Vestibular and Balance Disorders Workshop

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Vestibular and Balance Disorders
Workshop
AOCOO-HNS ACA 2013
Mark J. Van Ess, DO
Introduction

Balance
Outline

Anatomy & Physiology of Vestibular System

Input




Vestibular
Visual
Proprioceptive
Motor Output

Movement strategies
g

History & Physical Examination

Laboratory Testing
Vestibular Inputs

Semicircular canals

Detect high velocity and high frequency angular acceleration

Help stabilize gaze during impulsive head mvt

P
Prevent
oscillopsia
ill i bby preventing
i retinal
i l slip
li

Ewald’ss Laws
Ewald

Eye mvts occur in plane of
stimulated SCC in direction
of endolymphatic flow

HSCC ampullopetal flow 
> response than
ampullofugal flow


HSCC ampullopetal
ll
l flflow 
stimulatory (ampullfogal flow
 inhibitory)
In vertical canals  reverse
is true
Eye movements
evoked by
excitatory
stimulation of
individual
semicircular canals
The arrows depict
motion of slowphase components
of nystagmus
Physiologic Nystagmus
Pathologic Nystagmus - Acute
Pathologic Nystagmus - Early
Pathologic Nystagmus – Partial
Compensation
Pathologic Nystagmus – Full Dynamic
Compensation
Vestibular Organs

Otolithic Organs

Macula of Utricle & Saccule

Sense transient linear acceleration & stabilize body position

Sense head/body relation to gravity & set muscle tonus

Contribute to

Linear VOR

Ocular counter roll

Ocular skew
Visual Inputs

Optokinetic reflex


Sensation of relative visual input/movement(s)
Saccades

Visual refixation on target(s)


Manifest as quick movements to bring eye back to correct
fi ti after
fixation
ft drifting
d ifti during
d i nystagmus
t
Smooth Pursuit

Specific tracking of desired target(s)


Focus stimulus on fovea
Inhibits VOR
Optokinetic Nystagmus
Saccades
Smooth Pursuit
Somatosensory Inputs

Pressure receptors


Sense interaction w/ support surface
Stretch receptors

Sense joint alignment and muscle stretch/tension
Central Sensory Integration

Comparison of Sensory Inputs

Context – Dependent Hierarchy

Generate appropriate command  motor system for
pposture control
Motor Output

Pyramidal

Extrapyramidal

Multisegmental reflex loops

Muscle conditioning
Movement Strategy

Ankle Strategy

Hip Strategy

Stepping Strategy
Summary

Balance and Gaze Stability


VOR


Stabilizes gaze during rapid head movement(s)
VSR


Rely on combination of sensory inputs
inputs, central integration and
motor output
Stabilizes posture during transient lineal accelerations or
gravity
Adaptive plasticity and sensory substitution essential to
compensation following vestibular injury
Evaluation of Dizzy Patient

History (70%)

Physical Exam (10-20%)

Laboratory Testing (10-20%)





ENG/VNG
VEMP testing
Rotary chair
Posturography
Other
History

Questionnaire

Interview w/ questionnaire as guide

Focused

W/ differential diagnosis
g
in mind
Components of Physical Exam

VOR Exam



Dix-Hallpike
Central Occulomotor Exam



Smooth pursuit, Gaze-evoked nystagmus, Saccades, fixation
suppression
i
VSR Exam


Spontaneous nystagmus
nystagmus, Head-thrust
Head thrust, Head – shake,
shake Frenzel
Frenzel’ss
lenses, dynamic visual acuity
Romberg Tandem Romberg,
Romberg,
Romberg Foam Romberg
Gait
Station (Posture)
Spontaneous Nystagmus

Eyes open (visual fixation) v Frenzel lenses (fixation
removed)

Direction fixed v direction changing
g g

Pendular v jjerk nystagmus
y g

Saccadic intrusions
Alexander’s
Alexander
s Law

1st degree nystagmus


2nd degree nystagmus


Present only in gaze towards fast phase
Present in neutral gaze and stronger towards fast phase
3rd degree nystagmus

Present in all gazes, strongest in gaze towards fast phase
Gaze Nystagmus

Drift of eye which is only present for certain directions of
gaze



Inability to maintain stable conjugated eye deviation away from
primary position
Direction changing
Failure to maintain eccentric gaze

L k neurall integrator
Leaky

Cerebella flocculus

Common consequence
q
of medication, especially
p
y sedatives or
anticonvulsants
Smooth Pursuit

Smooth movement continual tracking of moving object
 Keep image of an attended moving target near fovea

Best corrected vision

Horizontal better than vertical

Mediated by paramedian pontine reticular formation

Frontal eye field region, Cerebellum
Saccades

Saccadic eye movements (SACs) shift fovea rapidly to a
peripheral visual or auditory target

Conjugate
j g

Accurate

Fast

Minimal delay
Optokinetic Reflex

Full field retinal stimulation

Optimal function

Large, slow, repetitive target motion

Augments low frequency VOR

Non-voluntary reflex
Head – thrust Testing

Rotate from side to center (or center to side)

Focus on target (nose)

Look for corrective saccade(s)

Can be unilateral or bilateral (if bilateral – suspect
bilateral weakness)
Head-shake
Head
shake Testing

1-2 Hz for 20 seconds

Removal of visual fixation (Frenzel Lenses)

Observe for post – headshake nystagmus

(usually) beats toward stronger ear

Observe for cross-coupling and reversal
Dynamic Visual Acuity

Normal


Abnormal


< 3 line decrease in visual acuity
3 or more line decrease in visual acuity
Aphysiologic

Decrease w/ torsional mvt
Position Testing

Rapid Positioning

Dix-Hallpike, Bjorab Maneuver, etc.


Latency, duration, fatigue, reversal
Static Positional (Prolonged Positioning) Testing

Removal of visual fixation – Use Frenzel lenses
Additional Testing

Pneumatic otoscopy

Sound stimulation (Barany Noise Box, etc.)

Valsalva

Hyperventilation

Mastoid oscillation
Limb Testing

Finger – nose – finger

Heel to shin

Rapid alternating movements

Joint proprioception

Vibration detection
Posture and Gait

Romberg

Eyes open,
open Eyes closed

Foam balance pad

Tandem/Sharpened Romberg

Fakuda Step testing

G i analysis
Gait
l i
Lab Testing for Vertigo

VNG

VEMP

Rotary Chair

Posturography

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