igneous rocks

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First found May 22, 2018

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ROCKS AND MINERALS
ROCKS AND MINERALS

GEOLOGY

Science of our
plant Earth

MAGMA

Earth's molten
liquid rock

Cools and starts
to crystallize

Forms solid
minerals

Two or more
minerals = rock
MINERALS

Basic building block of rocks

2000 types of minerals

Only 20 are common

95% of all rocks in existence

Salt, graphite and gemstones are examples
HOW TO DISTINGUISH MINERALS

Tests to Identify and Classify

Streak test – true color of specimen

Luster test – shine or reflection

Hardness – scratch resistent or abrasive

Cleavage – how the mineral breaks

Crystalline structure – most important clue
MINERALS
ROCK CYCLE
TYPES OF ROCKS

Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Metamorphic Rocks
IGNEOUS ROCKS



Means fire-formed
Magma below crust
is liquid rock
Lava when it
reaches the surface
IGNEOUS ROCKS

Extrusive Igneous
Rock

Rock formed
after lava on
surface cools
and solidifies
IGNEOUS ROCKS

Inclusive Igneous Rock

Rock formed when magma below the crust
cools and solidifies

Granite

75% of Earth's crust

Yosemite National Park
WEATHERING & PLATE TECTONICS


Plate tectonics uplift and
re-arrange land
Weathering and Erosion

Expose Inclusive
Igneous rocks

Exposed rocks are
broken down and
transported
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Broken and transported rock fragments

Called sediment

Settle at low points

Sediment is compacted and cemented


Lithification
Form Sedimentary rocks
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS



Small percentage of
crust
70% of exposed rock
Help geologists learn
about Earth's past
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Contain fossils

Preserved remains of plants and animals that
lived long ago

Mostly hard parts (shells, bones and teeth) of
organisms

Help determine past life and environments
FOSSILS
METAMORPHIC ROCKS


Means to change
form
Created when
igneous or
sedimentary rocks
transform
METAMORPHIC ROCKS


Changes are caused by
heat and pressure
Excessive heat and
pressure can cause
rocks to melt

When re-solidified
a new igneous
rock is formed
ROLE IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Stone Age

Tools, shelter and weapons

Wars to gain other countries resources

Industrial Revolution

Begin use of fossil fuels for energy
WORK WITH ROCKS & MINERALS

Construction Industry


Lapidarist


Limestone and gypsum = cement
Cut, polish and perfect crystals for jewelry
Paleontologist

Uncover, examine and identify fossils
EARTH'S RESOURCES


Fossil fuels

Oil, gas, coal

Non-renewable resource
Alternative renewable energy resources

Recycling
ROCKS AND MINERALS
QUIZ
QUESTION #1
What is the general name for the material
that forms a unique crystal shape?
QUIZ
QUESTION #2
A combination of different minerals form what
object?
QUIZ
QUESTION #3
Within the Earth, what happens to the rock when
it is exposed to very high temperatures?
QUIZ
QUESTION #4
What type of rock is made up of slowly buried
sediments that were later cemented together by
dissolved minerals?
QUIZ
QUESTION #5
How is a metamorphic rock formed?
QUIZ
QUESTION #6
How do people use rocks in their everyday lives?
QUIZ
QUESTION #7
Why is recycling important?
QUIZ
QUESTION #8
True or False
Salt is a mineral.
QUIZ
QUESTION #9
True or False
Fossils provide important evidence of how life
existed in the past and reveal clues about their
environment.
QUIZ
QUESTION #10
True or False
Igneous rock means “water-formed”.
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