SMA 550 B Fall Quarter 2008 - Marine Protected Areas DGS

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SMA 525 AT CAPE FLATTERY
SMA 550 B Fall Quarter 2008
David Fluharty
Associate Professor
Wakefield Professor
Learning Outcomes
• Explore natural and social sciences
required to understand marine area
management
• Understanding principles of MPA and
EBM management
• Be qualified to walk out of SMA and
into a job in the ONMS – or other
desirable marine management
employer
WHAT’S A DISTRIBUTED
SEMINAR?
A seminar that is taught simultaneously
at more than one University.
What’s the big deal – efficiency,
effectiveness, fun, exchange
How does it work – we make it work
What do we get – let’s find out
No I haven’t done this before but I am
willing to try.
Grand Synthesis Questions
•
•
•
•
•
Can successful ecosystem-based management approaches
be implemented in the marine environment without NMS as
part of the approach?
How can NMS meet local management objectives and
simultaneously contribute to broader regional objectives for
ecosystem-based management?
Are existing legal and jurisdictional authorities sufficient to
integrate NMS into ecosystem-based management efforts at
local and regional scales?
Can National Marine Sanctuaries effectively implement
ecosystem-based management approaches within their
boundaries and contribute to broader ecosystem-based
management efforts in the regions in which they occur?
To what extent can insights derived from an evaluation of
National Marine Sanctuaries and ecosystem-based
management be extrapolated to the broader global
discussion of MPAs?
Course requirements
• 1. Sign UP
• NCEAS DGS Website Registration: A
network website has been set up for all of
the partner universities participating in this
NCEAS DGS course. Students should
access the site at:
http://mpa-dgs.nceas.ucsb.edu
to register.
Course requirements
Attend Class
Read Assignments
Be ready to discuss
Show and tell – Each student has unique
experience, contacts, networks. Bring your
talents to class and share them.
Course requirements
On a weekly basis stay abreast of the
developments from other distributed
seminars, via the webtools –
Workspace [we may need to break this
into individual assignments].
Take responsibility for one of the weekly
reports from our seminar to the
Distributed seminar website.[sign up].
Course requirements
Individual or Group Projects Contributing
to Course Case Study –
We will design this case study in class
so that it is built around the questions
above but matched with student
interests.
Case Study Continued
• Conceptually, the case study should
consider:
• 1. Ecosystem processes and impacts largely
within ONMS boundaries.
• 2. Ecosystem processes and impacts largely
external to ONMS boundaries.
• 3. Human activities inside and outside
ONMS boundaries.
• 4. Spatial Database [This component is
common across all distributed seminars]
Spatial Data Base
Spatial Database – GIS including:
•
Species and Habitat Data
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Organism distribution data: What is known and available with
respect to the distribution of fishes, invertebrates, marine
mammals, seabirds, reptiles within the Sanctuary or
surrounding environs?
Interpreted seafloor maps: What is known and available with
respect to the distribution of major seafloor habitat types in the
Sanctuary?
Multibeam/sidescan sonar coverages
Management Boundaries
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•
Marine Managed Area Database
Other relevant non-spatial regulations
Human Dimensions
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Human uses (traditional, local, incl. fishing)
Land-based or other anthropogenic influences
Class field trip? -- Optional
Class Field Trip – REQUIRED
EBM, MPA, NMS
KEY TERMS – MANY DEFINITIONS
DEVELOPING WORKING DEFINITIONS
FOR COURSE
ECOSYSTEM-BASED
FISHERY MANAGEMENT
“USING WHAT YOU KNOW
ABOUT THE ECOSYSTEM
TO MANAGE FISHERIES”
ECOSYSTEM-BASED
FISHERY MANAGEMENT
IS NOT
ECOSYSTEM
MANAGEMENT
EPAP ECOSYSTEM
“PRINCIPLES”
• ABILITY TO PREDICT ECOSYSTEM
BEHAVIOR IS LIMITED
• ECOSYSTEMS HAVE THRESHOLDS
AFFECTING ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE
• IF LIMITS ARE EXCEEDED, CHANGES
CAN BE IRREVERSIBLE
• DIVERSITY IS IMPORTANT TO
ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING
EPAP ECOSYSTEM
“PRINCIPLES” cont.
• Multiple scales interact within and
among ecosystems
• Components of ecosystems are linked
• Ecosystem boundaries are open
• Ecosystems change with time
• [OTHER VERSIONS, LINK 2002.
FOWLER 2004, ETC.]
ECOSYSTEM-BASED
[FISHERY] MANAGEMENT
USING MANAGEMENT ACTIONS TO TEST
ECOSYSTEM HYPOTHESES
LEARNING FROM HYPOTHESIS DRIVEN
MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
A. PASSIVE ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
B. ACTIVE ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
REQUIRES ADEQUATE MONITORING TO
DETECT CAUSE/EFFECT
ECOSYSTEM-BASED
[FISHERY] MANAGEMENT
IMPLEMENTATION OF EB[F]M IS:
A.
B.
C.
D.
EVOLUTIONARY/ INCREMENTAL?
REVOLUTIONARY/ ABRUPT?
IMPOSSIBLE?
NONE OF THE ABOVE?
ECOSYSTEM-BASED
[FISHERY] MANAGEMENT
RECOGNIZES UNCERTAINTY
IS CONSERVATIVE/ PRECAUTIONARY
ACCEPTS BURDEN OF PROOF
DEALS WITH CONFLICT OF LAWS
EPAP ECOSYSTEM-BASED
[FISHERY] MANAGEMENT
CAN BE IMPLEMENTED UNDER
CURRENT FISHERY MANAGEMENT
LACK OF DATA NOT AN EXCUSE –
RATHER AN OPPORTUNITY
DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT BASED ON
WHAT IS KNOWN
DON’T DEMAND PERFECTION
ECOSYSTEM-BASED
[FISHERY] MANAGEMENT
A HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM IS GOOD FOR
A HEALTHY FISHERY [IS THE
REVERSE TRUE ?]
FISHERY MANAGEMENT DATA PROVIDE
SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION ABOUT
THE ECOSYSTEM
HUMAN WELL-BEING IS A MORE
COMPLEX METRIC INVOLVING
QUALITY OF LIFE [BUT IMPORTANT]
PREREQUISITES OF EBFM
• EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FISHERIES
BY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
• ABILITY TO ENFORCE REGULATIONS
• ABILITY TO MONITOR HARVESTS INCLUDING BYCATCH
• ABILITY TO CONTROL CAPACITY TO
FISH
• INCENTIVES MATCH GOALS
ECOSYSTEM –BASED MGT.
POLICY ADVICE
• CHANGE BURDEN OF PROOF
• APPLY PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE
• PURCHASE “INSURANCE”
• LEARN FROM MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE
• USE INCENTIVES TO ACHIEVE GOALS
• PROMOTE FAIRNESS AND EQUITY
DEFINITION
• MPA EXECUTIVE ORDER 13158
Any area of the marine environment that has
been reserved by Federal, State, territorial
or tribal or local laws or regulations to
provide lasting protection for part or all of
the natural and cultural resources therein.
MPA DEFINITIONS
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IUCN/WCU (K&K 1992)
DEFINITION MPA
ANY AREA OF INTERTIDAL OR SUBTIDAL TERRAIN, TOGETHER
WITH ITS OVERLYING WATER AND ASSOCIATED FLORA, FAUNA,
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL FEATURES, WHICH HAS BEEN
RESESRVED BY LAW OR OTHER EFFECTIVE MEANS TO PROTECT
PART OR ALL OF THE ENCLOSED ENVIRONMENT [KELLLEHER AND
KENCHINGTON 1992].
PRIMARY GOAL
TO PROVIDE FOR THE PROTECTION, RESTORATION, WISE USE,
UNDERSTANDING AND ENJOYMENT OF THE MARINE HERITAGE OF
THE WORLD IN PERPETUITY THROUGH THE CREATION OF A
GLOBAL, REPRESENTATIVE SYSTEM OF MARINE PROTECTED
AREAS AND THROUGH THE MANAGEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH
THE PRINCIPLES OF THE WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY OF
HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT USE OR AFFECT THE MARINE
ENVIRONMENT [K&K 1992]
MPA DEFINITIONS
• AGARDY
• MARINE MANAGEMENT AREA --- ANY AREA OF THE
COASTAL ZONE OR OPEN OCEAN CONFERRED
SOME LEVEL OF PROTECTION FOR THE PURPOSE
OF MANAGING USE OF RESOURCES AND OCEAN
SPACE OR PROTECTING VULNERABLE OR
THREATENED HABITATS AND SPECIES. (Agardy
1997).
• MARINE PROTECTED AREAS ARE A SUBSET --ANY COASTAL OR MARINE AREA THAT IS
MANAGED FOR CONSERVATION PURPOSES.
DEFINITION
• National Research Council 2002
Geographic area with discrete
boundaries that has been designated to
enhance the conservation of marine
resources. This includes MPA-wide
restrictions on some activities such as
oil and gas mining and the use of zones
such as fishery and ecological reserves
to provide higher levels of protection
OBJECTIVES
IUCN/WCU OBJECTIVES FOR A SYSTEM OF REPRESENTATIVE
MPAS
• 1. PROTECT AND MANAGE SUBSTANTIAL EXAMPLES OF
AREAS/LONG TERM
• 2. PROTECT DEPLETED SPECIES / ESP. HABITATS
• 3. PROTECT AND MANAGED AREAS FOR LIFECYCLES OF
ECONOMICALLY IMPT.
• 4. PREVENT EXTERNAL IMPACTS ON MPAS
• 5. PROVIDE FOR WELFARE OF PEOPLES
• 6. PRESERVE HISTORICAL/CULTURAL SITES AND NATURAL
AESTHETIC VALUES
• 7. INTERPRET MARINE ECOSYSTEMS FOR EDUCATION AND
TOURISM
• 8. ACCOMMODATE COMPATIBLE ACTIVITIES
• 9. RESEARCH, TRAINING, MONITORING
OBJECTIVES
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OBJECTIVES OF MPAS (AGARDY 1997)
1. SAFEGUARD TRADITIONAL USES
2. EDUCATION
3. MODELS FOR TRAINING PROGRAMS ICM
4. RESEARCH
5. CONTROLLED HABITATS FOR RESEARCH/MONITORING
6. PUBLIC ACCESS TO SHORE
7. LIMIT ENTRY TO PARTICULAR USERS
8. POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT OF LOCALS
9. COORDINATION OF MANAGEMENT
10. DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR SUSTAINABLE USE OF
COASTAL/MARINE RESOURCES
MPA CATEGORIES
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IUCN/WCU CATEGORIES (Revised version)
1a. STRICT NATURE RESERVE
1b. WILDERNESS AREA
2. NATIONAL PARK
3. NATURAL MONUMENT
4. HABITAT/SPECIES MANAGEMENT AREA
5. PROTECTED LANDSCAPE/SEASCAPE
6. MANAGED RESOURCE PROTECED
AREA
MPA CATEGORIES
• AGARDY CATEGORIES
• SEVEN MAJOR MPA CATEGORIES
• 1. CLOSED AREAS --- PURPOSE IS TO ESTABLISH A
MORATORIUM ON USE
• 2. RESEARCH AND MONITORING AREAS --- CONTROL SITES
FOR EXPERIMENTS OR REFERENCE AREAS
• 3. SENSITIVE SEA AREAS --- ECOLOGICAL/SOCIOECONOMIC
SIGNIFICANCE AND VULNERABILITY TO DAMAGE
• 4. MARINE SANCTUARIES / PARKS --- CONSERVING
ECOSYSTEM AND ITS PROCESSES
• 5. REGIONAL SEAS AND LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM
AREAS --- INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
AREAS [IF AN AGREEMENT EXISTS]
• 6. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AREAS
• 7. HIGH SEAS UNDER LOS III
FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES
• FUNCTIONAL MPA DEFINITION
• 1. EXTENSIONS OF TERRESTRIAL
PARKS
• 2. SMALL SCALE RESERVE OR PARK
[LIMITED OBJECTIVES]
• 3. LARGE COASTAL/MARINE AREA
ZONED FOR MULTIPLE USE
• 4. WILDERNESS
CLASSIFICATION
This classification system is designed to be:
• simple, consistent and intuitive,
• an accurate reflection of MPA goals and
approaches,
• a tool to allow an objective assessment of
the impacts of proposed MPAs on
ecosystems and users,
• one that doesn’t overlap with programmatic
names, and
• one that has minimal connotations.
CLASSIFICATION –MPA Inventory
•
Primary Conservation Goal
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Natural Heritage
Cultural Heritage
Sustainable Production
Level of Protection
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No Access
No Impact
No Take
Zoned With No-Take Areas
Zoned Multiple Use
Uniform Multiple Use
Permanence of Protection
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Permanent
Conditional
Temporary
Constancy of Protection
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•
Year-Round
Seasonal
Rolling
Scale of Protection
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Ecosystem
Focal Resource
Allowed Extractive Activities
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Commercial Fishing
Recreational Fishing
Subsistence Hunting/Fishing
Scientific/Educational Collecting
Mineral/ Energy Extraction
Other
Federal - Status/Inventory
Agency
Department of Interior
National Park Serviceprogram informationview mapsites
completeJanuary, 2002June, 2005
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serviceprogram informationview
mapsites partially complete February, 2002 February, 2002
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Estuarine Research Reserveprogram
informationviewmapsites complete January, 2002, April, 2005
National Marine Fisheries Serviceprogram
informationviewmapsites partially completeJanuary, 2002July, 2005
National Marine Sanctuary Programprogram
informationviewmapsitescompleteJanuary, 2002November, 20
Washington State Inventory
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Northwest Straits Program (Marine Resource Committees)
Voluntary No Take Bottomfish Recovery Areas
Marine Parks
State Parks (RCW 79A.05.010)
Underwater Parks
Underwater Parks (RCW 79A.05.355 et seq)
Natural Area Preserves
Natural Area Preserves Act (RCW Chapter 79.70)
State Parks
(RCW 79A.05.010)
Columbia River Mouth Sanctuaries
(WAC 220-33-005)
Conservation Areas
(RCW 77.04.012; WAC 220-20-100)
Marine Preserves
(RCW 77.04.012; WAC 220-20-100) [cont.]
Washington State Inventory
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Natural Shorelines
Washington Shoreline Management Act (RCW 90.58.010 et seq)
Residential Shorelines
Washington Shoreline Management Act (RCW 90.58.010 et seq)
Rural Conservancy Shorelines
Washington Shoreline Management Act (RCW 90.58.010 et seq)
Seashore Conservation Area
Seashore Conservation Area (RCW 79A.05.600 et seq)
Shorelines of Statewide Significance
Washington Shoreline Management Act (RCW 90.58.010 et seq)
Special Fishery Management Areas
(RCW 77.04.012; WAC 220-20-100)
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