822
1823
1824
 Coexistence — engineered to work seamlessly and cooperatively with the latest generation cellular technologies
like LTE. Bluetooth and LTE radios may communicate in order to ensure transmissions are coordinated and
therefore reduce the possibility of near-band interference.
1825
1826
 Better Connections — provides manufacturers with more control over creating and maintaining Bluetooth
connections by making the reconnection time interval flexible and variable.
1827
 Improved Data Transfer — Bluetooth Smart technology provides bulk data transfer.
1828
1829
 Adding a standard means to create a dedicated channel the adoption of Bluetooth Smart and the IP connectivity
makes Bluetooth a fundamental wireless link in the Internet of Things.
1830
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) wireless technology features:
1831
 Ultra-low peak, average and idle mode power very low consumption
1832
 Ability to run for years on standard coin-cell batteries
1833
 Multi-vendor interoperability
1834
 Enhanced range (EDR Profiles in steps 10 to 100+ meters).
1835
Technology
Bluetooth BR/EDR/HS Technology
Bluetooth Low Energy Technology
Radio Frequency
2.4 GHz ISM
2.4 GHz ISM
Range
10 to 100 meters
10 to 100+ meters
Data Rate
1-3 Mbps (Classic) >400 Mbps (AMP, 802.11n)
1 Mbps
Nodes/Active
Slaves
7 / 16777184
Unlimited
Security
56b E0 (classic)/128b AES (AMP) and
applications layer user defined
128b AES and application layer user defined
Robustness
Adaptive frequency hopping,
FEC Adaptive frequency hopping
Latency (from
non-connected
state)
100ms
<3ms
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 46 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
Regulatory
Acceptance
Worldwide
Worldwide
Voice Capable
Yes
No
Network
Topology
Scatternet
Star-bus
Power
Consumption
1 as the reference, x10 for AMP
0.01 to 0.5 (use case dependent)
Service
Discovery
Yes
Yes
1836
Table 6.7.1: Table of Bluetooth capabilities
1837
6.7.7
Protocol Stack
1838
1839
1840
The Bluetooth 4.0 specification uses a service-based architecture based on the attribute protocol (ATT). All
communication in low energy takes place over the Generic Attribute Profile (GATT). An application or another profile
uses the GATT profile so a client and server can interact in a structured way.
1841
1842
1843
The server contains a number of attributes, and the GATT Profile defines how to use the Attribute Protocol to discover,
read, write and obtain indications. These features support a service-based architecture. The services are used as defined
in the profile specifications. GATT enables to expose service and characteristics defined in the profile specification.
1844
The GATT profile is also part of the core and defined in the core specification.
1845
1846
Profiles: The first specification of Bluetooth 4.0 low energy wireless technology included profiles to optimize its
functionality for a specific group of products.
1847
1848
1849
Adopted GATT based Bluetooth Profiles and Services: The GATT architecture makes it easy to both create and
implement new profiles. Many new profiles are under development so this continues to grow. The simplicity of
implementing the profiles contributes to a rapid growth of applications and embedded devices supporting these.
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) is built on top of the Attribute Protocol (ATT) and establishes common operations
and a framework for the data transported and stored by the Attribute Protocol. GATT defines two roles: Server and
Client. The GATT roles are not necessarily tied to specific GAP roles and but may be specified by higher layer profiles.
GATT and ATT are not transport specific and can be used in both BR/EDR and LE. However, GATT and ATT are
mandatory to implement in LE since it is used for discovering services
1855
1856
1857
1858
The GATT server stores the data transported over the Attribute Protocol and accepts Attribute Protocol requests,
commands and confirmations from the GATT client. The GATT server sends responses to requests and when
configured, sends indication and notifications asynchronously to the GATT client when specified events occur on the
GATT server. GATT also specifies the format of data contained on the GATT server.
1859
1860
1861
Attributes, as transported by the Attribute Protocol, are formatted as services and characteristics. Services may contain a
collection of characteristics. Characteristics contain a single value and any number of descriptors describing the
characteristic value.
1862
1863
1864
With the defined structure of services, characteristics and characteristic descriptors a GATT client that is not specific to
a profile can still traverse the GATT server and display characteristic values to the user. The characteristic descriptors
can be used to display descriptions of the characteristic values that may make the value understandable by the user.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 47 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1865
1866
1867
1868
Figure 6.7: Bluetooth Protocol Architecture
Below are links to the specifications for the current list of profiles supported by GATT in the above protocol
architecture.
GATT-Based Specifications (Qualifiable)
Adopted Versions
ANP
Alert Notification Profile
1.0
ANS
Alert Notification Service
1.0
BAS
Battery Service
1.0
BLP
Blood Pressure Profile
1.0
BLS
Blood Pressure Service
1.0
CPP
Cycling Power Profile
1.0
CPS
Cycling Power Service
1.0
CSCP
Cycling Speed and Cadence Profile
1.0
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 48 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
CSCS
Cycling Speed and Cadence Service
1.0
CTS
Current Time Service
1.0
DIS
Device Information Service
1.0
FMP
Find Me Profile
1.0
GLP
Glucose Profile
1.0
GLS
Glucose Service
1.0
HIDS
HID Service
1.0
HOGP
HID over GATT Profile
1.0
HTP
Health Thermometer Profile
1.0
HTS
Health Thermometer Service
1.0
HRP
Heart Rate Profile
1.0
HRS
Heart Rate Service
1.0
IAS
Immediate Alert Service
1.0
LLS
Link Loss Service
1.0
LNP
Location and Navigation Profile
1.0
LNS
Location and Navigation Service
1.0
NDCS
Next DST Change Service
1.0
PASP
Phone Alert Status Profile
1.0
PASS
Phone Alert Status Service
1.0
PXP
Proximity Profile
1.0
RSCP
Running Speed and Cadence Profile
1.0
RSCS
Running Speed and Cadence Service
1.0
RTUS
Reference Time Update Service
1.0
ScPP
Scan Parameters Profile
1.0
ScPS
Scan Parameters Service
1.0
TIP
Time Profile
1.0
TPS
Tx Power Service
1.0
1869
Table 6.7.2: List of Profiles
1870
1871
The link layer provides low power idle mode operation, simple device discovery and reliable point-to-multipoint data
transfer with advanced power-save and encryption functionalities.
1872
1873
The following table is a list of the Basic rate/Enhanced Data rate technology profiles adopted in Bluetooth version 4.1
that may be found at https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications.
1874

BR/EDR Profiles
Description
A2DP
describes how stereo quality audio can be streamed from a media source
to a sink.
Advanced Audio Distribution
Profile
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 49 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
AVRCP
Audio/Video Remote Control
Profile
is designed to provide a standard interface to control TVs, stereo audio
equipment, or other A/V devices. This profile allows a single remote
control (or other device) to control all A/V equipment to which a user has
access.
BIP
Basic Imaging Profile
defines how an imaging device can be remotely controlled, how an
imaging device may print, and how an imaging device can transfer
images to a storage device.
BPP
Basic Printing Profile
allows devices to send text, e-mails, v-cards, images or other information
to printers based on print jobs.
DI
Device ID Profile
provides additional information above and beyond the Bluetooth Class of
Device and to incorporate the information into both the Service
Discovery Profile (SDP) record and the EIR response.
DUN
Dial-Up Network Profile
provides a standard to access the Internet and other dial-up services via
Bluetooth technology.
FTP
File Transfer Profile
defines how folders and files on a server device can be browsed by a
client device.
GAVDP
Generic Audio/Video
Distribution Profile
provides the basis for A2DP and VDP, which are the basis of the systems
designed for distributing video and audio streams using Bluetooth
technology.
GOEP
Generic Object Profile
is used to transfer an object from one device to another.
HFP
Hands-Free Profile
HFP describes how a gateway device can be used to place and receive
calls for a hand-free device.
HCRP
Hard Copy Cable
Replacement Profile
defines how driver-based printing is accomplished over a Bluetooth
wireless link.
HDP
Health Device Profile
enables Healthcare and Fitness device usage models.
HSP
Headset Profile
describes how a Bluetooth enabled headset should communicate with a
Bluetooth enabled device.
HID
Human Interface Device
Profile
defines the protocols, procedures and features to be used by Bluetooth
keyboards, mice, pointing and gaming devices and remote monitoring
devices.
MAP
Message Access Profile
defines a set of features and procedures to exchange messages between
devices.
MPS
Multi Profile
defines a set of features and procedures between Multiple Profiles Single
Device and Multiple Profiles Multiple Devices
OPP
Object Push Profile
defines the roles of push server and push client.
PBAP
Phone Book Access Profile
defines the procedures and protocols to exchange Phone Book objects
between devices.
PAN
Personal Area Networking
Profile
describes how two or more Bluetooth enabled devices can form an adhoc network and how the same mechanism can be used to access a
remote network through a network access point.
SAP
SIM Access Profile
defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used to access a GSM
SIM card, a UICC card or an R-UIM card via a Bluetooth link.
SDAP
Service Discovery
Application Profile
describes how an application should use SDP to discover services on a
remote device.
SPP
Service Port Profile
defines how to set-up virtual serial ports and connect two Bluetooth
enabled devices.
SYNC
Synchronization Profile
used in conjunction with GOEP to enable synchronization of calendar
and address information (personal information manager (PIM) items)
between Bluetooth enabled devices.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 50 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
VDP
Video Distribution Profile
1875
1876
1877
defines how a Bluetooth enabled device streams video over Bluetooth
wireless technology.
Table 6.7.3: List of BR/EDR Profiles
The following table is a list of the Core Bluetooth specification version 4.1 that may be found at
https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-specifications.
Specification
Adopted Date
Notes
Core Specification Addendum (CSA) 4
12 February 2013
Refer to the Mixing of Specification Versions Part
for applicability
Core Specification Supplement (CSS) v3
12 February 2013
Core Specification Addendum (CSA) 3
24 July 2012
Refer to the Mixing of Specification Versions Part
for applicability
Core Specification Addendum (CSA) 2
27 December 2011
Refer to the Mixing of Specification Versions Part
for applicability
Core Specification Supplement (CSS) v4
03 December 2013
Core Version 4.1
03 December 2013
1878
Table 6.7.4: Bluetooth Core Specifications
1879
1880
For the latest Bluetooth 4.1 technical details, tools, visit: https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adoptedspecifications.
1881
6.7.7.1
1882
1883
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) wireless technology contains two equally important implementation alternatives: single
mode and dual mode:
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) Single mode and dual mode
1884
1885
 Small devices like watches and sports sensors use the single mode Bluetooth Smart (low energy)
implementation.
1886
 Dual mode implementations use parts of the Bluetooth hardware, sharing one physical radio and antenna.
1887
6.7.8
Data Model
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
The GATT Profile specifies the structure in which profile data is exchanged. This structure defines basic elements such
as services and characteristics, used in a profile. The top level of the hierarchy is a profile. A profile is composed of one
or more services necessary to fulfil a use case. A service is composed of characteristics or references to other services.
Each characteristic contains a value and may contain optional information about the value. The service and
characteristic and the components of the characteristic (i.e., value and descriptors) contain the profile data and are all
stored in attributes on the server.
1894
1895
1896
A service is a collection of data and associated behaviours to accomplish a particular function or feature of a device or
portions of a device. A service may reference other primary or secondary services and/or a set of characteristics that
make up the service.
1897
1898
1899
There are two types of services: primary and secondary. A primary service provides the primary functionality of a
device. A secondary service provides auxiliary functionality of a device and is referenced from at least one primary
service on the device.
1900
1901
1902
1903
To maintain backward compatibility with earlier clients, later revisions of a service definition can only add new
referenced services or optional characteristics. Later revisions of a service definition are also forbidden from changing
behaviours from previous revision of the service definition. Services may be used in one or more profiles to fulfil a
particular use case.
1904
1905
A referenced service is a method incorporating another service definition on the server as part of the service referencing
it. When a service references another service, the entire referenced service becomes part of the new service including
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 51 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1906
1907
any nested referenced services and characteristics. The referenced service still exists as an independent service. There
are no limits to the depth of nested references.
1908
1909
1910
1911
A characteristic is a value used in a service along with properties and configuration information about how the value is
accessed and information about how the value is displayed or represented. A characteristic definition contains a
characteristic declaration, characteristic properties, and a value. It may also contain descriptors that describe the value
or permit configuration of the server with respect to the characteristic value.
1912
6.7.9
1913
1914
1915
Bluetooth® Smart (low energy) technology has some security differences with respect to BR/EDR security features
such as Secure Simple Pairing. The association models are similar to Secure Simple Pairing from the user perspective
and have the same names but differences in the quality of the protection provided.
1916
1917
The overall goal of keeping the cost of the controller and the complexity of a slave device to a minimum was used in
making compromises on security capabilities in Bluetooth Smart (low energy) technology.
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) technology uses three association models referred to as Just Works, Out of Band and
Passkey Entry. Bluetooth low energy technology does not have an equivalent of Numeric Comparison. Each of these
association models is similar to Secure Simple Pairing with the following exception; Just Works and Passkey Entry do
not provide any passive eavesdropping protection. This is because Secure Simple Pairing uses Elliptic Curve DiffieHellman and Bluetooth Smart (low energy) does not. The use of each association model is based on the I/O capabilities
of the devices in a similar manner as Secure Simple Pairing.
1924
1925
1926
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) technology supports a feature that reduces the ability to track a Bluetooth device over a
period of time by changing the address on a frequent basis. The privacy feature is not used in the GAP discovery mode
and procedures but it is used when supported during connection mode and connection procedures.
1927
6.7.10
1928
1929
1930
1931
Support for IPv4 & IPv6, is provided in Bluetooth smart version 4.0 & 4.1, as it is globally accepted with worldwide
regulatory approval the radio availability & lack of interference make it an ideal technology, as a short range radio
access network to IP. The updates in version 4.1 & beyond make it possible for Bluetooth Smart sensors to also use
IPv6, giving developers and OEMs the flexibility they need to ensure connectivity and compatibility.
1932
6.7.11
1933
1934
Bluetooth Smart (low energy) wireless technology contains two equally important implementation alternatives: single
mode and dual mode:
Security
Dependencies
Benefits and Constraints
1935
1936
 Small devices like watches and sports sensors use the single mode Bluetooth Smart (low energy)
implementation.
1937
 Dual mode implementations use parts of the Bluetooth hardware, sharing one physical radio and antenna.
1938
1939
1940
1941
Bluetooth high speed wireless technology delivers new opportunities in the home entertainment and consumer
electronics markets. By enabling wireless users to quickly send video, music and other large files between devices,
Bluetooth high speed wireless technology provides a richer experience while maintaining the same familiar user
interface.
1942
6.7.11.1
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
Bluetooth 4.1 extends the Bluetooth Smart development environment by providing product and application developers
with even more flexibility to enable the creation of products that can take on multiple roles. With this new capability, a
single device acts as both a Bluetooth Smart peripheral and a Bluetooth Smart Ready hub at the same time. For
example, a smart watch acts as a hub gathering information from a Bluetooth Smart heart rate monitor while
simultaneously acting as a peripheral to a smartphone — displaying new message notifications from the phone.
1948
Bluetooth 4.1 delivers this type of flexibility to Bluetooth Smart devices and application developers.
1949
1950
By adding a standard means to create a dedicated channel, which could be used for IPv6 communications in the Core
Specification, the groundwork is laid for future protocols providing IP connectivity. With the rapid market adoption of
Benefits
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 52 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1951
1952
Bluetooth Smart and the coming addition of IP connectivity, all signs point to Bluetooth as a fundamental wireless link
in the Internet of Things.
1953
1954
1955
 Coexistence — engineered to work seamlessly and cooperatively with the latest generation cellular technologies
like LTE. Bluetooth and LTE radios may communicate in order to ensure transmissions are coordinated and
therefore reduce the possibility of near-band interference.
1956
1957
 Better Connections — provides manufacturers with more control over creating and maintaining Bluetooth
connections by making the reconnection time interval flexible and variable.
1958
 Improved Data Transfer — Bluetooth Smart technology provides bulk data transfer.
1959
1960
 Adding a standard means to create a dedicated channel the adoption of Bluetooth Smart and the IP connectivity
makes Bluetooth a fundamental wireless link in the Internet of Things.
1961
6.7.11.2
Constraints
1962
1963
1964
The capabilities & constraints are summarized in Table 6.7.1 (above): Table of Bluetooth capabilities, above. Unicast
between paired devices, Multicast not supported to groups of paired devices. Not intended to replace access & core
network protocols.
1965
6.7.12
1966
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by Bluetooth is shown in the following clauses:
1967
1968
1969
1970
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and Bluetooth comprises
one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several assumptions
about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components. Thus, only a
subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
1971
6.7.12.1
1972
1973
1974
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-004, OSR-008, OSR-009, OSR-012, OSR-014, OSR-016, OSR-019, OSR-024,
OSR-25, OSR-26, OSR-028, OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-031, OSR-034, OSR-035, OSR-037, OSR-040, OSR-041,
OSR-047, OSR-050, OSR-058, OSR-060, OSR-061, OSR-062, OSR-070, SER-002, SER-003, SER-008, SER-009
1975
6.7.12.2
1976
1977
OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-010, OSR-011, OSR-013, OSR-015, OSR-017, OSR-020, OSR-032, OSR-033,
OSR-038, OSR-039, OSR-042, SER-004, SER-005
1978
6.7.12.3
1979
1980
OSR-018 (this is for cellular devices) not in scope of Bluetooth,
OSR-022, OSR-044, OSR-045, & OSR-044 Bluetooth is a capilary access,
1981
1982
1983
SER-004 to SER-006
(These requirements are for UICC based devices. Some enhancements are needed for support of UICC based devices
with Bluetooth, these are proposed in the coming Bluetooth release.)
1984
6.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
Data Distribution Service (DDS) for Real-Time Systems is a peer-to-peer publish/subscribe communications service for
real-time and non-real-time data. DDS is comprised of a standardized application API known as Data Centric Publish
Subscribe (DCPS) and a standardized wire protocol called Real Time Publish Subscribe (RTPS). The standardized
interfaces provide for both vendor and platform independent middleware implementations. In order to be more concise
we shall be using the term DDS all of these protocols and interfaces and be specific about DCPS, RTPS when
appropriate.
Support of oneM2M requirements
Fully Supported Requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
Data Distribution Service (DDS) for Real-Time Systems
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 53 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
1991
6.8.1
Background
1992
DDS is a data oriented middleware architecture standardized and managed by the Object Management Group (OMG).
1993
 Data Distribution Service for Real-time Systems (DDS) Version 1.2, adopted January 2007 [i.41]
1994
1995
 The Real-time Publish-Subscribe Wire Protocol DDS Interoperability Wire Protocol Specification (DDSI),
Version 2.1, adopted June 2008 [i.42]
1996
In addition there are several activities for expanding the extensibility, security and development support.
1997
6.8.1.1
1998
There are several activities for expanding the extensibility, security and development support:
1999
2000
2001
Extensibility, Security and Development support
 Extensible and Dynamic Topic Types for DDS (DDS X-Types).
This standardizes how DDS manages data-types and how an application designer can define and use those
types. Specifically the standard covers:
2002

Type System: Specifies a model for the types that can be legally defined and associated with Topics.
2003
2004
2005
2006

Language Binding: Specifies the alternative programming-language mechanisms an application can
use to construct and introspect types as well as objects of those types. These mechanisms include in
part a Dynamic API that allows an application to interact with types and data without compile-time
knowledge of the type.
2007
2008

Type Representation: Specifies the ways in which a type definition can be externalized so that it may
be stored in a file or communicated over the network.
2009
2010
2011

Data Representation: Specifies the ways in which a data sample of a given type can be externalized
so that it can be stored in a file or communicated over the network. This is also commonly referred as
“data serialization” or “data marshalling”.
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
 Web-Enabled DDS (WEB-DDS)
Standardises how web client applications can participate in the DDS global data space in a way that is portable
across implementations. The specification includes (1) a platform-independent Abstract Interaction Model of
how web- clients should access a DDS System and (2) a set of mappings to specific web platforms that realize
the PIM in terms of standard web technologies and protocols. These mappings include a RESTful mapping of
DDS entities to HTTP REST resources. This specification also defines an XML document format to represent
DDS Domains and DDS Entities.
2019
2020
2021
2022
 RPC over DDS, Currently under RFP process, revised submission May 20, 2013.
Specification to provide request/response communications pattern for remote procedure calls. Provide autogeneration of client/server code, request/reply topic, and development environment. Similar approach to
Apache Thrift but easier to use and configurable QOS.
2023
2024
2025
2026
 DDS Security, Currently under RFP process, revised submission June 13, 2013.
Specification defines the Security Model and Service Plugin Interface (SPI) architecture for compliant DDS
implementations. The DDS Security Model is enforced by the invocation of these SPIs by the DDS
implementation
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 54 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2027
2028
Fig 6.8.1: Present and Future of DDS
2029
ref: http://www.slideshare.net/Angelo.Corsaro/the-present-and-future-of-dds
2030
2031
There are currently more than 9 implementations of the DDS standard, with participants from PrismTech, RTI,
TwinOaks Computing and Gallium Visual Systems.
2032
6.8.2
2033
2034
2035
Data Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems was adopted in June 2003 and finalized in June 2004. Revisions
followed in 2005, 2006 with the final 1.2 specification delivered June 2007. DDSI-RTPS was adopted in July 2006,
revised in 2007 for release 2.1. The OMG is currently working on several proposals related to security and RPC.
2036
6.8.3
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
DDS is specific to a “Data Centric” style of distributed communications, which leverages a publish/subscribe
communications model to connect anonymous information producers with information consumers. The overall
distributed application is composed of processes called “participants,” each running in a separate global data space,
possibly on different computers. DDS handles all transport functions including: addressing, data serialization, reliable
delivery, flow control in a platform independent way.
2042
2043
2044
2045
DDS defines a bi-directional communications relationship between publishers and subscribers. The unit of information
exchanged between publishers and subscribers is called a Topic. The communications are decoupled in space (nodes
can be anywhere), time (nodes and topics can start, join, or leave in any order at any time), and flow (delivery may be
“best effort”, reliable, or at controlled bandwidth).
2046
2047
DDS provides an expressive service level specification via QoS (Quality of Service) that can act upon participants,
properties and topics.
2048
2049
2050
To increase scalability, topics may contain multiple independent data channels identified by “keys.” This allows nodes
to subscribe to many, possibly thousands, of similar data streams with a single subscription. When the data arrives, the
middleware can sort it by the key and deliver it for efficient processing.
2051
2052
2053
DDS also provides a “state propagation” model. This model allows nodes to treat DDS-provided data structures like
distributed shared-memory objects, with local caches efficiently updated only when the underlying data changes. There
are facilities to ensure coherent and ordered state updates.
2054
2055
2056
DDS is fundamentally designed to work over unreliable transports, such as UDP or wireless networks. No facilities
require central servers or special nodes. Efficient, direct, peer-to-peer communications, or even multicasting, can
implement every part of the model.
Status
Category and Architectural Style
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 55 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2057
6.8.4
Intended use
2058
The following details the various types of use cases that are addressed by the use of DDS in real-time M2M systems.
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
DDS is highly suitable for direct Device2Device (D2D) communications when there is a need for distributing data to a
large fan-out of consumers with real-time requirements. DDS allows for implementers to choose the most appropriate
trade-offs to meet their application objectives through configurable reliability, multicast support, transport priority and
pervasive redundancy. By leveraging the finely controlled QoS, designers can provide integration of complex systems
with modules that require differing update rates, reliability, and bandwidth control. These controls are available on a
per- node, or per-stream basis.
2065
2066
With the standardization of RPC over DDS, alternative pattern to data distribution such as invocation can also be
beneficial to M2M.
2067
Because of the Global Data Space, DDS systems can easily share information to tie together complex applications.
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
For example, a ship control system that includes high-bandwidth data sources and sinks, slowly updated graphical user
interfaces (GUIs), and long-term logging facilities will make good use of the DDS QoS parameters. While the control
system is updated at high rates, the GUI can subscribe at a reduced rate to display the latest state of the system. The
logger receives every update reliably, although perhaps with greater latency, to save a complete record of the system
operation.
2073
6.8.5
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
DDS can be found in applications ranging from large navy ships to single embedded sensor applications. It is deployed
in healthcare devices, unmanned systems such as UAV’s, financial banking applications, asset tracking solutions,
remote diagnostic monitoring for power substations and many other types of applications. The typical type of
application using DDS today is one where low latency, highly deterministic communications is desired between
devices.
2079
6.8.6
2080
6.8.6.1
2081
2082
2083
DDS decouples the platform independent model from the platform specific model from the system allowing it to run
over multiple transports, on large and small (embedded). There are currently DDS API bindings for a host of languages
including Ada, C, C++, C#, Java, Scala, Lua, Ruby and Node.js.
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
DDS can run over multiple transports including switch fabrics, UDP, TCP or shared memory. By leveraging a datagram
service like UDP one can also take advantage of bandwidth optimizations such as multicast. This allows DDS to handle
everything from command/control systems to video distribution. DDS also handles varied networks well, from sporadic
wireless connections to high- performance switched fabrics. Systems that include some nodes with fast connections,
some with slower connections, and even some with intermittent (e.g. wireless) connections will find DDS provides
facilities to manage the resulting uneven delivery characteristics.
2090
6.8.6.2
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
Entities in DDS are: Participants, Publishers, Subscribers, DataWriters and DataReaders. These entities are discovered
and connected-to automatically, based on a discovery service built into DDS. This discovery service is implemented
upon built-in topics that communicate which applications want to participate within a given domain and for each
Participant, which topics they want to write and read (publish / subscribe). DDS does all the work of matching up like
writers and readers to enable a fully flexible system that can be started up in any order, thus decoupling temporal
attributes such as starting every node up at the same time. DDS however does not have a method of discovering new
devices although there are several implementations that provide such functionality but are not standardized.
2098
6.8.6.3
2099
QoS attributes can be applied for each individual Topic, Reader or Writer, as described in the following table:
Deployment Trend
Key features
Platform and Language Independence
Entity Discovery
Quality of Service
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 56 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
ATTRIBUTE
REFERENCE
[i.41]
User Data
7.1.3.1
The purpose of this QoS is to allow the application to attach additional information to the
created Entity objects such that when a remote application discovers their existence it can
access that information and use it for its own purposes
Topic Data
7.1.3.2
The purpose of this QoS is to allow the application to attach additional information to the
created Topic such that when a remote application discovers their existence it can examine
the information and use it in an application-defined way
Group Data
7.1.3.3
The purpose of this QoS is to allow the application to attach additional information and be
used by an application combination with the DataReaderListener and DataWriterListener
to implement matching policies similar to those of the PARTITION QoS except the
decision can be made based on an application- defined policy.
Durability
7.1.3.4
This QoS policy controls whether the Service will actually make data available to latejoining readers.
Presentation
7.1.3.5
This QoS policy controls the extent to which changes to data-instances can be made
dependent on each other and also the kind of dependencies that can be propagated and
maintained by the Service.
Deadline
7.1.3.7
This policy is useful for cases where a Topic is expected to have each instance updated
periodically. On the publishing side this setting establishes a contract that the application
must meet. On the subscribing side the setting establishes a minimum requirement for the
remote publishers that are expected to supply the data values.
Latency Budget
7.1.3.8
This policy provides a means for the application to indicate to the middleware the
“urgency” of the data-communication. By having a non-zero duration the Service can
optimize its internal operation.
Ownership
7.1.3.9
This policy controls whether the Service allows multiple DataWriter objects to update the
same instance (identified by Topic + key) of a data-object.
Liveliness
7.1.3.11
This policy controls the mechanism and parameters used by the Service to ensure that
particular entities on the network are still “alive.” The liveliness can also affect the
ownership of a particular instance, as determined by the OWNERSHIP QoS policy.
Time_Based_Filter
7.1.3.12
This policy allows a DataReader to indicate that it does not necessarily want to see all
values of each instance published under the Topic. Rather, it wants to see at most one
change every minimum_separation period.
Partition
7.1.3.13
This policy allows the introduction of a logical partition concept inside the ‘physical’
partition induced by a domain.
Reliability
7.1.3.14
This policy indicates the level of reliability requested by a DataReader or offered by a
DataWriter. These levels are ordered, BEST_EFFORT being lower than RELIABLE. A
DataWriter offering a level is implicitly offering all levels below.
Transport Priority
7.1.3.15
The purpose of this QoS is to allow the application to take advantage of transports capable
of sending messages with different priorities.
Lifespan
7.1.3.16
The purpose of this QoS is to avoid delivering “stale” data to the application.
Destination Order
7.1.3.17
This policy controls how each subscriber resolves the final value of a data instance that is
written by multiple DataWriter objects (which may be associated with different Publisher
objects) running on different nodes.
History
7.1.3.18
This policy controls the behaviour of the Service when the value of an instance changes
before it is finally communicated to some of its existing DataReader entities.
Resource Limits
7.1.3.19
This policy controls the resources that the Service can use in order to meet the
requirements imposed by the application and other QoS settings.
2100
DESCRIPTION
Table 6.8: Quality of Service attributes
2101
6.8.6.4
Enhanced Data Typing
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
In addition to primitive types, DDS also provides support for Arrays, Multi-dimensional Arrays, Variable length
Sequences, Enumerations, Unions, Value Types, Structure nesting and Opaque Byte arrays. By leveraging the ability to
support multiple instances per data type by leveraging a Key, DDS allows for a more scalable system since multiple
instances can be subscribed through a single topic. With the ratification of X-Types, DDS provides for extensible and
mutable dynamic types allowing for data models to evolve while still preserving backward compatibility.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 57 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2107
6.8.7
Protocol Stack
2108
2109
RTPS (Real-Time Publish Subscribe) defines the wire-format protocol for interoperable systems. It can be implemented
over a transport service such as UDP or TCP.
2110
+---------------------------------+
2111
2112
|
DDS DCPS API
2113
+---------------------------------+
2114
|
2115
+---------------------------------+
2116
|
2117
+---------------------------------+
2118
|
2119
+---------------------------------+
Middleware
DDSI-RTPS Wire Protocol
Transport
|
|
|
|
2120
2121
Figure 6.8.2: Protocol Layers
2122
2123
2124
In the above figure, transport is defined as the means of providing error and flow control for reliable delivery. In this
context it categorizes the set of protocols and mediums by which to transmit and receive application payload which can
be TCP, UDP, Shared Memory, Wireless, High Performance switch fabrics, etc.
2125
6.8.8
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
Data within DDS can be as strictly defined or loosely defined as needed by the applications. A strict data model where
each field is known to the middleware, enables the middleware to perform content-based filtering without the need for
any application level programming to perform the filtering. In fact, in some implementations of DDS, these filters are
discoverable and actuated on the publishing side so that only data that is relevant is pushed on to the network. For a
loosely defined data model, there is the achievement of a very flexible architecture but at the cost of more data on the
network to describe the data with schema.
2132
6.8.9
2133
2134
2135
2136
The OMG is currently in the process of creating a full Security specification for DDS that encompasses Authentication,
Access Control, Encryption, Key Management and Auditing to be enforceable at a finer grain level of individual topics
defined in the system. Different implementations provide various security features such as SSL encryption, X509
certificates and third party products help to implement policy and assurance.
2137
6.8.10
2138
2139
2140
DDS can be implemented on any underlying protocol as it provides all the necessary reliable communications as
needed. Therefore it is common to have DDS run on UDP / TCP and other transports such as Serial links or even
Shared Memory for communications between applications on the same node.
2141
6.8.11
2142
2143
2144
2145
The OMG Data Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems [i.41] is the only open standard for messaging that supports
the unique Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of both enterprise and real-time systems. Scalability can be thought
of as a Concave Function [i.53] and benchmarking would be highly implementation specific [i.54.] so we document the
elements, which make DDS perform well in low latency and high throughput environments.
Data Model
Security
Dependencies
Benefits
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 58 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2146
• Best-effort delivery mode which doesn’t require acknowledgements
2147
2148
• Reduced message overhead since message headers and meta-data are sent on a per endpoint basis not per
message which also increases throughput
2149
• Arbitrary data-types reducing marshalling costs between user and middleware provided types
2150
• Lightweight notification of data availability which helps to control filtering at the source
2151
• Zero-copy data access removing multiple copy operations between middleware and application
2152
• Brokerless peer-to-peer operations
2153
• Incremental updates of field properties
2154
• Multicast support
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
In summary, DDS direct peering model, data aware middleware and QOS control allows designers to build complex
large scale systems which are robust under varying network conditions, context aware as state and QOS are part of each
topic and easy to develop with common language bindings and tool chains. Applicability to Service Oriented
Architecture: Service Oriented Architecture deals with developing software as a series of interoperable services, which
are decoupled but maintain a common representation of distributed resources. SOA can be accomplished through many
approaches such as DCOM, DDS, CORBA, Java RMI and of course Web Services. It is Web Services that have a more
ubiquitous view of representation (XML, JSON) and identification (URI). DDS is currently exploring examples with
several pre-standard implementations currently in development [i.55].
2163
2164
6.9
Modbus Protocol
2165
The following clauses describe the Modbus Protocol.
2166
6.9.1
2167
2168
2169
Modbus was first introduced by Modicon (now part of Schneider Electric) for process control systems. It was used as a
master-slave protocol for serial communication interfaces (such as RS232 / RS485). Versions of Modbus protocol now
also exist for TCP/IP/Ethernet.
2170
6.9.2
2171
Evolution of this protocol is managed by the Modbus.org community.
Background
Status
2172
2173
 "Modbus application protocol specification" specifies Modbus application layer protocol that is positioned at
layer 7 of the OSI model.
2174
2175
 "Modbus over serial line specification and implementation guide" deals with Modbus master / slave protocol (for
RS 232 / RS 485) that is positioned at layer 2
2176
2177
 "Modbus messaging on TCP/IP implementation guide" provides information that helps developers implement
the Modbus messaging service.
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
The Modbus protocol was transferred from Schneider Electric to the Modbus Organization in April 2004. The
specification is available free of charge for download, and there are no subsequent licensing fees required for using
Modbus or Modbus TCP/IP protocols. Additional sample code, implementation examples, and diagnostics are available
as part of the Modbus TCP toolkit, available free of charge to Modbus Organization members and available for
purchase by non-members.
2183
6.9.3
2184
2185
2186
Modbus is an application layer messaging protocol and provides client-server communication between devices
connected on different types of buses and networks. Some of the supported buses and networks include the following
(as shown in Figure 6.9.1):
Category and Architectural Style
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 59 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2187
 Serial communication over EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-485
2188
 TCP/IP/Ethernet
2189
 A high speed token passing network (Modbus Plus)
2190
2191
2192
Figure 6.9.1: Modbus for serial communication and TCP/IP/Ethernet Modes
An example network architecture is shown in Figure 6.9.2.
2193
2194
Figure 6.9.2: Example - Modbus Network Architecture
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 60 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2195
6.9.4
Intended use
2196
Examples of intended uses for Modbus are:
2197
 Process measurement and control applications in automation industry
2198
 Building automation. Power substation applications.
2199
2200
 Master – slave applications in industrial environment to monitor and program devices. To transfer discrete /
analog I/O and register data between control devices.
2201
2202
 To monitor and control field devices using PC. For example, to connect a supervisory computer with an RTU
(Remote Terminal Unit) in a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System)
2203
6.9.5
Deployment Trend
2204
2205
There are several organizations that supply Modbus solutions. These are listed at:
http://www.modbus.org/companies.php
2206
2207
http://www.modbus.org/faq.php states that industry analysts have reported over 7 million Modbus nodes in North
America and Europe alone.
2208
6.9.6
2209
2210
Modbus uses client / server model and supports devices communicating with serial interfaces (such as RS232/RS485)
as well as devices with TCP/IP/Ethernet.
2211
6.9.7
2212
2213
2214
2215
Modbus supports a requests / response pattern. Modbus for serial communication supports one master and a maximum
247 slaves for Modbus version that runs over serial interfaces. Master issues a unicast request and slave responds to
that. Modbus also supports broadcast mode where master’s request is sent to all the slaves but no slave responds to
broadcast request. A Modbus frame or Modbus Application Data Unit (ADU) consists of the following:
Key features
Protocol Stack
2216
2217
2218
 Additional address field: A field containing additional addresses used by the underlying communication
protocol. It is 1 byte slave address for Modus master / slave protocol that runs over serial links (such as RS
232, RS 485). For Modbus-TCP, it is called Modbus Application Protocol (MBAP).
2219
2220
2221
 Modbus PDU: It is independent of underlying communication layer and consists of two parts: 1) 1-byte Function
code to indicate identity of the requested service, 2) Variable length data field containing payload of the
requested service.
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
o
There are three types of Modbus PDUs: Modbus Request, Modbus Response and Modbus Exception.
 An optional error check field.
For Modbus communication over a serial interface, maximum ADU size for RS485 is 256 bytes and maximum PDU
size is 253 bytes as shown above in Figure 6.9.2. Maximum PDU size for Modbus TCP is also restricted due to
restriction for Modbus PDU size for serial communication. Error check field of Modbus ADU is not used as TCP
already uses CRC. MBAP is 7 bytes for Modbus TCP as shown in Figure 6.9.3. Modbus TCP/IP can be accessed at port
502.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 61 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2229
2230
Figure 6.9.3: Modbus - TCP
2231
6.9.8
Data Model
2232
2233
The Modbus standard defines bit-addressable and 16-bit word addressable input and output data items. An example of
Modbus data types is shown in Figure 6.9.4.
2234
2235
Figure 6.9.4: An example of Modbus data types
2236
 Modbus data on a device is stored in a series of tables. Following are the four primary tables specified:
2237
 Two table types for “single bit” object type:
2238
2239
o
Physical Discrete input to read status of discrete inputs in a remote device. Up to 2000 contiguous bits
can be read at a time.
2240
o
Coils table type for read and write.
2241
 Two table types for “16-bit word” object type:
2242
o
Input Registers to read up to 125 contiguous input registers from a remote device
2243
o
Holding Registers (for read / write)
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 62 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2244
2245
2246
Each table allows up to 65,535 data items. These tables may be overlapped or mapped to separate blocks of memory as
shown in Figure 6.9.5. Modbus uses Big Endian representation for address and data fields. Modbus also supports
concept of a file where file is an organization of records.
2247
2248
Figure 6.9.5: Modbus data model
2249
6.9.9
Security
2250
2251
Modbus does not provide explicit security mechanisms (such as mutual authentication of Modbus master – slave,
encryption, integrity protection, access control....) on its own and relies on other mechanisms for this purpose.
2252
6.9.10
2253
2254
Modbus for serial communication runs over serial interfaces such as RS-232 and RS-485. Modus-TCP is dependent on
TCP and TLS.
2255
6.9.11
2256
6.9.11.1
2257
Modbus benefits include:
2258
 Open standard.
2259
 Lightweight protocol for industrial communication over serial links
2260
 Large deployment for industrial applications
2261
 Can work over serial links (RS 232 / RS 485) as well as over TCP/IP/Ethernet.
2262
2263
 CIP (Common Industrial Protocol) -Modbus integration performs translations to make Modbus device data
consistent with CIP model
Dependencies
Benefits and Constraints
Benefits
2264
6.9.11.2
Constraints
2265
Some Modbus constraints include:
2266
 Only polling mode (request / response) supported for Modbus over serial interfaces.
2267
 No discovery or advertisement mechanisms supported
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 63 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2268
 Small PDU size
2269
2270
 As with some other protocols, Modbus doesn’t provide an explicit security mechanism on its own and relies on
other mechanisms for this purpose.
2271
6.9.12
Support of oneM2M requirements
2272
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by the Modbus Protocol is shown in the following clauses:
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of the overall M2M system and Modbus is one
component of this system. For example, Modbus relies on the security mechanisms supported by other layers in the
network where it is deployed. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several
assumptions about other system components and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other
components. Thus, only a subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
2278
6.9.12.1
2279
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-008, OSR-010, OSR-024, OSR-028, NFR-002
2280
6.9.12.2
2281
2282
OSR-001, OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-009, OSR-011, OSR-013, OSR-015, OSR-016, OSR-017, OSR-019,
OSR-020, OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-031, OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-040
2283
2284
NOTE: OSR-001 is shown in clause 6.9.12.1 (Fully) as well as 6.9.12.2 (Partially). ModBus is deployed over serial
interfaces such as RS-485, but also supports deployment over IP based protocols.
2285
6.9.12.3
2286
2287
OSR-018
(This requirement is for cellular devices)
2288
2289
2290
SER-004 to SER-006
(These requirements are for UICC based devices. Enhancements would be needed for support of UICC based devices
with Modbus systems)
2291
6.10
2292
The following clauses describe the DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol - 3).
2293
6.10.1
2294
2295
2296
2297
DNP was originally developed by Westronic, Inc. (now GE-Harris) for electric utility industry. It was later released to
DNP user group (www.dnp.org) for further development. In 2010, DNP Technical Committee worked with IEEE to
establish DNP3 as an IEEE standard and IEEE 1815TM-2010 was released that year. An updated standard, IEEE
1815TM-2012, was released in 2012.
2298
6.10.2
2299
DNP3 is currently an IEEE standard.
Fully Supported Requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
DNP3 Protocol
Background
Status
2300
2301
 IEEE Standards for Electric Power Systems Communications – Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3), IEEE Std
1815TM-2012 [i.43] (obsoleted IEEE Std 1815TM 2010)
2302
 IEEE1815 has been accepted in the NIST catalog of smart grid standards.
2303
 DNP user group continues to work on this.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 64 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2304
6.10.3
Category and Architectural Style
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
DNP3 supports client – server model between DNP3 master and DNP3 outstation. Master contacts outstation to read
some data or carry out a control command or for some other operation. An IED (or RTU) is an example of an
outstation. Some examples of IEDs include sensors, meters, actuators, PLCs and accumulators. An RTU could be
managing multiple IEDs though RTU also appears as IED to master when DNP3 is used. Some possible deployment
scenarios of DNP3 are shown in Figure 6.10.1. Different layers of DNP3 stack are shown in Figure 6.10.2. User
software makes use of DNP3 application layer software to send and receive messages. Some of the supported data
types by DNP3 include binary, analog and counter data types. Each (master or outstation) device is given a 16-bit
address that is unique in the context of devices that are addressed by a master (on a link).
2313
2314
Figure 6.10.1: Example DNP3 deployment scenarios
2315
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 65 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2316
Figure 6.10.2: DNP3 Master and Outstation
2317
6.10.4
Intended use
2318
DNP3 is intended for:
2319
 communication between SCADA master station and IEDs or RTUs
2320
2321
2322
2323
 use in electric and water utility industries. For example, DNP3 can be used to allow a computer in the operations
center of an electric utility company to communicate with computers located in substations. A substation has
devices such as current sensors, circuit breakers, voltage transducers, temperature sensors, surveillance
cameras, water level monitors etc. that need to be monitored and/or controlled.
2324
 also, for other industry segments in the oil and gas industry.
2325
6.10.5
Deployment Trend
2326
2327
2328
2329
DNP3 is used by utilities such as electric and water companies for communication between data acquisition and control
equipment. As referenced in
http://www.dnp.org/Lists/Announcements/Attachments/6/Newton%20Evans%20NA%20SSA%202011V1.pdf,
it is being used for the following:
2330
 Communication within a substation
2331
 Substation to substation communication
2332
 Substation to external host communication
2333
2334
2335
As shown in http://csrc.nist.gov/cyberframework/rfi_comments/west_030713.pdf, DNP3 is used by approximately
three-quarters of North American electric utilities. It also states that DNP3 is being adopted by an increasing number of
water and wastewater utilities, and is used in oil & gas and other SCADA applications.
2336
A list of companies that provide DNP3 products is given at http://www.dnp.org/Pages/DnpProductsDefault.aspx
2337
6.10.6
2338
Some key features of DNP3 are:
Key features
2339
 Request / response model with multiple data types in the same message.
2340
 Supports unsolicited mode where an outstation (or a slave) node can send unsolicited messages to master node
2341
 Report-by-exception is supported where only changes are reported by an outstation.
2342
2343
2344
 Provides reliability at link layer for lossy links by providing error detection, optional acknowledgement feature
for data link layer frames, detection of duplicate frames, , 2-byte CRC for data link layer header and 2-byte
CRC for every 16 bytes of data in the data part of data link frame.
2345
 Provides fragmentation and re-assembly at pseudo transport layer (that is part of application layer).
2346
2347
 Supports a time synchronization mechanism between master and outstation (especially for DNP3 over serial
links). Uses a standard format for this.
2348
2349
 Supports time related activities (e.g. an IED to do a specific activity at a certain time, an IED to add time stamps
to events).
2350
 Optimizes transmission of data acquisition and control commands in SCADA systems
2351
 Supports serial communication (such as using RS232 / RS485) as well as TCP/IP and UDP/IP based protocols.
2352
6.10.7
Protocol Stack
2353
As shown above in Figure 6.10.2, the DNP3 stack supports following layers:
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 66 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2354
2355
 DNP3 user software makes use of DNP3 application layer software to send and receive messages. It also
interacts with database on that device.
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
 DNP3 Application layer: DNP3 outstation (and/or master) device may have limitation on the maximum size for
an application message. For example, this limitation could be due to limited memory in an RTU or IED.
DNP3 application layer breaks down large application layer messages into multiple fragments as needed. A
master is expected to be ready to receive fragment size of 2048 octets or above. An outstation may limit the
fragment size to much smaller value. An application level acknowledgement feature is supported by which a
receiver can confirm receipt of an application fragment. A sequence number field is used to detect duplicate
application fragments.
2363
2364
o
DNP3 transport function is part of DNP3 application layer. It supports segmentation and re-assembly
of DNP3 application layer fragments (to / from link layer frames).
2365
o
Authentication feature is also supported as part of DNP3 application layer.
2366
2367
 DNP3 link layer provides reliable link layer. Maximum length of link layer frame is 292 bytes.
A high level view of DNP3 packet processing is given in Figure 6.10.3.
2368
2369
Figure 6.10.3: DNP3 Protocol – Packet Processing (High level view)
2370
2371
Some examples of operations that DNP3 master can carry-out on an outstation (by using a suitable function code in the
application fragment header) are given here:
2372
 Read data
2373
 Set time on an outstation (as part of time synchronization)
2374
 Send requests for control operations
2375
 Set analog output values
2376
 Freeze accumulator requests
2377
 Cold restart
2378
 Warm restart
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 67 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2379
 Freeze and clear some counters
2380
 Select-before-operate
2381
 Direct operate
2382
 Start or stop running an application
2383
6.10.8
Data Model
2384
2385
DNP3 data types are conceptually organized as array of points where a point is a uniquely identifiable entity.
Following are some of the point types used by DNP3:
2386
2387
 Binary input: Device state (such as state of circuit breaker: closed or tripped) is stored in an array of Boolean
values.
2388
 Analog input: Input quantities measured or computed by outstation
2389
 Counter input (such as Kilowatt hours)
2390
 Binary output (e.g. ON/OFF)
2391
 Analog output
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
DNP3 can also transport files and other data types. DNP3 uses index numbers (such as 0, 1, 2,….) to identify points in a
point array. It has provisions to represent data in different formats. A “group number” is used to classify type of data
within a message and a “variation” is used to indicate encoding format. Index and group number identify a unique point.
Value of a point may represent current value (called static data in DNP3) or an event. For example, an event could be
triggered if a binary value changes (e.g. from ON to OFF) or when an analog value crosses its threshold. An example is
shown below:
2398
 Current value of analog input point : (object) group 30
2399
 Event analog value: (object) group 32
2400
 Some variations (or encoding choices) available with (object) group 30:
2401
1: 32 bit integer value with flag
2402
2: 16 bit integer value with flag
2403
3: 32 bit integer value
2404
4: 16 bit integer value
2405
5: 32 bit floating value with flag
2406
6: 64 bit floating value with flag
2407
6.10.9
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
One way, as well as mutual authentication, between DNP3 master and outstation at application layer is supported. If an
outstation receives a message from master (such as set some critical variable), it can use challenge / response
mechanism to authenticate the master before processing that message. Use of pre-shared keys is allowed for
authentication. Function codes and variations (i.e. encoding methods) are defined for authenticated messages. Optional
support for public key cryptography has been also added.
2413
6.10.10 Dependencies
2414
Dependencies for DNP3 include:
2415
2416
Security
 Depends on configuration of shared key in master and outstation if shared key method is used for authentication
(and on public key cryptography mechanisms if that option is used for authentication).
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 68 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2417
 Need to use external protocols if DNP3 data is to be encrypted.
2418
6.10.11 Benefits and Constraints
2419
6.10.11.1
2420
Benefits of DNP3 include:
Benefits
2421
 Open standard. An IEEE standard since 2010.
2422
 One of the common protocol used in the SCADA systems especially electric utility segment
2423
 Can work over serial links (such as RS 232 / RS 485) as well as over TCP/IP (or UDP/IP).
2424
6.10.11.2
Constraints
2425
2426
As with some other IoT protocols, encryption is not explicitly included, and DNP3 relies on other mechanisms for that
purpose.
2427
6.10.12 Support of oneM2M requirements
2428
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by DNP3 is shown in the following clauses:
2429
2430
2431
2432
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 [i.2] depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and DNP3 comprises
one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several assumptions
about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components. Thus, only a
subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
2433
6.10.12.1
2434
2435
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-004, OSR-008, OSR-010, OSR-014, OSR-019, OSR-024, OSR-028, OSR-040,
OSR-058, OSR-060, OSR-061, SER-002, SER-003, SER-009.
2436
6.10.12.2
2437
2438
OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-009, OSR-011, OSR-012, OSR-013, OSR-015, OSR-016, OSR-017, OSR-020,
OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-031, OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-042.
2439
6.10.12.3
2440
2441
OSR-018
(This requirement is for cellular devices)
2442
2443
2444
SER-004 to SER-006
(These requirements are for UICC based devices. Some enhancements would be needed for support of UICC based
devices by DNP3)
2445
6.11
2446
The following clauses describe the UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) Cloud Protocol. [i.48]
2447
6.11.1
2448
2449
2450
Formed in October 1999, the UPnP Forum is an industry initiative of more than 1000 leading companies in computing,
printing and networking; consumer electronics; home appliances, automation, control and security; and mobile
products.
Fully Supported Requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
UPnP Cloud
Background
2451
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 69 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2452
Goals
2453
2454
2455
The Forum's goals are to allow devices to connect seamlessly and to simplify network implementation in the home,
corporate and cloud environments. Toward this end, UPnP Forum members work together to define and publish UPnP
device control protocols built upon open, Internet-based communication standards.
2456
2457
Leadership
2458
2459
A member-based Steering Committee provides Forum leadership and business direction, while several technical
working committees identify and define UPnP devices, services, protocols and usage scenarios.
2460
2461
2462
2463
The UPnP architecture offers pervasive peer-to-peer network connectivity of PCs of all form factors, intelligent
appliances, and wireless devices. The UPnP architecture is a distributed, open networking architecture that leverages
TCP/IP and the Web to enable seamless proximity networking in addition to control and data transfer among networked
devices in the home and away from home by means of the cloud extensions.
2464
Standardized Device Control Protocols
2465
2466
2467
UPnP standards are based upon Device Control Protocols (DCPs), which are the domain specifications based on the
UPnP Device Architecture. The DCPs specifications are based on protocols that are: declarative, expressed in XML and
communicated via HTTP. For more information on UPnP technology see [i.48]
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
In December 2008 UPnP Device Architecture Version 1.0 and seventy-two (72) UPnP Device Control Protocols
specifications were adopted and published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as International Standards. See [i.51]. In the fall of 2011 UPnP Device Architecture
Version 1.1 and an additional twenty-one (21) UPnP Device Control Protocols specifications were newly adopted and
published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as
International Standards in the fall of 2011. Eight (8) specifications were also published as updates to previously
published ISO/IEC International Standards. See [i.49] and [i.50].
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
UPnP technology targets wide area networks, home networks, proximity networks and networks in small businesses,
commercial buildings and is agnostic over different connected networks. It enables data communication between any
two devices under the command of any control device on the network. UPnP technology is independent of any
particular operating system, programming language, or network technology.
2480
6.11.2
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
The following list includes the specifications, which have been standardized. The standardization process includes
obtaining three sample implementations of the Device Control Protocol (DCP) to pass the UPnP Certification Test Tool,
circulating the specification for a mandatory Forum member review and comment period, and obtaining the approval of
the Steering Committee to become a Standardized DCP. Standardized DCPs are available to the public. The UPnP
forum has a rigorous certification program, based on (low cost) self-certification. Certifications exist for the device and
the control point side for each DCP.
2487
Published Device Categories (DCPs) listing only the latest version:
2488
Status
• Audio/Video, Audio and Video transport and control, schedule recording.
2489
o
MediaServer:4 and MediaRenderer:3
2490
o
ContentSync:1
2491
• Device Management, including configuration, software management, including transport testing
2492
o
Manageable Device:2
2493
o
BasicManagementService:2
2494
o
ConfigurationManagementService:2
2495
o
SoftwareManagementService:2
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 70 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2496
o
EnergyManagement:1
2497
o
Low Power:1
2498
• Home Automation, various home automation protocols
2499
o
SolarProtectionBlind:1
2500
o
Digital Security Camera:1
2501
o
HVAC:1
2502
o
Lighting Controls:1
2503
o
SensorManagement:1
2504
o
DataStore:1
2505
• Networking, routing functionality.
2506
o
Internet Gateway:2
2507
o
WLAN Access Point:1
2508
• Printer, document and photo printing and scanning.
2509
o
Printer Enhanced:1
2510
o
Printer Basic:1
2511
o
Scanner:1
2512
• Remoting, mechanism to detect and setup remote UIs, like VNC.
o
2513
2514
• Telephony, access and distribution telephony (2 way communication).
o
2515
2516
Remote UI Client:1 and Remote UI Server:1
Telephony:2
• Add-on Services, generic services that can be used in any context.
2517
o
DeviceProtection:1, adding orthogonal access control to all DCPs
2518
o
Quality of Service:3, QOS streaming
2519
In mid-2013, a UPnP Cloud Task Force was created. Its objectives were to:
2520
• Maintain UPnP behaviour—it must still just work!
2521
• Cloud-enable all existing UPnP specifications (and existing devices)—adapt & adopt, not re-invent
2522
• Introduce user-specific capabilities
2523
• Facilitate the always-connected lifestyle
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
This task force has the charter to make an UPnP Cloud profile as add-on mechanism to the existing UPnP Device
Architecture. The charter contains a statement that the existing DCPs needs to be leveraged to the cloud; only changes
on UPnP Device Architecture (UDA) level are allowed. This means that all domain knowledge in the DCPs will be
enabled towards the cloud. The task force is finalizing the UPnP Cloud Architecture (UCA), which will be published in
Q1 of 2014. Current efforts are ongoing to specify a certification program.
2529
6.11.3
2530
UPnP is a client server model, where the server is denoted as UPnP Device and a client as Control Point (CP).
Category and Architectural Style
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 71 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
There are many different kind of UPnP devices already standardized, but they all share a common framework that is
denoted as UPnP Device Architecture (UDA). The UDA is described as a framework, which is not specific to any
domain. The UDA describes the components for discovery, description, action handling and eventing. This Framework
layer is used for describing the domain specific Device Control Protocol (DCP).The device architecture is published at
[i.52].
2536
2537
UPnP DCPs are expressed in constructs supplied by the Framework described by the UDA. The DCPs are expressed in
declared state variables that can be evented, and RPC functions. For more information on UPnP technologies see [i.48]
2538
2539
UPnP Cloud has a similar architecture but replaces (adds for cloud access) the discovery and eventing and uses XMPP
as transport mechanism to relay the same information as described in any DCP.
2540
Figure 6.11.1 – Architecture: XMPP added to UPnP
2541
2542
6.11.4
Intended use
2543
UPnP Cloud is intended to be used for P2P, P2M and M2M / IoT purposes.
2544
6.11.5
2545
2546
The UPnP specifications are implemented in a broad array of available server and client software stacks, including
many open source options. The UPnP forum is being supported by an extensive worldwide developer community.
2547
UPnP is deployed in billions of installed devices.
2548
AV DCPs deployment examples are:
Deployment Trend
2549
• Every Windows PC since Windows ME
2550
• Every PS3 and Xbox 360
2551
• Most connected TVs, Blu-ray players, and smart phones
2552
• Every media NAS
2553
IGD DCPs deployment examples are:
2554
• Every home router
2555
• Every Wi-Fi device with Wi-Fi Protected Setup
2556
2557
UPnP specifications are referenced for example by: W3C, Wi-Fi Alliance, DLNA and the Connected Car Consortium
(CCC).
2558
The first deployments of UPnP Cloud are expected in 2014.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 72 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2559
6.11.6
Key features
2560
Key features of UPnP include:
2561
2562
• Separation of concern by separation of the used transport mechanisms (UDA/UCA) and domain specific
knowledge in the device descriptions (DCPs).
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
• UPnP Device Architecture provides mechanisms for automatic discovery of UPnP devices and self-describing of
the capability of the detected devices. The UPnP devices expose services which the UPnP control points can
use to fulfil a function. The collection of services describes which domain specific actions and state variables
are implemented. Hence each Domain (DCP) is has its own described set of actions and state variables. The
transport mechanisms of conveying the DCP prescribed information are expressed in the UDA [i.52] and UCA
specification documents. [i.52]. The UPnP architecture supports zero-configuration and automatic discovery
whereby a device can:
2570
a.
Dynamically join a network
2571
b.
Obtain an IP address
2572
c.
Announce its name
2573
2574
d.
Convey its capabilities upon request
Described in device and service descriptions
2575
e.
Learn about the presence and capabilities of other devices
2576
f. Leave a network smoothly and automatically without leaving any unwanted state information behind
2577
2578
2579
• The UPnP Device Control Protocol Specifications (DCPs)
The domain specific DCPs capabilities are expressed by means of one or more services, each service
containing:
2580
2581
a.
Set of actions
Input and output arguments of each action are typecast by state variables
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
b.
Set of state variables
State variables are statically typed.
Basic types such as Boolean, integer float can exist.
Complex types like structs are modelled in XML and defined by XSD schemas
State variables indicated as evented are delivered asynchronously.
2587
c.
Relationships between actions and events.
2588
2589
• The UPnP specifications are backwards compatible, and are extensible for vendors (and other standards
organizations).
2590
2591
2592
2593
• UPnP is extended into the cloud by using an existing proven standard XMPP while maintaining the UPnP and
XMPP benefits. Combining these 2 widely used standards will lead to new propositions in the market. The
transport mechanisms of SSDP and GENA (see 6.x.7) then are replaced by standard XMPP constructs like
presence and pub-sub.
2594
2595
a. The mechanisms for local and cloud access differ, but maps the same functionality as described in the
domain specific DCP. Hence all UPnP DCPs will work with the UPnP Cloud Architecture.
2596
2597
b. XMPP works from inside a browse by using BOSH or web sockets; hence all UPnP described DCPs
works from inside a web browser.
2598
c.
XMPP cloud infrastructure is scalable.
2599
2600
2601
d.
XMPP exchange is secure
Uses SASL for authentication.
Uses TLS for secure connections.
2602
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 73 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2603
6.11.7
Protocol Stack
2604
The common parts of an UPnP stack are standard internet technologies like:
2605
2606
• HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) is being used as transport layer for SOAP/GENA and device and service
descriptions.
2607
• SSDP (Simple Service Discovery Protocol) is being used to detect UPnP devices on the network.
2608
• SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is being used to invoke UPnP actions.
2609
• GENA (Generic Event Notification Architecture) is being used to event state changes.
2610
UPnP vendor
UPnP Forum
UPnP Device Architecture
SSDP equivalent
mapped to XMPP
presence
Multicast events
SOAP mapped to
equivalent
XMPP SOAP
mapped to XMPP
support
“pubsub”
GENA equivalent
mapped to XMPP
“PubSub”
XMPP
TLS/SASL
TCP
IP
2611
Figure 6.11.2: – UPnP protocol stack
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
The UDA abstracts and unifies the SSDP, SOAP, GENA and multicast events in a single framework. SSDP is being
used to convey the location of the device description. The device description document (DDD) than can be retrieved by
means of HTTP. The device description contains information about the device and the implemented services in the
device. The service description location can be derived from the information in the device description and can also be
retrieved by means of HTTP. The service control protocol document (SCPD) is a list of SOAP action and state
variables, describing the functionality of the UPnP device.
2618
2619
UPnP Cloud consists of using XMPP stanzas to convey the UPnP information. Mapping of UDA constructs on UCA
constructs is shown in the table below.
UDA
Addressing
Discovery
Description
Eventing
Control
Presentation
Static/
SSDP
DDD/SCPD
GENA
SOAP
HTML
XMPP
XMPP
XMPP
XMPP
SOAP
TBD
Full
Presence
<iq> +
disco#info
pubsub
over
DHCP/
AutoIP
UCA
JID from User
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
XMPP
Page 74 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
ID + UDN
Ref
cap xchng
RFC 6120 XMPP CORE
[i.6]
RFC 6120 XMPP
CORE [i.6]
RFC 6121 XMPP IM [i.14]
RFC 6121 XMPP IM
[i.14]
XEP-0030
[i.19]
XEP-0060
[i.21]
XEP-0127
[i.44]
XEP-0248
[i.46]
XEP-0072
[i.47]
XEP-0115
[i.45]
2620
2621
Table 6.11: UPnP Device Architecture (UDA) + XMPP = UPnP Cloud Architecture (UCA
2622
6.11.8
Data Model
2623
Each DCP has its own communication model based on top of the UPnP Architecture.
2624
The domain is modelled by means of state variables and actions.
2625
Each domain has its own set of state variables and actions.
2626
2627
Data between the UPnP device and control points are being conveyed by actions in and input and output arguments of
each action are type cast as a state variable. .
2628
2629
State changes of the UPnP devices are evented, the evented data is described and typecasted by state variables. State
variables can be of simple or complex types. Complex types are expressed in XML and are defined by an XSD schema.
2630
6.11.9
2631
UPnP has an add-on service called Device Protection.
2632
This service allows using secure connections for invoking actions by means of HTTPS (TLS).
2633
2634
Cloud enabled UPnP has same protection mechanisms as XMPP, using TLS as encryption of the channel and SASL for
authentication.
2635
6.11.10 Dependencies
2636
The following dependencies are noted for UPnP Cloud:
Security
2637
• Cloud enabled UPnP uses XMPP [i.6] as transport layer.
2638
• XMPP streams as defined in RFC6120 [i.6] use TCP as transport
2639
• Use of HTTP [i.7] as transport is allowed as per XEP-0124 [i.32] and XEP-0206 [i.33]
2640
• Uses TLS [i.16] and SASL [i.17] for security.
2641
2642
• Jingle [i.27] extensions use XMPP for signalling but data plane packets is sent over other transport mechanisms
such as TCP or UDP [i.10]
2643
• Uses XML [i.12] for defining messages.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 75 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2644
6.11.11 Benefits and Constraints
2645
6.11.11.1
Benefits
2646
2647
• Media and device independence. UPnP technology can run on any network technology including Wi-Fi, coax,
phone line, power line, Ethernet and 1394.
2648
2649
• Platform independence. Vendors can use any operating system and any programming language to build UPnP
products.
2650
2651
• Internet-based technologies. UPnP technology is built upon IP, TCP, UDP, HTTP, XML and XMPP among
others.
2652
2653
• UI Control. UPnP architecture enables vendor control over device user interface and interaction using the
browser.
2654
• Programmatic control. UPnP architecture enables application programmatic control.
2655
• Common base protocols. Vendors agree on base protocol sets on a per-device basis.
2656
2657
• Extendable. Each UPnP product can have value-added services layered on top of the basic device architecture
by the individual manufacturers.
2658
2659
2660
• UPnP is easily extensible. It provides basic set of features that can be expanded by protocol extensions to
provide new set of features. This can be either new DCPs or new versions of a DCP. Also due to the selfdescribing nature vendor specific extensions are possible
2661
2662
• UPnP Cloud is based on XMPP. This provides an existing cloud infrastructure with proven track record. See
benefits of XMPP, clause 6.5.11.1.
2663
2664
2665
2666
• UPnP control points can interact with all UPnP devices. Due to the nature of UPnP each control point can
talk directly 1-1 to one specific UPnP device in a P2P like manner, but they can talk to many devices
simultaneously. Also UPnP control points and UPnP devices can co-exist in one physical device (aka a
physical box), this depends on the domain specific requirements.
2667
2668
• UPnP bridges other network technologies. UPnP in the home can be used to bridge various different kinds of
sensor networks. This is described in the Sensor Management specifications.
2669
2670
2671
2672
• UPnP can communicate in the home without having connection to the internet; hence when access to the
internet is severed, all local devices can still work together by means of the UDA to perform the desired
functionality, this means that sensor data collection still can take place and can be uploaded to the internet
based server when the internet connection is restored.
2673
6.11.11.2
Constraints
2674
• Use of TCP may not be desirable for some IoT segments.
2675
• Overhead may be high for XML data descriptions conveyed by SOAP messages.
2676
6.11.12 Support of oneM2M requirements
2677
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by uPnP Cloud is shown in the following clauses:
2678
2679
2680
2681
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and uPnP Cloud
comprises one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several
assumptions about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components.
Thus, only a subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
2682
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 76 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2683
6.11.12.1
Fully Supported Requirements
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-005, OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-008, OSR-009, OSR-010, OSR-011, OSR-012,
OSR-014, OSR-015, OSR-016, OSR-017, OSR-018, OSR-019, OSR-021, OSR-022, OSR-023, OSR-024, OSR-025,
OSR-026, OSR-027, OSR-028, OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-034, OSR-035, OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-039, OSR-041,
OSR-043, OSR-044, OSR-046, OSR-049, OSR-051, OSR-053, OSR-054, OSR-055, OSR-056, OSR-057, OSR-058,
OSR-059, OSR-060, OSR-061, OSR-062, OSR-063, OSR-065, OSR-066, OSR-070, OSR-071
2689
MGR-001, MGR-008, MGR-009, MGR-010, MGR-012, MGR-013, MGR-014, MGR-015,
2690
ABR-001, ABR-002, ABR-003
2691
SMR-001, SMR-002, SMR-003, SMR-004, SMR-005, SMR-006, SMR-007
2692
SER-002, SER-003, SER-004, SER-007, SER-011, SER-019, SER-020, SER-022, SER-025
2693
OPR-001, OPR-002, OPR-003,
2694
CRPR-001, CRPR-002, CRPR-004, CRPR-005
2695
6.11.12.2
2696
2697
OSR-004, OSR-013, OSR-020, OSR-031, OSR-032,OSR-033, OSR-036, OSR-040, OSR-042, OSR-045, OSR-047,
OSR-048, OSR-052, OSR-064, OSR-067, OSR-068, OSR-069, OSR-072
2698
MGR-002, MGR-003, MGR-004, MGR-005, MGR-006, MGR-011, MGR-016, MGR-017,
2699
2700
SER-001, SER-005, SER-006, SER-008, SER-009, SER-010, SER-012, SER-018, SER-021, SER-023, SER-024, SER026,
2701
CHG-001, CHG-002, CHG-003, CHG-004, CHG-005, CHG-006
2702
OPR-004, OPR-005, OPR-006
2703
CRPR-003
2704
6.11.12.3
2705
OSR-046, OSR-050
2706
6.12
RESTful Network APIs (OMA & GSMA)
2707
6.12.1
Background
2708
2709
2710
2711
This clause is intended for analysing Network APIs defined in OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) and GSMA (Global
System for Mobile Communications Association) that are used to open up service capabilities and assets in the
Underlying Network to Applications. Although those APIs are provided either as RESTful style or SOAP Web Services
style, this clause focuses on the RESTful style.
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
OMA and GSMA have defined standardized Network APIs for application developers to easily make use of existing
mobile network capabilities such as messaging, location, payments, device capability discovery, call control, etc. for
mobile application development. Many mobile operators already support some of these OMA/OneAPI standardized
Network APIs in addition to proprietary APIs. As an option for service layer communicating with underlying network,
oneM2M service layer can leverage these standardized APIs for the Mcn reference point to communicate with
underlying networks for required services that networks provide.
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
The majority of the OMA Network APIs are the RESTful bindings of the existing Parlay X Web Service APIs.
Additionally, OMA has defined and is still defining other required network APIs such as Customer Profile, Anonymous
Customer Reference, Autho4API (i.e. usage of OAuth 2.0 in conjunction with the RESTful network APIs), Network
Message Storage API, PushREST API, etc. based on the requirements obtained from another fora (e.g. GSMA OneAPI,
RCS, etc.).
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 77 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2723
6.12.2
Status
2724
6.12.2.1
2725
2726
2727
2728
This clause describes the brief description and status of the RESTful Network APIs defined by OMA. As mentioned
previously, the most of OMA Network APIs are based on the existing Parlay X Web Service to provide the RESTful
HTTP binding, but OMA has defined Network APIs by itself. The table 6.12.1 shows the brief description of each
OMA RESTful Network API.
2729
2730
NOTE: The detail information (e.g. the relationship between OMA RESTful Network APIs and existing Parlay X APIs)
each Network APIs can be found at "http://www.openmobilealliance.org/API/APIsInventory.aspx".
Status of OMA RESTful Network APIs
API Name
Rel
Description
File Transfer [i.56]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to send files toward a
server and to manage file transfer sessions.
Presence [i.57]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a watcher (an application) to
manage and retrieve presence information of a presentity.
Notification Channel
[i.58]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client (e.g., a native application)
to receive asynchronous notifications from a Notification Server about the
events the client has subscribed to with one or more Enabler Servers.
Chat [i.59]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client chat application to send
and receive 1-1 chat messages and manage the chat session.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to send SMS messages to a
terminal attached in the underlying network and to receive text messages.
Additionally, checking delivery status and incoming messages is also
included.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to make and terminate a
call session between calling participant and one or more called participant(s)
and to obtain information regarding a call session and participant(s).
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to manage contacts and
subscriptions to contact changes.
Messaging [i.63]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to send MMS messages to
a terminal attached in the underlying network and to receive text messages.
Additionally, checking delivery status and incoming messages is also
included.
Payment [i.64]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to charge, refund, reserve
and split amount to an end user’s account and to retrieve payment
transactions.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to retrieve device
capabilities, such as device information and profiles, and push device
configuration to a device.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to play audio and video
messages to one or more call participants.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to manage subscriptions
for call notifications, call direction notifications and media interaction
notifications, and manage call event monitors.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to retrieve the current
device status information including accessibility, roaming, and connection
type.
Short Messaging
[i.60]
Third Party Call
[i.61]
Address Book [i.62]
Device Capabilities
[i.65]
Audio Call [i.66]
Call Notification
[i.67]
Terminal Status [i.68]
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 78 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
Image Share [i.69]
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to manage image share
sessions and subscriptions to image share related event notifications.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to obtain information
about geographical location of a terminal.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to manage video share
sessions and subscriptions to video share related event notifications.
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to retrieve customer profile
metadata (e.g., country, region, locality, area, and age).
Terminal Location
[i.70]
Video Share [i.71]
Customer Profile
[i.72]
ACR
(Anonymous
Customer Reference)
This specification introduces methods for a client to create an ACR and
query the status of an ACR.
1.0
[i.73]
Capability Discovery
1.0
This specification introduces methods for a client to retrieve own registered
service capabilities and register/de-register service capabilities.
1.0
This API allows applications to manage contacts in a contact collection, and
members in member lists (e.g. an address list for presence or a group). The
API also allows applications to refer to members in different member
lists/groups from a contact. Applications can subscribe for notifications on
changes in contacts and member lists. In addition, the API allows
applications to enable a user to share contacts and member lists with other
users, subject to user-defined authorization rules.
[i.74]
Converged Address
Book
The ACR represents a unique identifier replacing a subscriber’s secure
information, such as MSISDN or phone number, ensuring privacy when
interacting with web applications.
[i.75]
This specification defines the following operations.
The Push Initiator (PI) is able to initiate the following operations to the Push
Proxy Gateway (PPG):
PushREST
1.0
[i.76]
- Push Submission
- Push Submission with Replace
- Push Cancellation
- Status Query
- Client Capabilities Query
The PPG is able to initiate the following message to the PI:
- Result Notification
Network Message
Storage [i.77]
1.0
Voice and Video over
IP [i.78]
1.0
Currently under development in OMA
Currently under development in OMA
Support of WebRTC voice and/or video calls.
2731
2732
Table 6.12.1: OMA RESTful Network APIs
2733
6.12.2.2
Status of GSMA OneAPI
2734
2735
2736
The GSMA OneAPI project is addressing deployment and operational considerations for 3rd party applications, and is
re-using a subset of the Parlay X and OMA RESTful Network APIs for this. The table 6.12.2 shows the brief
description of each GSMA OneAPI, and the details can be found at "http://www.gsma.com/oneapi/".
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 79 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
API Name
Rel
Relevant OMA RESTful Network APIs
ACR
(Anonymous
Customer Reference)
v4
RESTful Network API for Anonymous Customer Reference
Management V 1.0
Customer Profile
v4
RESTful Network API for Customer Profile V 1.0
Data Connection Profile
v3
RESTful Network API for Terminal Status V 1.0
Device Capability
v3
RESTful Network API for Device Capabilities V 1.0
Payment
v3
RESTful Network API for Payment V 1.0
Location
v3
RESTful Network API for Terminal Location V 1.0
MMS
v3
RESTful Network API for Messaging V 1.0
SMS
v3
RESTful Network API for Short Messaging V 1.0
RESTful Network API for Third Party Call V 1.0
Voice Call Control
v3
RESTful Network API for Call Notification V 1.0
RESTful Network API for Audio Call V 1.0
Zonal Presence
v3
(Beta)
None
NOTE: the relevant Network API is under discussion within OMA.
2737
2738
Table 6.12.2: GSMA OneAPI
2739
6.12.4
Intended use
2740
2741
2742
2743
With those Underlying Networks (for example 3GPP and 3GPP2 networks) which support OMA Network APIs,
network capabilities/services are exposed as resources on the northbound interface of networks. So the common service
layer can make use of the APIs, perform defined operations on Mcn reference point for required services that networks
support.
2744
This clause describes several intended use cases for RESTful Network APIs as examples.
2745
6.12.4.1
Location
2746
CSE
Container
(for Container)
Mcn reference point
(Terminal Location RESTful Network API)
NSE
Location
Capability
2747
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 80 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2748
Figure 6.12: RESTful Network API Location (proposed)
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
With the underlying networks (for example 3GPP and 3GPP2) which support OMA Network APIs for terminal location
or OMA Mobile Location Protocol, the user location is exposed as a resource over the Mcn reference point. When the
location information of a target M2M Node needs to be stored in a container, the CSE can request the location using the
RESTful Network API over the Mcn reference point. In this use case, the RESTful Network API for Terminal Location
can be used and the CSE transforms the oneM2M configuration into the appropriate Network API configuration.
2754
6.12.6
2755
The brief features of each RESTful Network API are described in the clause 6.12.2
2756
6.12.9
2757
2758
2759
Since RESTful Network APIs in OMA/GSMA OneAPI are technically identical to RESTful-HTTP protocol, these APIs
are prone to the same vulnerabilities as standard web applications, including broken authentication, injection attacks,
and cross-site scripting and cross-site request forgery.
2760
Many HTTP security practices can be successfully applied for securing RESTful Network APIs.
2761
6.12.10 Dependencies
2762
2763
RESTful Network APIs defined in OMA/GSMA OneAPI use HTTP as an application protocol for distributing state
information and TCP/IP as a transport protocol to provide basic network connectivity.
2764
6.12.11 Benefits
2765
2766
This clause lists the benefits of utilizing RESTful Network APIs defined in OMA and GSMA over Mcn reference point
for supported services.
Key features
Security
2767
 Simple RESTful interface
2768
 Requests and Responses of Network APIs do not require complex processing or validation
2769
 For underlying network operators, lowers the barrier to entry and avoiding fragmentation
2770
 For oneM2M service providers, reducing integration time and facilitating easy integration
2771
2772
6.12.12 Support of oneM2M requirements
2773
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by the OMA and GSMA RESTful APIs is shown in the following table:
2774
2775
2776
2777
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and the RESTful APIs
comprise one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several
assumptions about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components.
Thus, only a subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
2778
Supported
Requirements
OSR-006
Rationale
The requirement states that oneM2M
system shall be able to reuse the
services offered by Underlying
Networks by means of open access
models.
Related
OMA RESTful
NetAPI
Related
GSMA OneAPI
ACR V 1.0
Customer Profile V 1.0
Terminal Status V 1.0
Device Capability V
1.0
Payment V 1.0
ACR
Customer Profile
Data Connection
Profile
Device Capability
Payment
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 81 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
OSR-047
The requirement states that oneM2M
system shall report the geographical
location information of M2M
Devices/Gateways.
Terminal Location V
1.0
Messaging V 1.0
Short Message V 1.0
Third Party Call V 1.0
Call Notification V 1.0
Audio Call V 1.0
Location
MMS
SMS
Voice Call Control
Terminal Location V
1.0
Location
2779
2780
Table 6.12.3: Supported requirements
2781
6.13
ISA100.11a Protocol
2782
The following clauses describe the ISA100.11a protocol.
2783
6.13.1
2784
2785
2786
The ISA100 committee was formed in 2005 to define a family of industrial wireless automation standards. ISA100.11a
[i.81] is the industrial wireless automation standard for process plants, and was officially released in 2009. ISA100
WG3 worked on this.
2787
2788
2789
Release 1 of ISA100.11a addresses performance needs for control and monitoring applications where latencies on the
order of 100 ms can be tolerated. Future releases to address critical and more delay sensitive applications such as
emergency actions to ensure safety.
2790
2791
2792
2793
The ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute (WCI) [i.80] functions as an operational group within The Automation
Standards Compliance Institute (ASCI). As one of its activity, it certifies ISA100-compliant devices and systems. [i.83]
It provides feedback to standard committees for improvement in the standards and has also specified certain application
level profiles.
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
WCI members include the following: Agiliad, Apprion, Aramco Services Co, Armstrong International, Azbil, BP,
Centero, Chevron, Control Data Systems, COSASCO, Crack Semiconductor, Eltav, ExxonMobil, Forbes Marshall,
Flowserve, Fuji Electric, GasSecure, General Electric, Honeywell, New Cosmos Electric Co., Nexcom, Nivis,
Pepperl+Fuchs, Perpetuum, R3 Sensors, Riken Keiki, Spirax Sarco, Scott Technologies, Shell Global Solutions, TLV
Company Ltd., Yokogawa [i.82]
2799
6.13.2
2800
ISA100.11a-2009 was approved by the ISA Standards and Practices Board in 2009.
2801
6.13.3
2802
2803
2804
2805
ISA100.11a networks are IP-based multi-hop mesh networks, that are built using IEEE802.15.4 PHY and MAC layers.
It also supports other topologies such as Star topology. As shown in Figure 6.13, ISA100.11a adds an upper data link
layer and an application layer. This upper data link layer provides support for mesh routing, channel hopping and
TDMA. These networks have built in mechanisms for time synchronization.
Background
Status
Category and Architectural Style
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 82 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2806
2807
2808
Figure 6.13: ISA100.11a Stack
The ISA100.11a application layer consists of the following:
2809
2810
 Upper Application Layer: Contains User Application Processes (UAPs) and Management Processes (MPs).
Some UAPs are standardized and more can be added.
2811
2812
 Application Sub-Layer: Enables object oriented communication between peer objects in the same (or different)
UAP(s). It also provides communication services to management processes.
2813
2814
2815
2816
Some standard objects specified by ISA100.11a include the following: 1 object per UAP for management purposes,
device management object, UploadDownload object, Concentrator object, Alert reporting object, Alert receiving
objects, and Gateway cache object. The Application layer of ISA100.11a allows tunnelling of non-ISA100.11a protocol
packets and a Tunnel object is supported for this.
2817
2818
2819
WCI specified ISA100 objects for temperature and pressure profiles. WCI uses device descriptor files to describe the
capabilities and data structures of devices. A device descriptor file provides a description of each application object in
that device. It helps the user to understand semantics of the data.
2820
6.13.4
2821
2822
ISA100 is designed for use within the process automation industry. Example applications include equipment monitoring
(e.g. alerting, logging) and (closed / open loop) control
2823
2824
ISA100.11a based solutions can be deployed in industry areas such as: Oil & Gas, Mining, Chemicals, Life Sciences,
Pulp & Paper, and Refining.
2825
Performance expectations of ISA100.11a:
Intended use
2826
 Periodic monitoring where latency on the order of 100 ms can be tolerated
2827
 High Reliability: 99.9%
2828
 Sample intervals in few seconds
2829
 2-5 years battery life on end-devices
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 83 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2830
 Low data rate
2831
 Range ~ 50 m
2832
 Intended to cover large number of nodes
2833
6.13.5
Deployment Trend
2834
2835
ISA100 products are available from companies such as: Gas Secure, GE Measurement and Control, Honeywell,
Yokogawa, Apprion, Eltav, Cisco and Nivis. [i.83]
2836
2837
ISA100 success stories have been provided [i.84], and over 1 billion hours of operations for ISA100 devices around the
world has been reported.
2838
6.13.6
2839
The following are some of the key features of ISA100.11a:
Key features
2840
 ISA100.11a supports variety of mechanisms to ensure that data communication is reliable and secure.
2841
2842
 Each ISA100.11a device communicates at a pre-defined time and frequency. ISA100.11a stack supports variable
length time slots with TDMA.
2843
 Supports client-server model at application layer.
2844
 ISA100.11a provides following basic services:
2845
2846
2847
o
Publish / Subscribe service: Publishing is normally done via concentrator objects. A concentrator
object collects various types of data from the device and packages that together for reporting. It
supports assembly and disassembly of multiple values in the same ISA100.11a message.
2848
2849
o
Alert service where an alarm message is sent when some condition is satisfied (e.g. value of observed
variable goes above a threshold) and another message is sent when this condition is cleared
2850
2851
 ISA100.11a tunnel capability at application layer allows carrying protocol messages of existing protocols such as
HART, Modbus, Profibus and others.
2852
 ISA100.11a supports establishment of a service contract before a device can start transmitting data.
2853
 WCI has defined extensions for more complex applications.
2854
6.13.7
Protocol Stack
2855
2856
ISA100 defines stacks for reliable and secure communication between field device and a gateway. It supports security
mechanisms at MAC as well as transport layer.
2857
2858
2859
ISA100.11a supports IPv6 addressing and uses IETF’s IPv6 over Low rate Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN)
standard and its transport layer is based on UDP. ISA100.11a application layer consists of Upper Application Layer
and Application Sub-Layer.
2860
6.13.8
2861
2862
The native application layer of ISA100.11a supports reporting of analog data (such as pressure), binary data and block
data (such as for waveform or firmware image).
2863
2864
Use of an Upload / Download object to communicate large amount of data (such as to transmit block of data
representing a waveform from a field device to a gateway) is supported.
2865
6.13.9
2866
Some security-related features of ISA100.11a are listed below:
Data Model
Security
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 84 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2867
 Supports message and device authentication, data confidentiality and data integrity.
2868
 Hop-by-hop security is provided at MAC layer (using IEEE802.15.4 link layer methods)
2869
 Message Integrity Code is computed at UDP layer to provide end-to-end message integrity at transport layer
2870
 Supports AES-128 based encryption.
2871
2872
2873
 Provides protection against relay attacks. Transport layer security uses time stamps in the nonce (for AES) that
indicates when that packet was created. If packet is stale (e.g. if it was created more than T sec back), it is
discarded.
2874
 Use of symmetric keys is supported.
2875
 Support of asymmetric key certificates is optional
2876
2877
 Supports dynamic key distribution using asymmetric keys based on public key cryptography. It enables over-theair provisioning as well as automated re-keying.
2878
 A Security Manager in the network manages and distributes keys.
2879
6.13.10 Dependencies
2880
The ISA100.11 stack is built using IEEE802.15.4 PHY/MAC and IETF 6LoWPAN.
2881
6.13.11 Benefits
2882
Benefits of ISA-100.11a include:
2883
 Application layer is object oriented, flexible, modular and extensible.
2884
2885
 ISA100.11a application layer supports tunneling of other protocols. Thus, it allows data to be transferred via
Modbus, Profibus, HART, Foundation Fieldbus or any other protocol.
2886
2887
 WCI object profiles are similar to that used by Foundation Fieldbus and that makes it easier to integrate these
two types of systems.
2888
6.13.12 Support of oneM2M requirements
2889
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by ISA100 is shown in the following clauses:
2890
2891
2892
2893
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and ISA100 comprises
one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several assumptions
about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components. Thus, only a
subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
2894
6.13.12.1
2895
2896
OSR-001, OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-004, OSR-005, OSR-008, OSR-012, OSR-014, OSR-015, OSR-022, OSR-024,
OSR-028, CRPR-001, OPR-001, SER-002, SER-003, SER-009, NFR-002.
2897
6.13.12.2
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-009, OSR-010, OSR-011, OSR-013, OSR-015, OSR-016, OSR-019, OSR-020, OSR-021,
OSR-023, OSR-025, OSR-026, OSR-027,OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-032, OSR-033, OSR-034, OSR-035, OSR-036,
OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-039, OSR-040, OSR-041, OSR-042, OSR-043, OSR-044, OSR-045, OSR-046, OSR-047,
OSR-048, OSR-049, OSR-050, OSR-051, OSR-052, OSR-053, OSR-054, OSR-055, OSR-056, OSR-057, OSR-058,
OSR-059, OSR-060, OSR-061, OSR-062, OSR-063, OSR-064, OSR-065, OSR-066, OSR-067, OSR-068, OSR-069,
OSR-070, OSR-071, OSR-072, CRPR-002, CRPR-003, CRPR-004, CRPR-005
2904
2905
NOTE: ISA100.11a based protocols and systems can be enhanced to do variety of things that are not fully supported at
present.
Fully Supported Requirements
Partially Supported Requirements
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 85 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2906
6.13.12.3
Unsupported Requirements
2907
2908
OSR-018
(This requirement is for cellular devices)
2909
2910
2911
OPR-004
(ISA100.11a systems are specified for IEEE802.15.4-based devices, though theoretically one could consider supporting
other interfaces as well)
2912
2913
2914
SER-004 to SER-006
(These requirements are for UICC based devices. Some enhancements would be needed for support of UICC based
devices with ISA100.11a systems)
2915
6.14
2916
The following clauses describe the WirelessHART® protocol.
2917
6.14.1
2918
2919
2920
2921
The HART Communication Foundation [i.86] was founded in 1993 and it is the technology owner and central authority
on the HART protocol. The foundation has more than 250 members. Several process automation companies have
been using HART based systems. HART7 [i.87], released in 2007, includes the wireless HART standard. It is
compatible with existing (wired) HART devices and applications.
2922
6.14.2
2923
As of April, 2010, WirelesHART is an approved standard by IEC, and is available as IEC 62591 [i.90]
2924
6.14.3
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
Wireless HART supports mesh and star topologies and uses IEEE802.15.4 PHY / MAC layers. Its components include:
Field device (sensor or actuators), Gateway, Network manager, Security manager, WirelessHART Handheld (to support
direct access to adjacent field devices) and WirelessHART adapter (to connect existing HART devices to
WirelessHART network). The Gateway is configured by the network manager and allows buffering of data, event
notifications, command responses, and other messages.
2930
2931
2932
2933
As shown in Figure 6.14, WirelessHART has defined its own data link layer, network layer, transport layer and
application layer. It uses channel hopping and TDMA-based slotted frames. The Network layer of WirelessHART
provides routing and (end-to-end) security, and the Transport layer of WirelessHART supports acknowledged as well as
un-acknowledged communication.
2934
2935
2936
WirelessHART uses the command-based application layer as used in the HART systems. In addition to the command
types supported within HART systems, WirelessHART supports Wireless command types. WirelessHART‘s
application layer protocol operates in the host / slave mode, and supports data publishing.
WirelessHART® Protocol
Background
Status
Category and Architectural Style
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 86 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2937
Figure 6.14: WirelessHART® stack
2938
2939
2940
6.14.4
Intended use
2941
2942
WirelessHART is designed for use within process automation industry. Example applications include equipment
monitoring and (closed / open loop) control
2943
6.14.5
2944
According to industry sources, as reported by the HART Communication Foundation [i.86], there are:
Deployment Trend
2945
 more than 30 million HART devices are installed in the process automation industry worldwide,
2946
 75% of process measurement and control devices installed worldwide using HART communication.
2947
6.14.6
Key features
2948
The following are some of the key features of WirelessHART:
2949
 Reliable and secure protocol
2950
 Supports up to 8 process variables in a single message
2951
 Supports Time stamped data
2952
 Supports transfer of large data streams (such as radar level curves)
2953
6.14.7
Protocol Stack
2954
2955
The WirelessHART protocol stack is shown above in Figure 6.14. It extends the HART protocol at application layer
with wireless command type and defines its own transport, network and data link layers.
2956
6.14.8
2957
2958
WirelessHART uses Device Descriptor (DD) files where a DD file describes features and functions of a device. A DD
is created as a text file and then converted into a standard binary file. This DD is written in conformance with a Device
Data Model
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 87 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2959
2960
2961
Description Language. The HART Communication Foundation manages a library of Manufacturers Device
Descriptions. Some of the supported data types include fix and floating point numbers, bit and byte arrays,
enumerations, time and text.
2962
6.14.9
2963
Some security related features of WirelessHART are listed below:
Security
2964
 Provides hop-by-hop security (at layer 2) and end-to-end security (at network layer)
2965
 Supports use of symmetric keys
2966
 Uses AES-128 block cipher for encryption and message authentication
2967
 Layer 2 provides hop-by-hop security and uses 32-bit Message Integrity Check for each frame
2968
 Supports separate Join key per-device. This is used to authenticate the joining device with network manager
2969
6.14.10 Dependencies
2970
2971
2972
The WirelessHART stack is built using IEEE802.15.4 PHY/MAC and uses its own data link, network and transport
layer. It also uses HART command types at application layer to stay compatible with existing (wired) HART
deployments.
2973
6.14.11 Benefits and Constraints
2974
6.14.11.1
2975
Benefits of WirelessHART include:
Benefits
2976
 Compatible with wired HART systems
2977
 Uses Device Description Language to describe service and confgiuration of field devices.
2978
2979
 Uses only HART at application layer and potentially keeps it simple for process automation industry (also in
constraints below)
2980
 Extensive installed base
2981
6.14.11.2
Constraints
2982
Constraints of WirelessHART include:
2983
2984
2985
 Key management is not supported.
(This is a limitation also shared with other IEEE802.15.4 based systems. IEEE802.15.9 is working to
standardize key management.)
2986
 Supports only HART at application layer
2987
2988
2989
 Does not use all-IP stacks
(It is theoretically possible to change network and transport layer of WirelessHART to IP stacks supported by
IETF)
2990
6.14.12 Support of oneM2M requirements
2991
Support of oneM2M Requirements [i.2] by WirelessHART is shown in the following clauses:
2992
2993
2994
2995
NOTE: Many requirements from TS-0002 depend on the architecture of overall M2M system and WirelessHART
comprises one aspect of this system. To specifically compare with each requirement, one would need to take several
assumptions about system components, and compliance would vary depending on behaviour of those other components.
Thus, only a subset of the requirements are highlighted here.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 88 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
2996
2997
6.14.12.1
Fully Supported Requirements
2998
2999
OSR-002, OSR-003, OSR-004, OSR-005, OSR-008, OSR-010, OSR-011, OSR-012, OSR-014, OSR-015, OSR-022,
OSR-024, OSR-028, CRPR-001, OPR-001, SER-002, SER-003, SER-009, NFR-002.
3000
6.14.12.2
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
OSR-006, OSR-007, OSR-009, OSR-013, OSR-016, OSR-019, OSR-020, OSR-021, OSR-023, OSR-025, OSR-026,
OSR-027,OSR-029, OSR-030, OSR-032, OSR-033, OSR-034, OSR-035, OSR-036, OSR-037, OSR-038, OSR-039,
OSR-040, OSR-041, OSR-042, OSR-043, OSR-044, OSR-045, OSR-046, OSR-047, OSR-048, OSR-049, OSR-050,
OSR-051, OSR-052, OSR-053, OSR-054, OSR-055, OSR-056, OSR-057, OSR-058, OSR-059, OSR-060, OSR-061,
OSR-062, OSR-063, OSR-064, OSR-065, OSR-066, OSR-067, OSR-068, OSR-069, OSR-070, OSR-071, OSR-072,
CRPR-002, CRPR-003, CRPR-004, CRPR-005
3007
3008
NOTE: It is possible to enhance WirelessHART protocols to do variety of things that are not fully supported at
present.
3009
6.14.12.3
3010
3011
3012
OSR-001
(WirelessHART defines its own network and transport layers. Theoretically, these could be replaced with IP based
protocols.)
3013
3014
OSR-018
(This requirement is for cellular devices)
3015
3016
3017
OPR-004
(WirelessHART systems are specified for IEEE802.15.4-based devices though theoretically one could consider
supporting other interfaces as well.)
3018
3019
3020
SER-004 to SER-006
(These requirements are for UICC based devices. Some enhancements would be needed for support of UICC based
devices by WirelessHART systems).
Partially Supported Requirements
Unsupported Requirements
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
7
Summary
The following tables summarize how selected traits are addressed by the analysed protocols.
Note: the following tables compare M2M application Layer Protocols. Other IoT & M2M protocols are listed in Clause
6 - Analysis of Protocols, including the areas of capillary networks, application profiles & network server to
application interfaces.
Protocol /
Traits
CoAP
Architecture
Style
Client / server
model.
P2P.
RESTful
Intended or
Actual
Deployment
Relative
position to
other
protocols
Data Model /
Data
Representation
IoT
networks
with low
power
constrained
sensors such
as smart
metering
Above UDP
(or DTLS/
UDP)
Plain text,
XML, JSON,
EXI, octetstream…
Messaging
(only a
subset of
features
indicated
here)
Request /
Response,
Pub-Sub
Security
(only a subset
of mechanisms
listed here)
Largely
depends on
lower layers
(DTLS...)
Support for
content
negotiation
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 89 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
Protocol /
Traits
MQTT
Architecture
Style
Intended or
Actual
Deployment
Relative
position to
other
protocols
Data Model /
Data
Representation
Client / Server
model.
Low
bandwidth,
high latency
networks
(e.g.
HealthCare,
Energy)
MQTT runs
above TCP (or
TLS/TCP).
No formal data
model
WWW
Above TCP
(or TLS/TCP)
Brokered style.
HTTP as
RESTful API
XMPP
WebSockets
DDS
RESTful
Availability for
Concurrent
Transactions
(ACT) style for
carrying out
asynchronous
end-to-end
exchange of
structured data
Full duplex
communication
over TCP
Data centric
model. (Virtual)
Global Data
space and
broker-less
Peer-to-Peer
model
Modbus
Message
passing.
Client-Server
model.
DNP3
Client-Server
model.
(MQTT-SN
runs over
UDP)
XML, JSON,
etc.
Support for
Content
negotiation
XML, EXI
Instant
Messaging
and
Presence
Applications
, Jabber
Above TCP
(or TLS/TCP)
Low
latency, high
performance
web
applications
Several
segments
such as
health care,
UAVs, asset
tracking, etc.
Above TCP.
JSON, etc.
Uses HTTP for
initial
handshake
Can run over
UDP, TCP,
shared
memory and
other transport
types
DSSI defines a
standard data
format based on
extension of
Common Data
Representation.
Process
Automation
Industry,
Power
substation
applications
Electric
(Power
System) and
water utility
companies
Messaging
(only a
subset of
features
indicated
here)
PublishSubscribe
Over serial
interfaces (RS232 / 485),
over TCP/IP/
Ethernet…
Over serial
interfaces (RS232 / 485) and
over TCP/IP/
Ethernet
Named topics,
user defined
data types
Bit-addressable
and 16-bit word
addressable…
Binary input /
output, Analog
input / output,
Counter input
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Request Response
Security
(only a subset
of mechanisms
listed here)
Authentication:
Userid /
password can
be passed in a
packet.
SSL / TLS can
be used.
Largely
depends on
lower layers
(SSL / TLS…)
PublishSubscribe
SASL, TLS,
lower layer
security
Full duplex
communica
tion same
over TCP
socket.
Real-time
PublishSubscribe
TLS
TLS and some
OMG specific
security
methods.
Vendor
specific
extensions also
available.
Request /
Response
mode
Depends on
other security
mechanisms.
RequestResponse
model,
Report-byexception.
Mutual
authentication
using challenge
response
mechanisms
Page 90 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
Protocol /
Traits
Architecture
Style
Intended or
Actual
Deployment
Relative
position to
other
protocols
Data Model /
Data
Representation
Above TCP
(such as over
XMPP/TCP or
over HTTP
(extensions) /
TCP)
Layer 2+
stacks over
IEEE 802.15.4
type of
networks
State variables
of complex type
expressed in
XML.
UPnP Cloud
Client-Server
model
Home
Automation
ISA100.11a
Client Server
model for
ISA100.11a
application
layer
Process
automation
Wireless
HART
Master-Slave
mode for
IEEE802.15.4
based networks
Process
automation
Layer 2+
stacks over
IEEE 802.15.4
type of mesh /
star networks
Analog, binary,
block data
(such as for
waveform and
firmware
image)
Fix and floating
point numbers,
bit and byte
arrays,
enumerations,
time and text.
Messaging
(only a
subset of
features
indicated
here)
Publish
Subscribe
Security
(only a subset
of mechanisms
listed here)
Publish –
Subscribe,
Alert
Authentication,
Confidentiality,
Integrity
Command
based
application
layer used
in HART
systems.
MasterSlave mode
and data
publishing
Hop-by-hop
(Layer 2) and
end-to-end
(network) layer
security
Uses SASL for
authentication,
TLS
Table 7.1: M2M Application Layer Protocols – Summary (I of II)
3027
3028
Protocol /
Traits
CoAP
MQTT
HTTP as
RESTful API
Synchronization
mechanisms
No internal mechanism.
(Could use NTP, IEEE
1588v2 and other
mechanisms.)
QoS
Discovery
Multicast
SDOs
Confirmable or
non-confirmable
message modes
Support for
discovery.
Supports IP
multicast
IETF
Relies on external
mechanisms
Three assurance
levels for
message delivery
(deliver message
at most once,
exactly once, at
least once)
Reliability via
TCP
--
OASIS
No
Uses concept of
resource directory
No automatic
discovery.
(Depends on
external
protocols)
No
XMPP
No
Reliability over
TCP
Service discovery
WebSockets
No
Reliability over
TCP
No
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
--
It is an
architecture
style.
Syntax for
sending
messages to
multiple
recipients is
supported
--
Protocol
part: W3C
and IETF.
IETF, XEP
IETF, W3C
Page 91 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
DDS
Relies on external
mechanisms
Modbus
For Modbus / TCP, NTP or
some other protocol can be
used. For Modbus over
serial interfaces,
mechanisms can be built on
top of Modbus protocol.
In-built time
synchronization mechanism
as part of DNP3 standard
Automatic
discovery of
publishers and
subscribers
If DDS over
UDP, one
could use IP
multicast
OMG
No
No
Modbus.org
No
If using over
UDP, one
could use IP
multicast
Multicast
events
mapped to
XMPP PubSub
Depends on
other layers
of the stack
IEEE,
DNP user
group
UPnP Cloud
DCP level
(like synchronized video
playout)
Reliable data
transfer through
the use of timestamping
Reliability via
TCP or other
protocols
ISA100.11a
ISA networks need time
synchronization
mechanisms
Can be supported
by different
layers of the stack
Neighbour
discovery
Time Synchronization
needed
Can be supported
Neighbour
discovery
DNP3
Wireless
HART
3029
20+ QoS policies
in terms of
latency budget,
reliability etc.
Reliability
provided by
DDSI protocol.
TCP can provide
reliability for
Modbus-TCP.
Yes
Depends on
other layers
of the stack
UPnP
Forum
ISA,
Uses
components
such as
6LoWPAN
from IETF
IEC
Table 7.2: M2M Application Layer Protocols – Summary (II of II)
3030
3031
Performance: Following should be noted:
3032
3033
Some of these protocols (and associated systems) such as Modbus, DNP3, Wireless HART and ISA100.11a are
optimized for industrial applications.
3034
3035
CoAP and MQTT-SN are simple and efficient protocols for IoT applications. Though MQTT runs over TCP,
MQTT-SN (MQTT for Sensor Networks) runs over UDP.
3036
3037
DDS offers good capabilities for the scenarios when there are several applications running on a node.
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 92 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3038
The following text is to be used when appropriate:
3039
Proforma copyright release text block
3040
3041
This text box shall immediately follow after the heading of an element (i.e. clause or annex) containing a proforma or
template which is intended to be copied by the user. Such an element shall always start on a new page.
3042
3043
3044
Notwithstanding the provisions of the copyright clause related to the text of the present document, OneM2M grants that
users of the present document may freely reproduce the <proformatype> proforma in this {clause|annex} so that it can
be used for its intended purposes and may further publish the completed <proformatype>.
3045
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 93 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3047
Annex A
List of M2M-related Protocols (Informative)
3048
3049
3050
3051
NOTE: The following list table has been created for reference from publicly-available sources, and no representation is
made regarding the accuracy or timeliness of the information it contains. In addition, the appearance or omission of any
M2M-related information in this list does not imply either the intention, or lack of intention, to undertake any normative
or other work within oneM2M.
3052
Table A.1: M2M-related Protocols
3046
3053
Short Name
(docs link)
1-Wire®
6LoWPAN
Full Name /
Description
1-Wire®
IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks
AllJoyn™
AllJoyn™
ANSI
~~
Protocol Specification for ANSI
Type 2 Optical Port
Protocol Specification for
Telephone Modem
Communication
ANSI C12.18
ANSI C12-21
ANSI C12.22
ANT+
BACnet™
BâtiBUS,
Interfacing to Data
Communication Networks
ANT+
Building Automation & Control
Network
Bâtiment-Bus
-superceded-
BitXML
BitXchange Markup Language
Bluetooth
~~
Bluetooth
HDP
Bluetooth
Health Device Profile
Bluetooth
LE / SMART
Bluetooth Low Energy / Smart
Devices
C-Bus
C-Bus
CANOpen
Controller Area Network - Open
CC-Link
CC-Link
Originating org
(source link)
Notes
[Dallas-Maxim]
IETF 6LoWPAN
AllJoyn Alliance
[Qualcomm]
ANSI
RFC 4944
(open source)
ANSI / NEMA
ANSI / NEMA
ANSI / NEMA
Advanced Metering
Infrastructure
(AMI)
ThisIsAnt
[Dynastream Inc]
ASHRAE SSPC 135
BACnet International
see KNX
BitXML
[Your Voice S.P.A.]
Bluetooth SIG
Continua Health
Alliance
Bluetooth SIG
IEEE 802.15.1
Partner Type 2
Bluetooth SIG
[Clipsal / Schneider
Electric]
CANOpen Forum
[CiA. e.V.]
CC-Link Partner
Association
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
EN 50325-4 2002
Part 4
SEMI E54.120701E
Page 94 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
CEBus
Consumer Electronics Bus
CIP
Common Industrial Protocol
CoAP
CompoNet
Contiki
ControlNet
DALI
DLMS
DASH7
DDS
DDS-RTPS
DECT™ ULE
DeviceNet
DNP
Dynet 1 / 2
E5
Eclipse
Concierge
(proposed)
Kura
(proposed)
Lua API
Mihini /
M3DA
Constrained Application
Protocol
CompoNet (CIP)
on TDMA Technology
Contiki Operating System
ControlNet (CIP)
on CTDMA Technology
Digital Addressable Lighting
Interface
Device Language Message
Specification
(ISO 18000) - Dash 7
Data Distribution Service for
Real-Time Systems
DDS Real-Time PublishSubscribe
Digital Enhanced Cordless
Telecommunications - Ultra
Low Energy
DeviceNet (CIP)
on CAN Technology
Distributed Network Protocol
Dynalite Network
(Ease, Energy, Efficiency,
Environment and Earth)
Smart Thermostat
~~
Lightweight, embeddable OSGi
framework
[Mitsubishi]
CEA (was EIA)
Open DeviceNet
Vendors Association
[Rockwell Automation]
IETF CORE WG
Open DeviceNet
Vendors Association
Contiki Project
Open DeviceNet
Vendors Association
DALI
EIA 600
See Clause 6.1
(open source)
IEC 62386
see IEC 62056
DASH7 Alliance
ISO/IEC 18000-7
OMG
OMG
ETSI TC DECT
Open DeviceNet
Vendors Association
[Allen-Bradley /
Rockwell]
IEEE / DNP
[Philips Dynalite]
TS 102 939-1
IEEE Std 1815™
RS-485
[EarthNetworks]
Eclipse Foundation
Eclipse Foundation
(open source)
Java M2M framwork
Eclipse Foundation
(open source)
Scripting API
Eclipse Foundation
(open source)
Mihini/M3DA Specification
Eclipse Foundation
(open source)
Paho
Implementations of Open and
Standard Messaging Protocols
Eclipse Foundation
(open source)
Ponte
(proposed)
M2M to REST bridge
Eclipse Foundation
(open source)
open Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition
Ericsson Device Connection
Eclipse Foundation
(was openSCADA)
[Ericsson]
SCADA
E-DCP
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
(open source)
Page 95 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
EHS
EIB
Energyhub
EnOcean
ETSI M2M
TS 102 921
Platform
European Home Systems
-supercededEuropean Installation Bus
-supercededMercury™ smart thermostat
platform
EnOcean Weqipment Profiles
(EEP)
Machine-to-Machine
communications (M2M);
mIa, dIa and mId interfaces
EXALTED
EXpAnding LTE for Devices
FieldBus
FlatMesh
FieldBus
Remote Condition Monitoring
Flexible Wireless Automation in
Real-Time Environments
Honeywell Building Solutions
~~
Telecontrol
(Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition)
Smart Meter Communications
Protocol
Electrical Substation
Automation.
Device Language Message
Specification/Companion
Specification for Energy
Metering
Security
Dual-mesh (RF/PL) Home
Management Metwork
~~
Smart Transducer Interface for
Sensors and Actuators
Smart Transducer Interface for
Sensors, Actuators, and Devices
- XMPP
flexWARE
HBS
IEC
IEC 60870-5xxx
IEC 61107
IEC 61850
IEC 62056
DLMS/
COSEM
IEC 62351
INSTEON
IEEE
1451.x
P1451.1.4
see KNX
see KNX
[Energyhub]
EnOcean Alliance
[EnOcean / Siemens]
EN 50090,
ISO/IEC 14543
ETSI M2M
Partner Type 1
oneM2M Pool
Document
Exalted consortium
[Eurescom]
Fieldbus Foundation
[Senceive]
flexWARE Interest
Group (FIG)
[Honeywell]
IEC
IEC TC57 WG03
EC FP7, 2010-2013
IEC 61158
IEEE 802.15.4
EU FP7
IEC 101
IEC 103
IEC 104
IEC TC57
IEC TC57
IEC TC13 WG 14
DLMS User
Association
IEC TC57 WG15
Insteon
[SmartLabs, Inc.]
IEEE
IEEE
IEEE IM/ST - TC9
802.11a
802.11b
802.11g
802.11n
Wi-Fi
IEEE
Wi-Fi Alliance
802.11p
WAVE - Wireless Access in
Vehicular Environments
IEEE
802.11ag
WiGig
IEEE
Wi-Fi Alliance
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
ISO/IEC/IEEE
21451-1-4
IEEE 1609
Page 96 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
(was WiGig)
802.11ah
(in progress)
802.15
802.16
IETF
Sub 1 GHz (S1G) Wireless
Sensor Network for Smart
Metering
Wireless Personal Area Network
(WPAN)
WiMAX
Wireless Metropolitan Area
Networks
~~
IEEE
IEEE
WiMAX Forum
IEEE
IETF
IP (v4)
Internet Protocol
IETF
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6
IETF
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
IETF
UDP
Instabus
IPDR
User Datagram Protocol
-supercededIP Data Record
IETF
IrDA
~
FIR
Fast IrDA
SIR
Serial Infrared
IRsimple™
IrDA Simple
(high-speed wireless)
RFC791
Updated by:
RFC1349,
RFC2474,
RFC6864
RFC2460
Updated by:
RFC5095,
RFC5722,
RFC5871,
RFC6437,
RFC6564,
RFC6935,
RFC6946
RFC793
Updated by:
RFC1122,
RFC3168,
RFC6093,
RFC6528
RFC768
see KNX
TM Forum
Infrared Data
Association
Infrared Data
Association
Infrared Data
Association
Infrared Data
Association
ISA
ISA100 Wireless
Compliance Institute
(WCI)
ISA100.11a
ISA100.11a
ISO 21215
CALM M5
Communication Access for Land
Mobile
ISO TC 204/WG 16
KNX
KNX (Konnex)
KNX Association
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
ISO/IEC 14543-3
CENELEC EN
Page 97 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
50090
CEN EN 13321-1
[CN] GB/Z 20965
HGI
(in progress)
RWD036
RWD043
GWD042
~~
Smart Home Architecture and
System Requirements
Requirements for RP1 on the
Smart Home Platform
Smart Home Appliance (Device)
Model Template
HL7
Health Level Seven
Jabber
Control Network Protocol
Specification
Machine-To-Machine XMLbased Protocol
Mango Automation
Meter Bus
Microchip P2P Wireless
Protocol
LonWorks®
M2MXML
Mango
M-Bus
MiWi
Home Gateway
Initiative (HGI)
Home Gateway
Initiative (HGI)
Home Gateway
Initiative (HGI)
Home Gateway
Initiative (HGI)
Health Level Seven
International
LonMark
[Echelon]
M2MXML Project
[Microchip Tech]
IEEE 802.15.4
Message Queuing Telemetry
Transport
oBIX
Open Building Information
Exchange
~~
Open Mobile Alliance
MyriaNed®
OASIS
AMQP
OMA M2M
Enablers
CPNS
DM 1.3
DM 2.0
GwMO
LWM2M
M2M DC
OCMAPI
oneNet
Modicon Bus TCP/IP
Self organizing Wireless Sensor
Network
~~
Advanced Message Queuing
Protocol
Converged Personal Network
Services
Device Management
Device Management
Gateway Management Object
Lightweight M2M protocol
M2M Device Classification
Open Connection Manager API
Low Power Wireless Protocol
(open source)
(open source)
EN 13757-2, -3
MQTT
Modbus TCP
(in progress)
Modicon Bus
see XMPP
ANSI/CEA-709.1-B
SO/IEC 14908-1)
[Serotonin Software]
M-Bus Usergroup
Modbus Organization
[Schneider Automation]
(was Modicon)
Modbus Organization
[Schneider Automation]
[DevLab]
[Chess]
OASIS
OASIS AMQP TC
[JPMorgan-Chase]
OASIS MQTT TC
MQTT.org
[IBM/Eurotec (Arcom)]
OASIS oBIX TC
oBix
Modbus
Partner Type 2
See Clause 6.2
Partner Type 2
Open Mobile Alliance
Open Mobile Alliance
Open Mobile Alliance
Open Mobile Alliance
Open Mobile Alliance
Open Mobile Alliance
Open Mobile Alliance
ONE-NET
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
(open source)
Page 98 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
OpenSCADA
OpenTag
-superceded-superceded-
OpenWSN
Open Wireless Sensor Networks
OSGi™ R5
OSGi R5 for embedded devices
OpenWSN Project
(was UC Berkeley)
OSGi™ Alliance
OSGP
Open Smart Grid Protocol
ETSI
(was ISG OSG)
OSIAN
Open Source IPv6 Automation
Network
OSIAN Project
Profibus
Process Field Bus
Profibus & Profinet
International (PI)
RFID
EN 300 220
Radio-Frequency IDentification
ERM Short Range Devices
ERM Radio Frequency
Identification Equipment
EPCglobal UHF
Class 1 Generation 2
EN 302 208
EPC Gen2
ISO/IEC
14443
ISO/IEC
15693
ISO/IEC
18000
ISO/IEC
18092
ISO/IEC
21481
RS-232
RS-422
RS-485
HighFID Proximity Card
SOAP
HighFID non-contact Smart
Tags
Radio frequency identification
for item management
Near Field Communication
NFCP-1
Near Field Communication
NFCP-2
-superceded-superceded-supercededHigh security Wireless Asset
Visibility Network
Siemens Ethernet Control - H1
-legacySimple Object Access Protocol
SMART
-superceded-
RuBee
Sinec H1
SMS
SmartBus Home Automation
Control (HAC)
Short Message Service
SNMP
~~
SmartBus
SNMP v3
SNMP MIB
TIA
TIA-232-F
Simple Network Management
Protocol v3
Management Information Block
~~
Interface Between Data
see Eclipse SCADA
see DASH7
(open source)
GS OSG 001
Ver. 1.1.1
with ISO/IEC 14908
(open source)
ETSI
ETSI
EPCglobal
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
EIA
EIA
EIA
RuBee
[Visible Assets]
see TIA-232-F
see TIA -422
see TIA-485
IEEE 1902.1,
1901.2
[Siemens]
W3C
see Bluetooth
SMART
Smart Home Group
[Digitcom Technology]
3GPP
IETF OPSA WG
(was SNMP WG)
TS 23.040
IETF OPSA WG
RFC3411
IETF OPSA WG
TIA
TIA TR-30
RFC3418
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Partner Type 1
Page 99 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
TIA-422
TIA-485
TIA-4940.020
UPnP
TR-069
Terminal Equipment and Data
Circuit-Terminating Equipment
Employing Serial Binary Data
Interchange
Electrical Characteristics of the
Balanced Voltage Digital
Interface Circuit
Electrical Characteristics of
Generators and Receivers for
Use in Balanced Digital
Multipoint Systems
Smart Device Communications
Protocol Aspects
Universal Plug and Play
CPE WAN Management
Protocol
VSCP
Very Simple Control Protocol
WAP
Wireless Application Protocol
WAVE2M
Wavenis
Open Low-Power Wireless
-supercededLow-power White-space
Wireless Network
Weightless 1.0
Wibree
-superceded-
WirelessHART
®
Wireless Highway Addressable
Remote Transducer
Wireless High-Definition Digital
Interface
Wireless HD
Wireless USB
WorldFIP
X-10
xAP
xPL
XMPP
XMPP XEP
ZigBee®
ZigBee IP
ZigBee
RF4CE
SEP 2
Wireless Universal Serial Bus
World Factory
Instrumentation Protocol
X-10
XAP Home Automation
Protocol
xPL Home Automation Project
eXtensible Messaging and
Presence Protocol
eXtensible Messaging and
Presence Protocol Extensions
ZigBee 2012
ZigBee IPv6 for Smart Energy
ZigBee for Consumer
Electronics
Smart Energy Profile 2.0
(was EIA RS-232)
TIA TR-30
(was EIA RS-422)
TIA TR-30
(was EIA RS-485)
TIA TR-50
UPnP Forum
Broadband Forum
(BBF)
VSCP Project
[Grodans Paradis AB]
Open Mobile Alliance
(was: WAP Forum)
WAVE2M
Partner Type 1
oneM2M Pool
Document
Partner Type 2
(open source)
see WAVE2M
Weightless SIG
[Neul]
HART Communication
Foundation
WirelessHD
Consortium
USB Implementers
Forum
see Bluetooth
SMART
IEEE 802.15.4 /
IEC 62591
WorldFIP
[X-10 (USA)]
XAP Forum
(open source)
xPL Project
IETF XMPP WG
XMPP Standards
Foundation
ZigBee Alliance
ZigBee Alliance
RFC6120
IEEE 802.15.4
ZigBee Alliance
CSEP
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 100 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
Z-Wave
Wireless RF-based
Communications Technology
ZigBee Alliance
Z-Wave Alliance
Z-Wave
ITU G.9959
3054
3055
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 101 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3058
Annex B
Definitions of Radio metrics for Technologies used for M2M
releated Protocols (Informative)
3059
3060
3061
3062
NOTE: The following definitions are quoted for reference from publicly-available sources, and no representation is
made regarding the accuracy or timeliness of the information it contains. In addition, the appearance or omission of any
M2M-related information in this list does not imply either the intention, or lack of intention, to undertake any normative
or other work within oneM2M.
3056
3057
ZigBee
Bluetooth
802.11b
802.11g
802.11a
802.11n
UWB
Throughput
Mbps
0.03
1-3
11
54
54
200
200
Max range
ft
75
30
200
200
150
150
30
Sweet spot
Mbps-ft
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Service
bps-ft2
530
314M
251G
251G
1.13T
3.14T
62G
Power
mW
30
100
750
1000
1500
2000
400
Bandwidth
MHz
0.6
1
22
20
20
40
500
Spectral efficiency
b/Hz
0.05
1
0.5
2.7
2.7
5
0.4
Power efficiency1
mW/Mbps
1000
100
68
19
27
10
2
Power efficiency2
mAh/GB
2211
67
46
12
18
7
1.3
TTGB
Time
3.1 day
2.2 hr
12 min
2.5 min
2.5 min
40 sec
40 sec
Price
US$
$2
$3
$5
$9
$12
$20
$7
Note: TTGB: Time To Generate (the time to live for a security session key).
3063
Table B-1: Wireless access technologies in the M2M landscape
3064
3065
B.1
Bluetooth® Wireless Technology
3066
 Bluetooth wireless technology is geared towards voice and data applications
3067
 Bluetooth wireless technology operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz spectrum
3068
3069
3070
3071
 The range of Bluetooth wireless technology is application specific. The Bluetooth Specification mandates
operation over a minimum distance of 10 meters or 100 meters depending on the Bluetooth device class, but
there is not a range limit for the technology. Manufacturers may tune their implementations to support the
distance required by the use case they are enabling.
3072
 The peak data rate with EDR is 3 Mbps
3073
 Bluetooth wireless technology is able to penetrate solid objects
3074
 Bluetooth technology is omni-directional and does not require line-of-sight positioning of connected devices
3075
3076
 Security has always been and continues to be a priority in the development of the Bluetooth specification. The
Bluetooth specification allows for three modes of security
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 102 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3077
B.2
3078
3079
The promoter companies of the ZigBee Alliance include: Philips, Honeywell, Mitsubishi Electric, Motorola, Samsung,
BM Group, Chipcon, Freescale and Ember; more than 70 members
3080
 Capacity of 250 Kbits at 2.4 GHz, 40 Kpbs at 915 Mhz, and 20 Kpbs at 868 Mhz with a range of 10-100 M
3081
 Its purpose is to become a wireless standard for remote control in the industrial field
3082
3083
 The ZigBee technology is targeting the control applications industry, which does not require high data rates, but
must have low power, low cost and ease of use (remote controls, home automation, etc.)
3084
 The specification was formally adopted in December 2004
3085
3086
 Security was not considered in the initial development of the specification. Currently there are three levels of
security
3087
B.3
ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4)
Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
3088
3089
 UWB technology for Personal Area Networks offers a unique combination of low power consumption
(~1mW/Mbps) and high data throughput (up to 480 Mbps).
3090
3091
3092
 WiMedia UWB is an internationally recognized standard (ECMA-368, ISO/IEC 26970 and ECMA-369,
ISO/IEC 26908) and has regulatory approval in major markets worldwide, including US, EU, Korea and Japan.
Additional regions, e.g. China and Canada are expecting regulatory approval in the near future.
3093
3094
 Ideally, it will have low power consumption, low price, high speed, use a wide swath of radio spectrum, carry
signals through obstacles (doors, etc.) and apply to a wide range of applications (defense, industry, home, etc.)
3095
3096
 WiMedia UWB takes a "Common Radio Platform" approach allowing the same radio to be used for a variety of
applications.
3097
3098
 WiMedia UWB allows for data rates up to 480Mbps at ranges of several meters and a data rate of approximately
110 Mbps at a range of up to 10 meters
3099
3100
3101
 While Wireless USB has initially utilized UWB technology, it is expected that the Bluetooth high speed solution
will not suffer the same performance and interoperability issues due to the specification development and
qualification process employed by the Bluetooth SIG.
3102
3103
 The Bluetooth SIG announced in May 2005 its intentions to work with UWB to develop a high rate Bluetooth
specification on the UWB radio
3104
B.4
Certified Wireless USB
3105
3106
 Speed: Wireless USB is projected to be 480 Mbps up to 2 meters and 110 Mbps for up to 10 meters. Wireless
USB hub can host up to 127 wireless USB devices
3107
 Wireless USB will be based on and run over the UWB radio promoted by the WiMedia Alliance.
3108
 Allows point-to-point connectivity between devices and the Wireless USB hub
3109
 Intel established the Wireless USB Promoter Group in February 2004
3110
3111
 The USB Implementers Forum, Inc. (USB-IF) tests and certifies the "certified Wireless USB" based wireless
equipment
3112
B.5
Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)
3113
 Bluetooth technology uses a fifth of the power of Wi-Fi
3114
 The Wi-Fi Alliance tests and certifies 802.11 based wireless equipment
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 103 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3115
 802.11a: This uses OFDM, operates in the 5 GHz range, and has a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps
3116
3117
 802.11b: Operates in the 2.4 GHz range, has a maximum data rate of 11 Mbps and uses DSSS. 802.11b is the
original Wi-Fi standard
3118
3119
 802.11g: Operates in the 2.4 GHz range, uses OFDM and has a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps. This is
backwards compatible with 802.11b
3120
 802.11e: This standard will improve quality of service
3121
3122
3123
 802.11h: This standard is a supplement to 802.11a in Europe and will provide spectrum and power control
management. Under this standard, dynamic frequency selection (FS) and transmit power control (TPC) are
added to the 802.11a specification
3124
3125
3126
 802.11i: This standard is for enhanced security. It includes the advanced encryption standard (AES). This
standard is not completely backwards compatible and some users will have to upgrade their hardware. The full
802.11i support is also referred to as WPA2
3127
3128
 802.11k: Under development, this amendment to the standard should allow for increased radio resource
management on 802.11 networks
3129
3130
3131
 802.11n: This standard is expected to operate in the 5 GHz range and offer a maximum data rate of over 100
Mbps (though some proposals are seeking upwards of 500 Mbps). 802.11n will handle wireless multimedia
applications better than the other 802.11 standards
3132
3133
3134
 802.11p: This standard will operate in the automotive-allocated 5.9 GHz spectrum. It will be the basis for the
dedicated short range communications (DSRC) in North America. The DSRC will allow vehicle to vehicle and
vehicle to roadside infrastructure communication
3135
3136
 802.11r: This amendment to the standard will improve users' ability to roam between access points or base
stations. The task group developing this form in spring/summer 2004
3137
3138
 802.11s: Under development, this amendment to the standard will allow for mesh networking on 802.11
networks. The task group developing this formed in spring/summer 2004.
3139
B.6
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
3140
There are over 140 different ISO standards for RFID for a broad range of applications
3141
3142
3143
 With RFID, a passive or unpowered tag can be powered at a distance by a reader device. The receiver, which
must be within a few feet, pulls information off the 'tag,' and then looks up more information from a database.
Alternatively, some tags are self-powered, 'active' tags that can be read from a greater distance
3144
3145
 RFID can operate in low frequency (less than 100 MHz), high frequency (more than 100 MHz), and UHF (868
to 954 MHz)
3146
 Uses include tracking inventory both in shipment and on retail shelves
3147
B.7
Near Field Communication (NFC)
3148
3149
3150
The NFC Forum is involved in the development and promotion of NFC. The 12 sponsor members of the NFC Forum
include MasterCard International, Microsoft, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Panasonic, Philips, Renesas, Samsung Electronics,
Sony, Texas Instruments and Visa
3151
 Capacity: 212 kbps over a distance from 0 to 20 centimeters over the 13.56 Mhz frequency range
3152
 The NFC standard is based on RFID technology
3153
 Applications suggested for NFC include ticketing, payment and gaming.
3154
 Support for a passive mode of communication leads to savings on battery power
3155
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 104 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3157
Annex Z
Bibliography
3158
- A DNP3 Protocol Primer, DNP.org, http://www.dnp.org/AboutUs/DNP3%20Primer%20Rev%20A.pdf
3159
. - DNP3 Overview, Triangle Microworks, http://www.trianglemicroworks.com/documents/DNP3_Overview.pdf
3160
3161
3162
The world market for substation automation and integration programs in electric utilities: 2011-13, Volume 1, North
American Market, Newton-Evans Research Company,
http://www.dnp.org/Lists/Announcements/Attachments/6/Newton%20Evans%20NA%20SSA%202011V1.pdf
3156
3163
3164
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 105 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
3165
History
Approval history
V.1.x.x
xx-mmm-2013
<Approved Version>
3166
Draft history (to be removed on publication)
V.0.0.1
dd Mmm 2013
Skeleton Draft
V.0.1.1
08 Aug 2013
Output Draft - PRO WG3 at TP#6 - Toronto - Including Contributions:
oneM2M-PRO-2013-023, -024R01, -029R02
V0.1.2
08 Aug 2013
Revised Output Draft - PRO WG3 at TP#6 - Toronto:
adding input from oneM2M-PRO-2013-025R03,
V0.2.0
02 Sep 2013
PRO WG3 Agreed output from TP#6
V0.2.1
25 Sep 2013
Output from PRO WG3 meeting 11 Sep 2013, including
oneM2M-PRP-2013-0034R02, oneM2M-PRP-2013-0041R01
V0.2.2
30 Sep 2013
Output from PRO WG3 meeting 25 Sep 2013, including V0.2.1 and
oneM2M-PRO-2013-0044R01, oneM2M-PRO-2013-0045, and oneM2M-PRO2013-0046R01.
V0.2.3
23 Oct 2013
Output Draft - PRO WG3 at TP#7 - Sophia Antipolis; Including Contributions:
oneM2M-PRO-2013-0050R02, 0051R01 (w/text from 0058), -0053R02, 0054R03, -0056R02, and -0062. Added references and acronyms.
V0.3.0
03 Nov 2013
PRO WG3 Agreed output from TP#7
V0.3.1
05 Nov 2013
Output draft from PRO 7.1 WG3 meeting 30 Oct 2013, including
oneM2M-PRO-2013-0066R01
V0.3.2
12 Nov 2013
Output draft from PRO 7.2 WG3 meeting 06 Nov 2013, including
oneM2M-PRO-2013-0071R01. Additional references and acronyms.
V0.3.3
27 Nov 2013
Output draft from PRO 7.4, 20 Nov and PRO 7.5, 27 Nov 2013, including
oneM2M-PRO-2013-0082R01 and oneM2M-PRO-2013-0086
V0.3.4
12 Dec 2013
Output Draft - PRO WG3 at TP#8 - Miyazaki; Including Contributions:
oneM2M-PRO-2013-0084R01, -0087, and -0091R02
V0.4.0
06 Jan 2014
PRO WG3 Agreed output from TP#8
V0.4.1
19 Feb 2014
Output Draft - PRO WG3 at TP9 – Mobile AL; Including Contributions:
PRO-2014-0030-Bluetooth_revisions
V0.5.0
07 Mar 2014
PRO WG3 Agreed output from TP9
V0.5.1
10 Apr 2014
Output Draft - PRO WG3 at TP10 – Berlin,
including PRO-2014-0121R01 from interim meetings PRO 9.2 and PRO 9.3:
PRO-2014-0128R03 (ISA100), -0132R01 (WirelessHART), -0135 (DNP3),
-0136 (Modbus), -0137 (XMPP), -0138 (CoAP), -0146 (Bluetooth), -0163 (HTTP)
Applied template to 6.4.x, normalized NOTE in all 6.x.12
V0.5.2
22 April 2014
Output Draft - after mailing list review post PRO WG3 at TP10, with editorial
changes suggested by Secretariat
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 106 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.
V0.6.0
22 April 2014
PRO WG3 Agreed output from TP10
V0.6.1
20 May 2014
Output Draft from PRO 10.2; Including contribution PRO-2014-0192
V0.6.2
27 May 2014
Output Draft from PRO 10.7; Including contribution PRO-2014-0209R01 with
meeting comments
V0.6.3
28 May 2014
Revised Output Draft to include contribution PRO-2014-0127R01, from PRO 9.4,
which was agreed but not previously included.
V0.6.4
10 June 2014
Output Draft from PRO 11.0 to include contributions PRO-2014-0234R01 and
PRO-2014-0248R01.
V0.7.0
12 June
Approved by WG3
3167
3168
© oneM2M Partners Type 1 (ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC)
Page 107 of 107
This is a draft oneM2M document and should not be relied upon; the final version, if any, will be made available by oneM2M Partners Type 1.

Similar documents

×

Report this document