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SIGNIFICANCE OF PEACE EDUCATIONAND
DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUMFOR
PEACE EDUCATION
FINAL REPORT OF)
MINOR RESEARCH PROJECT
(MRP (H)-0505/12-13/ KLKE 038/UGC-SWRO)
Sponsored by
UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
BAHADUR SHA ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI-110 002
By
DR.MAYA.S, M.Sc., M.Ed.,Ph.D
MAR THEOPHILUS TRAINING COLLEGE
NALANCHIRA, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, KERALA
SIGNIFICANCE OF PEACE EDUCATION AND
DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM FOR
PEACE EDUCATION
FINAL REPORT OF)
MINOR RESEARCH PROJECT
(MRP (H)-0505/12-13/ KLKE 038/UGC-SWRO)
Sponsored by
UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
BAHADUR SHA ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI-110 002
By
DR.MAYA.S, M.Sc., M.Ed.,Ph.D
MAR THEOPHILUS TRAINING COLLEGE
NALANCHIRA, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, KERALA
UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
BAHADUR SHA ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI-110 002
FINAL REPORT OF THE WORK DONE ON THE MINOR RESEARCH PROJECT
1. Project report
:Final
2. UGC reference No.
: MRP(H)-0505/12-13/ KLKE 038/UGC-SWRO
3. Period of report
: from 23/9/2013 to 23/9/2015
4. Title of the project
: Significance of peace education and
Development of curriculum for peace
Education
5. a. Name of the investigator
:
b. Department
c. College where work
progressed
Thiruvanathapuram
6. Effective date of starting of
the project
:
DR. Maya.S
:
Education
:Mar Theophilus training college, has
Nalanchira,
Kerala
23/09/ 2013
7. Grant approved and expenditure incurred during the period of
the project
a.Total amount approved
:
Rs100000/
b. Total expenditure
:
Rs95,880/
CONTENTS
Sl.No.
1
CHAPTERS
INTRODUCTION
Page No.
1-4
5-19
2
3
4
5
6
THEORETICAL OVERVIEW
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
METHODOLOGY
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
20-23
24-90
91-106
, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
107-112
BIBLIOGRAPHY
113-119
Appendix
Tool
Statement of expenditure
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1.
NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.2.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3.
DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
1.4.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OFTHE STUDY
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
MEANING AND CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
Education is the fundamental device in bringing about peaceful and
silent economic and social revolution for ensuring calm coexistence. Real
education helps the development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor
aspects of the child. But modern education system concentrated on filling
mind with all kinds of information without even stimulating or developing
them. J.S. Mackenzie is of the view ―in the wider sense, education is a process
that goes on throughout life and is promoted by almost every experience in
life‖. According to Tagore, ―the highest aim of education is that which does
not merely gives us information but makes our life harmonious with all
existence‖.
1.1.
NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Education is the powerful mechanism in bringing about peaceful and
silent social changes, which results in a sustainable development of society.
The recent incidents in India and different parts of the world and the resultant
media coverage has brought to fore the necessity of peace in society. The
intelligentsia as a whole has now started viewing peace education in a
comprehensive manner. Present educational systems around the world have
not really included peace education in the curriculum. Some countries like
Philippines and Uganda have mandated peace education in the public
schools. Concept of peace education vary from nation to nation .Some nations
argued that fostering empathy and care among students is peace education
and many have argued that critical thinking and democratic pedagogy are
vital.
In a world grappling with the challenges posted by intolerance in
India, where 26/11 terror attacks in Mumbai, the attack on Parliament,
Godhra, Pune, Hydrabad and other attacks throughout the world throws light
on the deep emergency of re-assurance in the policy of the nation and change
in the system of education. Education train future citizens to handle the
challenges and fast changing realities of today and tomorrow.
Peace can mean the absence of waror violence. Peace includes national
and emotional integration which implies a feeling of oneness among people.
This emotional integration may go beyond all cultural differences and
synthesise the different religions, castes, linguistic communities emotionally
into a single unit. It denotes a feeling among citizens of India that India is a
single unit and we belong to it culturally and emotionally. Country comes
first and other loyalties are submissive to it. Peace is a broad process
involving the upliftment of human consciousness and building of a truly
human community at all levels, not out of compulsion. Peace education can
play a major role in maintaining the feeling of oneness among citizens of
India.
We are living in a global village, facing with the challenges posted by
intolerance and fundamentalism.
Education has a major role to prevent
terrorism and maintain peace in the global world. Peace education has a
keyresponsibility inthe inculcation ofthe values of national integration,
international understanding and the concept of world citizenship in
maintaining peace. Conscientisation programmes in all levels of education to
form a realistic perception, which in turn develop changes in the mind set to
think and work against violence and terrorism. Education should develop
inner peace in the minds of citizens to inculcate virtues of tolerance and love.
Peace education can help to understand the nature and origins of
violence and its effects on both victim and perpetrator and equip people with
problem solving skills. Peace education helps to avoid physical violence,
structural violence, political violence and cultural violence. Peace education
may generate a more calmsociety where all serve as agents for change by
creating proper values and approaches. So in the emerging social scenario, the
topic is highly relevant.
1.2.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Peace education includes providing responsiveness, attitudes, values,
and capabilities needed to resolve conflicts without violence and to build
harmonious relationships. Peace education can play a major role in
maintaining integrationamong citizens of India. The problem under study is
stated as follows.
“SIGNIFICANCE OF PEACE EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT
OF CURRICULUM FOR PEACE EDUCATION”
1.3.
DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
Peace Education: Peace education can
be thought of as "encouraging a
commitment to peace and enhancing the confidence of the individual as an
agent of peace, as informing the student on the consequences of war and
social injustice, as informing the student on the value of peaceful and just
social structures ,as encouraging the student to love the world and to
visualize a calmprospect and as caring for the student and encouraging the
student to care for others" (James Page).
Development: In the present study, development implies preparation of
curriculum on peace education and validation by teachers and experts.
Curriculum:Curriculum is defined as the totality of student experiences that
happen in the educational course. In the present study curriculum of peace
education involves planned sequence of resources and components of in
order to get awareness onthe significance of peace and different aspects of
peace education, which inculcate awareness, values,skills and attitudes for
peaceful co-existence among students.
1.4.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i.
To analyse the psycho-social factors that may lead to terrorism and
Intolerances
ii.
To analyse the significance of peace education
iii.
To identify components of peace education
iv.
To Prepare a curriculum for peace education
1.5.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Peace is a comprehensive concept and is an interdisciplinary field of
study. Dimensions of peace education can be from individual level to
international level. Effective education can help to develop future citizens
having an integrated personality, positive thinking, empathetic attitude,
critical thinking etc. to create peaceful society. Peace should be caught, rather
than be taught and so starting peaceful institutional culture is the need of the
hour. Teachers need to use effective strategies and practices that could
transform educational institutions into a place of harmony. Curriculum,
which addresses current socio-political and economic issues, has much
significance. Because of time limit, certain unavoidable limitations have crept
in to the study regarding sample size. Tools prepared have also had certain
limitations.
1.7.
CHAPTERISATION

Chapter 1 :
Introduction

Chapter 2 :
Theoretical overview

Chapter 3 :
Review of related literature

Chapter 3:
Methodology

Chapter 4:
Analysis and Interpretation

Chapter 5:
Conclusions and suggestions
Chapter 2
THEORETICAL OVERVIEW
2.1.
CONCEPT OF PEACE
2.2
NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PEACE
2.3.
MEANING OF PEACE EDUCATION
2. 4.
PEACE EDUCATION IN INDIAN CULTURE
2.5.
PEACE EDUCATION IN THE EMERGING SOCIAL SCENARIO
2.6.
OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF PEACE EDUCATION
2.7. VALUES, ATTITUDES AND SKILLS REQUIRED FOR PEACE
EDUCATION
2. 8.
CULTURE OF PEACE
2.9.
CLASS ROOM CLIMATE AND PEACE EDUCATION
2.10. TEACHERS AS PEACEMAKERS
2.11. CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL OVERVIEW
“ AsathomaSatgamaya
ThamasomaJyothirgamaya
Mrithyomaamruthamgamaya…
Ohmsanthi..santhi…Santhi”
(Lead me from unawareness to truth, from darkness to light, from death to
Immortality… Ohm...peace..Peace …Peace)
-Bhrahadarnayaka Upanishad
Education fulfils the requirements of society, which support positive
social changes. Education moulds children according to its needs and
approved patterns of behaviour. Therefore society plan and develop
its
educational activities as per therequirements and objectives.
2.1.
CONCEPT OF PEACE
Peace is a word that has used almost as frequently as truth, beauty and
goodness. The word Peace has mostly used in a narrow sense to mean
absence of war. It includes violence such as disagreement, risk to life, social
deprivation, prejudice, domination, exploitation, poverty, inequality and so
on. Education is a powerful means to shape the people‘s minds and hearts
towards peace (National Policy on education for social cohesion and
peace2008)
2.2
NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PEACE
Peace can be conceptualized as having two separate dimensions
(Johnson & Johnson, 2006). On the first dimension, violence and strife are at
one end, at the other end are common understandings that end violence. On
the second dimension, antagonistic dealings aimed at supremacy and
differential benefit and characterized by social injustice is at one end, and
mutually helpful, harmonious dealings aimed at achieving mutual goals
characterized by social justice is at the other end. On this dimension, if
positive associations, and justice, are there peace is assumed to exist. Ways of
establishing and maintaining peace may be classified on a dimension with
imposed peace at one end and consensual peace at the other end (Clark, 2001).
CLASSIFICATION OF PEACE
Negative peace
According to Woolman{1985} peace is the mere absence of war. The emphasis
is on control of violence. Negative peace is the nonexistence of violent
behaviour.A ceasefire is an example of an action for negative peace.
To
generate negative peace, we have to go for ways to reduce and eradicate
violence.
Positive peace
According to Galtung{1972} positive peace is the absence of structural
violence . Positive peace is the presence of social justice, and the absence of
structural violence. It is characterized by the presence of harmonious social
relations.
Cold and hot peace
In cold war, there is mutual antagonism without actual engagement. In hot
war there is a condition of mutual hostility and active physical engagement
Inner peace
Inner peace involves peaceful mind and lack of fear.Peace of mind is
generally associated with bliss and happiness. Traditional Indian culture
explained structure of human mind and various characteristics of it.
Vedanta stated that we all have three attributes of our mental makeup, in
widely varying proportions. ‗Tamas‘, characterised by dullness, ignorance,
delusion and lack of any worthwhile goal. ‗Rajas‘, manifested as driving
ambitions, hyperactivity, lack of balance, moderation, greed, envy and anger
and ‗Sattva‘, denoted by balance, moderation, compassion, gratitude,
objectivity and harmony.
Each of these qualities is necessary in it exact place for living in this
world. If an individual having all the attributes in a balanced proportion, that
person is a mature and integrated individual. For example a person
completely lacking ‗tamas‘, may not be able to rest at all. A person lacking
‗rajas‘, would not find any motivation to do duties. An individual missing
‗sattva‘will not have minimum personal qualities and values to live in this
world. Mind management and autosuggestion for inner peace can be based
on the concept these ‗trigunas‘ to maintain a balanced personality useful for
the society. It includes cleansing our mind and directing it in a desired
direction. Whatever we suggest to our mind when it is receptive and calm it
accepts and sends it to our sub conscious mind, which in turn make our
character.
Outer peace
Outer peace has different dimensions or levels of peace such as social
level, national level and international level. Peace in the family, peace in the
society, peace in the nation, peace between nations and peace with this
universe is the need of the hour. The concern for equality and social justice
plays a significant role in maintaining outer peace.
2.3. MEANING OF PEACE EDUCATION
In the 21stcentuary peace is no longer considered as the absence of war
but it is conceptualized to include harmony at all levels of human endeavor.
The UN has adopted obvious statements about human rights and duties
which recognize peace as an essential human construct. Education for peace is
a conceptual framework from which schools may devise a program
comprising the transmission of universal as well as national values and
enduring attitudes, and skills which enable our students to become active
citizens. Peace education could be defined as an interdisciplinary area of
education whose goal is to prevent a conflict in advance or rather to educate
individuals and society for a peaceful existence based on non violence,
tolerance, equality, respect for differences and social justice.
Peace education includes providing information, attitudes, values, and
behavioural competencies needed to resolve conflicts without violence and to
build and maintain reciprocally helpful, pleasant relationships. There are
different approaches to peace education, many of which are based on attitude,
experiences, and good targets. Peace education programs can be developed
based on theories validated by research that can be operationalized into
practical procedures.
Conflict is inevitable in human affairs but violence is not. Conflict can
be positive and creative force for change and can be approached as a
challenge. Dealing with conflict creatively is a vital part of peace education.
Peace education raises awareness of the roots and causes of conflicts and it
provides people with necessary skills and knowledge how to respond to
conflict. Peace education is the process of teaching people about the threats of
violence and strategies for peace. Through peace education we can acquire
values, awareness, attitude and skills to find inner peace, peace with others
and peacewith the whole nature.
Educating for peace is concerned to help students to develop a rich
vision of peace, which should form part of his personal life. Education is
concerned with developing values and skills to assist the students in striving
for the fullness of life that embraces all people. Peace education programme
help students to be aware of interdependence, concern and understanding for
the needs of others and encourage them to build a nation and not for
destruction.
Creating an effective peace education program, include many
dimensions. A compulsory public education system must be established in
which students from the previously conflicting groups interact and have the
opportunity to build positive relationships with each other. Cooperative
experiences need to occur that highlight shared objectives, the just
distribution of benefits from achieving the goals, and a joint identity. Students
need to be taught how to engage in integrative discussions and peer
mediation to resolve their conflicts of interests constructively.
Peace education can be defined as the process of teaching people about
the threats for peace. Peace education hopes to create in the human
consciousness a commitment to the ways of peace. Social violence and
warfare can be described as a form of pathology, a disease and peace
education tries to inoculate students against the evil effects of violence and by
creating a desire to seek peaceful Resolutions of conflicts. Peace educators use
teaching skills to stop violence by developing a peace consciousness that can
provide the basis for a just and sustainable future.
When conflicts arise between various groups and sections of a society,
education tries to solve those conflicts by advocating thoughts and feelings,
which bring about unityand achieve integration of all. Education in India has
this sacred mission to perform by educating people to rise above petty caste
rivalries, communal frauds, linguistic conflicts and regional discords and try
to achieve the cherished ideal of national integration and national glory.
Mahatma Gandhi once stated, ―If we want to reach real peace in this
world we shall have to begin in the formative years.‖ Educatingforthcoming
generations to attain the capabilities, perspectives, attitudes, ideals, and
behavioural patterns that will enable them to build and maintain peace is the
need of the hour.
2. 4.
PEACE EDUCATION AND INDIAN CULTURE
According to Indian culture, nature, materials and all forms of life has
been treated as a manifestation of universal consciousness. Indian culture is
therefore regarded as universal. ‗Shanthi and SanathanaDharma‘are the
message of the Vedas and Upanishads. Peace is considered as the greatest
contribution of Vedic culture and santhi mantras ends in ‗Om Santi, Santi,
Santi (Peace, Peace, Peace) to the entire universe. All Upanishads begin with a
peace invocation.
Indian philosophy believes in dharma. Dharma encourages us to live a
life of balance and objectivity. It believes that if we follow the spirit of
dharma, we would find more happiness and fulfilment. The notion of dharma
can be ascribed to peace education. The observation of dharma is the highest
ethical standard based on the concept of sarvabhutahita‘ie., welfare of all
being. All our activities should be in keeping with karma yoga, which means
we should work without expectation of result.
India has been historically contributing world peace through the
practice of ‗Shanti and Ahimsa‘. Indian culture taught to the rest of the world,
the means to live and to improve it by giving them the 3 fold path of
spirituality
such
as
‗Sadhana(Worship),Upasana (Self-discipline)
and
Aradhana (Selfless Service)‘.The Vedic Seers prayed for ―Peace on the Earth,
peace on the sky and also peace in heavens‖.
Indian heritage emphasises peace with all living entities. Katha
Upanishad highlights love and peace as god. ―May the lord of love safeguard
us, may the lord of love nurture us, may the lord of love strengthen us, may
we realise the lord of love, may we live with love for all, may we alive in
peace with altogether.―
The ultimate aim of all systems of Indian philosophy especially
Vedanta, Buddhism and Jainism is the extinction of sorrow and suffering
leading to peace and stable existence. According to Indian tradition, there is
only one final reality but there are 6 basic interpretations ‗(Sat Darsanas)‘ of
that reality which constitute the classic philosophical systems of India. They
are ‗Nyaya, Vysesika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta‘.
Vedanta endeavours to sum up all human knowledge, offering as
reality all that is universal, and reuniting all that is different. It accepts every
thought, idea, and concept as a step forward, it evades nothing and
encompasses everything. Age-old Indian ideology accepts others, which is the
symbol of modern civilised society to maintain peace. Ancient Indian
thoughts never force anyone to accept any one ideology but it gave provision
to think differently, though this tradition accommodates foreign invasions
and pains to Indian culture.
The purpose of Vedas is to inquire into the nature of right deed
(dharma). It emphasis without action knowledge is fruitless, without deeds
contentment is impossible, without action human destiny cannot be content
and therefore right action is the spiritual pre requisite of life. Vedanta fortifies
the mind with the necessary arguments and reasons to strengthen our
position to light up our mind. In order to realise this stage, we are required to
pass through four-fold discipline to cleanse our mind for maintaining mental
health such as

Viveka (Ability to discriminate between the eternal and non eternal,
the real and the unreal)

Vairagya (Renunciation of all desires)

Satsampat (Six requirements to attain right conduct as follows)
o
Sama (Control of thought)
o
Dama (Control of conduct)
o
Uparati(Tolerance and denial of all sectarian religious
observancesfor acquiring wisdom)

o
Titiksa(Patience)
o
Sraddha(Fith)
o
Samadhana( Freedom from lethargy and negligence)
Moksha ( liberation of spirit and self realisation)
Scientific understanding of the discipline of yoga is deeply rooted in
Indian culture. Yoga has been practicing in our country for several thousand
years. Ancient Rishis have extended the laws that govern the evolution of the
universe to cover the evolution of the individual, showing that the individual
is the microcosm of the macrocosm. Yoga school of Patanjali developed a
system of culture for improving human efficiency. It claims to make body and
mind healthy to sharpen intelligence. ― ‗Yogashcittavrittinirodhah‘( patanjali
yoga sutra ½),meaning yoga is restraining the mind stuff (chitta) from taking
various forms (vrittis). It is the science to control our mind. Yoga has been
practising through a system of ‗Asana, Pranayama and meditation‘, for
integration of the body, mind, and spirit.
The ancient Indian heritage had already provided a spiritual space for
the environment. The term 'ecology' was coined in the 19th century in the
west but the Vedic, Jain and Buddhist traditions established the principles of
peace and interdependence of man and nature thousands of years ago. Vedic
system provided ethical awareness and moral responsibility to conserve
nature. They said there is gravitational relation among the different objects of
this universe and in turn are interdependent. They wished peace for all the
organisms, region, nation, earth and to the whole cosmos.
During the round table conference in the UK in 1931, Mahathma
Gandhi speaking to the press had said that when the British came to India,
instead of building up of existing systems they uprooted the beautiful tree of
Indian systems and allowed the roots to decay and die. They destroyed both
‗Vidya and Vaidya ‗are imparted by men of wisdom, men of Tyaga and Seva,
the twin ideals of India.
2.5
PEACE EDUCATION IN THE EMERGING SOCIAL SCENARIO
Terrorism is the extreme form of intolerances which is the greatest
challenge for a peaceful society. Terrorism refers only to those violent acts to
create fear (terror) perpetrating fora specific goal and intentionally target the
security of civilians. Terrorism is planned violence and terrorist are very
specific for what they want and terrorist poses the greatest threats to
humanity.
Three kinds of terrorism
According to B.Raman, in India generally we face three types of terrorism

State-sponsored terrorism (initiating from Pakistan and other nations)

Domestic terrorism of a sustained nature ( like Maoism)

Domestic terrorism( criminal) of an irregular kind ( leaded by political
parties)
The State sponsored terrorism is the most violent of all. This is because
of the financial gain and the terrorists think that dying in a terror act would be
revered. Our neighbourhood Pakistan has affected by the terror activities in
their location. There are a lot of after effects of these disastrous activities,
which include the financial loss, loss of lives and even the loss of countrywide
peace and dignity.
New approaches to peace education are starting from insights gained
from psychology, which identify the developmental nature of human psychosocial attitude. Peace educators should teach the causes of domestic and civil
violence and try to develop an interest in global and national issues, like
poverty, environmental issues, and the power of peacefulness. Peace
education concerns about all development problems, poverty, illiteracy,
violations of human rights and solutions for the problems.
In the beginning of the new millennium, conflict resolution is growing
fast in and educators have to provide basic skills essential for survival. Here
the focus is upon interpersonal relations and systems that help disputing
parties resolve their differences with communication skills.
The essence of peace education is transformation of the society. The
total transformation of society is integral to peace by creating a culture of
peace requires a fundamental change in knowledge, attitudes, behaviour,
which enables the learners to take action for a more peaceful world.
2.6. OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF PEACE EDUCATION
The main function of peace education is transformation of society
through attitudinal changes among citizens.
―You are what your deep, driving desire is
As your desire is so is your will
As your will is so is your deed
As your deed is so is your fortune....‖
(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. IV. 4.5)
Objectives of peace education are mentioned below.
To recognize the nature and basis of hostility
To find out the causes behind conflicts and violence
To Encourage alternate ways to solve issues
To learn Effective communication skills to transform feelings and
Perspectives
To develop attitude to respect other cultures
To develop Concern for others
To adopt ways and strategies to maintain peaceful coexistence
2.7.
VALUES, ATTITUDES AND SKILLS IN PEACEEDUCATION
Some of the values, skills and attitudes needed for peace education are
mentioned below.

Commitment to equality

Self esteem

Empathy

Respect for others without discrimination

Non violence

Honest talk and sensitive learning

Positive emotional expression

Problem solving

Effective Communication
2. 8.
CULTURE OF PEACE
Conflict is an inherent part and parcel of life, which can have bright or
adverseinfluences. Positive conflicts give a chance for compromise, while
negative conflicts can lead to disharmony. So conflicts can provide an
opportunity for improvement or become a source for destruction. Hence, the
ability to understand and manage conflict is a necessity.
―Culture of peace is an essential approach to prevent violence and
conflicts, the promotion of sustainable social progress, value for human
rights, gender equality, democratic involvement, tolerance, the free flow of
information‖ (Adams 2005). Through education, communication skills have to
be developed which is necessary for survival in a postmodern world for
developing interpersonal relations and to resolve the differences.
The essence of peace education is transformation of the educator, the
student, and, the Nation. The renovation of society and the economic and
social order is vital to peace. Creating a culture of peace requires a
fundamental change in knowledge, attitudes which facilitate students to take
action for a more peaceful world.
2.9.
CLASS ROOM CLIMATE AND PEACE EDUCATION
―Ohm OmSahanaVavatu
SahanauBhunaktu
SahaveeryamKaravavahai
TejasVinavatiTamastumavidhwishavahai
Om Shanti ShantiShantihi―
{ May he protect us (both student and teacher), May he nourish us, May we
acquire the capacity to exert(in the study of scriptures), May our study be
brilliant ( leading to proper understanding, May we not have discord, May
we have peace in all aspects of life }.
Classroom environment or classroom climate is the key element of the
process of education. It includes all activities and physical setting. Teachers
must constantly interact with their students. Learning, should never be prepackaged should always be a pleasurable activity based on needs and
interests of learners. Students should get an opportunity to express their ideas
and problems freely. Teacher should teach students how to solve genuine
problems, which is the primary objective of education in a democratic society.
Conducive learning environment is more effective and educational
engagement should be in harmony with the idea of peace. Provide
opportunity to discuss abut social, political and cultural problems and make
them to think about strategies to solve those issues through discussions.
2.10. TEACHERS AS PEACEMAKERS
―Get up !wake up!
Get the guidance of an illuminated teacher and realise the self
Sharp like a razors edge, the sages says the path difficult to traverse‖
(katha Upanishad. 1. 3. 14)
Teachers have to promote desirable changes, which contribute to a
better society. Teachers have to integrate peace education principles into their
teaching, perhaps by being a role model of nonviolence for the students, by
treating all students in the same way with compassion in the classroom. In
the entire scheme of Vedanta, the teacher undoubtedly has the pivotal role.
Without the appropriate teacher, this wisdom and teaching methodology are
likely to remain sterile even for an eligible student as ‗guru‘ is the remover of
darkness.
Peace educators must internalize the concepts of peace when they
teach their students. Peace education is inherently a process of lifelong
learning, and we are all students that are perpetually seeking greater
knowledge and understanding. The characteristics of an effective peace
educator include:

The teacher is a citizen and has a vision for positive change in the
future.

The teacher is the social engineer and has to serve the society
enthusiastically.

The teacher is a lifelong learner.

The teacher is a transformer of culture.

Relationship of the teacher with students and faculty must nurture
peace via the creation of a community.

The teacher should encourage fruitful criticism, which helps students
to grow.

The teacher knows individual differences and responds effectively to
their differences with a caring attitude.

The teacher creates an environment in which the students are free to
inquire by creating questions that address issues.

The teacher is constantly reflective about own teaching methodologies.

The teacher knows and uses the skills for communication and conflict
resolution to build a community.

The teacher make use of cooperative learning and social constructivism
in teaching and the teacher is able to elicit discussion from the
students.

The teacher motivates and inspires students and positive in promoting
hope.

The teacher is compassionate, and objective.
In the changing scenario, many nations try to upgrade the quality of
pre- service and in-service teacher education programmes. Teaching strategies
should include cooperative learning strategies, group discussions, and brain
storming by considering respect for opinions of student teachers.
Diversefeatures of peace education can be included in teacher education
curriculum, which in turn can be translated to school level.
Peace education camps can be organised for youth in bringing together
young people of different religious groups for recreational and community
service activities. Training for community leaders and workshops for parents
can be organised. Educating the young generation for peace education is the
responsibility of every individual, family, society, religious organisations,
schools and universities and all agencies should collaborate efforts for
maintaining peaceful coexistence.
2.11. CONCLUSION
A culture of peace can be achieved, when citizens understand national
and global problems, have the ability to resolve conflicts and struggle for
justice non-violently, realize cultural diversity, respect each other and the
nature. In spite of its incredible growth in the contemporaryera, peace
education has not trulyassimilated in school educational systems and higher
education system around the world. A few countries have adopted formal
school-based peace education activities. In many nations, peace education is
being carried out informally in community settings, through religious groups
and through national peace organizations. All cultural agencies in a
society, have to work t o g e t h e r to maintain peaceful coexistence.
CHAPTER 3
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
3. 1 RELATED STUDIES
CHAPTER 3
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
The literature review discusses published information in a particular
area under discussion, within a certain time period. It gives an overview of
studies associatedwith , the fundamentalconcepts, theories and hypotheses,
and methods and methodologies are appropriate and useful for the study.
3. 1. RELATED STUDIES
Kate Oge(2012) conducted a study to identify strategies for integrating
peace education concepts into the Social Studies curriculum for junior
secondary schools in Nigeria. 190 graduates of Social Studies and 36
graduates of curriculum studies spread across secondary schools and three
tertiary institutions in Anambra State were used as the sample for the study.
The findings identified strategies like the integration of peace education
contents such as human rights, global challenges, imperatives of evolving
democracies, value systems, Nigerian local languages and natural resources
and resource problems in Nigeria and religion concepts into the social studies
curriculum. The findings recognised the curricular and co curricular activities,
which include peace education concepts.
Sumansukla (2012) conducted a study on world peace and
‗maithribhavana‘. The positive attitude towards others is known as
maithribhavana which means good will and this approach towards others
leads to inner peace. The survey concluded that in absence of this
maithribhavana, mental peace and health is very much affected and it is
enhanced in its presence.
AgnaldoGarcia(2013)
conducted
a
peace
movement
survey
onrelationships and world Peace. This study aims to investigate the role
ofinterpersonal, intergroup and internationalrelationships to promote world
peace in accordance with the vision of the participants of the organization /
movement servas International. Results indicated the importance of
interpersonal relationships to global peace, since it starts with interaction
between two persons that can spread their involvements to the groups and to
the nations.
Lesley Pruitt(2011) conducted a study on creating a musical dialogue
for harmony. The study proposed that music can be a suitable means to
engage youth in a dialogue for harmony. The study was conducted with two
non-government organizations, in Australia and in Northern Ireland involved in youth peacebuilding projects that make use of music. The
research is based on participant observation and interviews with youth
participants. Music provided a platform for the youth to attach across culture.
The value of music here is important because most of the young people
interviewed reported that they would not have been interested in a
peacebuilding program that was not music based. However, many of those
same youth, were inspired to continue working to build peace in some
capacity.
Sameera (2008) conducted a study on the effect of critical pedagogy in
developing peace skills among the students of higher secondary schools of
secondary of Kottayam District. This study was to find out the effects of peace
skills and for that the investigator adopted experimental method. Sampling
are randomized for pretest and post-test design (N=40+40). Here the
investigator developed an instructional material based on critical pedagogy
and found that was very effective in developing peace skills among higher
secondary school students in terms of thinking skills and not so effective in
terms of personal skills. The investigator suggested that pedagogic strategy
should be incorporatedin the curriculum of teacher training, school education
etc., so that it would helpto develop peace skills among students.
Christina A. Parker (2013) conducted a study on Peacebuilding
education for democratic and inclusive learning opportunities for diverse
Students. This qualitative study used classroom activities, interviews, and
document analysis to show how peacebuilding dialogue processes were
implemented in three elementary school classrooms in Ontario, Canada. The
objective of research was to find out
howdifferent students, experienced
these pedagogies in relation to their own perspectives, and backgrounds. The
study showed how different students experienced and responded to
implemented alternative curricula. Reliable, critical discussion provided
opportunities for diverse students to engage in discussions about diversity
and conflict.
The research concluded that peacebuilding education is
important to encourage the inclusion of diverse viewpoints in a democratic,
inclusive learning environment.
Rajeswari.K. (2013) conducted a study on exploring the feasibility of
peace education in secondary school curriculum. The method adopted for the
study was survey. Tools and techniques employed for the study are rating
Scale for collecting the responses from students, teachers, and discussion with
the students and teachers.
The sample selected for the study was 600 students in the IX from
different schools in Thiruvananthapuram district and 120 secondary school
teachers. On analysis of data regarding the extent of practice of peace
education, only 2% of the teachers reported that they are always imparting
peace education while 55% teachers, sometimes. Regarding the practical
difficulties, the highest difficulty was recorded for rigid timetable (89%). It is
followed by lack of training (78%) and lack of support from colleagues (54%).
Great majority of teachers suggested that time table should be rescheduled, a
separate period for imparting peace education should be allotted, and
adequate training should be imparted to teachers.
Jayasree P.G. and SuomyaMathai (2009) conducted a study on
effectiveness of yoga as an educational strategy for practising peace education
among student teachers. The investigator adopted experimental-cum-survey
method for the study. The experimental design adopted for the present study
was post-test only equivalent group design. The investigator selected 35
samples each in the experimental group and control group for finding out the
effectiveness of Yoga. The tools used for the study were,scale for measuring
internalization
of
peace
behaviour,
socioeconomicstatus
scale,
observationschedule, and questionnaire for finding out teacher‘s view on the
scope and necessity of peace Education. The study revealed that practice of
Yoga helps to inculcate many social and human values .Majority of the
student teachers who practised Yoga remarked that they experienced several
physiological and psychological benefits because of practising Yoga.
The perusal of various studies made convinced that peace education is
a significant area and has tremendous scope for further researches. Therefore,
the investigator had selected a study of this kind.
Chapter 4
METHODOLOGY
4. 1.
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR THE STUDY
4.1.1.
METHOD ADOPTED
4.1.2 SAMPLE
4.1.3 TOOLS
4.1.4. CURRICULUM MODEL
CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY
Methodology can be defined as, giving a clear-cut idea on what
methods or process the researcher is going to carry out in his or her research
to achieve research objectives. Carefully chosen research methodology is
significant to plan the complete research process at a right point of time and
to advance the research work in the exact route.
4. 1.
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR THE STUDY
4.1.1.
METHOD ADOPTED
The methodology adopted was qualitative analysis and survey
method. To analyse the psychosocial factors behind intolerances and
terrorism, a questionnaire on Peace Education prepared by the investigator
was administered. Interview was used for analyzing the suggestions from
experts and teachers regarding the significance of peace education in the
emerging social scenario. Qualitative method to be used to identifies the
topics and programs of peace education of secondary school curriculum (all
subjects) for preparing a learning package on Peace Education. Discussions
and reflections of experts, teachers and B Ed and M.Ed students were used to
prepare curriculum for peace education.
4.1.2.
SAMPLE
Teacher Educators (20), Secondary School Teachers (20), M.Ed Students
(60), B.Ed students(140) of Thiruvananthapuram, Pathanamthitta, Kollam,
Alleppey , Kottayam and Eranakulam districts were selected as the sample for
the study.
4.1.3 TOOLS
The following tools were used to collect relevant data for the study.

Questionnaire to find out the causes of terrorism and role of education
and government to prevent terrorism

Sample curriculum model on peace education as informal, non-formal
and formal educational context at secondary level.
DESCRIPTION OF TOOLS:
1. Questionnaire
The questionnaire consists of items, which include three aspects of peace.
a)
Psycho social factors related with violence and terrorism
b)
Role of government to curb violence and terrorism
c)
Role of education to eradicate terrorism
2. Curriculum model
The quality of education in a country is determined by the curriculum.
The main aim is to equip the future citizens to face the challenges of the 21st
century to maintain peaceful co existence. The present curriculum model
includes the components such as Contents, Introduction, Curriculum Vision,
General Objectives, Content Over view, Guiding Principles, and Modes of
learning engagement. Experts validated the curriculum model.
This is a sample curriculum package on peace education for secondary
and higher secondary school Level. Teachers and curriculum planners can
make use of this model for preparing curriculum and textbooks. An extended
version of this model can be included in degree course as an elective subject
also.
Curriculum Vision
Empower students with value embedded, peace education curriculum, which
equips them to be competent, adaptable and socially committed to maintain
peaceful coexistence.
The Guiding Principles:
The following principles as universal values are considered as the basis
for developing the curriculum. They are central to the education for peace
program.

Dignity

Equality

Liberty

Justice

Responsibility

Security

Solidarity

Democracy
COMPONENTS OF PEACE EDUCATION
A multidimensional curricular model for peace education was
developed by the investigator as given below. After analysing different
psycho social factors behind intolerances, the investigator identified and
selected components for peace education curriculum.
Indian
philosophy
and peace
Democracy
Citizenship
Spiritual
Intelligence
Counter
terrorism
Media and
Social Net
Working
International
Understanding
Peace
Education
National
Integration
Population
education
Anti
corruption
Education
Value
education
Conscientisation
programmes
Sustainable
Development
Secularism
Human
Rights
Empowerment of
women
The curriculum includes the following aspects such as
Content
Perspectives
Teaching methods and strategies
Co-curricular activities
Classroom management and attitude of teachers
School management
The Content include meaning and concept of peace, peace education,
terrorism, reasons behind intolerances, and corrective measures to curb
intolerances and terrorism
CURRICULUM FOR PEACE EDUCATION
A sample Resource package for Teachers
Prepared By
Dr.Maya.S
Assistant professor
Mar Theophilus Training College
Nalanchira
CURRICULUM FOR PEACE EDUCATION
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
CURRICULUM VISION
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
TOPICS

Section 1

Section 11

Section 2

Section 12

Section 3

Section1 3

Section 4

Section 14

Section 5

Section1 5

Section 6

Section1 6

Section 7

Section17

Section 8

Section 18

Section 9

Section 19

Section 10

Section 20
STRATEGIES/APPROACHES
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
(To assess the progress of the novices)
DIRECTIONS:This is a sample curriculum package
on peace education for secondary and higher
secondary school Level. The present curriculum
model contains curriculum vision, objectives, concepts,
quotes, religious concepts, activities, values, skills, teaching
methods and strategies, role of Teachers etc. Teachers and
curriculum planners can make use of this package for
preparing curriculum and text books and it can also be used
in
informal,
and
non-formal
educational
context.
Components of peace education can be included in
different content areathrough Infusion strategy. An extended
version of this model can be prepared and included in
degree courses as an elective subject also.
INTRODUCTION
Peace education introduces a holistic attitude to contents,
methods of teaching – learning and classroom management. Conflict
is partof life and so peace education is a requirement. Therefore
conflict may function as a means to support initiative, innovation,
and cooperation. At the same time it can also lead to violence that
causes destruction and sopeacecan be considered to be both the end
and process.
Peace education tries to give awareness on the different
dimensions of peace, an optimistic attitude towards harmony and
diversity and arouse the students’ creativity in resolving conflict
without violence. The components of peace education include:
Content
Perspectives
Teaching methods and strategies
Co-curricular activities
Classroom organization
Approach of teachers
School management
OBJECTIVES

To teach students the significance of peace that can heighten their
dignity and individuality.

To impart information about peace, responsibilities and rights of
citizens, and good governance.

To create an outlook on peace, national and emotional integration
anti-corruption education, gender, economic justice, and the
understanding of ecology for peace.

To develop student’s mutual respect based on the spirit of rights,
obligation, and responsibilities.

To guide students to develop a sense of trust in association among
humans, including self-introduction, reverence of others, capability
to manage the environment, life vision, broad-mindedness,
andkeep justice in building the sense of togetherness.

To help the students to develop talent, critical thinking, patience
and creativity as skills for resolving problems of life without
violence.

To develop outlooks that highly value diversity, togetherness,
social justice in building nation.

To create open mindedness in all aspects of life.

To develop gratitude and actualization multicultural wisdom that
can function in creating peacefulness in personal and communal
life

To enablethe students to haveself-determining behavior, and be
thinker and accountable in creating peace and civilized society.
CONTENT OVERVIEW
Section A
Section 1
Concept of peace
Classification of Peace
Section 2
Challenges to peaceful coexistence
Section 3
Psycho-sociological factors
Behind intolerances and terrorism
Section B
Preventive and Corrective measures through
Peace education programme
Section 4
Citizenship Education
Section 5
Human Rights Education
Section 6
National Integration
Section 7
Education and Secularism
Section 8
Democracy
Section 9
Democracy and Education
Section 10
Women Empowerment
Section 11
Development and Peace
Section 12
Education for sustainable development
Section 13
Life skill education
Section 14
Anti-corruption education
Section 15
How to reduce intolerances?
Section 16
Multidimensional programme
Section 17
People movement on peace
Section 18
Counter Terrorism
Section 19
Reflections on current social issues and concerns
Section 20
Indian philosophy and peace
STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES SUGGESTED FOR
CURRICULUM TRANSACTION








Debate
Expert talks
Conscientization programmes
Group discussions
Brain storming sessions
Video presentation
Co-operative story making
Visiting historical/
archaeological/ geographical
sites.
 Community surveys/studies on
themes related to peace issues
 Organizing campaigns to raise
responsiveness on issues
affecting the people and
environment.

Dramatization and miming






Nature club activities
Role-play
Innovative writing, e.g.
writing letters to imaginary
people,
Publishing a handwritten or
printed magazine/ wall
paper on current issues
related to the subject
Organizing exhibitions on
Indian heritage which
highlights peace and other
important themes.
Organizing school and
public
seminars/lectures/discussi
ons on current social issues.
Assessment and Evaluation







Role Performance Analysis in discussion, seminars and miming
Assessment of Note Book entries
Evaluation of daily Reflections
Debating and quizzes
Participant Observation
Focused Group Discussion
Achievement test and Diagnostic test
SECTION 1
CONCEPT OFPEACE
“We are what we think. All that we
are arises with our thoughts. With
our thoughts, we build the
world.”Budha
“You
are what your deep, driving desire is..
As your desire is, so is your will..
As your will is, so is your deed..
As your deed is, so is your destiny..”—
BrihadaranyakaUpanishad IV.4.5
“Since war begins in the minds
of people, it is in the minds of
people that the defenses of
peace must be
buildup.”Preamble UNESCO
PEACE?
The word ‘PEACE’ is mostly used in a narrow sense to mean
CLASSIFICATION
PEACE
absence
of war. PeaceOF
also
means lack of antagonism of all forms

such as conflict,
injustice, social degradation, unfairness, threat to
life oppression, misuse, poverty and so on.

According to woolman{1985} peace is the mere absence of battle. The
significance is on control of violence. Negative peace is the absence of
violence.

According to galtung{1972} positive peace is the nonexistence of
physical violence and the presence of social justice

In cold war there is mutual antagonism without real engagement.

In hot war there is
engagement.

Inner peace involves peace of mind and absence of fear.

Outer peace has different dimensions of peace such as Social level,
national level and international level.
A.
a situation ofmutualantagonism
and active physical
INDIVIDUAL LEVEL
Actions in the cognitive and affective domains results
our behaviour.
COGNITIVE
AFFECTIVE
BEHAVIOURAL
PEACE
ACTIONS THAT LEAD TO PEACE
Humility:

Admitting to not always being right

Being open to learn from others

Giving beyond convenience

Giving unconditionally, without expectation of
:
return Service
Generosity

Caring to realize needs of others

Accepting the dignity of the beneficiary

Reversing exploitation by service
ATTITUDE AS AN AMBASSADOR FOR PEACE
o
Show concern for both sides.
o
Affirm the value of both sides.
o
Gain trust from both sides that each is being treated honestly.
o
Aim for a win-win outcome.
o
Guide both sides beyond blame and accusation.

Conflict is a part of life, which can have positive or negative impacts.

Positive conflicts give a chance for the emergence of initiative, originality,
and cooperation, while negative conflicts can lead to disharmony and violence.

Conflictsprovideachance for improvement or become a force for destruction.
Hence, the ability to understand and handle conflict is a necessity.
B.
SOCIAL AND NATIONAL LEVEL
According to Galtung{1972} positive peace is the absence of structural
violence or the presence of social justice.
“No Nation can leave its security to the police and the army to a
INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
large extent. National security depends upon the education
of citizens, their knowledge of affairs, their character and
sense of discipline and their ability to participate effectively
in security measures” Kothari commission (1964-66)
VALUES AND PROGRAMMES
Individual Level







•
•
•
•
Equality
Tolerance
Respect
Effective communication
Openness
Reconciliation
Solidarity
Anger and Anger
Management
Cooperation
Self Esteem
Tolerance
Class room Level




Co-operative
learning strategy
Recognition of
diversity
Reciprocalaccepta
nce and respect
between teachers
and students
Seeking peaceful
resolutions
School Level








Society Level








Service programs
Outreach programs
Demonstrating leadership
Sharing of man material
resources with other
educational institutions
To abide by the
Constitution
To respect cultural
heritage of the nation
Violence in the Media
Conflict Resolution
National Level






Unity in diversity
Awareness of
national problems
Conserve natural
environment
Emotional
integration
Recognising and
accepting the
concept of mother
nation
Followprinciples
of sustainable
development
Provide Safe institutional
climate
Objective rules and
regulations without bias
Supportive and caring
environment
School council
Curricular activities
related to peace
Training for ideal
citizenship
Reverence National Flag
and the national
Anthem
In service programs for
teachers in field relevant
to peace education
Global Level

Link with institutions
concern with
international peace
issues.
SECTION 2
CHALLENGES TO PEACEFUL
CO-EXISTANCE
Terrorismis the extreme form of intolerances world is facing.
Terrorism refers only to those violent
acts to create fear (terror) that are
carry out for a religious, political or,
ideological purpose and intentionally
aim the security of civilians.



Terrorism is not unthinking violence.
Terrorists are precise about their intention.
They are not aware of rules.
THREE KINDS OF TERRORISM
India faces three types of terrorism.



State-sponsored terrorism emanating from Pakistan funded by some
Arab Nations
constant Domestic terrorism ( like Maoism)
Inconsistent Domestic terrorism ( leaded by political parties)
 Terrorists are using the Internet for planning, messaging,
employing, and training. It may also use to transfer money.
But now although global action has made major progress
towards addressing this crime.
 Most terrorist groups have exploited the Internet through
numerous misinformation websites and forums. But
radicalization that leads to violent extremism still typically
occurs through first-hand individual communication,
rather than virtual contact.
ECONOMIC TERRORISM
Funding source: According to Intelligence
agencies, donors from Arab nationsaresaid
to be the world's largest source of funds for
terrorist militant groups in South Asia. The
violence in Afghanistan and Pakistan is being
partly financed by wealthy, conservative donors across the Arabian
Sea whose governments do little to stop them.
Our youth are being in to entrap with huge financial offering by
hawala agents, which motivates them in doing antinational activities.
SECTION 3
PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS
BEHIND INTOLERANCES
ANDTERRORISM
Psycho-social factors that may lead to terrorism and such intolerances are listed below.














Radical philosophy
Fear and Insecurity among people
Political violence
Separatism, Hatred and Intolerance
Sometimes corruption may have terror
link
State sponsored Economic terrorism
Poverty
Over materialistic life style of society
Marginalized human societies have a
non-peaceful existence which in turn
may lead to terrorism
Personality factors: id dominated and
deviant personality
Violence in educational institutions
Human rights violations
Lack of justice and delayed justice
Lack of spiritual Intelligence
Citizenship is a right & a privilege and is a
chance to take part and make one's community
& nation a superior place. In a democracy,
there are many privileges and rights, which are
available to citizens.
 The right to life and liberty
 The right to work and own property
 The right to education
 The right to vote and to have justice
 The right to hold public office
 Liberty of thought and speech as well as
freedom of press
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES OF AN INDIAN CITIZEN
AS ENVISAGED IN ARTICLE 51A OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION
"It shall be the duty of every citizen of India: -
(a) To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideal and institutions, the
National Flag and the national Anthem.
(b) To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national
struggle for freedom.
(c) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) To defend the country and render national service when called upon to
do so.
(e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst
all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or
sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity Of
women.
(f) To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
(g) To protect and improve the natural environment including forests,
lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry
and reform.
(i) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
(j) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective
activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour
and achievement."
COMPONENTS OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
Citizenship education is educating children, to become enlightened
citizens who participate in decision making in society. Citizenship
education inculcate reverence for others and appreciation of equality. It
helps to combat all types of discrimination by developing tolerance and
peace among human beings.
Citizenship education should be planned to realise the following instructional objectives
To acquire
Knowledge and
understanding
about
Law and order, rules
Democratic principles and
procedures
The role of media
Human rights
Money and the Economy
Sustainable development
Concept of world citizenship
Concepts of justice, equality,
freedom, authority
To acquire Skills
and Application
Take part in social activities
Critical thinking
Decision making
Evaluate and synthesising
information
expression
The following programmes and activitiesFree
can be
included in of
theopinions
school and college
Problem solving
Participate in discussions and
debates
Negotiating
Conflict resolution
Maintain peaceful coexistence
To develop
Attitudes, synthesis
and appreciation










Respect for justice
Democracy
Justice and the rule of law
Openness
Avoid violence and Tolerance
to maintain peace
Courage to defend a point of
view
Readiness to accept others
point of view
Readiness to accept decisions
for the welfare of the nation
Work with and stand up for
others
Avoid vested interests
Curriculum
 Programmes for developing emotional integration
 Inculcate ideal citizenship in the primary school
onwards
 Knowledge about Indian constitution and directive
principles
 Arrange visit to legislative bodies
 Encourage students to read Articles related with
citizenship
 Cooperative learning strategies can be adopted in the
classroom
 Community visits
 Community extension programmes
 School parliament Student council and to inculcate
democracy and responsibilities
 Participation in social movements
 Use Juris prudential model in the class to teach certain
topics and to encourage students in decision making in
social issues.
 Legal awareness camp must be organized
 Brain storming sessions can used in the class in
connection with relevant social issues
SECTION 5
HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION
“Education shall be focussed to the full
development of the human personalityand to the
strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms.
It shall promote understanding, tolerance and
friendship among all nations,racial or religious
groups, and shall further the activities of the
UnitedNations for the maintenance of peace”
—Article 26.2 of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights
The general assembly of the UN passed the universal
declaration of human rights on December 10, 1948
which include preamble and 30 articles
CIVIL RIGHTS
Article 1:
•
Rightsand dignity of all human beings
Article 2:
•
Equality without any distinction
Article 3:
•
Right to life, liberty and security
Article4:
•
Prohibition of slavery
Article5:
•
No inhuman treatment
Article9:
•
No arbitrary Arrest
Article 12:
•
Right to privacy
Article 13:
•
Freedom of movement
Article 15:
•
Right to nationality
Article 16:
•
Right to marriage
Article 17:
•
Right to own property
SOCIAL RIGHTS
Article22:
Right to social security
Article 29:
Duties to the community
CULTURAL RIGHTS
Article
24:
Article
27:
right to rest and leisure
Right to join in the cultural rights of the community
ECONOMIC RIGHTS
Article 23:
right to work
Article 25:
right to standard of living
POLITICAL RIGHTS
Article
18:
Article
19:
Article
20:
Article
21:
Article
30:
freedom of thoughts
freedom of expression
freedom of peaceful assembly
right to take part in government
Enjoyment of all rights
Human rights education helps students to
understand human rights, value human rights,
and take responsibility for respecting,
defending and promoting human rights.
Human
rights
violations
?? NO….
TEACHERS









Organise discussions on Significance of human rights education
Analyse human rights violations projected in media and in community.
Organise co-curricular activities based on human rights
Observe International Human rights day
Conduct an exhibition on Human rights issues
Formation of social service leagues
Organise legal awareness camp to for developing legal literacy.
Encourage discussions to develop critical understanding of life situations
Inform the students about the persons and agencies that are responsible for
endorsing, protecting and respecting human rights.
Empathise with those people those
rights are violated and feel a sense of
solidarity with them.
SECTION 6
NATIONAL INTEGRATION
National
integration is
significant
 For mounting devotion and national
strength among the people
 Protecting the unity of India
 Bringing tolerance and
understanding
 Improving quality of life of people
NATIONAL
 Building democracy effectively
 Maintaining INTEGRATION
national security
 Developing socially and
economically,
 Brings unity in diversity
In the words of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, "National integration cannot be
built brick and mortar, it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It has to
grow gently in the minds and hearts of men. The only process is the
process of education”.
Hindrances to National Integration
In India the problem of integration has its own
structural, regional, economic, political and
religious implications. Most of the major
religious of the world namely are found here.
Present Indian society is pluralistic in character.
It has a composite culture having diverse
cultural groups, languages and areas.
There are several hindrances in blocking the
oneness among people of India.
Illiteracy
Communalism
Patchy regional
development
Casteism
Classism
cultural
diversity
Corruption
Religious
fundamentalism
Narrow
mindedness
Unawareness
Vested Political
ambitions
Hindrances
linguistic differences
In other words, the threats to integration lie in the diversity. For a
country to be truly great there must be an understanding and the
appreciation of each other's differences and strengths. The
quality of the educational systems needs to be improved, for
ensuring peace and stability in the country which in turn would
promote national integration.
TEACHERS
 The use of AV aids such as radio, films, pictures, and TV should be
used to inculcate emotional integration among students.
 Encourage children to participate in Co-curricular Activities such as
celebration of festivals and national days , participation in ACC,
NCC, scouts and guides, student camps, organizing excursions, the
debates, symposia, dramatics and youth festivals etc
 Songs, dances, dramas, dresses and cookery from all the states of
India should be included in the school programmes.
 Multicultural camps must be organized to exchange different
cultures to accept other cultures and diffuse into one.
 The study of one or two regional languages, besides the mother
tongue and English to be encouraged.
 Arrange Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country
 Scholarships should be awarded on the basis of merit
 Celebration of national days
 Singing of National anthem and taking pledge
SECTION 7
EDUCATION AND SECULARISM
"I do not expect India of my dreams to develop one
religion, i.e., to be completely Hindu or Christian or
Mussalman, but I want it to be totally tolerant, with its
religions serving together.'' - Mahatma Gandhi.
The Preamble to the Constitution of India declares (1978) that India is
a secular republic. The term secularism refers to the governmental
practice of indifference towards religion. The word ‘Secularism” has
been derived from the Latin word ‘Seculum’ this means ‘age’ or
‘generation’. It implies mutual tolerance for all religions to which
different people owe their allegiance. Secularism is not rejection of
religion. In fact, religion is a means of human experience and is an
attempt to make every effort for better life in future.
NATIONAL
“Secularism does not mean
INTEGRATION
irreligious
or atheism or even
anything
stress on
material comforts. Rather, it lays stress on
the universality of spiritual values which may
be attained by a variety of ways.”
Dr.Radhakrishnan
India’s age-old philosophy as expounded in Hindu scriptures called
Upanishads is “Sarva dharma Samabhava”, which means reverence for all
faiths. This fundamental trait of “Sanatan dharma” is what keeps India
together despite the fact that India has not been a mono-religious country for
over 2 millennium.
The country should have a common law which is applicable to all
citizens. No privileges based on religion or faith.

All Citizens of the country should follow the same civil and
criminal laws .

Religious
practices
of
untouchability,
castes,
child
marriages, polygamy, divorce rules, burning of wife when
husband dies discrimination against women, child labour
should not be tolerated and there should be no exemption to
those who practice them.
EDUCATION FOR SECULARISM IN INDIA
Aims of Education
BROAD
VISION
SYNTHESIS OF
IDEALISTIC
AND
PRAMATIC
VIEWS
MORAL
OUTLOOK
SECULAR
EDUCATION
CULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT
HUMANITARIA
NISM
DEMOCRATIC
ATTITUDE
Secular education
Education upholds secular attitudes and
values through its aims, curricula,
enlightened teachers and appropriate
activities,
all
emphasizing
openmindedness, progressivism, rationality,
freedom from superstition, and equal
respect for all religions.
Education should develop India as a rational, democratic,
progressive and modern state.
The philosophy of humanism should guide such educational
objectives.
The well being of all the citizens of the country are the goal
towards which India's educational energies are directed.
The educational curricula at all levels in India should lay
special emphasis on the promotion of secular values.
Lessons in text-books should include good ideas and values
emphasised in different religions are presented in appropriate
forms.
The co-curricular activities should aim at promoting
harmony and co-operation among different groups and
respect for each other's culture in the students.
Celebrate fairs, festivals, birth anniversaries, etc., relating to
different religions.
While imparting moral education equal importance is given to
Comparative religions, world history, and world mythologies.
Secular education includes the study of public laws that
protects their citizens against unfair preference and
discrimination.
Secularism stands for scientific rationalism. It stresses
logical thinking and abolishsuperstitions and irrational
things.
STUDY DIFFERENT RELIGIONS
Faith is nourishment,
Virtuous deeds are a shelter,
Wisdom is the light by day and
Right mindfulness is the protection by night.
If a n individual leads a pure life nothing can
destroy him;
If he has conquered greed nothing can limit his
freedom.
Buddha
“I am the Peaceful One,
whose form is selfeffulgent, powerful
radiance.”
Guru Nanak
Abiding happiness and peace is theirs who
choose goodness for its own sake - without
expectation of any reward."
Zoraster
The Lord will give strength unto
his people; the Lord will bless his
people with peace.
Bible
May we hear only what is
good for all..
May we see only what is
good for all..
May we serve you, Lord of
Love, all our life..
May we be used to spread
your peace on earth..
OM
Peace…Peace…Peace…….
Mundaka Upanishad
"It may be that Allah will bring about love between
you and those of them with whom you are now at
enmity..... Allah forbids you that you be kind to
them and deal equitably with them; surely, Allah
loves those who are equitable."Quran
Holy Qur'an, 60:8-9
.
Pseudo secularism and vote bank politics in India:
In the Indian situation, the term pseudo-secularism is used negatively to label
policies considered to involve minority pacification. The term pseudo-secular infers
that those who claim to be secular are actually not so, but are prominority. Secularism in India has a different explanation. In other countries, it means
keeping the state and religion separate. But in India, it frequently means the state
interfering with religion as much as possible.
TEACHER
In the education for secularism the teachers are
expected to treat students in an impartial manner.
They eschew all caste, community and class
considerations in dealing with students and colleagues.
Equal respect is given to all students and to all
religious groups. Every conscientious teacher behaves
in a truly democratic and fair manner.
SECTION 8
DEMOCRACY
No one is superior or inferior. All the
brothers should struggle for
The concern of all and should
progress collectively
: Rig-Veda
Meaning....


Democracy mean s rule of the people as a whole.
Abraham Lincoln definedDemocracy as —"Democracy is a
government of the people,by the people and for the people."

According to University Education Commission (1948-49)
DEMOCRACY IS AN ATTITUDE OF LIFE AND NOT A MERE POLITICAL
ATTITUDE.IT IS BASED ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF EQUIVALENT LIBERTY AND
EQUIVALENT RIGHTSALL REGARDLESS OF CSAT CREED, RELIGION, SEX
OR ECONOMIC STATUS.
Democratic principles and values should pervade all fields of human
activities. If this does not happen, then the formal democratic
structure will eventually decompose and disintegrate.
POLITICAL
ECONOMI
C
SOCIAL
DEMOCRACY
EDUCATIONA
L
RELIGIOUS
PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY
Freedom: Freedom is the soul of democracy. In the absence of
freedom, an individual will not be able to develop all his capacities to
the fullest extent. . With the right of freedom goes the duty of
respecting the similar freedom of others. The two are complementary
and inseparable, Thus freedom, in the true sense of the term means
freedom to develop in co-operation with others so that all develop
with the joint efforts of all to the good of the whole society.
Equality: Democracy envisages equality of all irrespective of colour,
caste, creed and sex. Each individual should be free and be able to
benefit opportunities to develop his individuality to the full.
Fraternity: Cordiality and co-operative brotherhood to receive proper
respect in society. He has a right to contribute his best to the
wholesome development of society as a whole which in turn promotes
the development and welfare of all.
Justice: All are equal before the eyes of law and rules of the state of
which they belong. . All citizens implement their own social,
economic, political rights and duties for the welfare of the whole
community.
Independent
judiciary
INSTITUTIONS
Elected
Legislature
Institutions
Executive
responsible
to the
Legislature
Democracy does not fully meanthe development of these
three institutions but in the value system for which it stands
for. But truedemocracy lies in the hearts of the people.
The following are the values of democracy:
 Respect of the Individual and each individual is a vital part of society.
 Tolerance and Liberty leads to tolerance and one should always be
ready to differ and tolerate differences with humility and friendliness.
 Belief in change and must be dynamic, never static and change ends in
progress.
 Change through Persuasion by create public opinion and, not by force.
 Service, co-operation, fellow feeling, mutual help and a sense of
brotherhood among all. Thus, with the development of the individual,
the development of nation also takes place .
 Individual and Social Progress and, individual and society are mutually
dependent and contribute to each other's development and wellbeing.
Education is considered as the powerful agency to realise the
values of democracy. Educational institutions are now regarded
as a centre of promoting national consciousness and
international understanding. Education should develop the skills
of critical thinking, debate, and promote the values of liberty of
speech, acceptance of diversity, cooperation, etc to develop
“responsible citizens” .
DEMOCRACY AND CURRICULUM
In a democratic country curriculum construction is done with the purpose of realizing
democratic values.
 Curriculum should be designed to Achieve of social national
aims
 Provision to be given to develop national integration through
scholastic and co scholastic activities.
 Proper attention to social, cultural activities, for allround
development of children
 Provision should be there to develop socially efficient
membersofsociety.
 Student unions and student welfare associations are formed
in institutions to promote responsibility and democratic
values among students.
 Civic training to be given to instil responsibilities
 Democratic curriculum is diversified to suit the needs of all
children which cater individual differences among students.
DEMOCRACY AND METHODS OF TEACHING
Freedom is the key word of democracy. Democracy follows
teaching learning Methods suggested by naturalism and
pragmatism. Children are free to plan and structure their own
learning activities. These methods of teaching make children
investigators, discoverers and speakers of truth.
INDIA AS THE SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
After independence, based on the principles of democracy India
changed into a democratic republic. Indian constitution was drafted
on 26th November 1949, and on 26th January 1950, the nation
adopted this constitution declaring the country as a Sovereign
Democratic Republic. Constitution of India promises the
fundamental rights to each citizen. To implement democracy
successfully, unity and fellow feeling are necessary factors. So the
central and state governments should do their best to inculcate and
encourage this feeling among all.
SECTION 10
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
"YatraNaaryasthupoojyanthe
Ramanethethatradevathaha"
(Where women are treated with
dignity and Womanhood is
worshipped, there stays the gods)Manusmrithi
STATUS OF WOMEN
“Gender” refers to the socially constructed roles and responsibilities of
women and men, in a given culture or place. The roles are inclined by
observations and hopes arising from socio-cultural factors, as well as
norms and regulations in an individual or institutional bias. Gender
attitudes and actions are learned and can be changed.
Girls face bias around the world
Feudal agricultural societies were based predominately on physical
labour. Being usually physically stronger than woman men were
dominant in feudal societies, and women largely confined to house
hold work. In industrial societies brains are more important than
physical labour, and much of the physical work is done by
machines. The low status of women is the outcome of a variety of
causes in which patriarchal values reinforced by tradition, mass
media and other socio political establishments play a major role.
VIOLENCE AGAINST
WOMEN?………….NO……….




Domestic violence: This violence has a tendency to explode in various forms
such as physical, sexual or emotional. This type of domestic violence is most
common of all.
One of the reasons for it being so prevalent is the conventional and foolish
mind-set of the society that women are physically and emotionally weaker
than the males.
Today women have proved themselves in every walks
of life establishing that they are equal to men, the reports of violence against
them are much larger in number than against men.
Sexual assault:Sexual abuse and violence go unreported because of women’s
own feelings of shame or guilt.
Harmful traditional practices: Culture supports and argues the harmful practices
towards girl children . The girl infanticide, unfairness against girl child, violence
against widows etc to be curbed.
Commercial sexual abuse:According to United Nations population fund, two
million girls between 5-15 are introduced into the commercial sex market every year.
GENDER BIAS IN EDUCATION






Girls and boys today are receiving separate
and unequal educations due to the gender
socialization that takes place in our schools.
The socialization within our schools gave the
idea that girls are unequal to boys.
In many situations teachers are affirming that
girls and boys should be treated differently
Teachers and parents toleratedfor boys than for
girls because 'boys will be boys'.
In many situations boys are encouraged to
think independently, and be active .
self-confident actions from girls is often seen
as unruly and may be viewed more negatively
by adults
APPROACHES FOR ADDRESSING GENDER ISSUES IN
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
















Free and compulsory education have impact or brought changes in the
society
Provisions and policies for creating gender responsive learning
environment
Teacher must acquire skills to recognize and eliminate gender bias, because
it can limit students' ambitions and accomplishments.
Provide safety and security for the children especially girls.
Flexible timetables to accommodate survival activities
Provision of boarding facilities in schools for girl children
Strengthening of girls clubs or women cells in schools and colleges
Establishing scholarship schemes for girl students
Provide free study materials and hostel facilities for poor girl students
Provide open school education for girls who dropped out
School is considered as miniature of society. So teachers should be made
aware of the gender-role socialization and the biased messages they are
unintentionally imparting to students every day. But teachers are generally
unaware of their own biased teaching behaviours
Teachers should follow methods and resources necessary to eliminate
gender-bias in their classrooms.
Teachers should try to break down the obstacles which continue to result in
female disadvantage
Teachers have to recognise gender biases found in teaching materials which
are often overlooked
Socialization of gender is to reinforced at school
Adopt feminist pedagogy in the class: feminist pedagogy is a style of
teaching that utilises feminist principles to take the patriarchal elements out
of education and replace them with a positive, productive learning
environment.
GENDER EQUALITY
Gender equality means that men and
women
in
society have equal
opportunities, results, rights and
responsibilities in all aspects of life.
Gender equality does not mean that
women and men are the same. They
have equal importance and should be
accorded equivalent treatment.
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AS EMPOWERMENT OF SOCIETY
Empowerment is a multi- dimensional and multidisciplinary process by which the inherent
and cultivated strengths of individuals are developed. The practice is through the expansion of
knowledge to generate power for making right choices and decisions in life. Empowerment
enables one to realise one’s potential and strengthen the capacity of persons in all walks of
life. Empowerment in any society is only possible when women are empowered.
Economic
Social
Human
Rights of
women
Aggressive mass movements, mobilizations and
campaigns are needed towards conscientising and
ending woman abuse and improving gender relations.
Women empowerment should be through economic
self-sufficiency and higher awareness levels on legal
and social-political issues. There is also a need to
make out and highlight the various roles of women in
the family and society. The input of women towards
the development of the society has to be emphasised
through different ways.Women empowerment can onlybehappenwhen women are
strengthened at the basic levelitself.The economic empowerment of women requires
acquisition ofmanagementskills and control economic activities, over a period of time
which helps them to feel confident and empowered. Women's empowerment needs
support and control at the government and legal level. Passing of new laws needs to
be done to give genuine equal rights to women. Empowerment in the real sense
happens when women involved in the decision making of society and are actively
involved in larger struggle for social change.
“Woman is the companion of man, gifted with equal
mental capacities. Woman has the right to take part in
the very minutest details in the activities of man and
she has an equal right of freedom and freedom with
him. She is permitted to a supreme place in her own
sphere of activity as man is in his.”
According to Gandhiji the dowry system is a product of
the caste system. The elimination of caste will lead to
the abolition of dowry (Harijan, 23rd May, 1936).
Gandhiji was strictly against the child marriage and
favored widow remarriage. He recommended the youth
to come forward and accept young widows as their life
partner. He believed that the girls are also capable of
everything but the need of the time is to give them
opportunities so that they can prove themselves.
According to him Marriage confers no right upon one
partner to demand obedience of the other. Marriage is
a state of discipline. If one partner breaks discipline,
the other partner can split the union. The breach here is
moral and not physical. (Young India, 21st October,
1926).
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
Article 14
Article 15
:
:
Ensures gender equality
Prohibits discrimination on grounds of sex, religion, caste,
race etc
Permits the State to make special provisions for women and
children
Provision for equality of opportunity in public appointment
Enjoins the State to provide an adequate means of livelihood
to men and women
Guarantees equal pay for equal work
Provision for guaranteeing justice and humane conditionsfor
work and maternity relief.
Article 15 (3)
:
Article 16
Article 39(a)
:
:
Article 39(b)
Article 42
:
:
Article 51 A (e)
: Duty of every citizen to renounce practices derogatory to the
dignity of women
Jawaharlal Nehru once remarked” You can tell
the condition of the nation by looking at the status
of the women.”
Women empowerment can lead to social change and is an
important step in building a ‘culture of peace’. Transforming
systems of violence and gender-based oppression into gender
equality and peace is a long process which must take place on
all levels of society. Changesmust be beginning within woman
themselves, as they realize their power, value and dignity.
SECTION 11
DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE
The concept, National development is very broad and it includes all aspects of
the life of the citizen and nation.
DEVELOPMENT
Cultural, democratic, Economic, Educational,
Emotional, Material, Moral, Physical, Spiritual
and Social aspects must be included
A high rate of growth must be sustained steadily
over a long period, to reduce level of poverty and
the bare minimum conditions of welfare for the
masses, which results inPeace.
SECTION 12
EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
“Let there be balance between space
Let there be balance in the sky
Let there be peace on earth
Let there be calmness in the water
Let there be growth in plants
Let there be growth in trees”
AtharvaVeda . XIX. 9. 14
The United Nations world commission on environment and
development coined the termSustainable development in
1987
Sustainable development is the management and conservation of
the natural resources best and the institutional change in such a
manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of
human needs for present and future generations.
Pillars of Sustainable Development
ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL



SOCIAL
Environment- It is knowledge of the wealth of our natural resources
and of the limitation of the physical environment.
Economy- It is the sensitivity to the limits and potential of economic
growth and to its influence on society and on the environment.
Society- It is an understanding of social institutions and their role in change
and development with culture- ways of behaviour, believing and acting,
unique to every context as an underlying and critical dimension.
.
NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
To prevent
 Over use of natural resources
 Renewable: plants, Animals,
water air
 Excessive use of non-renewable
Petrol, coal
 Rise in drought
 Soil erosion
 Pollution
 Urbanization
 Use of artificial fertilizers
 Population explosion
 Diseases
MAJOR AREAS OF CHANGES
The 1992 Earth Summit accepted a set of five agreements, and although they all deal with the
sustainable use of the environment, Agenda 21, a global plan of action for sustainable
development, contains over 100 programme.
Construction
and
Infrastructure
Transport
Agricultural
CHANGES
Manufacturing
Energy
INTERDEPENDENCE OF ORGANISMS
CONNECTION BETWEEN CALVERY TREE AND DODO BIRD
DODO
• The Dodo was first encountered
in the late 1500s or early 1600s
• probably extinct by the mid
1600s - as a result of human
hunting
After the extinction of Dodo, no Calvary seeds were germinated because
the seeds had to pass through the digestive system of Dodo bird to
germinate.
CONSERVATION OF NATURE
“Let there be peace in the heavens, the earth,
the atmosphere, the water, the
herbs, the vegetation, among the
divine beings and in Brahman,
the absolute reality. Let everything be at peace and in peace. Only
then will we find peace.” --Atharvaveda
“Dedicate thyself single minded to the faith, and thus followed the
nature planned by Allah, the nature according to which he has
shaped mankind. There is no changing the creation of Allah” Surah
30:30
“ The earth is the lord’s and the fullness there of” Psalm
24:1
We exploit nature….
We pollute our land….
Our mother nature has patience…
If we cross the limits she reacts violently…………
As earth quakes, landslides, tsunami, cyclones, drought, floods etc…
Education acts as a tool to promote changes
in attitude and behaviour that will create
more sustainable future which contributes:
Survival and wellbeing of humans
Survival and wellbeing of all other
species
Survival and wellbeing of
resources
Survival and wellbeing of earth
SECTION 13
LIFE SKILL EDUCATION
“Life skills are the abilities for
adaptive and positive behaviour that
enable individual to deal effectively
with
demands
and
challenges
everyday life”- WHO
Life skill education enables the individual to get improvedinthe
decision making skill, ability to take everything in the true sense and
also improve their contributions to the society.
Youth are considered as the most dynamic members of the society,
due to their physical and intellectual ability. But most of them are
unable to utilize their potential in an appropriate way due to lack of
guidance and motivation. We know that a large number of youth and
students engaged in antisocial and even anti-national activities.
Youth are also indulging in social problems like alcoholism, drug
abuse, sexual abuse, smoking etc. Such practices weaken their
physical and intellectual capabilities and also seem to be a burden to
the society. So an effectivecontributionfrom a socially responsible
system of education is needed for the formative years.
Major life skills
 Decision Making
 Empathy
 Self Awareness
 Effective Communication
 Creative Thinking
 Critical Thinking
 Problem Solving
 Negotiation Skills
 Interpersonal Relationship
 Coping with stress &Emotions
MY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOUR
CHOICE 2
STIMULUS
CHOICE 2
CHOICE 1
A life skill programme can include topics like friendships,
bullying, sex education, anxiety and anger management,
perceptions about drug use and alcoholism etc.
MY RESPONSE
TEACHERS
EFFECTS OF LIFE SKILLS
.




.









Reduced violent behaviour
Increased social behaviour
Decreased negative, self-destructive behaviour
Increased the capacity to find out effective solutions
to problems
Improved self-image
Self-awareness
Social and emotional adjustment
Increased acquisition of knowledge
Improved classroom behaviour
Gains in self control and sociability
Effective handling of interpersonal problems
Coping with anxiety
Develop constructive conflict resolution
YOGA
Yoga school of Patanjali developed a
system of culture for improving
human efficiency. It is the discipline
to control our mind. Yoga has been
practising through a system of Asana,
Pranayama and Meditation, for a
healthy integration of the body and
mind.
SECTION 14
ANTI CORRUPTION EDUCATION
CORRUPTION
Taking, or giving bribes and favouritism
Mismanagement of natural resources, national wealth and
public properties
Illegal use of confidential national information
Do business using power and using it for personal benefit
Election scam and intervention with election
Illegal enrichment
Non-performance of official duties
Lobbying etc.
CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE FOR CORRUPTION
o Lacking appropriate education among people
o Lack of reporting in the local media.
o Blocking freedom of speech
o Weak civil service
o Weak legal profession
o Lack of timely financial management.
o Lack of proper measurement of corruption
o Lacking empowered civic society, which monitor corrupt practices.
o Long-time work in the same department may encourage corruption and
favouritism..
o Whistle blowers are not being protected by the government
o Lacking media which monitor corrupt practices
Dharma is the India concept in which rights and
duties remain their deep internal and external
harmony. Dharma is the foundation of democracy.
Possibly it is the harm of this sense of dharma that
stuck values in civic life. Nothing is treated as holy.
We have contaminated our land, air and sea and the
exterior pollution seems to be spreading inwards and
vice versa.
CURRICULUM
Curriculum of anti -corruption education includes the following components.










The consequence education can be observable after many years and
not immediately.
Teachnationalprimaciesthrough the educational system
Curriculum should be reformed. Motivate students to think and
encourage discovering, understanding, analysing and applying
knowledge in new situations.
Instil national values by providing effective citizenship education to
students.
Encourage projects and seminars which highlight the need of a
corrupt free society.
Role play and Jurisprudential model can be adopted to inculcate
right attitude against corruption.
Life centred education to be provided .
Teachers should encourage critical thinking and problem solving
attitude in the learning process.
Organise Conscientisation programme for the public to act against
corruption
Anti- corruption educationcan be introduced by Universities and
colleges
Corruption results in severe development challenges. In
politics weakens democracy. Economy, environmental
and social dimensions, effects on humanitarian aid,
health, public safety, education etc. may be affected by
Corruption.
GOVERNANCE

Employees to be provided with periodical training
programme on prevention of corruption.

Recognize
talent
in,
selections,
appointments,
promotions and reward it regardless of caste, creed, and
religious.
Political system must be cleansed. Circumstances of
candidates should be checked to prove
honesty and
loyalty to the Country.
National and State level anti -corruption agencies must
be allowed to operate without fear or favour
Agencies to be empowered to investigate corruption
cases speedily and comprehensively.
Corruption free legal system is the necessity of any
democratic nation.
Norms to control population to be implemented to
improve the quality of life and thus lesser competition
and effective control of people and government
processes
People who involved in corruption in the first and
higher levels must be Punished.
Transparent decision making








If there is corruption in society,
all of us are answerable. It is
incorrect to guilt the system
while all are drawn towards an
ideological clash between
pragmatism and idealism.
SECTION 15
HOW TO REDUCE INTOLERANCES?
 Adopt good governance, develop strategies to reduce poverty
and corruption
 Improve education system, health and basic services
 Introduce components of peace education in the education
system
 Political system and bureaucracy must be purified.
 Government
officials should
trustworthiness to the nation
be
checked
to
prove
 Many experts have opined that thenationalreservation policy
and quota system is pacification for vote policy in the name
of improving conditions of the backwards. This policy is illtreated on all levels, in education, elections, selections,
promotions, etc.
 Sometimes selection may result in ineffective and corrupt
persons have been appointed or promoted in the police, in
intelligent agencies and on other important Government
positions. They do not know how to do their job, and support
the wrong elements. Proper mechanisms should be developed
to avoid such situations.
 Recognize talent in every level, in schools, appointments,
promotions or anything else and reward it regardless of
caste, creed, religious or family origin or background.
 Values like Nationalism, Honesty, and Brotherhood should
be taught in home, at educational institutions and at
working places.
 The
Internet is a powerful and unparalleled tool for
countering the spread of the ideologies of terrorism. Internet
can be used toconnectpeople, of different nations, to gather
and share information on terror suspects.
 Judiciary must be more systematic, innovative, and tougher.
SECTION 16
MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROGRAMME
PEACE EDUCATION IS AN INTEGRATED, MULTIDIMENSIONAL
PROGRAMME AS FOLLOWS
GOVERNMENTS, POLITICIANS, TEACHERS, PARENTS, AND ALL CITIZENS
SHOULD ADVOCATE AND BUILD SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ENVIRONMENTS FREE
FROM VIOLENCE
Democracy
Indian
philosophy
and peace
Citizenship
Spiritual
Intelligence
Counter
terrorism
Media and
Social Net
Working
International
Understanding
Population
education
Peace
National
Integration
Education
Anti corruption
Education
Value
education
Conscientisation
programmes
Sustainable
Development
Secularism
Human
Rights
Human rights and
Empowerment of
women
New approaches to peace education are starting from insights gained
from psychology which recognize the developmental nature of human
psychosocial nature. Basically while conflict-promoting attitudes and
behaviours are characteristic of earlier phases of human development,
attitude of integration and behaviours appear in later phases of healthy
development.
TEACHERS.....TRY TO ASK POWERFUL
QUESTIONS..........
 Thought provoking
 Generates curiosity among
students
 Stimulates reflective discussion
 Probes underlying assumptions
 Invites creativity
 Generates interest
 Focuses inquiry
 Stays with participants
 Evokes more questions
REDUCE MATERIALISTIC LIFE STYLE
Generally people have a great desire for luxuries and
comforts. This desire may end in involvingin all corrupt activities
that result in Financial or material benefits by evenillegal means.
This psychology is being exploited by manyterror groups by
providing funding to do antinational and terror activities.
DEVELOP SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE

Spiritual intelligence is the capability to behave with
concern and wisdom, and the ability to develop
meaningful relationships.

Spiritually intelligent persons make out how to love,
accept others and how to live meaningfully. They
accept others viewpoints, cultural backgrounds and are
able to pardon.

Spiritually intelligent people manage to stay calm even
under excessive stress.

Spiritual Intelligence is not fundamentally religious.
•
Lack of spiritual intelligence may be the cause behind
manyintolerance.
SECTION 17
PEOPLE MOVEMENT AND PEACE
Human beings throughout history had in use communitybased peace education strategies to preserve their
knowledge of conflict resolution and tactics that encourage
their security. Although there are no black and white
records, Peace education has been provided informally by
generations who want to resolve conflicts in ways that do
not use deadly force.
Indigenous peoples have conflict resolution traditions that have
been passed down through thousands of years that help
encourage peace within their society. They engaged peaceful
dispute mechanisms that they passed on from generation to
generation through informal peace education activities.
Peace Education does not teach students what to think, but how
to think critically. It teaches how to exercise reflection. It is
holistic and participatory process and aims not to replicate but to
change. It consists of people "deliberately determined to educate
their successors to make possible a future better mankind.." (John
Dewey).
TEACHERS
S
 Create a friendly and co-operative climate in the
classroom.
 Make learning joyful
 Awaken the spirituality, wisdom and intuition deep
within.
 Awaken students' spirit of creativity and imagination
 Guide to self-development
 Manage classes from a humanistic perspective.
 Try to improve critical thinking and problem solving
capacities among children
 Bring in positive feelings and emotions to make the
lesson more effective and interesting.
 Release stress of boredom, monotony and learning
SECTION 18
Reflections on Current
Social Issues and
Concerns of India
TEACHERS
Conduct Discussions and debates which address current social issues
A social issue refers to an issue that influence
and is opposed by a considerable number of
individuals within a society.










Corruption
Domestic violence
Environmental issues
Abuse of Women and children
Dowry death
Terrorism
Antinational activities
(printing and handling of fake currency ,human
and child trafficking, smuggling of goods etc)
Drug abuse and alcoholism
Poverty in India
Health issues in India
ORGANISE CONSCIETISATIONPROGRAMMES IN EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTIONS AND COMMUNITY
Say No to Drugs, Alcohol…..
Don’t indulge in Antinational
activities..................................
SECTION 19
COUNTER TERRORISM
COUNTER TERRORISM IN INDIA
Counter-terrorism is the practices, procedures, and strategies
that governments, militaries, police departments and
corporations adopt to prevent acts, both real and imputed. The
vitalfoundation for our battle against terrorism is respect for
human rights and the rule of law. India has several
intelligence agencies that monitor terrorist activities.


The approach of political group to terrorism is of two
types. On the one hand, it is anxiousover this rising
danger. On the otherside,they view this as a strategy for
vote-bank.Allpolitical party has been demanding action
against terrorism when it is out of power and they
become flexible when it comes to power. That is the
negative side of our counter-terrorism.
There should be a sincere interaction between the media
and the counter-terrorism agencies regarding the role of
the media in counter-terrorism.
SECTION 20
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY AND
PEACE
India never invaded any country in its
history and is the greatest example of
peaceful coexistence.
Concept of Universal Consciousness: -According to
Indian culture, Nature, and all organisms has been treated as
appearance of universal consciousness. Therefore theunique
structure and significance of the Indian culture is viewed as
universal.
Shanti:Shanthi and SanathanaDharmaare the message of the Vedas and
Upanishads. Peace is considered as the greatest contribution of Vedic culture and
Santhi mantras ends in ‘Om Santi, Santi, Santi (Peace, Peace, Peace) to the
entire universe.
Life of spirituality:Indianphilosophy taught the basis of
life, the way to live and to improve it through 3 fold path of
spirituality such as Sadhana(Worship),Upasana (Selfdiscipline) and Aradhana (Selfless Service).The Vedic Seers
prayed for ‘Peace on the Earth, peace on the sky and also
peace in Heavens” emphasizing that there is gravitational
relation among the different objects of this universe and in
turn are interdependent.
God as Love:Indian heritage emphasises peace with all. Katha Upanishad
emphasises love and peace as god. “May the lord of love safeguard us, may the
lord of love nurture us, may the lord of love strengthen us, may we recognize
the lord of love, may we live with love for all, may we live in peace with all. “
Dharma andKarma:Dharma andKarmaare
the two basic concepts of Indian
philosophy. The purpose of Vedas and other holy texts is to inquire into the nature of
right action (dharma). It emphasis without action knowledge is fruitless, without
action happiness is impossible, without action human destiny cannot be content and
therefore right action is the spiritual pre requisite of life. Vedanta strengthens the mind
with the essential arguments and reasons to strengthen ourselvesto spark and light our
minds.
Think differently: Age-old Indian ideology accepts others, which is the symbol of
modern civilised society to maintain peaceful coexistence. Traditional Indian thoughts
never force anyone to accept any one ideology but it gave provision to think differently,
though this tradition accommodated foreign invasions which put pains to Indian
culture.
Eco friendly Life style:The ancient Indian heritage had provided a spiritual
space for the environment.TheVedic, Jain and Buddhist traditions recognized
the values of peace and interdependence of man and nature centuries ago. Vedic
system provided ethical awareness and moral responsibility to conserve nature.
They wished peace for all the organisms, earth and to the whole cosmos.
Healthy life: Ayurveda the earliest school of medicine known to human beings
was the contribution of Vedic culture.
medicine is being practiced.
Even the modern scientific era this
Physical and mental health:Scientific understanding of the discipline of yoga is
deeply rooted in Indian culture. Yoga has been practicing in our country for several
thousand years. Ancient Rishis have extended the laws that govern the evolution of the
universe to cover the evolution of the individual, viewing that the individual is the smallscale version(microcosam) of the macrocosm. Yoga helps for physical and mental
wellbeing which is the basis of individual peace.
Yoga school of patanjali developed a system of culture for improving human efficiency. It
claims to make body and mind healthy to sharpen intelligence.
“
Yogashchittavrittinirodhah ( patanjali yoga sutra ½), meaning yoga is restraining the
mind stuff (chitta) from taking various forms (vrittis). It is the science to control our
mind. Yoga consists of a system of Asana, Pranayama and Meditation, for the
integration of the body, mind, and spirit.
Learning and Peace centre:Indian sages wished peace for all the creatures,
region, country, earth and to the whole universe. The first global centre of
knowledge (2700 years ago) Takshasila, was established in India which was the
spreader of knowledge and peace messages to other parts of the world.
Democratic attitude:Vedic culture emphasis a democratic attitude and well
being of all.“No one is superior or inferior. All the brothers should struggle for the
concern of all and should progress collectively (Rig-Veda)”. Unlike other
organized religions, Hinduism is a way of life and it considers the wellbeing of all
organisms in this universe. Indian sacred texts never sort human being on the
basis of belief systems or gods.
Status of women: In ancient India, women never treated as a commodity and
they enjoyed the highest respect in society we had women scholars like Gargi
and Maitreyi, the virtuous Sita and Savitri, the devoted Parvati etc.. She treated
as
a
Shakti,
the
source
of
all
power.According
to
Manusmrithi“
yathranaryasthupoojyanthe, rementhethathradevathaha( where women are
worshiped, there the Gods rejoice)”.
Well developedSasthras (sciences) : In
order to realise the traditional values
such as Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha clearly described Sasthras were developed. It
emphasizes Hindu dharma, religious and legal duties. These sciences were developed for the well
being of the nation too. Because of its sophisticated jurisprudence, Dharmasasthra was taken by
early British colonial administrators to be the law of the land for Hindus in India. Dharma and
Nyaya sasthra (for the legal and social conduct), Arthasasthra ( finance and agriculture),
Ganithasasthra (mathematics), Vaniyasasthra (trade), Sangeetha ( music), Nritya( dance), Shilpa (
art), Kama( sex), Paka( cooking and home science) and Jyothisha (astrology) were the sasthras
developed by traditional Indian culture.
•
In 3000 years of our history society from all
over the world have come and attacked us,
seized our properties, dominated our
minds.
•
All of them came and robbed us, acquired
over what was ours.
•
Yet we have not done this to any other
nation”
(Dr.APJ.AbdulKalam)
QUESTION BANK ON PEACE EDUCATION
Short Answer Questions (2 marks)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
Mention three types of terrorism
What are the components of citizenship education?
What are the hindrances of national integration in India?
Explain the role of teacher in maintaining secularism
Write down the principles of democracy
Define democracy
Explain the meaning of secularism
What are the institutions to maintain democracy
Explain the concept of gender
What are the dimensions of women empowerment?
Write down the pillars of sustainable development
Define sustainable development
Define life skills
What do you mean by anti-corruption education?
Explain the meaning of corruption
Explain the concept of dharma
Suggest any two programmes that can be conducted in schools as a part of peace
education
Attitude is an ambassador of peace. Explain
Explain the significance of peace in the present scenario
Analyse the concept of freedom in democracy
Mention the role of judicial system to reduce corruption
“School is a miniature of society”. What does it mean?
Write down the fundamental duties of an Indian citizen
Short answer (4marks)
24.
Explain measures to reduce intolerances among people
25.
Analyse different conditions favourable for corruption
26.
Suggest components of curriculum for anti-corruption education
27.
Describe the significance of life skill education
28.
Explain the role of education for world peace.
29.
Write a short note on Indian Philosophy and peace
30.
“Empowerment of women is the empowerment of nation”. Explain.
31.
Explain the significance of human rights education
32.
Analyse the role of teacher to promote
Essay ( 8 marks)
33. Explain the various psycho social factors leading to intolerances and terrorism
34. Explain the concept of peace. Analyse different components of peace education.
35. Analyse the significance of sustainable development in the present
scenario.
Chapter 5
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
5.1.
PSYCO-SOCIAL FACTORS THAT MAY LEAD TO TERRORISM
AND INTOLERENCES
5.1.1.
RADICAL IDEOLOGY
5.1.2.
CORRUPTION
5.1.3.
STATE SPONSORED ECONOMIC TERRORISM AND
ANTINATIONAL ACTIVITIES
5.1.4.
CROSS BORDER TERRORISM
5.1.5.
SEPARATISM
5.1.6
POVERTY, EDUCATED UNEMPLYMENT AND
POPULATION EXPLOSIONPOLITICAL VIOLENCE
5.1.7. LACK OF JUSTICE, FEAR AMONG PEOPLE AND
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
5.1. 8.
INAPPROPRIATE ECONOMIC PLANNING
5.1.9. POLITICAL VIOLENCE
5.10.
OVER MATERIALISTIC LIFE STYLE OF SOCIETY:
5.1.11.
PERSONALITY FACTORS
5.1.12.
VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
5.1.13.
LACK OF SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE:
CHAPTER 5
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
The data collected for the study was analysed and tabulated. Analysis of the
data collected and interpretations are given below.
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS: Simple percentage was used to analyse the
data. The details of analysis are shown below.
5.1.
PSYCO-SOCIAL FACTORS THAT MAY LEAD TO TERRORISM
AND INTOLERENCES
Responses of Teacher educators and Teachers
Responses of teacher educators and secondary school teachers
regarding the psycho -social factors that may lead to intolerances are
mentioned below in Table 1.
Table 1: Responses of Teacher educators and school teachers regarding the possible
psycho-social factors leading to Intolerances and Terrorism
No
Items
1
Radical philosophy is the main factor behind terrorism
2
Marginalization of societies have a non-peaceful
existence which may lead to terrorism
GE
SE
NA
%
%
%
97.5
2.5
0
65
30
5
52.5
42.5
7
3
Fear and Insecurity among people are the basic cause of
intolerances and terrorism
4
Separatism, Hatred and Intolerance lead to terrorism
95
6
0
5
Political violence generatesinstability in society
80
20
0
6
Corruption may have terror link
95
0
5
7
Government has no role in maintaining peace
0
2.5
97.5
8
Terrorism can be in the form of State sponsored
95
0
5
Economic terrorism which destroys economic stability
of the nation
9
Antinational activities such as smuggling, child
trafficking, fake currency etc. may have terror link
95
5
0
10
Inappropriate economic planning ends in weak social
structure, which creates unrest.
60
40
0
11
Poverty leads to intolerances
70
30
0
12
Over materialistic life style of society which leads to
unstable mind set
70
30
0
13
Personality factors: id dominated deviant personality
leads to anti -social and even antinational activities
70
20
10
14
Violence in educational institutions destruct peaceful
coexistence among youth
30
50
20
15
Lack of Spiritual intelligence
90
0
10
16
Lack of justice may cause intolerances
60
35
5
17
Human rights violations generate unrest in society
60
40
0
Analysis of responses from teacher educators and teachers revealed
that Radical ideology (GE-97.5%) Separatism, hatred and Intolerance(SE 95%),
Antinational activities(GE 96%), state sponsored economic terrorism( GE 95
%)Fear and Insecurity among people (SE 52.5%) Poverty(GE 70%),Injustice(
SE 61%), Inappropriate economic planning(GE 60%), Marginalization(
SE85%), Over materialistic life style of society( GE 70%), Personality factors(
GE70%), Violence in educational institutions( SE 50%), Political violence(
GE80%), Corruption( GE 95%), Lack of justice( GE 60%), Human rights
violations(GE 60%), Lack of spiritual intelligence( GE 90%)etc can be the
reasons behind such intolerances. Interpretations and explanations of the
above-mentioned findings were given below.
Responses of Student teachers:
Responses of student teachers regarding the psycho social factors that
may lead to intolerances are mentioned below in Table 2
Table 2 :Responses of Student teachers regarding the
Possible psycho-social factorsbehind Intolerances and Terrorism
No
Items
1
Radical philosophy is the basic factor behind terrorism
2
Marginalization of societies have a non-peaceful
existence which may lead to terrorism
GE
SE
NA
%
%
%
95
5
0
35
55
10
3
Fear and Insecurity among people are the basic cause of
of intolerances
40
50
10
4
Separatism, Hatred and Intolerance lead to terrorism
90
10
0
5
Government has no role in maintaining peace
-
10
90
6
Political violence generates instability in society
70
25
5
7
Corruption may have terror link
90
0
5
8
Terrorism can be in the form of State sponsored
Economic terrorism which destroys economic stability
of the nation
90
5
2
Antinational activities such as smuggling, child
trafficking, human trafficking, fake currency etc may
have terror link
90
7
3
10
Inappropriate economic planning ends in weak social
structure, which creates unrest.
20
52.5
28
11
Poverty leads to intolerances
60
30
10
12
Over materialistic life style of society which leads to
unstable mind set
75
20
5
13
Personality factors: id dominated deviant personality
leads to anti-social and even antinational activities
30
65
5
14
Violence in educational institutions destruct peaceful
coexistence among youth
35
55
10
15
Lack of Spiritual intelligence
20
80
-
16
Lack of justice may cause intolerances
64
30
6
17
Human rights violations create unrest in society
60
40
0
9
Note:
GE-Great Extent
SE-Some Extent
NA-Not At All agreed
Analysis of responses from student teachers revealed that Radical
ideology(GE-95%),Separatism, hatred and Intolerance(SE 90%), Antinational
activities(GE 90%), corruption(GE 90%), Fear and Insecurity among people
(SE 51%) Poverty (GE 60%),Injustice( SE 65%), Inappropriate economic
planning(SE 52.5%) , Marginalization( SE 55%), Over materialistic life style of
society( GE 75%), Personality factors( SE 65%), Violence in educational
institutions( SE 55%), Political violence( GE 80%), Corruption ( GE 95%), Lack
of justice( GE 64%), Human rights violations(GE 60%),
intelligence
Lack of spiritual
(SE 80%) etc can be the reasons behind such intolerances.
Interpretations and explanations of the above-mentioned findings were given
below.
5.1.1. RADICAL IDEOLOGY
Majority of the respondents strongly pointed out that Radical
philosophy is the basic factor behind terrorism and such intolerances. An
ideology is a route for a way of life. Every society shows a code of common
values majority of its people share, purposely and usually.
Most societies hold a blend of ideologies. These are often regarded as
three types such as dominant, subordinate and radical. The dominant
ideology in a society is the ideology, which is accepted by majority of people
and considered as is normal. Generally societies have certain beliefs that the
bulk of the members of the society share and is considered as the dominant
ideology of the society. A subordinate ideology is a set of ideas that agrees
with the dominant ideology, but which argue for a limited quantity of change.
A radical ideology is a set of ideas that has direct antagonism to the
dominant ideology. It sets out to substitute the dominant ideology with a new
ideology. After some time, radical ideologies may take over, and dominant
ideologies can break up and vanish. The major source for the blowout of cross
border terror is the preaching of radical ideology. Radical groups morphing in
identity may be confusing as they use the disguise of educational, social or
cultural tags. Even intelligence agencies failed to locate how many terrorist
sleeper cells are working in our nation. The radical ideology may be applied
to weaken young sensitive minds, because the proponents of terrorism know
that youngsters are highly energetic and, can be easily influenced through
ideology or financial support.
5.1.2. CORRUPTION
Majority of the respondents strongly pointed out that corruption may
bea factor behind strong intolerances among people. Corruption in any form
is treated as a disease, and it damages the moral and ethical fibers of the
civilization. In philosophical discussions, corruption can be considered as a
spiritualimpurity.
There have been many instances of political, bureaucratic and judicial
corruption. Corruption affects all developmental areas such as economy,
environmental and social dimensions. Corrupt politicians and bureaucrats
may be easily influenced by terror groups by providing huge bribe to cover
up their antinational activities.
5.1.3. STATE SPONSORED ECONOMIC TERRORISM AND
ANTINATIONAL ACTIVITIES
Majority of the respondents strongly pointed out that state sponsored
economic terrorism and antinational activities may have a terror link.
Intelligence agencies reported that many antinational activities such as
smuggling of Goods,
illegal migration, hawala,Wild life and human
trafficking, Child trafficking etc. may have cross border terror relation.
Hawala operations involve informal value transfer system, which is operating
outside of traditional banking and remittance systems. Money is transferring
via a network of hawala brokers, which results in economic instability in the
country.
5.1.4. CROSS BORDER TERRORISM
Terrorism denotes to those violent acts to create fear for a religious, or
political gain and intentionally target the safety of civilians. Terrorism is
planned violence. India faces three types of terrorism as such as statesponsored terrorism arising from Pakistan, funded by some Arab nations,
domestic terrorism of a sustained nature ( like Maoism), and domestic
terrorism of an irregular kind ( leaded by political parties)
It includes Political terrorism, and criminal terrorism. Political
terrorism is much more dangerous than criminal terrorism as they are well
trained and it became difficult for law-enforcing agencies to arrest them in
time in Pakistan occupied Kashmir (POK) and in Punjab it reported that the
terrorist are receiving training and weapons from Pakistan. In the last few
decades, Assam has been the most unstable state and remains the only state in
the northeast where terrorism is a major issue.
The state sponsored terrorism is the most violent of all. This is because
of the financial gain and the radicalism made to think that dying in a terror
act is sacred and holy, so they are willing to do anything. Pakistan is one of
those countries, which are being affected by the terror activities in their
premises. These disastrous activities, result in the financial loss, loss of lives
and loss of national peace and dignity.
Donors from Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of
funding to terrorist groups worldwide, according to Intelligence agencies.
Our young youth are being in to trap with huge financial offering by hawala
agents, which motivates them in doing antinational activities. The violence in
Afghanistan and Pakistan is partly financed by wealthy, conservative donors
across the Arabian Sea, but their governments do little to stop them. Arab
countries like Qatar, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates, all neighbours of
Saudi Arabia have donors as sources of money.
Terrorists are not only using the internet for communication,
recruiting, training and planning – but also to transfer funds. But global
action has made significant progress towards addressing this evil. Many
terrorist groups have exploited the mass communication capabilities of the
internet through numerous propaganda websites, discussion groups and
blogs. Typically radicalization that leads to violent extremism occurs through
first-hand human interaction, rather than virtual interaction. In the present
technological era, they can easily trap youth and students into it.
5.1.5. SEPARATISM
Majority of respondents agreed that separatism, hatred and intolerance
lead to intolerances and terrorism. Separatism is the activism of a state of
parting from the larger cluster. Groups may have specific motivations for
separation. It can be an exploration to stop economic abandon by more
influential group, dislike of rival communities, and misinformation by those
who desire to expand politically from intergroup clash etc. Mainly economic
and political factors usually are significant in strong separatist activities.
5.1.6 POVERTY, EDUCATED UNEMPLYMENT AND POPULATION
EXPLOSION
Poor nations usually have highest birth rates and it brings problems
like joblessness, lack of supply of basic services. They lead to civil unrest,
domestic trouble, and aggression. At the extreme, this may lead to national
disintegration. Population explosion and poverty can result in unrest and
violence. Population explosion must constantly be in control for maintaining
national integrity.
5.1.7. LACK OF JUSTICE, INSECURITYAMONG PEOPLE ANDHUMAN
RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
Lack of justice may lead to hostility and violent behaviour. Late justice
and corrupt judiciary may add violent behaviour among groups, which made
them to strike back against government.
5.1. 8. INAPPROPRIATE ECONOMIC PLANNING
Some of the respondents pointed out that inappropriate economic
planning may results in unrest and violence in society. Planning is essential
and without it, there would be anarchy in our national development.
Planning is a major tool in the service of the basic values and objectives
cherished by the society.
The term national development is very comprehensive and all aspects
of the life of an individual and the nation—cultural, democratic, economic,
educational, emotional, material, moral, physical, spiritual and social must be
included into it. These aspects of development are very important and
interconnected.
There is no easy way for a backward society seeking rapid
development. Rapid economic development greatly facilitates the solution of
difficult political and social problems inherent in an underdeveloped society.
To be meaningful, a high rate of growth must be sustained steadily over a
long period, to reduce level of poverty and the bare minimum conditions of
welfare for the masses, which results in peace. Inappropriate planning results
in poverty and other social problems, which may lead to antagonistic attitude
among people.
5.1.9. POLITICAL VIOLENCE
Political violence is a common means used by people and political
groups to accomplish political goals which results in insecurity among
citizens. Many people think that their political systems will never act in
response to their political demands. As a result they think that aggression is
essential in order to attain their political purposes. They misuse unemployed
youth to realize their goals.
5.1.10. OVER MATERIALISTIC LIFE STYLE OF SOCIETY
Many respondents pointed out that over materialistic life style of
society ends in indulging in any activities, which have monetary benefit. The
most important factor is the attitude and nature of present society. People in
general, have a great thirst for luxuries and comforts and as a result of which
they get themselves involved in all unscrupulous activities that result in
monetary or material benefits by even illegal means. This psychology is being
exploited by many terror groups by providing funding to do antinational and
terror activities.
5.1.11.
PERSONALITY FACTORS
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality explains, the ‗id
is the personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy that
works to gratify basic urges, needs, and desires. The ‗id‘ functions based on
the delight principle, which demands, immediate gratification of needs. Freud
also suggested that this primitive component of personality existed
completely within the unconscious part of mind. The ‗id‘ works the energetic
force behind personality. It not only attempts to accomplish our basic urges,
for survival, it also provides all of the energy needed to drive personality.The
id doesn‘t mind about idealism, about the requirements of anyone else, only
its own satisfaction. When the ‗id‘needs something, nothing else is significant.
People who are indulge in crime and terrorism may have an id dominated
personality .
5.1.12.
VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Violence in educational institution is a serious problem in recent
decades .Personality disorders, poor family environment, school environment
and socio-political environment are the factors behind such violence.
Psychological
aspects
such
as
antisocial
activities,
aggression,
and
hyperactivity are behind violence but rarely withdrawal, inhibition, anxiety,
and/or depression has been found in some cases of youth violence
Researches indicate that in children with early challenging motor skills,
deliberate difficulties, and reading problems forecast later constant disruptive
attitude. Neighbourhoods and communities provide the context for
institutional violence. Communities with high rates of crime and drug use
teach youth the violent behaviours. Political violence is another major factor
behind violence among youngsters. Studies have revealed that poverty and
high population densities are associated with higher rates of violence.
5.1.13.
LACK OF SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE
Teachers agreed that lack of spiritual intelligence is the basis of
intolerances. Intelligence plays a vital role in many cherished life outcomes.
Intelligence correlates with academic achievement, job performance and
socioeconomic advancement.
"Spiritual intelligence is the intelligence with which we can assess that
one course of action or one life path is more meaningful than another‖ (Zohar
& Marshall). We can place our actions and our lives in a wider, richer,
meaning-giving context with the intelligence. Generally, we can say that
spiritual intelligence is the ability to behave with compassion and wisdom,
and the ability to develop meaningful relationships. Spiritually intelligent
persons make out how to love and how to live meaningfully. We learn to be
accepting the differences viewpoints, cultural backgrounds and we are able to
forgive and forget. Spiritually intelligent people know how to stay calm and
maintain loving behaviour even under great tension. Spiritual Intelligence is
not basically religious. Lack of spiritual intelligence may be the reason behind
much intolerance.
5.2 .ROLE OF EDUCATION TO PROMOTE PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE
Education is considered as the powerful tool to promote peaceful
coexistence.
Responses of Secondary school Teachers and Teacher educators:
Responses of Teacher educators and teachers regarding the role Education to
promote peaceful coexistence is given in table 3.
Table3: Responses of Teacher educators and teachers
regarding the role Education to promote peaceful coexistence
No
ITEMS
GE
SE
NA
1
Peace education programme to be a part of
school and college curriculum
100
0
0
2
Organise programmes to inculcate democratic
97.5
attitude Among students
2.5
0
2.5
0
4
Eliminate
racial,
ethnic
and
cultural
discrimination,
radical
ideologies
and 97.5
intolerances through education
2.5
0
5
Education is not effective in curbing terrorism
0
7.5
92.5
100
0
0
3
Citizenship training ,support and action in 97.5
terms of active citizens is the powerful
component to prevent terrorism
Governments, politicians and all citizens should
advocate and build educational environments
6
free from violence
7
8
Educational programmes to develop intercultural
respect and harmony
Association
and
100
0
0
25
7
0
5
100
0
0
30
7
0
0
between educational institutions
agencies like police, justice, legal and social
services to improve a better institutional climate
9
10
Education should inculcate environmental ethics
andconcept of sustainable development.
Web discussions and social networking sites
To conscientise people.
11
Media, other cultural and social agencies
shouldcampaign against terrorist ideology.
100
0
0
12
Encourage programs, projects and research works
which develop an attitude against terrorism.
100
0
0
13
Anticorruption education to be a part of
education toconscientise younger generation
100
0
0
14
Women‘s rights and women empowerment
programmes to be a part of curriculum which in
turn improvethe quality of society
97.5
2.
5
0
15
Life skills training to
resolve
intercultural conflicts non-violently
100
0
0
16
Indigenous people‘s movements worldwide will
help for maintaining peace
80
1
0
10
17
Education is not effective in curbing terrorism
0
0
10
0
existing
Analysis of responses from teacher educators and teachers revealed
that, Governments, politicians, teachers, parents, and all citizens should
advocate and build school and college environments free from violence( GE
100%), Eliminate racial, ethnic and cultural discrimination, radical ideologies
and intolerances through education(GE 97.5%), Citizenship training ,support
and action in terms of active citizens is the powerful component to prevent
terrorism(GE 97%), Organise programmes to inculcate democratic attitude in
schools(GE 97.5%), Education and programmes to develop intercultural
respect and harmony (GE100%)Life skills training to resolve existing
intercultural conflicts non-violently(GE 100%), Encourage programs, projects
and research works which develop an attitude against terrorism(GE 100%),
Indigenous people‘s movements worldwide will help for maintaining peace(
GE 80%), Women‘s rights and women empowerment programme which in
turn improve the quality of society (GE 98%), Association
educational institutions
between
and agencies like police, justice, legal and social
services to maintain a better institutional climate (SE 70%) , Peace education
programme to be a part of school and college curriculum(GE100%), Media,
other cultural and social agencies should campaign against terrorist ideology
(GE100%), Web discussions and social networking sites to conscientise people
(SE70%), Education should inculcate environmental ethics and concept of
sustainable development (GE100%), Anticorruption education to be a part of
education to conscientise younger generation(GE100%)etc. were the responses
and suggestions and programmes that may be helpful to improve peaceful
coexistence.
Responses of student teachers:
Responses of student teachers regarding the role Education to promote
peaceful coexistence is given below in Table 4.
Table4: Responses of student teachers regarding the role Education in promote
peaceful coexistence
No
ITEMS
GE
SE
NA
1
Peace education programme to be a part of school
and college curriculum
95
5
0
2
Organise programmes to inculcate democratic
attitude Among students
95
5
0
3
Citizenship raining ,support and action in terms of
90
5
5
active citizens is the powerful component to
prevent terrorism
4
Eliminate
racial,
ethnic
and
cultural
discrimination, radical ideologies and intolerances
through education
95
5
-
5
Education is not effective in curbing terrorism
0
12
88.5
6
Governments, politicians and all citizens
100
0
0
100
0
0
10
60
30
should support to maintain
environments free from violence
7
educational
Educational programmes to develop intercultural
respect and harmony
8
Association between educational institutions and
agencies like police, justice, legal and social
services to improve a better institutional climate
9
Education should inculcate environmental ethics
and concept of sustainable development.
80
20
0
10
Web discussions and social networking sites
80
20
0
to conscientise people to create a positive attitude
to maintain peace
11
Media, other cultural and social agencies
shouldcampaign against terrorist ideology .
100
0
12
Encourage programs, projects and research works
90
10
0
which develop an attitude against terrorism.
13
Anticorruption education to be a part of education
toconscientise younger generation
80
20
14
Women‘s rights and women empowerment
programmes To be a part of curriculum which in
turn improvethe quality of society
90
2
8
15
Life skills training to resolve existing intercultural
conflicts non-violently
80
20
0
16
Indigenous people‘s movements worldwide will
help for maintaining peace
80
0
20
17
Education is not effective in curbing terrorism
0
20
80
Analysis of responses from student teachers revealed the following
facts. Peace education programme to be a part of school and college
curriculum(GE95%), Organise programmes to inculcate democratic attitude in
schools(GE 95%), Citizenship training ,support and action in terms of active
citizens is the powerful component to prevent terrorism(GE 90%), Eliminate
racial, ethnic and cultural discrimination , radical ideologies and intolerances
through education(GE 95%), Governments, politicians and all citizens should
support to maintain
educational
environments free from violence ( GE
100%), Education and programmes to develop intercultural respect and
harmony(GE100%), Education should inculcate environmental ethics and
concept of sustainable development( GE 80%), Life skills training to resolve
existing intercultural conflicts non-violently(GE 80%), Encourage programs,
projects and research works which develop an attitude against terrorism(GE
90%), Indigenous people‘s movements worldwide will help for maintaining
peace(GE 80%), Women‘s rights and women empowerment programme
which in turn improve the quality of society (GE 90%), Association between
educational institutions
and agencies like police, justice, legal and social
services to maintain a better institutional climate (SE 60%), Peace education
programme to be a part of school and college curriculum (GE100%), Media,
other cultural and social agencies
ideology.
(GE100%),
Web
should
discussions
campaign against terrorist
and
social
networking
sitestoconscientise people (GE80%), Anticorruption education to be a part of
education
toconscientise
younger
generation(GE80%)
etc.were
the
suggestions, opinions and programmes that may be helpful to improve
peaceful coexistence.
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Education is a continuous process which consists of the knowledge and
experiences acquired during human life through formal, in formal and non
formal agencies of education.
Teacher educators and secondary school Teachers mentioned the
psycho social factors that may lead to intolerances and terrorismand are
mentioned below.
Analysis of responses from Teacher educators, secondary school
teachers and student teachers revealed that Radical ideology, Separatism,
hatred and Intolerance ,Antinational activities, state sponsored economic
terrorism, Fear and Insecurity among people,Poverty ,Injustice, Inappropriate
economic planning, Over materialistic life style of society, Personality factors,
Marginalization, Violence in educational institutions, Political violence,
Corruption,Lack of justice,
Human rights violations, Lack of spiritual
intelligence etc can be the
Psycho-social factors behind such intoleranceswere given below.
Analysis of responses from teacher educators, secondary school
teachers and student teachers agreed the following facts to a great extent.
Governments, politicians, teachers, parents, and all citizens should advocate
and build school and college environments free from violence, eliminate
racial, ethnic and cultural discrimination , eliminate radical ideologies and
intolerances through education, citizenship training ,support and action in
terms of active citizens is the powerful component to prevent terrorism,
organise programmes to inculcate democratic attitude in schools, Education
and programmes to develop intercultural respect and harmony , life skills
training to
resolve existing intercultural conflicts non-violently, encourage
programs, projects and research works which develop an attitude against
terrorism, Indigenous people‘s movements worldwide will help
for
maintaining peace, women‘s rights and women empowerment programme
which in turn improve the quality of society, association between educational
institutions
and agencies like police, justice, legal and social services to
maintain a better institutional climate,peace education programme to be a
part of school and
college curriculum , media, other cultural and social
agencies to campaign against any kind of extremist or terrorist ideology or
act,web discussions and social networking sites to toconscientise people ,
education should inculcate environmental ethics and concept of sustainable
development, anticorruption education to be a part of education to
conscientise younger generation, etc were strategies and programmes which
help to maintain peaceful coexistence.
The investigator prepared a model curriculum for peace education,
which include multidimensional concepts and programmes and Validated by
experts.
SUGGESTIONS
o
Peace education must be an integral part of school and college
curriculum based on infusion strategy, to create attitudes such as selfrespect, respect for others, open mindedness, environmental concern,
justice, equality, democratic approach, true secularism etc. to be
promoted through it.
o
Peace education can be given as a separate discipline in university level
as electives in degree course or diploma or better it can be infused in
various stages of education.
o
Eradicate cultural discrimination, radical ideologies and intolerances
through education.
o
The teacher should identify individual differences and responds
effectively to their students differences with a caring attitude.
o
The teacher creates an environment in which the students are free to
inquire by creating questions that address social issues.
o
Role-play,
Cooperative
learning,
discussions,
constructivism,
storytelling, Child centred approach, Experiential learning etc to be
adopted in the classroom to promote concern towards society and
social issues.
o
Curricular and co-curricular programmes to be incorporated in all
levels of education to develop ideal citizenship nationalism, which are
the basis of integration.
o
Anti -corruption education must be a part of curriculum starting from
school level to empower future citizens to create a corrupt free society.
Corrupt governance disrupts a peaceful society.
In the present
materialistic society , people in general, have a great desire for luxuries
and comforts and they get involved in all dishonest activities that
result in monetary benefit . Lacking proper information on legislation,
lacking protection of whistleblowers are some of the reasons which
function as fertile soil for corruption.
o
Inculcate ideal Citizenship through curricular and co-curricular
programmes
o
Adopt effective classroom management techniques, maintaining a
conducive classroom climate, cooperative learning, and provide
individual attention to students.
o
Guidance and counselling must be an integral part of school and
college System to solve personal and academic problems.
o
Provisions to be given for cleansing of mind to promote inner peace
among students.
o
Curriculum can include Yoga , to maintain individual peace and
wellbeing.
o
Encourage students to read good books which create democratic and
peaceful mindset.
o
Population education and environmental education are to be part of
school and college curriculum to understand the relationship between
population explosion and depletion of natural resources which lead to
intolerances. Education should inculcate environmental ethics and
concept of sustainable development.
o
Reduce gender bias in educational systems and organise programmes
to empower girl students, which in turn results in improving quality of
society.
o
Media, other cultural and social agencies including religious
institutions should organise programmes to promote nationalism and
to campaign against any kind of terrorist ideology
o
Life skills training to be incorporated in school and college curriculum
to improve inner peace and resolve existing intercultural conflicts nonviolently.
o
Help students to cleans their minds by providing situation for open
expression, auto suggestion and redirection.
o
Encourage activities to improve spiritual intelligence of students
o
Encourage programs, projects and research works, which develop an
attitude against terrorism to maintain a peaceful society.
o
Students to be aware of the danger in antinational activities such as,
smuggling, distribution of fake currency, human trafficking etc. and
the legal consequences of them.
o
The factors behind violence can be broadly divided into personality
traits , family environment, and socio-political factors. Identify the
factors and through peace education , reduce violence regardless of
where the violence occurs.
o
Provide awareness on the concept of good governance, laws,
regulations and well-designed institutions. Empower future Citizens
to demand accountability from government and institutionsas mindset and expectations of citizens are vital in building a responsive public
administration.
o
Proper counter terrorism mechanisms to be implement irrespective of
politics or regionalism. Nowadays we know that behind political
growth, there are various antinational groups that create more chaos in
the nation, creating our own country an insecure place. Education
should prepare the future citizens of India to fight against
antinationalism and violence.
o
Indian traditional value of peace and peace concepts from different
religions can be included in the curriculum.
CONCLUSION
Dharma is the India concept in which rights and duties remain their
deep and external unity. Dharma based karma encourages us to live a life of
balance and objectivity. It believes that if we follow the spirit of dharma, we
would find more happiness and fulfilment. The idea of dharma can be
attributed to peace education. The observation of dharma is based on the
concept of ‗sarvabhutahita‖ means welfare of all being. All our activities
should be in keeping with karma yoga, which means we should work without
expectation of result.
Dharma is the basis of democracy. Perhaps it is the loss of this sense of
dharma that caught up values in society. Concept of sacred has lost
everywhere.
We have polluted our land, air and sea and the external
pollution seems to be spreading inwards and vice versa. All religions
highlight love, brotherhood, simple living and peaceful existence. But in the
present materialistic society we lose these attitudes.
Education is central in preventing social evils and conscientise future
generations. Violence is never a solution to any problem and achievement;
rather it leads to more difficulties. Future citizens have to understand, that we
can make the world to be a better place by developing proper attitudes and
actions. The creation of peace is a long continuous process that will take years
to accomplish.
***
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Bretherton, Diane , Jane Weston&VicZbar (2005). School-Based Peace
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studies: method, institutional development and globalization. Journal
of Peace Education.Vol.7(1).Pp 47-63.
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Chakrabarty, Dipesh (2007) 'In the Name of Politics: Democracy and the
Power of the Multitude in India', Public Culture, 19 (1), p. 35-57.
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Garcia,Agnaldo (2013) Relationships and World Peace: A Peace
Movement Survey. International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol18(2).pp
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Johnson,Roger T & David W. Johnson (2002). Teaching Students To Be
Peacemakers: A Meta- Analysis. Journal of Research in Education.Vol
12(1).
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Lesley Pruitt(2011). Creating a musical dialogue for peace.International
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Maoz, Ifat( 2000). An Experiment in Peace: Reconciliation-Aimed
Workshops of Jewish-Israeli and Palestinian Youth.Journal of Peace
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Contemporary Societies.Journal of Peace Research.Vol.41(5).pp. 531548.
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BLOG:
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http://ramanstrategicanalysis.blogspot.in/
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http://www.peace-ed-campaign.org/newsblog/
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http://green-changemakers.blogspot.in/
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
Questionnaire
Sir/madam,
The
questionnaire is prepared as a part of minor research project on
“SIGNIFICANCE OF PEACE EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULU
FOR PEACE EDUCATION”. This questionnaire meant for collecting the opinions
of teachers, student teachers and experts on challenges in connection with peace,
intolerances and
peace education. Kindly go through the package and please
note the responses against each item by a tick mark.
Thanking you
Research scholar
No.
ITEMS
GE
1
Radical philosophy is the basic factor behind
intolerances terrorism
2
Marginalized societies have a non-peaceful existence
which in turn may lead to terrorism
3
Separatism, Hatred and Intolerance lead to terrorism
4
Education is not effective in curbing terrorism
5
Political violence generates instability in society
6
Fear and Insecurity among people are the
basic cause of intolerances
7
Corruption may have terror link
8
Terrorism can be in the form of State sponsored
Economic terrorism which destroys economic
stability of the nation
9
Association between educational institutions and
agencies like police, justice, legal and social
services to improve a better institutional climate
10
Women’s rights and women empowerment
programmes
To be a part of curriculum which in turn improve
the quality of society
11
Poverty and educated unemployment may lead to
intolerances
12
Indigenous people’s movements worldwide will help
to maintain peace
13
Encourage programs, projects and research works
which develop an attitude against terrorism.
14
Lack of justice may cause intolerances
15
Government has no role in maintaining peace
16
Human rights violations create unrest in society
17
Eliminate racial, ethnic and cultural discrimination ,
radical ideologies and intolerances through education
18
Peace education programme to be a part of school and
college curriculum
SE
NA
19
Governments, politicians, teachers, parents, and all
citizens should advocate and build school and college
environments free from violence
20
Anticorruption education to a part of education to
conscientise younger generation
21
Life skills training to resolve
existing intercultural conflicts non-violently
22
Lack of Spiritual intelligence
23
Violence in educational institution destruct
peaceful coexistence among youth
24
Over materialistic life style of society which leads
to unstable mind set
25
Personality factors: id dominated deviant
personality leads to anti social and even
antinational activities
26
Education and programmes to develop intercultural
respect and harmony
27
Media, other cultural and social agencies to campaign
against any kind of extremist or terrorist ideology or
act
28
Web discussions and social networking sites
to conscientise
coexistence
29
people
to
maintain
peaceful
Education should inculcate environmental ethics
and concept of sustainable development.
30
Citizenship training ,support and action in terms of
active citizens is the powerful component to prevent
terrorism
31
Organise programmes to inculcate democratic attitude
Among students
32
Inappropriate economic planning ends in weak
social structure, which creates unrest.
33
Antinational activities such as smuggling, human
trafficking, child trafficking, fake currency etc may
have terror link
×

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