MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question.
1. During the political crisis following the fall of the Han, the Great Wall
A) became ineffective as a barrier to invasion because it was held by many small
B) was destroyed and replaced by the Great Canal as a defensive barrier to
C) continued to serve as a barrier to the penetration of nomadic peoples.
D) provided the materials from which many Buddhist temples were constructed.
E) became a drain of Chinese resources as the government fought to keep it
2. What made possible the rapid revival of the empire under the Tang?
A) The abandonment of Confucianism in favor of the more widely practiced
B) The brevity of the period of political dislocation
C) The willingness of the Tang to abandon traditional approaches to government
D) The preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had
been central to Chinese civilization
E) The government’s focus on using people with practical technical skills as
opposed to the scholar-gentry
3. Wendi was the man responsible for the
A) banning of Confucianism.
B) banning of Buddhism.
C) establishment of the Sui dynasty.
D) return to Legalist principles of government.
E) building of an impressive Chinese navy.
4. Under the first Sui emperor
A) the Confucian scholar-gentry gained dominance.
B) the Buddhists were persecuted.
C) the merchant class gained much social prestige.
D) the Grand Canal was constructed.
E) ever-ready granaries were created to relieve the threat of famine.
5. Excessive military expenses and grandiose building projects led to
A) a widespread Buddhist rebellion.
B) the downfall of the second Sui emperor and the collapse of the dynasty.
C) the reunification of China under the Shang dynasty.
D) massive rejection of the Confucian scholar-gentry.
E) a successful peasant revolt.
6. Li Yuan was
A) a Buddhist monk who founded the Song dynasty.
B) the most famous poet of the Tang-Song era.
C) the Duke of Tang, founder of the new dynasty.
D) the second Sui emperor who murdered his father to gain the throne.
E) the most aggressive persecutor of Buddhism.
7. Which of the following statements concerning entry into the Chinese
bureaucracy is most accurate?
A) Although a higher percentage of candidates under the Tang received office
through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to
be important in securing high office.
B) Under the Tang, family connections ceased to be of significance.
C) Although the examination system continued to be monitored, almost all
officials received positions as a result of family connections.
D) The examination system was eliminated during the Tang dynasty, and only
members of the imperial family served in the bureaucracy.
E) The government strove to allow fair access to all people who could
8. Pure Land Buddhism
A) appealed to the members of the Chinese elite.
B) only allowed upper-class believers.
C) was rejected by the Chinese peasantry.
D) stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
E) stressed salvation.
9. Which of the following statements concerning the Tang dynasty’s attitude
toward Buddhism is most accurate?
A) Under the Tang, Buddhism became the official religion of the state.
B) After initial attempts to suppress Buddhism, later Tang emperors actually
resuscitated the Buddhist monasteries, particularly in southern China.
C) Although Empress Wu attempted to have Buddhism recognized as the official
religion of the state, later emperors persecuted Buddhism as an economic threat
to the state.
D) From the outset, Buddhism was persecuted under the Tang.
E) Although Tang rulers disliked the practice of Buddhism, they adopted a policy
10. As a result of imperial suppression,
A) monastic orders continued to exert political influence and control landed
wealth as they did in the first decades of Tang rule.
B) Buddhism was restored as the primary religion of the state during the Song
C) Buddhism gained much underground support, which eventually led to its
becoming the prominent religion of China.
D) Buddhism was eradicated in China.
E) Buddhism survived in a reduced state without much political influence.
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes the
statement or answers
1. __________ was a member of a prominent northern family following the fall of
the Han, who proclaimed himself emperor and established the Sui dynasty.
2. Minister for Yangdi, __________ , the duke of Tang, took over the empire
following the assassination of the last emperor of the Sui dynasty.
3. The __________ variant of Buddhism emphasized the salvationist aspects of
the faith and appealed to the masses of Chinese society.
4. A general of nomadic origins named __________ led a widely supported revolt
to depose the Tang dynasty in 755.
5. The much-reduced state of the Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279 was referred
to as the __________.
6. Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders,
compasses, and bamboo fenders were called __________.
7. __________ was a Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to
merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage.
8. The Chinese counterpart of the Islamic veil and seclusion, __________,
produced pain and restricted women’s movement outside the household.
9. The most famous poet of the Tang era, __________, blended images of the
mundane world with philosophical musings.
10. The invention of __________ was originally used for entertainment purposes,
but by the late Song era was used in military applications as well.
TRUE/FALSE. Write “T” if the statement is true and “F” if the statement is
1. Wendi, the first Sui emperor, rapidly restored the position of the Confucian
2. The second Sui emperor undertook the enormous building project of the Great
Canal, a decision that contributed to the dynasty’s downfall.
3. The bureaucracy during the Tang dynasty was exclusively recruited from those
who passed the examination system without regard to family connections.
4. The southern Song dynasty was little more than a rump state carved from the
much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern Song.
5. The capital of the Tang dynasty with a population of 2 million was Beijing.
6. The nomadic Mongols were the founders of the Qin Kingdom that succeeded
the Liao in northern China and forced the Song to flee to the South.
7. Originally a general following the fall of the Tang, Zhao Kuangyin was the
founder of the Song dynasty.
8. The Chan variant of Buddhism, more attractive to the members of the Chinese
elite, stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
9. The era between 220 and 589 that featured endless wars fought by the
patchwork of regional kingdoms following the fall of the Han in China was
referred to as the Era of Division.