Chapter 2 – Athens / Athens and Attica

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The Ancient Greek Secretary
A study of secretaries in Athens
and the Peloponnese
A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Humanities
2012
Terry J. Abbott
School of Arts, Languages and Cultures
Table of Contents
List of Tables .................................................................................................................. 11
List of Figures ................................................................................................................. 12
Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. 13
Abstract .......................................................................................................................... 16
Declaration ..................................................................................................................... 17
Copyright Statement ........................................................................................................ 17
Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... 18
Chapter 1 – Introduction.................................................................................................. 19
Background to this thesis.............................................................................................. 19
What is a secretary? ..................................................................................................... 21
Linguistic issues: vocabulary, grammatical forms and syntactic context ........................... 23
Designations ............................................................................................................ 23
Grammatical context ................................................................................................. 25
Verbs used for the writing of stelai ............................................................................ 27
Sources ....................................................................................................................... 28
Epigraphic evidence .................................................................................................. 29
Literary sources ........................................................................................................ 29
The structure of this thesis ........................................................................................... 31
Translation and transliteration conventions ................................................................ 33
Chapter 2 – Athens.......................................................................................................... 34
Overview ..................................................................................................................... 34
Secretaries of the boule and demos .............................................................................. 37
ἀναγραφεύς (anagrapheus) ....................................................................................... 37
ἀντιγραφεύς (antigrapheus) ...................................................................................... 49
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule) .................................................... 51
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the boule and the demos) ....... 64
γραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (grammateus of the eisagogeis) ...................................... 68
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων (grammateus of the prytaneis) ........................................... 69
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα (secretary in charge of decrees) ................................................ 71
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον (secretary for that which cannot be mentioned) ......................... 72
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους (secretary for the laws) ............................................................... 72
συγγραμματεύς (syngrammateus) ............................................................................. 74
συγγραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (syngrammateus of the eisagogeis) ............................ 74
συγγραφεύς (syngrapheus) ....................................................................................... 74
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus) ........................................................................... 77
Other officers of the boule and demos ........................................................................... 81
2
δημόσιος (demosios) ................................................................................................ 81
ὑπηρέτης (hyperetes) ............................................................................................... 83
Treasury officers and secretaries................................................................................... 84
The kolakretai .......................................................................................................... 86
The hellenotamiai and their grammateus ................................................................... 86
The Treasurers of Athena and the Treasurers of the Other Gods, and their grammateus . 87
Secretaries of archons .................................................................................................. 89
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου (grammateus of the polemarch) ....................................... 89
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα (grammateus of the Eleven).................................................. 90
γραμματεὺς τῶν θεσμοθετῶν (grammateus of the thesmothetai) .................................... 91
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων (grammateus of the hipparchs) ......................................... 91
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν (grammateus of the strategoi) .......................................... 92
Secretaries of other polis-level bodies ........................................................................... 92
ἀρχιγραμματεύς (archigrammateus) .......................................................................... 92
γραμματεύς (grammateus, the clerk of the court) ....................................................... 93
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός (grammateus elected by hairesis) ................................................ 94
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν (grammateus of the bouleutai) .............................................. 96
γραμματεὺς ἐπὶ τὸν μισθὸν καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἄλλην οἰκονομίαν (grammateus for the wages
and for the other administration) ............................................................................... 97
γραμματεὺς κληρωτός (grammateus elected by lot) .................................................... 97
γραμματεὺς συνηγόροις (grammateus for the assessors) ............................................ 98
γραμματεὺς τῇ ἀρχῇ (grammateus for the board) ....................................................... 98
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedrion) ........................................ 99
γραμματεὺς τῶν νεωρíων ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the dockyard epimeletai) .......... 99
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (grammateus of the epistatai) ........................................ 100
γραμματεὺς τῶν τοῦ ἐμπορίου ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the epimeletai of the trading
place) .................................................................................................................... 101
διαγραφεύς (diagrapheus)....................................................................................... 102
ἐπιγραφεύς (epigrapheus) ....................................................................................... 102
καταλογεύς (katalogeus) ......................................................................................... 102
συνγραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (syngrammateus of the epistatai) ................................... 103
Other officers of the polis ........................................................................................... 103
θεσμοθέτης (thesmothetes) .................................................................................... 103
κήρυξ (kerux) ......................................................................................................... 103
λογισταί and συνήγοροι (auditors and assessors) ..................................................... 104
Secretaries and other officers of demes ....................................................................... 104
γραμματεὺς τῶν δημοτῶν (grammateus of the demesmen) ...................................... 104
δήμαρχος (demarch)............................................................................................... 105
ταμίας (tamias) ...................................................................................................... 106
3
Officers of phratries ................................................................................................... 106
ἱερεύς (priest) ........................................................................................................ 106
φρατρίαρχος (phratriarch) ....................................................................................... 108
Secretaries and other officers of phylai ........................................................................ 108
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς (grammateus of the phyle) ................................................... 108
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes) .......................................................................................... 109
Secretaries of the ephebes ......................................................................................... 110
ἀντιγραμματεύς (antigrammateus)........................................................................... 110
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου (grammateus for life)............................................................... 111
Secretaries and other officers of religious associations of Attica .................................... 112
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 112
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes) .......................................................................................... 113
ταμίας (tamias)....................................................................................................... 114
Other ........................................................................................................................ 115
γραφεύς (grapheus) ............................................................................................... 115
Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 115
Chapter 3 – The Peloponnese ........................................................................................ 121
Overview ................................................................................................................... 121
Geographical Distribution ........................................................................................ 122
Saronic Gulf: Aigina .................................................................................................... 123
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the demos) ................................................. 123
Corinthia: Corinth ....................................................................................................... 125
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas) .................................................................................. 126
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 127
Corinthia: Sicyon ........................................................................................................ 128
γροφεὺς τᾶς βωλᾶς (gropheus of the bola) .............................................................. 129
Corinthia: concluding remarks ................................................................................. 129
Argolis: Argos ............................................................................................................ 130
ἀρτύνας (artunas)................................................................................................... 131
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 133
γροφεύς (gropheus) ............................................................................................... 135
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς (gropheus bolas)............................................................................. 137
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι (gropheus for the Eighty) ............................................. 138
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχων (gropheus of the polemarchs) ................................................. 139
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς (gropheus for the stratagoi) ............................................... 140
Argolis: Epidauros ...................................................................................................... 141
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 142
γροφεὺς [βουλᾶς] (gropheus bolas) ......................................................................... 144
γροφεὺς [ἱαρομναμόνων] (gropheus of the hiaromnamones) ..................................... 145
4
κατάλογος βουλᾶς (katalogos boulas) ...................................................................... 147
Argolis: Hermione ...................................................................................................... 149
δαμιουργός (damiourgos)........................................................................................ 149
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 150
Argolis: Kalaureia ....................................................................................................... 150
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 150
Argolis: Troizen.......................................................................................................... 151
ταμίας (tamias) ...................................................................................................... 152
Argolis: concluding remarks .................................................................................... 152
Laconia: Introduction ................................................................................................. 154
Laconia: Amyklai ........................................................................................................ 156
γραμματεὺς [τῶν ἐφόρων] (grammateus of the ephors) ........................................... 156
δογματογράφος (dogmatographos) ......................................................................... 156
Laconia: Epidauros Limera, Gerenia, Geronthrai, Gytheion, Kortyrta .............................. 158
ἔφορος (ephor) ...................................................................................................... 158
Laconia: Sparta .......................................................................................................... 160
γραμματεύς (grammateus) and γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς (grammateus of the boule)......... 160
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 164
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus) ......................................................................... 165
Laconia: Tainaron ...................................................................................................... 166
ταμίας (tamias) ...................................................................................................... 166
Laconia: Thalamai ...................................................................................................... 166
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 166
Laconia: concluding remarks ................................................................................... 167
Messenia: Introduction ............................................................................................... 168
Messenia: Abia, Asine, Kolonides, Kyparissos ............................................................... 169
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 169
Messenia: Andania, Korone......................................................................................... 169
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi) ........................................ 169
Messenia: Messene .................................................................................................... 171
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 172
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi) ........................................ 173
γροφεύς (gropheus) ............................................................................................... 175
Messenia: Thouria ...................................................................................................... 176
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi) ........................................ 176
ἔφορος (ephor) ...................................................................................................... 177
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 178
Messenia: concluding remarks ................................................................................. 178
Arcadia: Introduction ................................................................................................. 180
5
Arcadia: Alipheira ....................................................................................................... 181
δαμιοργός (damiorgos) ........................................................................................... 182
Arcadia: Heraia, Kletor, Stymphalos ............................................................................ 182
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 183
γροφεύς (gropheus) ............................................................................................... 184
κατακόος (katakoos) ............................................................................................... 184
Arcadia: Lykaia .......................................................................................................... 186
γροφεὺς δαμιοργῶν (gropheus of the damiorgoi) ..................................................... 186
Arcadia: Mantinea ...................................................................................................... 187
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 188
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes) .......................................................................................... 188
σταλογράφος (stalographos) ................................................................................... 189
Arcadia: Megalopolis .................................................................................................. 190
γραμματεὺς τοῖς συνέδροις (grammateus for the synedroi) ....................................... 190
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 191
Arcadia: Orchomenos ................................................................................................. 192
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 193
γραμματεὺς τῶν θεαρῶν (grammateus of the thearoi) .............................................. 193
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi) ........................................ 194
Arcadia: Tegea .......................................................................................................... 195
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 196
γραφής (graphes) ................................................................................................... 196
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 197
στραταγός (stratagos)............................................................................................. 197
Arcadia: Thisoa .......................................................................................................... 198
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes) .......................................................................................... 198
Arcadia: concluding remarks.................................................................................... 199
Elis: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 201
Elis: Olympia .............................................................................................................. 202
βωλογράφορ (bolographor) ..................................................................................... 202
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 204
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas) .................................................................................. 207
γροφεύς (gropheus) ............................................................................................... 207
Elis: concluding remarks ......................................................................................... 211
Achaia: Introduction ................................................................................................... 212
Achaia: Dyme ............................................................................................................ 212
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas) .................................................................................. 212
γραμματιστάς δαμοσιοφυλάκων (grammatistas of the damosiophylakes) ................... 214
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedrion) ....................................... 215
6
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 216
Achaia: Patrai ............................................................................................................ 217
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi) ........................................ 217
Achaia: Tritaia ........................................................................................................... 218
δαμιοργός (damiorgos) ........................................................................................... 218
Achaian League ......................................................................................................... 219
Secretaries of the Achaian League ........................................................................... 221
γραμματεύς [τῶν νομογράφων] (grammateus of the nomographoi) .......................... 225
δαμιοργὸς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν (damiorgos of the Achaians) ................................................. 225
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 226
Achaia: concluding remarks ..................................................................................... 227
Secretaries of the Hellenic League .............................................................................. 228
Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 229
Chapter 4 – Conclusions ................................................................................................ 235
Activities ................................................................................................................... 235
Further Particulars ..................................................................................................... 241
Other Attributes of the secretary and his office ............................................................ 247
Appendix A – List of Inscriptions by Office ...................................................................... 252
ἀγγραφᾶς or ἐγγροφᾶς (for engraving) .................................................................... 254
ἀναγραφεύς (anagrapheus)..................................................................................... 254
ἀντιγραμματεύς (antigrammateus) .......................................................................... 256
ἀντιγραφεύς (antigrapheus) .................................................................................... 256
ἀρχιγραμματεύς (archigrammateus) ........................................................................ 256
ἀρχιθιασίτης (archithiasites) .................................................................................... 256
ἀρτύνας (artunas) .................................................................................................. 256
βωλογράφορ (bolographor) ..................................................................................... 256
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 256
γραμματεύς (grammateus of the hellenotamiai) ....................................................... 259
γραμματεύς (grammateus of the Treasurers of Athena) ............................................ 260
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός (grammateus hairetos) ............................................................. 260
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν (grammateus of the bouleutai) ............................................ 260
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου (grammateus for life) .............................................................. 261
γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν (grammateus kata prytaneian) .................................... 262
γραμματεὺς κληρωτός (grammateus klerotos) .......................................................... 263
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule).................................................. 263
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the boule and the demos) ..... 268
γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως (grammateus of the polis) ................................................... 268
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς (grammateus of the phyle) ................................................... 270
7
γραμματεὺς τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς (grammateus for the Achaians) and γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν
(grammateus of the Achaians)................................................................................. 270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the demos) ................................................. 270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητής (grammateus of the epimeletes) .................................... 270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου (grammateus of the Polemarch) ................................... 271
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedrion)....................................... 271
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (grammateus of the amphictyons) ................................... 271
γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς <phyle name> φυλῆς (grammateus of the bouleutai of
the <phyle name> phyle) ....................................................................................... 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (grammateus of the eisagogeis) .................................... 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (grammateus of the epistatai) ........................................ 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα (grammateus of the Eleven) ................................................ 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱεροποιῶν (grammateus of the hieropoioi)....................................... 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων (grammateus of the Hipparchs) ....................................... 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν ναοποιῶν (grammateus of the naopoioi) ......................................... 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν νεωριων ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the naval dockyards) .............. 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων (grammateus of the prytaneis) ...................................... 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν (grammateus of the strategoi) ...................................... 275
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas) .................................................................................. 275
γραμματιστάς δαμοσιοφυλάκων (grammatistas of the damosiophylakes) ................... 275
[ὁ] γράψας (the one who wrote [this])..................................................................... 276
γροφεύς (gropheus) and γραφής (graphes).............................................................. 276
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς (gropheus bolas)............................................................................. 277
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχων (gropheus of the polemarchs) ................................................. 277
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς (gropheus for the stratagoi) ............................................... 277
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι (gropheus for the Eighty) ............................................. 277
δαμιοργός (damiorgos) ........................................................................................... 278
δήμαρχος (demarch) ............................................................................................... 278
δημόσιος (demosios) .............................................................................................. 278
δογματογράφος (dogmatographos) ......................................................................... 278
ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε (wrote and engraved) ............................................................... 278
ἑλληνοταμίας (hellenotamias) .................................................................................. 279
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes) .......................................................................................... 279
[ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα (secretary in charge of decrees) .............................................. 279
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον (secretary for that which cannot be mentioned) ....................... 280
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους (secretary for the laws) ............................................................. 280
ἔφορος (ephor) ...................................................................................................... 280
ἱερεύς (priest) ........................................................................................................ 280
κατακόος (katakoos) ............................................................................................... 280
8
κατάλογος βουλᾶς (katalogos boulas) ...................................................................... 281
κήρυξ (herald)........................................................................................................ 281
νομογράφος (nomographos) ................................................................................... 281
[ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα ([ho] peri to bema, secretary ‘in attendance’ or ‘at the platform’) ..... 281
σταλογράφος (stalographos) ................................................................................... 282
στρατηγóς (strategos) ............................................................................................ 282
συγγραμματεύς (syngrammateus) ........................................................................... 282
συγγραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (syngrammateus of the eisagogeis) .......................... 282
συγγραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (syngrammateus of the epistatai) ................................ 282
συνγραφεύς (syngrapheus) ..................................................................................... 282
ταμίας (treasurer) ................................................................................................... 283
ὑπηρέτης (hyperetes) ............................................................................................. 283
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus) ......................................................................... 284
ὑπογραμματεύς διὰ βίου (hypogrammateus for life) .................................................. 289
ὑπογραμματεύς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (hypogrammateus of the boule and the
demos) .................................................................................................................. 289
ὑπογραμματεύς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (hypogrammateus of the amphictyons)................. 289
ὑπογραμματεύς τῶν ναοποιῶν (hypogrammateus of the naopoioi) ............................ 289
φρατρίαρχος (phratriarch)....................................................................................... 289
Instances of grammateus of the boule, grammateus kata prytaneian and grammateus of
the boule and the demos ........................................................................................ 297
The prominence of secretaries in inscriptions ........................................................... 300
Appendix B – Inscriptions from the Peloponnese ............................................................. 302
Geographical Distribution ........................................................................................... 302
Saronic Gulf and Corinthia ....................................................................................... 302
Argolid ................................................................................................................... 303
Troizenia and Hermionis ......................................................................................... 305
Laconia .................................................................................................................. 305
Messenia ................................................................................................................ 308
Arcadia .................................................................................................................. 309
Elis ........................................................................................................................ 310
Achaia ................................................................................................................... 311
Achaian League ...................................................................................................... 312
Chronological Distribution ........................................................................................... 313
6-5C BC.................................................................................................................. 313
4C BC..................................................................................................................... 314
3C BC..................................................................................................................... 315
2C BC..................................................................................................................... 316
1C BC..................................................................................................................... 317
9
1C AD..................................................................................................................... 318
2C AD..................................................................................................................... 319
3C AD..................................................................................................................... 320
Appendix C – Honours for Roman Magistrates who held the office of grammateus ............ 321
Appendix D – Delos ....................................................................................................... 322
Overview ................................................................................................................... 322
Secretaries of the boule and demos ............................................................................ 325
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (grammateus of the amphictyons) ................................... 325
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule) .................................................. 327
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱεροποιῶν (grammateus of the hieropoioi) ....................................... 330
γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως (grammateus of the polis) ................................................... 333
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus) ......................................................................... 335
Secretaries of other bodies ......................................................................................... 336
γραμματεύς (grammateus) ...................................................................................... 336
κληρωτὸς γραμματεύς (klerotos grammateus) .......................................................... 337
γραμματεὺς τῆς σύνοδου (grammateus of the synod) ............................................... 337
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητοῦ (grammateus of the epimeletes) .................................... 337
γραμματεὺς τῶν ναοποιῶν (grammateus of the naopoioi) ......................................... 338
Other officers ............................................................................................................. 340
ἀρχιθιασίτης (archithiasites) .................................................................................... 340
Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 341
Appendix E – The Status of the hypogrammateus ........................................................... 344
Appendix F – Stonecutters ............................................................................................. 347
[τῶι] γράψαντι ([for] the one who did the inscribing/writing) .................................... 347
ἀγγραφᾶς or ἐγγροφᾶς (for engraving) .................................................................... 350
ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε (wrote and engraved) ............................................................... 351
[ὁ] γράψας (the one who wrote [this])..................................................................... 352
Glossary of technical terms ............................................................................................ 353
Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 357
Index............................................................................................................................ 375
Words: 84,356
10
List of Tables
Table no.
page no.
1
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Aigina.
123
2
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Corinth.
125
3
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Argos.
131
4
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Epidauros.
142
5
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Laconia.
155
6
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Messenia.
168
7
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Arcadia.
181
8
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text in Elis.
202
9
Attestations of Achaian secretaries or other officials charged with
writing a text in Achaia.
212
10
Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing
a text for the Achaian League.
221
11
Grammateis and hypogrammateis of the amphictyons.
272
12
Hypogrammateis who may have served for more than a year.
288
13
Secretaries and magistrates associated with the writing of
public documents.
290
14
Use of the designations grammateus of the boule, grammateus
kata prytaneian, and grammateus of the boule and the demos.
297
15
Prominent display of the name and designation of secretaries .
300
16
Honours for Roman magistrates who held the office of
321
17
The status of the hypogrammateus.
344
grammateus.
11
List of Figures
Figure no.
page no.
1
Figure East 19 from the Parthenon frieze.
63
2
Agora 15:322: The tribe of Aiantis honours its prytaneis.
70
3
Boards of treasurers in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. 85
4
The Peloponnese: geographical distribution of secretaries and
other officers who perform the duties of secretaries.
122
5
Registers of Spartan magistrates.
162
6
Proxeny decree for Damokrates of Tenedos.
203
7
Athenian inscriptions containing a hypogrammateus.
284
8
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
sixth and fifth centuries BC.
313
9
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
fourth century BC.
314
10
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
third century BC.
315
11
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
second century BC.
316
12
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
first century BC.
317
13
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
first century AD.
318
14
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
second century AD.
319
15
Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the
third century AD.
320
16
Graffito on a small lekane.
352
12
Abbreviations
ABSA
Annual of the British School at Athens. London.
AD
Ἀρχαιολογικὸν Δελτίον. (1915 —). Athens.
Ag. or Agora
The Athenian Agora: Results of Excavations Conducted by the American
School of Classical Studies at Athens. Princeton, NJ.
15 = Meritt, B. D, & Traill, J. S. (1974). Inscriptions: The Athenian
Councillors.
16 = Woodhead, A. G. (1997). Inscriptions: The Decrees.
AJA
American Journal of Archaeology. New York, NY.
AJPh
American Journal of Philology. Baltimore, MD.
AncW
Ancient World. Chicago, IL.
AR
Archaeological Reports. London.
Ath. Pol.
Athenaion Politeia.
BCH
Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. Athens.
BE
Bulletin épigraphique. Paris.
BICS
Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. London.
Buck
Buck, C. D. (1955). The Greek Dialects. London.
CID
Corpus des inscriptions de Delphes. (1977 —). Paris.
CIG
Boeckh, A. (1828-1877). Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. Berlin.
Clinton, Sacred
Officials
Clinton, K. (1974). “The Sacred Officials of the Eleusinian Mysteries,”
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society: 64: 3. Philadelphia, PA.
Corinth 8,1
Meritt, B. D. (ed.) (1931). Corinth VIII,1. The Greek Inscriptions 18961927. Cambridge, MA.
Corinth 8,2
West, A. B. (ed.) (1931). Corinth VIII,2. The Latin Inscriptions 18961926. Princeton, NJ.
Corinth 8,3
Kent, J. H. (ed.) (1966). Corinth VIII,3. The Inscriptions 1926-1950.
Princeton, NJ.
CPh
Classical Philology. Chicago, IL.
CQ
Classical Quarterly. London.
Dinsmoor
Dinsmoor, W. B. (1931). The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age.
Cambridge, MA.
Emprunt
Migeotte, L. (1984). L’emprunt publique dans les cités Grecques: recueil
des documents et analyse critique. Québec.
Ephesos
McCabe, D. F. (1991). Ephesos Inscriptions, Texts and List. The Princeton
Project on the Inscriptions of Anatolia, Packard Humanities Institute CD
#6. Princeton, NJ.
Vol. IV nos. 1001-1445 = Engelmann, H., Knibbe, D. and Merkelbach, R.
(eds.) (1980). Die Inschriften von Ephesos.
FD
Fouilles de Delphes. (1909 —). Paris.
GRBS
Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies. Duke, Durham, N.C.
Hesp. or Hesperia Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at
Athens. Athens.
13
Historia
Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. Erfurt.
HSPh
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Harvard, MA.
ID
Plassart, A., Coupry, J., Durrbach, F., Roussel, P. & Launey, M. (19261950). Inscriptions de Délos. 7 vols. Paris.
IG
Inscriptiones Graecae. (1877 —). Berlin.
I.Magn
Kern, O. (1900). Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander. Berlin.
IPArk
Thür, G. & Taeuber, H. (1994). Prozessrechtliche Inschriften der
griechischen Poleis: Arkadien. Vienna.
I.Patras
Rizakis, A. D. (1995). Achaïe II – la cité de Patras: épigraphie et histoire.
Athens.
ISE
Iscrizioni storiche ellenistiche.
I = Moretti, L. (1967). Attica, Peloponneso, Beozia. Florencia.
III = Canali de Rossi, F. (2002). Decreti per ambasciatori greci al senato.
Roma.
IvO
Dittenberger, W. & Purgold, K. (1896). Die Inschriften von Olympia. Berlin.
JHS
Journal of Hellenic Studies. London.
Kayser, AI
Kayser, F. (1994). Recueil des inscriptions grecques et latines (non
funéraires) d'Alexandrie impériale (Ier-IIIe s. apr. J.-C.). Cairo.
Klio
Klio. Berlin.
LGPN
Fraser, P. M. & Matthews, E. (eds.), Lexicon of Greek Personal Names.
Vol. I = Fraser, P. M. & Matthews, E. (eds.) (1987). The Aegean Islands,
Cyprus, Cyrenaica. London.
Vol. II = Osborne, M. J. & Byrne, S. G. (eds.) (1994). Attica. Oxford.
Vol. IIIA = Fraser, P. M. & Matthews, E. (eds.) (1997). The Peloponnese,
Western Greece, Sicily and Magna Graecia. Oxford.
Vol. IIIB = Fraser, P. M. & Matthews, E. (eds) (2000). Central Greece.
Oxford.
LSJ
Liddell, H. G., Scott, R. & Jones, H. S. (1968 [9th edn.]). A Greek-English
Lexicon. Oxford.
Magnesia
McCabe, D. F. (1991). Magnesia Inscriptions. Texts and List. The
Princeton Project on the Inscriptions of Anatolia, Packard Humanities
Institute CD #6. Princeton, NJ. Includes I.Magn.
MDAI(A)
Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts. Istanbul.
MEFRA
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome. Rome.
Mnemosyne
Mnemosyne: A Journal of Classical Studies. Amsterdam.
Nomima
Van Effenterre, H. & Ruzé, F. (1994). Nomima – d’inscriptions politiques
et juridiques de l’archaïsme grec. Rome.
OCD
Hornblower, S. & Spawforth, A. (1996 [3rd edn.]). The Oxford Classical
Dictionary. Oxford.
Orph.
Abel, E. (1885). Orphica. Leipzig.
Peek, Asklepieion Peek, W. (1969). Inschriften aus dem Asklepieion von Epidauros.
Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig,
Philologisch-Historische Klasse, Band 60, Heft 2. Berlin.
Peek NI
14
Peek, W. (1972). Neue Inschriften aus Epidauros. Abhandlungen der
Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologischhistorische Klasse, Band 63, Heft 5. Berlin.
P.Oxy
Grenfell, B. P., Hunt, A. S. et al. (1898 —).The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. 1— .
London.
Prose sur pierre
Bernand, A. (1992). La Prose sur pierre dans l'Égypte hellénistique et
romaine. 2 vols. Paris.
P.Teb
Grenfell, B. P., Hunt, A. S. et al. (1902-1938, 1976). The Tebtunis Papyri.
3 vols. in 4. London.
REA
Revue des études anciennes. Bordeaux.
REG
Revue des études grecques. Bordeaux.
Reinmuth, EI
Reinmuth, O. W. (1971). The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century
B.C. Leiden.
Schwenk
Schwenk, C. J. (1985). Athens in the Age of Alexander: The Dated Laws
& Decrees of “the Lykourgan era” 338-322 B.C. Chicago, IL.
SEG
Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Vols 1-57. Amsterdam.
SIG3
Dittenberger, W. (ed.) (1915-24 [3rd edn.]). Sylloge inscriptionum
graecarum. 4 vols. Leipzig.
TAPhA
Transactions of the American Philological Association. Philadelphia, PA.
TAM
Tituli Asiae Minoris. Vienna.
V (2) = Hermann, P. (1989). Tituli Lydiae: Regio septentrionalis ad
occidentem vergens.
ZPE
Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. Bonn.
15
Abstract
This thesis explores the roles played by secretaries in Athens and the
Peloponnese.
Secretaries are present in some form in all documents produced by the
Athenian boule. They are often named as the writer of a stele, or their
existence is inferred from the existence of the document itself. However, little
is known about the daily duties of these individuals, as the means of writing
and setting up of inscriptions is limited to brief, epigraphic formulae lacking in
procedural detail, and any other information about an office is confined to
passing references in ancient authors and bald statements in ancient lexica.
These issues are even more pronounced in the Peloponnese, where the
existence of a secretary can be limited to a single word – his job title or
designation – in an inscription, and many unique types of Peloponnesian
secretary are absent from ancient historical works and lexica altogether.
This thesis takes both a quantitative, and analytical approach to the question
‘what does it mean to be a secretary in ancient Greece?’. It examines all
sources from Athens and the Peloponnese which refer to any type of
secretary, or specify that an officer is to write something (i.e. perform some
or all of the duties of a secretary). It categorises secretaries using various
criteria (such as their activities, the duration of their appointment and
collegial environment, and their public profile), and thus provides a catalogue
of characteristics and duties which fall under the remit of the secretary.
Using these criteria, these offices are analysed both geographically and
chronologically, to illustrate how the work of the secretary could differ from
location to location, and over time.
This thesis constitutes the first comprehensive work on the secretaries of
Athens in over one hundred years, and the first work of its kind on the
secretaries of the Peloponnese.
16
Declaration
No portion of the work referred to in this thesis has been submitted in support of an
application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university or other
institute of learning.
Copyright Statement
i.
The author of this thesis (including any appendices and/or schedules to this thesis)
owns certain copyright or related rights in it (the “Copyright”) and s/he has given
The University of Manchester certain rights to use such Copyright, including for
administrative purposes.
ii.
Copies of this thesis, either in full or in extracts and whether in hard or electronic
copy, may be made only in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
1988 (as amended) and regulations issued under it or, where appropriate, in
accordance with licensing agreements which the University has from time to time.
This page must form part of any such copies made.
iii.
The ownership of certain Copyright, patents, designs, trade marks and other
intellectual property (the “Intellectual Property”) and any reproductions of copyright
works in the thesis, for example graphs and tables (“Reproductions”), which may be
described in this thesis, may not be owned by the author and may be owned by
third parties. Such Intellectual Property and Reproductions cannot and must not be
made available for use without the prior written permission of the owner(s) of the
relevant Intellectual Property and/or Reproductions.
iv.
Further information on the conditions under which disclosure, publication and
commercialisation of this thesis, the Copyright and any Intellectual Property and/or
Reproductions described in it may take place is available in the University IP Policy
(see http://documents.manchester.ac.uk/DocuInfo.aspx?DocID=487), in any
relevant Thesis restriction declarations deposited in the University Library, The
University Library’s regulations (see
http://www.manchester.ac.uk/library/aboutus/regulations) and in The University’s
policy on Presentation of Theses.
17
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my supervisors, David Langslow and Peter Liddel, for their unfailing and
constant support in this project, and without whom this thesis would be an ever-increasing
catalogue of words. I would also like to thank Stephen Todd and Tim Parkin, who served on
my panel and who generously offered their support and advice above and beyond this. I
would additionally like to thank Polly Low and Roger Brock for their examination of the
completed thesis, and Amy Coker, for reviewing my Introduction while it was still in its draft
stages.
I would like to acknowledge the support offered by all members of staff within the
department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Manchester. This department
provides a superb and supportive environment within which to work, and I know of no other
group of people so willing to share their time and experience. Without the safe haven of
Monday lunches and Thursday departmental seminars, and Mary Beagon’s extremely fine
chocolate cakes, this would have been a very different and sadder existence.
The staff and associates of the British School at Athens have also been instrumental in the
completion of this project, in particular John Davies and Robert Pitt, who led an eight week
course on the archaeology and epigraphy of the Ancient Greek shrine, and who offered me a
generous bursary during my stay. I would also like to thank the staff at Bryanston summer
school, who provided me with the opportunity to revise and consolidate my understanding of
the Ancient Greek Language, and Edward Harris and Mirko Canevaro for very kindly allowing
me to see the proofs of their 2012 paper.
On a more personal note, this thesis would not have been completed without the support of
some dear friends and colleagues at Manchester, with whom I consumed a considerable
amount of tea, coffee, beer and tiffin. Jason Crowley, Rebekka Ott, April Pudsey and Aimée
Schofield in particular provided company, support and advice, and listened to many extended
rants when they had much more important things to be getting on with. I’d also like to thank
April Pudsey again for the ‘brief loan’ of a laptop computer (which turned into eight months).
Of my friends in the world outside academia, I extend my deepest thanks to my dear friend
Kathy Jay, who kept me sane with our conversations almost every weekend for four years,
despite being on the other side of the world and in an inconvenient time zone.
18
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Background to this thesis
This thesis explores the question ‘what does it mean to be a secretary in ancient Greece?’
This question is not as straightforward as might be initially thought. Throughout the ancient
Greek world, the term ‘secretary’ can be applied to many different offices, known by a
variety of different titles or ‘designations’. Some of these offices are known from one polis,
or one source only. The most frequently-occurring of these designations is grammateus
(γραμματεύς) singular, grammateis (γραμματεῖς) plural. This term appears in literary and
epigraphic sources from Athens from the mid sixth century BC onwards,1 in sources from
Delos from the fifth century BC onwards,2 and in sources from the Peloponnese from the
fourth century BC onwards.3
In general terms, secretaries were the officers who wrote official documents which could be
passed to stonecutters for ‘publication’ on stelai. 4 They could also carry out other
administrative tasks, such as keeping accounts5 or maintaining treasury inventories.6 Some
officers carried out a wide range of duties, while others performed a limited range of
functions, which may or may not have led them to become specialists.7 Much of our
evidence for the daily duties of secretaries comes from epigraphic formulae – the one or two
lines present in many inscriptions which direct a specific officer or officers to write and set
up a text, and which occasionally also include additional details, such as the location for the
stele, or the source of the funds to be used to cover the expenses.8 However, these
formulae omit details such as how an inscription is to be created and by whom, or how an
inventory is to be updated.
The number of secretaries per polis fluctuated over time, with no gradual increase in
numbers. Some poleis had markedly more secretaries than they had previously had (Sparta)
or fewer (Athens) after the rise of the Roman empire. If one statement holds true for the
1
IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6; IG I3 509 (c.550 BC?) 2-3; Aeschin. 2.46 (343 BC); Th. 7.10.1 (5C BC).
2
ID 42 (341/0 BC) 1-8.
3
Epidauros: IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 79, 81.
4
For the process of publication, see page 27.
5
See page 90.
6
See page 54.
7
See pages 27 and 244 for examples of specialism implied by a secretary’s designation.
8
E.g. ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς ἐν στήλει λιθίνῃ καὶ στῆσαι ἐν
ἀκροπόλει. And the grammateus of the boule is to write up this decree on a stone stele and set it up
on the acropolis. See example on page 106.
19
ancient Greek world as a whole, it is that there was no unity – no common factors in the
utilisation of secretaries, numbers and forms of documents that they produced, or other
duties that they performed. Additionally, from the fifth century BC in Athens9 and from the
fourth century BC in the Peloponnese,10 a small but significant number of documents were
written by officers who were not secretaries. Therefore from these dates, secretaries did not
have skills that were not also possessed by others.
This thesis explores how the functionaries who wrote official documents varied from polis to
polis, and over time. It attempts to provide a complete catalogue of secretarial offices from
Athens and the Peloponnese, some of which are known from one or two instances only.11 It
is by no means a complete catalogue of secretarial offices in the ancient Greek world.
Particularly interesting areas not covered are Egypt 12 and Delphi,13 both of which merit
studies in their own right.
There is a great deal more evidence from Athens than from elsewhere; however, officials
made use of writing in the Peloponnese from the sixth century BC onwards: no later, and
possibly earlier, than in Athens.14 These early documents can be complex, serve a multitude of
purposes, and have their own, distinct styles.
The form of government should also be taken into consideration. Governments in Athens
and the various city-states of the Peloponnese could be democratic or oligarchic, and the
extent to which a government was oligarchic could influence the way in which it expressed
itself through written documents – both in terms of the number and type of secretaries it
employed, and in terms of epigraphic output. Other poleis such as Sparta were limited in
epigraphic output by tradition as much as by deliberate policy. There are no hard and fast
9
The tamias in IG I3 4 (485/4 BC) B3-4 & 23-25.
10
See, e.g. the epimeletes in IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18, page 188.
11
Some designations are known from epigraphic evidence only (including papyri), some from literary
sources only. All epigraphic sources are listed in Appendix A. Terms not included are those words not
attested with straightforward reference to the activity of a professional secretary in Athens or the
Peloponnese, e.g.: apographeus (ἀπογραφεύς) ‘registrar’: the verb apographeo is used to denote
depositions made by Agoratus in Lys. 13:30-33, but apographeus is not attested as an agent noun in
Athens; grammatikos (γραμματικóς): ‘grammarian’ (Plu. Sol. 1.1); grammatokuphon (γραμματοκύφων):
‘porer over records,’ a nickname (D. 18.209.2; Yunis (2001) 227); and logographeus (λογογραφεύς)
‘speech-writer’ or historian (Aeschin. 1.94). (See ‘What is a secretary?’ on page 21.)
12
Terms that occur in Egypt only: amphodogrammateus (ἀμφοδογραμματεύς) (e.g. P.Oxy.1119.4.6);
komogrammateus (κωμογραμματεύς) (e.g. Prose sur pierre (48BC) 31-34); prokomogrammateus
(προκωμογραμματεύς) (e.g. P.Teb.793 ii 2.1); topogrammateus (τοπογραμματεύς) (e.g. Prose sur pierre
(48BC) 31-34); hypomnematographos (ὑπομνηματογράφος) (e.g. Kayser, AI 23 (3C AD) 5 and
Str. Geographica 17.1.12.19).
13
Of particular interest are the archigrammateus (ἀρχιγραμματεύς) (e.g. FD III 1:209 (undated) 3);
grammateus of the Delphic Amphictyons (ὁ γραμματεὺς τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν Ἀμφικτιόνων) (e.g. FD III
1:553 (225-175 BC) 7-8); grammateus of the hiaromnamones (γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱαρομναμόνων) (e.g.
CID 4:33 (undated) 20-21) and grammatistas (γραμματιστάς) (e.g. CID 2:31 (end 4C BC) 49 & 88-89).
14
IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 1-9. See page 208.
20
rules that can be applied to all governments and situations, but it is wrong to say that
secretarial activity was by definition a democratic form of administration.
What is a secretary?
The term ‘secretary’ is here used to denote any clerical officer working for or on behalf of an
official body (such as a boule), a group of officials, or a single official, whose duties are
administrative and include but are not limited to the recording of information in written form
for that body or person. The duties of the office are frequently assumed to be primarily
concerned with recording information in writing, though this may not always be the case. 15
A connection with writing is implied by the etymology of the agent nouns used. The vast
majority of secretaries have designations derived from the verb grapho (γράφω, write) or one
of its compounds. For example, the agent nouns grapheus (γραφεύς), anagrapheus
(ἀναγραφεύς), antigrapheus (ἀντιγραφεύς) and syngrapheus (συγγραφεύς) are formed
directly from grapho and its compounds in ana-, anti- and syn-, respectively.16 In the same
way, in the Peloponnese, gropheus (γροφεύς) is formed from the verbal root of the verb
gropho (γρόφω), the Doric form of grapho, with the same agent-noun suffix -eus.17
It is also ultimately from grapho that the much more common designation grammateus is
formed. However, grammateus is a secondary (denominative) formation, derived from the
stem (grammat-) of the noun gramma (γράμμα, pl. grammata, γράμματα ‘writing(s)’),
gramma itself being a primary derivative of grapho.
In several dialects, the verb grammatisdo (γραμματίζω, again derived from the noun
gramma) is attested in the sense ‘act as secretary’ (instead of or in addition to grammateuo,
γραμματεύω). It is from this verb that we find derived, in the fourth and third centuries BC,
in Corinthian and Achaian dialects, the agent noun grammatistas (γραμματιστάς) instead of
the more usual grammateus.18
There is also, however, a very small subset of secretaries whose designations are not formed
from grapho. These officers are classed as secretaries either because their designations are
15
See page 239 for a summary of these other duties.
16
Though NB syngrapheus can mean both secretary and historian in different contexts. For
Thucydides’ use of ξυγγράφειν (suggraphein), see Hornblower (1991) 5. See also
I.Patras 364 (mid 2C AD)  14, which honours a syngrapheus who was a historian.
17
In the Doric and Arcadian dialects, gropheus is attested for ‘secretary’ from the late sixth century BC
until the second century BC, at which point the designation gropheus falls out of use altogether, with
different poleis adopting the designation grammateus at different times. See the maps on pages 313316. See also the Arcadian graphes (γραφής) on page 196. Unlike grapho, for gropho, we find attested
neither verbal compounds (such as apogropho or anagropho) nor nominal derivatives (such as
apographeus or anagropheus).
18
Buck (1955) 126 note 4. See e.g. page 126-126.
21
included in lists of secretaries being honoured,19 or because they demonstrably perform some
of the duties of secretaries, such as storing or transporting documents.20 In these cases, the
line between secretary and administrator or clerk is blurred.
The connection between these officers and the act of writing is explicit when these officers
are frequently (but not always) the subject of verbs also formed from grapho; for instance
when the grammateus of the boule is directed to write up (ἀναγράφω, anagrapho) decisions
of the boule.21
The secretary could carry out a range of duties. In epigraphic evidence, he was the officer who
was most often instructed to record in writing laws, decrees and other decisions.22 He was also
responsible for the recording and public display of any and all other information deemed
worthy of permanent record, such as honours, registers of prytaneis, lists of members of
associations, and financial accounts. Evidence suggests that some grammateis could be
involved in the management of archives,23 or carry out other, more specialised functions such
as accounting,24 or reading out documents in public for the body for which they work.25 These
duties could either be in addition to, or instead of, other administrative duties.26
With a wide range of potential duties, it is difficult to ascertain the precise duties performed
by specific individuals, given the terse information provided by ancient sources. One cannot
assume that there was (for example) a core set of duties that singled a person out as being
a grammateus, or that any one grammateus performed the same duties as any other
grammateus. However, a quantitative analysis of all instances of each designation allows
one to draw much firmer conclusions.
The verbs used to denote writing are significant when assessing the duties carried out by
secretaries, and are summarised on pages 27 and 244. I have attempted throughout to
19
See secretary in charge of decrees, secretary for that which cannot be mentioned and secretary for
the laws on page 72.
20
The katalogeus (καταλογεύς), page 102, katalogos boulas (κατάλογος βουλᾶς), page 147 and
katakoos (κατακόος), page 184.
21
See n.8.
22
E.g. as with the grammateus of the boule in Athens, page 51.
23
Ferguson (1898) 31; Sickinger (1999) 114-138. See e.g. page 54.
24
It is in the management of financial accounts that the duties of the grammateus most closely overlap
with those of other officers, in this case, treasurers (tamiai). Some secretaries appear to be solely
concerned with the recording of financial information, such as the antigrapheus, page 49.
25
See pages 65 and 93.
26
It is highly unlikely that grammateis were also stonecutters, but instead acted as intermediaries
between official bodies and stonecutters to ensure that texts were inscribed correctly and in a timely
manner. This seems to have been primarily for practical reasons: some stonecutters also worked on
the decorative aspects of the stone and were accomplished at both these tasks (page 347), while
secretaries were required to interpret or transport documents to and from archives (e.g. page 162), for
which they needed to remain close to other officers and administrative buildings.
22
translate each verb in the same way each time, taking into account any nuances of meaning
implied by compounds of grapho. Hence ana+grapho (ἀναγράφω): write up (for public
display), anti+grapho (ἀντιγράφω): copy, and pros+grapho (προσγράφω): write in addition.27
Prefixes are also significant when applied to the designations of secretaries: see next section.
Linguistic issues: vocabulary, grammatical forms and
syntactic context
Designations
Designations of secretaries appear in one or more forms:

Nouns, which most often take the agent noun suffix -eus (-εύς), e.g. grammateus,
katalogeus (καταλογεύς) and the Doric and Arcado-Cyprian form gropheus. The
Arcadian form of grapheus, graphes (γραφής), is found in Tegea.28

The Corinthian and Achaian agent noun grammatistas.29

The agent nouns anagrapheus, antigrapheus, syngrapheus etc., formed directly from
the compounds of grapho in ana-, anti-, syn-, etc.30 The prefix may indicate the type
of duties carried out by the secretary; for example, the antigrapheus as ‘copy-clerk’.

Nouns formed from grammateus, such as syngrammateus (συγγραμματεύς) and
hypogrammateus (ὑπογραμματεύς).31 The prefix may indicate an aspect of the
office; for example the hypogrammateus as ‘under-secretary’.

In the Peloponnese, agent nouns may also take the suffix -os (-ος), and be
compounded with a noun suggesting specialisation,32 for example: dogmatographos
(δογματογράφος),33 nomographos (νομογράφος),34 stalographos (σταλογράφος).35
27
In some places this literal approach has not been appropriate, and in these cases I have given an
alternative translation, taking into account the context.
28
Buck (1955) 91-2, especially §111.4. See page 196.
29
See pages 21, 126 and 212-214.
30
For anagrapheus see page 37; antigrapheus, page 49; syngrapheus, page 74. The nouns are derived
from the compound verbs; they are not prefixed to grapheus itself.
31
For syngrammateus, see page 74; for hypogrammateus, page 77.
32
I understand ‘specialisation’ to mean that an official works on a subset of the available duties, rather than
works on a limited range of duties, which comprise the entire range of duties offered by a particular body.
33
See page 156.
34
See e.g. page 226.
35
See page 189.
23
Designations can also be composed of noun phrases, for example:

Single agent nouns accompanied by a word or phrase in the genitive, such as
grammateus of the polemarch (γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου), gropheus of the
polemarchs (γροφεὺς πολεμάρχων), or katalogos boulas (κατάλογος βουλᾶς).36 This is
frequently taken to indicate membership of a body, but need not always be the case.

Agent nouns accompanied by a word or phrase in the dative, such as grammateus
for the board (γραμματεὺς τῇ ἀρχῇ) or gropheus for the Eighty (γροφεὺς τοῖς
ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι). The reasons for this are unclear, but may indicate that the
secretary worked for a body but was not a member of it. Alternatively, this may be a
feature of the dialect (particularly in the case of Arcadian, see page 191).
Participial forms can also be used, typically in the aorist. For example:

grammateusas (γραμματεύσας) in Athens from the end of the fourth century BC
onwards,37 and

grammateusas (γραμματεύσας) and gropheusas (γροφεύσας) in the Peloponnese
from 146 BC onwards.38
In addition to designations that are nouns, or participles formed from nouns, certain
Athenian designations lack a head noun altogether, and comprise instead a prepositional
phrase. In these instances, we must supply the definite article and (presumably) the noun
grammateus based on context, as is the case with the secretary in charge of decrees ([ὁ] ἐπὶ
τὰ ψηφίσματα), secretary for that which cannot be mentioned ([ὁ] ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον),
secretary for the laws ([ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους)39 and secretary in attendance or ‘at the platform’
([ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα).40
‘Informal’ designations also occur in relation to those who write in unofficial contexts, such
as ho grapsas (ὁ γράψας), dative toi grapsanti ([τῶι] γράψαντι, ‘the one who did the
writing’) in Athens and Delos.41
36
For the katalogos boulas, see page 147.
37
IG II2 537 (end 4C BC) 4.
38
E.g. IG IV 606 (Roman Imp.) 1-5, page 135. These forms are usually found in honorific inscriptions.
39
See page 72.
40
See page 56.
41
See page 347.
24
Grammatical context
Secretaries occur in several specific grammatical contexts, most frequently:

As part of an epigraphic formula which comprises the secretary plus verb (usually in
an accusative + infinitive construction), and where the object is usually a decree
(ψήφισμα) or law (νόμος). This may be followed by a second clause, specifying the
location in which the text is to be set up. (E.g. ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν
γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς ἐν στήλει λιθίνῃ καὶ στῆσαι ἐν ἀκροπόλει. And the grammateus
of the boule is to write up this decree on a stone stele and set it up on the acropolis.)

As part of a prepositional phrase which constitutes the dating formula, where the
eponymous archon42 is usually identified using epi (ἐπί) + genitive. In these phrases,
the designation and name of the secretary can be given either before or after that of
the archon, or the secretary can himself be eponymous, either instead of, or in
addition to, the archon.43 The dating formula is then often followed by an enactment
formula (e.g. ἔδοξεν τῆι βολῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι).

Personal name + ἐγραμμάτευε (was grammateus) in the dating formula to indicate
the Athenian grammateus of the boule.44 This officer is identified as the grammateus
of the boule through the inclusion of the full designation later in the text, and/or the
context. (A decree was enacted by the boule; it contains the information that X was
grammateus; therefore X was grammateus of the boule.)
For example, the following text comprises extracts from three late fifth-century BC Athenian
decrees written on the same stele. We infer that all three grammateis (underlined) were
grammateis of the boule as the decrees were enacted by the boule.
(1) Κηφισοφῶν Παιανιεὺς | ἐγραμμάτευε. | Σαμίοις ὅσοι μετὰ τõ δήμο τõ Ἀθηναί|ων
ἐγένοντο. | ἔδοξεν τῆι βολῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι· Κεκροπὶς ἐπρυτάνευε, Πόλυμνις Εὐωνυμεὺς |
ἐγραμμάτευε, Ἀλεξίας ἦρχε, Νικοφῶν Ἀθμονεὺς ἐπεστάτει·
…
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὰ ἐψηφισμένα τ]ὸγ γραμμ[ατέα τῆς βο]λῆς μετὰ τῶν | [στρατηγῶν
ἐστήληι λιθίνηι καὶ κατα]θεναι ἐς πόλι[ν, τὸς δὲ ἑλλην]οταμίας | [δõναι τὸ ἀργύριον·
ἀναγράψαι δ’ ἐς Σά]μωι κατὰ ταὐτὰ τέ[λε]σι [τοῖς ἐκέ]νων.| (2) [ἔδοξεν τῆι βολῆι καὶ τῶι
δήμωι· Πανδ]ιονὶς ἐπρυτάνευε, Ἀγύρριος Κ[ολλυτ]εὺς | [ἐγραμμάτευε…
…
42
The magistrate whose name (and year in office) was used to identify the year.
43
See throughout this thesis, but especially pages 48, 62 and 222.
44
Also very occasionally ἐγραμμάτευε + personal name, as in IG II2 1077 on page 56.
25
(3) [ἔδοξεν τῆι βολῆ]ι καὶ τῶι δήμωι· Ἐρεχθηῒς ἐπρυτάνευεν, Κηφισοφῶν Πα[ια]νιεὺ[ς] |
[ἐγραμμάτευε…45
Kephisophon of Paiania was grammateus. For all the Samians who stood with the
people of the Athenians. It was decreed by the boule and the demos: Kekropis held
the prytany, Polumnis of Euonymon was grammateus, Alexias was archon, Nikophon
of Athmon was president.
…
And the grammateus of the boule [is to write up this decree] with the [strategoi on a
stone stele, and] set it up on the acropolis, and the hellenotamiai [are to provide the
money. And (the Samians) are to write it up at] Samos in the same way, at their own
expense. (Here begins the second decree) [It was decreed by the boule and the
demos:] Pandionis held the prytany, Agyrrhius of Kollytos [was grammateus…
…
(Third decree) [It was decreed by the] boule and the demos, Erechtheis held the
prytany, Kephisophon of Paiania [was grammateus… 46
In the first decree, the grammateus of the boule is identified both by the full designation
grammateus of the boule, and by egrammateue (ἐγραμμάτευε). The Athenian grammateus
of the boule (but no other officers) may be referred to in two or more ways, even within the
same inscription.
The two named grammateis in the first decree can be accounted for as follows: the first
grammateus was the secretary in office when the decree was inscribed; the second
grammateus was the secretary in office when the decree was passed, a few weeks earlier.
Therefore the grammateus of the boule at the start of the second paragraph above is the
grammateus named in the first line.
Athens only had one grammateus of the boule at any one time (see page 51). The number
of grammateis on this stele is accounted for by the short term of office of the grammateus
of the boule in the period before 367/6 BC: a single prytany, or 35-39 days. Each decree on
this stele was enacted in a different prytany.
Two or more secretaries may be included in the same inscription, and here the use of
grammateus + name of body may assist in differentiating between these officers (see
example on page 72). Designations are usually predicative, and therefore almost always
given without a definite article.
45
IG II2 1 (405/4 BC) 1-6, 38-42, 56-57.
46
Fornara (1983) 196-198 No.166.
26
Verbs used for the writing of stelai
A large part of the daily activities of secretaries consisted of writing documents which were
needed for a short time only, and were therefore not inscribed. Since these documents are
not preserved, our evidence for the daily duties of secretaries comes primarily from
epigraphic formulae; i.e. duties attested in stelai.
The verbs of which a secretary is the subject are important in understanding the duties that
he performed. However, there are certain problems in interpreting this evidence, as the
earliest (sixth, and early-fifth century) inscriptions containing secretaries do not make the
secretary the subject of any verb at all. Instances of secretary + verb occur from the fifth
century BC in Athens,47 and the third century BC in the Peloponnese.48 However, throughout
the period covered by this thesis, certain types of document (such as registers of
magistrates) continue to omit verbs.
The verb most frequently associated with the creation of an inscription is anagrapho
(ἀναγράφω). This is generally translated as ‘to engrave and set up publicly,’ ‘to write up,’ or
‘to place on record’. From the fourth century BC in Athens,49 and the third century BC in the
Peloponnese,50 this verb is often part of an epigraphic formula, which is included with little
variation from the third century BC onwards.
The process of ‘publication’ on stelai
The frequent inclusion of anagrapho suggests that this verb was generally understood to
encompass both the acts of writing, and inscribing the text. Occasionally, the verb denoting
the setting up of the text51 may be absent, and in these cases, anagrapho could also imply
the setting up or public display of an inscription.52 In effect, anagrapho is used to indicate
several stages in the process of creating (or ‘publishing’) an inscription. This process is
typically carried out by more than one person.
47
IG I3 10 (469-450 BC) 3, 5-6, 22-27.
48
IG V,1 7 (3C BC?) 1-2.
49
E.g. IG II2 410 (c.330 BC) 37-39, page 35.
50
E.g. IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 23-31, page 149.
51
Usually ἵστημι or τίθημι and its cognates; see e.g. IG II2 1 (405/4 BC) 1-6, 38-42, 56-57 on page 25.
52
E.g. IG II2 238 (338/7 BC) 14-17: ἀναγράψ]αι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισ|[μα τὸν γραμ]ματέα τῆς βουλῆς ε|[ἰς
ἀκρόπολι]ν εἰς στήλην λιθί|[νην·] And the grammateus of the boule is to write up this decree on a
stone stele on the acropolis.
27
Allowing for variation depending on context, this process can be illustrated in a very general
way as follows:
1. One or more officials decide to record information, and this information is written
down (i.e. drafted) onto unspecified temporary media, and approved (e.g. by the
demos).53
2. The text to be inscribed is given to a stonecutter, who creates the inscription. The
stonecutter is paid for the work (usually by the treasurer) on completion of the stele.54
3. The completed inscription is set up by unspecified individuals, often in a location
already noted in the text.55
Anagrapho can therefore refer to either steps one and two, or all three steps of the above
process, depending on whether the epigraphic formula also includes a verb for the setting
up of the text.
Other verbs such as grapho56 and epigrapho (ἐπιγράφω)57 can also occasionally be used to
indicate writing on a stele, but are used so infrequently it is unlikely that any process was
implied.58 Similarly, a range of verbs can also be used for the (simpler) task of writing on
other media, without any process implied. For example, a whitened board (σανìς λευκή or
πίναξ) can be written up (ἀναγράφω)59 or scratched on or inscribed (καταγράφω).60
Sources
Of necessity, I have analysed evidence from the Peloponnese and Athens in different ways.
Evidence from the Peloponnese is relatively scarce and almost entirely epigraphic, and so I
have attempted to include all available sources. For Athens, which provides an abundance of
both epigraphic and literary evidence, I have drawn upon only a selection of the available
material, with examples chosen to illustrate the range of duties that could be performed,
and the designations found. Since much of the evidence from Athens has already been
discussed in some detail, I also make greater use of secondary sources in this chapter.
53
Represented in epigraphic formulae by a phrase such as ‘ἔδοξεν τῆι βολῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι’ in
IG II2 1 (405/4 BC) 56-57 on page 25.
54
The handing of the text to the stonecutter is undocumented. The creation of the inscription by the
stonecutter is inferred from epigraphic formulae for the writing up of the text, which may include the
cost for the stele and its inscription. See, e.g. IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19 on page 55.
55
E.g. as in IG II2 1 (405/4 BC) 38-42 on page 25.
56
E.g. IG II2 1188 (mid 4C BC) 31-33.
57
E.g. IG II2 223 (343/2 BC) B4-6.
58
There are no known epigraphic formulae for writing on bronze (see e.g. page 199).
59
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 124-5: ἀναγράψαντα ἐν σανιδί[ωι λευκῶι ἐν τῶι ἱερ]|ῶι τῆς Λητοῦς.
60
IG I3 386 (408/7 BC) 161: σανίδια ἐν ο[ἷ]ς τὸς μύστας κ[αταγ]ράφ[οσι]
28
Epigraphic evidence
Some documents, especially from the Peloponnese, cannot be securely dated, or are dated
to the nearest century only. This has made the drawing of some conclusions tentative. In
these instances, I have attempted to illustrate any changes that could be made to our
conclusions, if the tolerance in the dating of these texts were pushed to the limit in either
direction. Instances of particularly fragmentary material have been flagged.
While there is a wealth of recent, relevant secondary scholarship,61 the most recent dedicated
monographs on this subject are Ferguson (1898) and Brillant (1911), both of whom write
solely about Athens. A great deal of work has been carried out on their sources in the
intervening years, and much new evidence found. This work is therefore able to survey this
subject afresh, and draws many new conclusions, some of which contradict earlier views. This
is the first comprehensive study of secretaries of the Peloponnese.62
A procedural point to note: this study raises and addresses questions about attested
secretarial activity, rather than about epigraphic habit.63 A large number of texts contain
instructions that something is to be written, but do not assign specific officer(s) to this task.
I have used for my evidence only those inscriptions that either:
1) contain the designation of a secretary (an officer whose designation is typically formed
from grapho or one of its compounds: see ‘What is a Secretary?’ on page 21), or
2) specifically direct any officer to write something (where an officer or officers are the
subjects of grapho or a compound), or
3) refer to officers who have been designated ‘secretary’ in earlier scholarship on this
subject, sometimes for reasons which remain unclear. 64
Literary sources
While this thesis is primarily a study led by the availability (or otherwise) of epigraphic
evidence, one should not underestimate the importance of literary sources, which provide us
with many details and much of the context for ancient magistracies, such as the duration of
an office, the way that an officer was elected, the duties he performed, and the ways in
which secretaries interacted with other officers.65 A disadvantage of literary sources, however,
61
Such as S. Lambert’s series of papers Athenian State Laws and Decrees 352/1-322/1, published in ZPE.
62
I also include a discussion of the secretaries of Delos in Appendix D.
63
On the significance of epigraphic habit, see e.g. Hansen (1989) 98-101, Hedrick (1999) 387-408,
Liddel (2010).
64
The katalogos boulas, page 147, and katakoos, page 184, fall into this category.
65
See, e.g., the evidence provided by Harpocration for the syngrapheus, page 76.
29
is that some early offices in existence for a short period do not occur in literary sources at all,
such as the syngrammateus.66 There is also little literary evidence for the geographically and
chronologically widespread but lowly office of hypogrammateus.67 Literary sources are also far
more likely to record Athenian designations. Of the many Peloponnesian terms covered in this
work, only the gropheus occurs in literary sources, and in ancient lexica is glossed solely as
ζωγράφος – ‘painter’, with no reference to its other meaning of ‘secretary’.68
Just as some designations are found in epigraphic evidence and not in literary sources, so
other designations are found in literary evidence and not in epigraphic sources. Examples
include the diagrapheus (διαγραφεύς)69 and epigrapheus (ἐπιγραφεύς),70 who registered
property, and the katalogeus, who enrolled citizens.71 This could be attributed to their writing
mostly on temporary media, an inference we also consider for various secretaries of the boule
and demos, who were honoured, but are not known from their written works.72
The single most significant literary source for secretaries in Athens is the Athenaion Politeia.
This provides evidence for several of the secretaries attached to the boule and demos in the
second half of the fourth century BC, and also shows them in conjunction with other officers
of the boule and demos. Of almost equal importance are the legal speeches of Lysias, which
provide invaluable evidence for the anagrapheus of the laws (ἀναγραφεὺς τῶν νόμων), the
katalogeus, and the only surviving Athenian reference to an epigrapheus.73
The speeches of Aeschines and Demosthenes are also useful for their references to
Aeschines’ time as grammateus of the boule and the demos (γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ
δήμου), and to the grammateus of the court,74 although they should be examined carefully
for rhetorical bias. Similarly, the term grammateus also occasionally occurs in comedy,
where it needs to be treated with caution.75
66
See page 74.
67
Lys. 30.29 is one of the few exceptions. Many references to hypogrammateis are for rhetorical
purposes, to discredit officers who hold other offices. See pages 77 and 165.
68
Hsch. Lexicon γ.937 1. and ibid ε.4688 1 defines both γροφεύς and ἐπιγραφεύς as ζωγράφος.
Suid. Lexicon γ.436 1 defines γραφεύς as ὁ ζωγράφος. ὃς τοῖς νεκροῖσι ζωγραφεῖ τὰς ληκύθους. The
painter. He who paints the oil-flasks for the dead.
69
Hyp. Orat. fr.152.2; see page 102.
70
Harp. Words Used by the Ten Orators 122.5: ἐπιγραφέας, citing Lys. fr.342.5 (Carey (2007) fr.102).
See page 102.
71
Ath. Pol. 49.2; [Lys.] 20.13; see page 102.
72
See secretary in charge of decrees, secretary for that which cannot be mentioned and secretary for
the laws on page 72.
73
See the designation subsections for these Lysias references.
74
E.g. Aeschin. 3.25.1; D. 22.38.3.
75
E.g. Ar. Clouds 770.
30
Also significant are various lexica, particularly that of the second-century AD grammarian Julius
Pollux who provides entries for antigrapheus, grammateus, grammateus kata prytaneian
(γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν) and grapheus,76 and who bases his evidence on earlier sources,
some of which are now lost.
Ancient writers occasionally mention secretaries, but do not provide much in the way of
contextual information. For example, Polybius refers to grammateis of the Achaian League
and grammateis in Macedonia, but does not tell us what they did while in office, or how they
did it.77 Similar problems occur when trying to understand the roles of grammateis in writers
such as Xenophon,78 Plutarch,79 and Diodorus Siculus.80
Additionally, ancient writers may use incorrect official designations, and may even deliberately
avoid them for literary effect. For example, Thucydides refers to the Athenian officer who
reads Nicias’ letter to the Athenians as the grammateus of the polis (ὁ γραμματεὺς ὁ τῆς
πόλεως).81 However, this term is otherwise unknown in Athens, and the officer who reads to
the boule is instead known as the grammateus of the boule and the demos (page 64). The
designation grammateus of the polis is, however, found in several other locations, including
Delos,82 Delphi83 and Caria (in Asia Minor).84
The structure of this thesis
This thesis explores the roles of secretaries in Athens and the Peloponnese. 85 Each region is
discussed separately, in its own chapter.86 The secretaries of Athens are arranged
alphabetically within functional groupings, i.e. sections for secretaries of the boule and
demos, treasury officers, etc. The secretaries of the Peloponnese (which provides
comparatively little evidence for political organisation) are grouped alphabetically by
designation under the polis in which they were active.
76
See the designation subsections for these Pollux references. The Suda is also important for its
definitions of these designations, and for its definition of katalogeus.
77
Plb. 2.43.1-2; 18.1, page 222.
78
E.g. X. Hell. 7.1.37.
79
E.g. Plu. Pel. 7.3: grammateus of the polemarchs, page 89.
80
E.g. D.S. Hist. 1.91.4, 15.52.5.
81
Th. 7.10, page 65.
82
E.g. IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A1-4, page 334.
83
E.g. FD III 6:48 (20-46 AD) 12.
84
E.g. Magnesia 217 (198-217 AD) 8-10.
85
I define the Peloponnese in the same way as IG: i.e., the peninsula including the Isthmus of Corinth,
and excluding the Megarid.
86
See also Appendix D page 322 for secretaries of Delos. This chapter is organised in the same way as
the Athens chapter.
31
Chapter
Sub-region
(2) Athens:
Polis
Body
Designation
Athens
boule and demos
anagrapheus
antigrapheus
grammateus
etc…
treasury officers
demes
etc…
(3) Peloponnese: Corinthia
Argolis
Corinth
Sicyon
Argos
Epidauros
etc..
etc…
grammateus
grammateus
demarch
etc…
grammatistas
grammateus
grammateus
artunas
grammateus
gropheus
grammateus
gropheus
katalogos boulas
etc….
There are two exceptions to this format. Where two or three small Peloponnesian poleis in a
single sub-region each produce one or two surviving inscriptions only, I have combined data
from these poleis and indicated the origin of each text, to save space. Evidence from the
Hellenic League and Achaian Leagues (i.e. related to several poleis) is given at the end of
the Peloponnese chapter.
Each Peloponnesian region section can be read independently of the other sections, and
concludes with a summary of the designations found in that region as a whole.
Throughout this thesis, each office is analysed as follows:
1. Designation: The official title of an officer, which may include evidence for the
body with which he worked (such as a boule or synedrion).
2. Activities: In this location, what did this officer do?
a. Writing: What sort of documents did this officer write, how, and on what
media? Did he have any financial or accounting duties?
b. Reading: Did this officer read out documents, and if so, to whom?
c.
Stonecutting: Was this officer also the stonecutter?
d. Extraordinary functions: Did this officer ever perform any extraordinary
functions, such as enrolling citizens?
3. Further particulars (attributes of the office): How was this officer appointed?
Were there any qualifications or financial requirements? For how long was he in
office? Was he a member of the body for which he worked? What do we know
about the officer’s working environment?
32
4. Other attributes (attributes of individuals): What do we know about the career
and public profile of specific officers? Did they receive any honours? Did officers ever
subvert the terms of their office, or were they ever accused of exceeding their
authority?
In some cases, it has not always been possible to place information within the appropriate
section, due to its close association with information that belongs in another category. I
have attempted to provide appropriate cross-references for all instances where this occurs.
The secretaries of Athens and the Peloponnese are compared and collectively analysed in
Chapter 4, using the above criteria.
Translation and transliteration conventions
I have tried throughout to be sensitive to dialect forms of designations, whilst
acknowledging differences in the ways that designations are phrased. Hence (e.g.)
grammateus of the boule (γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς), but (Doric) gropheus of the bola
(γροφεὺς τᾶς βωλᾶς) at Sicyon, and gropheus bolas (γροφεὺς βωλᾶς) at Argos and
Epidauros.
All instances of the Athenian grammateus of the boule (γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς and
γραμματεὺς τες βολες) have been transliterated as grammateus of the boule, as this is the
conventional spelling.
I have omitted macrons in my transliteration of texts for ease of reading. Square brackets in
English translations indicate restored words no longer extant in the Greek.
33
Chapter 2 – Athens
Overview
Evidence for officers who wrote the laws, decrees and other documents in Athens dates
from the middle of the sixth century BC onwards. The earliest officer associated with these
duties is the grammateus (γραμματεύς) of the pre-Kleisthenic council.87 Grammateis are also
present in the earliest decrees of the boule and demos (see page 52),88 and remain the
officers most frequently associated with any form of document that is displayed publicly.
Other secretaries of the Athenian boule are attested from the middle of the fifth century BC
onwards, such as the syngrammateus (συγγραμματεύς, page 74) and syngrapheus (page
74), whose offices were in existence for a short period only, and the anagrapheus of the
laws (ἀναγραφεὺς τῶν νόμων),89 who was commissioned for an indefinite period to draft
new laws by reference to old ones (see page 38). Towards the end of the fifth century BC,
we also see the first appearance of the hypogrammateus (ὑπογραμματεύς) or undersecretary (page 77); an officer who is known from various contexts until the third century
AD, but for whom we have no evidence of writing at all.90
The earliest inscriptions do not make specific officers the subject of verbs of writing or
epigraphic formulae, and so we must infer the duties of early grammateis from later texts.91
The first officer for whom we have this evidence is the grammateus of the boule
(γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς) in the middle of the fifth century BC (see page 51).92
It is from the use of these verbs that we learn of secretaries and other officers both at polislevel and sub-polis level writing and setting up inscriptions from the fifth century BC
onwards. For example, in the mid-fifth century BC, the grammateus of the hellenotamiai
(γραμματεύς) was involved in the administration of the treasuries of the Delian League
(page 86),93 while from the end of the century, decrees could also be written and set up by
87
IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6: —c.5—ί]ας ἐ|γρα[μάτευε — ; IG I3 509 (c.550 BC?) 2-3: vac — ἐγ]ραμάτε|υε.
88
E.g. IG I3 5 (c.500 BC) 1.
89
Lys. 30.2, page 38.
90
With the possible exception of Antiph. 6.49 (who also calls the grammateus of the thesmothetai a
hypogrammateus, Antiph. 6.35), there are no instances where a hypogrammateus is the subject of a
verb of writing.
91
We can be reasonably confident that the duties of secretaries in this period do not substantially differ
from those of later secretaries, based on an examination of the range of duties undertaken between the
fourth century BC and third century AD. These duties are summarised on pages 235-241. For information
on verbs of writing, see page 27.
92
For example IG I3 193 (450-435 BC) 3-4 (see n.205).
93
E.g. IG I3 34 (448/7 BC) 43-44.
34
epimeletai of phylai (sg. epimeletes ἐπιμελητής, page 109),94 predating the evidence for a
grammateus of a phyle by approximately 75 years.95
The same formulaic language is frequently used to describe work carried out by secretaries
and other officers. For example, tamiai (treasurers, sg. tamias ταμίας) in the deme of Aixone
were directed to write up an honorific inscription as follows:
... ἀναγράψαι δὲ καὶ τὸ ψήφισμα τόδε τοὺς ταμία|ς ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι καὶ στῆσαι ἐν
τῶι θεάτρωι...96
... and the treasurers are also to write up this decree on a stone stele, and set it up
in the theatre...
This is the same formulaic language used to describe the work of the grammateus of the
boule, for example in this instruction from seventeen years before:
ἀναγρά|ψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς ἐν στήλ|ηι λιθίνηι καὶ
[σ]τῆσαι ἐν τῶι θεάτρωι τοῦ Διονύσο[υ]
97
The grammateus of the boule is to write up this decree on a stone stele and set it
up in the theatre of Dionysos.
The assigning of these duties to officers other than secretaries (albeit in a small percentage
of inscriptions) is significant, in that it shows us that from the earliest decrees that contain
these instructions, these duties are not confined to one type of officer. Therefore the
writing, inscribing and displaying of texts publicly was not a specialised function. Neither can
writing be considered a marginalised activity specific to officers of the boule and demos,
when texts were written by officers as diverse as a priest in the deme of Dekeleia, 98 and the
grammateus of the epimeletai of the trading place. 99
In epigraphic sources, the amount of evidence pertaining to any officer who is to write a text
is usually limited to formulaic phrases such as that above, which note that a text is to be
written and set up in a given location. On rare occasions, we may also be given information
such as the need for a second stele in another location, or information about the amount of
money allocated to the work and who is paying for it, both of which provide background on
the social and political context. Additional information on these officers and procedures
94
IG II2 1138 (c.403/2 BC) 7-9.
95
IG II2 1158 (after mid 4C BC) 9-12.
96
SEG 36:186 (313/2 BC) 10-11. See also IG II2 1176 (c.360 BC) 2-6, 18-21, page 105.
97
IG II2 410 (c.330 BC) 37-39.
98
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 64-68, page 106.
99
[D.] 58.8, page 101.
35
related to the creation of texts can be gathered from the remainder of the text (and others
like it), and from literary sources such as the Athenaion Politeia.
From the fifth century BC onwards, most secretaries were officers of the boule and demos,
or secretaries of other polis-level bodies, with the greatest number of designations known
from the middle of the fourth to the middle of the second century BC (see Table 13 on pages
290-296). Some boards such as the hellenotamiai (and their grammateis) (page 86) were
abolished at the end of the fifth century BC, while other, later, minor offices such as the
secretary in charge of decrees ([ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα) and secretary for the laws ([ὁ] ἐπὶ
τοὺς νόμους) also appear in inscriptions for a limited period only (page 72), from which we
infer that these offices were also abolished. Secretaries of demes, phylai and phratries are
known from the fourth century BC onwards,100 the most frequently-occurring of these being
the grammateus for life of the ephebes (γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου, page 111).
The duties of some secretaries changed over time. The grammateus of the boule and the
demos (γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου, page 64) noted in the Ath. Pol. 54.5 as the
secretary whose primary function was reading out the proceedings of the boule and demos,
could also be directed to write up inscriptions from the start of the third century BC.101 Other
officers may have worked only on certain types of document, such as the antigrapheus
(ἀντιγραφεύς, page 49) who worked on financial documents of the boule and demos. Other
secretaries such as the secretary in charge of decrees and secretary for the laws (page 72)
are known from honorific inscriptions only, and their precise functions remain uncertain;
however, we infer from their designations that they assisted in the drafting of decrees and
laws which were later inscribed.
In many cases, it is difficult to tell whether the same type of duties were undertaken by the
various secretaries of the boule and demos, since we possess only a small amount of
definitive information for many offices, and the definitions of these offices are imprecise. 102
It is also possible that each secretary was called upon to perform a range of functions, some
of which were required more frequently than others. For example, documents describing
inter-state arbitration were required far less often than honorific inscriptions, while the recodification of Solon’s law was intended to be a ‘one-off’ occurrence.
100
SEG 23:78 (361/0 BC) 22; Jones (1999) 178-181, 189.
101
E.g. IG II2 652 (c.290/89 BC) 33-35: ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε] | [τὸ ψήφισμ]α τὸν γραμματέα τῆς β[ουλῆς
καὶ τοῦ δή]|[μου καὶ στ]ῆσαι ἐν ἀκ[ρ]οπόλει...
102
For example, the earliest encyclopaedic definition of the grammateus kata prytaneian (otherwise
known as the grammateus of the boule) is in Poll. Onom. 8.98 (2C AD), written when the office was
still in existence. Pollux incorrectly states that the office is chosen by show of hands, while Ath. Pol.
54.3, written approximately 500 years earlier, states that the office was previously chosen by show of
hands, but is now chosen by lot. See page 57.
36
The structure of this chapter
This chapter is divided into the following sections:

Secretaries of the boule and demos;

Other officers of the boule and demos;

Treasury officers and secretaries;

Secretaries of archons;

Secretaries of other polis-level bodies;

Other officers of the polis;

Secretaries and other officers of demes;

Officers of phratries;

Secretaries and other officers of phylai;

Secretaries of the ephebes;

Secretaries and other officers of religious associations of Attica.
Designations are listed alphabetically within each section. Within each designation, information
is set out in the categories described on page 32. Offices that have more than one designation
(such as the grammateus of the boule / grammateus kata prytaneian, page 51) are discussed
as one office, with dates for each variation set out in the text.
A table showing chronological information for all offices can be found in Appendix A pages
290-296.
Secretaries of the boule and demos
ἀναγραφεύς (anagrapheus)
A special commission of anagrapheis (‘recorders’) or office of anagrapheus was in existence for
much of the period from the end of the fifth century BC until the start of the first century BC.103
This commission or office had three distinct phases, and the functions carried out by the
anagrapheus in each phase are so dissimilar that it is more accurate to say that a single
designation was applied to three, separate offices.

In the period 410 – 399/8 BC, a special commission of anagrapheis of the laws
(ἀναγραφεὶς τῶν νόμων) was set up to revise the laws of Drakon and Solon.104 See
below.
103
Earliest: IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 5-6. Latest: Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 45, 58.
104
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC). Clinton (1982) 28.
37

In 337/6 – 321/0, 319/8 – 294/3 BC and 292/1 – 95/4 BC, anagrapheis
appear to have played a minor role. They appear in honorific texts only, in which
they are honoured by the prytaneis along with various other officers. See page 46.

In 321/20 to 319/18 BC and 294/3 – 292/1 BC, democracy in Athens was
limited. During more oligarchic periods, anagrapheis performed some of the duties of
the grammateis of the boule (see page 47).
ἀναγραφεὺς τῶν νόμων (anagrapheus of the laws)
A commission of anagrapheis of the laws (ἀναγραφεὶς τῶν νόμων) was created in 410 BC to
revise the laws of Drakon and Solon.105 This body of laws included laws that were no longer
enforced,106 and laws which had become out of date in terms of the words used, monetary
values included, and subsequent laws enacted.107 Additionally, the oligarchic revolution of
411 BC (when the assembly was persuaded to vote itself out of existence) meant that the
status of some of the existing laws was now uncertain. 108
The first period of codification of the revised laws started in 411 BC, during the few months
of the Five Thousand, a reduced (and therefore somewhat oligarchic) electorate. 109 The Five
Thousand are said to have elected a special commission of one hundred men to write up
their constitution:110
οἱ μὲν οὖν αἱρεθέντες ταῦτα συνέγραψαν. κυρωθέντων δὲ τούτων, εἵλοντο σφῶν
αὐτῶν οἱ πεντακισχίλιοι τοὺς ἀναγράψοντας τὴν πολιτείαν ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας.111
So those selected drafted these proposals; and these being ratified, the Five
Thousand elected a hundred of their members as a committee to write up the
constitution.
It is not known whether this body of one hundred men were officially known as anagrapheis,
or whether the anagrapheis comprised a subset of this group.112 The meaning of the verb
105
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 5-6 (the law on homicide). Lys. 30.2. And. 1.83 provides a date of 410 BC for the
year in which Teisamenos proposed the decree by which the laws of Solon and Draco were to be revised.
106
Ath. Pol. 8.3.
107
Clinton (1982) 28, 30; Gallia (2004) 454; MacDowell (1978) 47; Oliver & Dow (1935) 7; Stroud
(1968) 20-21, 24; Stroud (1979) 6-10.
108
Todd (1996b) 125-6.
109
Rhodes (1972b) 124; de Ste Croix (1956) 1-4. A great deal about the Five Thousand is contested,
including the precise number of the electorate ([Lys.] 20.16), and whether or not this body was limited
to those of hoplite status and above.
110
This passage is closely linked with the (possibly fictitious) constitutional documents in Ath. Pol.
29.2-30.3.
111
38
Ath. Pol. 30.1.
anagrapho (ἀναγράφω), which has been used as an indicator of the officer responsible,113 is
also problematic in that it is often the only verb used to denote the entire process of writing
an official text, from the initial draft to the cutting of the text on stelai, no matter which
officers are charged with these duties (see page 27).
The government by Five Thousand was replaced by full democracy in 410 BC,114 and the
majority of work on the law-code was carried out under this government. Work was
temporarily suspended during the year of The Thirty (404 BC), another oligarchic period of
government, and recommenced in 403/2 BC, when democracy was restored.115
Our understanding of the process of codification is obfuscated by mutually-exclusive
statements in our two main primary sources. Ath. Pol. 30.1 states that the Five Thousand
predate the Four Hundred (a more oligarchic body); Thucydides 8.92 states that the Five
Thousand did not exist until after the fall of the Four Hundred. Of the two, Ath. Pol. 30.1 is
probably erroneous as it is unlikely that the larger body was followed by the smaller.116
Additionally, the writing of a ‘moderate’ oligarchic constitution and re-codification of laws
commenced under the Five Thousand is unlikely to have continued uninterrupted under the
(more oligarchic) Four Hundred, and still allow (e.g.) the revised homicide law of Solon and
Drakon to be republished after approval by a democratic boule and ekklesia the following
year (409/8 BC).
Activities
Our evidence for the activities of the anagrapheis of the laws comes primarily from the
forensic speech Lysias 30, Against Nikomachos, which was intended to secure a conviction
against Nikomachos (one of the anagrapheis of the laws),117 and the revised homicide law
(IG I3 104), which notes a board of anagrapheis of the laws but does not name any of them:
τὸ[ν] | Δράκοντος νόμον τὸμ περὶ τȏ φό[ν]ο ἀναγρα[φ]σά[ν]τον οἱ ἀναγραφε|ς τȏν
νόμον παραλαβόντες παρὰ τȏ β[α]σ[ι]λέ[ος με]τ[ὰ τȏ γραμμ]ατέο|ς τες βουλες
ἐστέλει λιθίνει καὶ κα[τ]α[θ]έντ[ον πρόσ]θε[ν] τες στο|ᾶς τες βασιλείας·118
112
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 5-6. The revised homicide law (page 40) simply says anagrapheis plural, and
does not provide any names. Teisamenos son of Mechanion, mentioned with Nikomachos in Lys.
30.28, is the proposer of the decree in And. 1.83, and not another anagrapheus.
113
E.g. in Todd (1996b) 108-110.
114
Rhodes (1972b) 116-118.
115
Lys. 30.4, 29; Todd (1996b) 102-3.
116
See also [Lys.] 20.16; de Ste Croix (1956) for the arguments for both cases, and Todd (2000) 217219, 222.
117
Lys. 30.1.
118
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 4-6. See also Arnaoutoglou (1998) 71-72; Fornara (1983) 18-20 No.15; Meiggs
& Lewis (1989) 264-7; Stroud (1968) 5-7.
39
Let the anagrapheis of the laws write up the law of Draco concerning homicide on a
stone stele, after receiving it from the basileus, jointly with the grammateus of the
boule, and let them place it in front of the stoa of the basileus.
The homicide law was to be given to the anagrapheis by the basileus119 and the grammateus
of the boule.120 Neither officer then appears to play any further part in the proceedings. It is
possible that both acted in a supervisory capacity; however, there is no evidence for this.
The names of Nikomachos and his co-anagrapheis do not appear on any stelai. Nikomachos
had two periods in office: 410–404 BC, and (after The Thirty), 403/2–400/399 BC.121 The
homicide law was set up in 409/8 BC,122 during Nikomachos’ first period in office, and it is this
date alone which has led scholars to connect Nikomachos with the homicide law.
Based on the dates of Nikomachos’ office, between 410 and 399 BC, Nikomachos and the
other anagrapheis also appear to have worked on revisions to a naval law,123 a stele
containing older regulations about the powers of the boule,124 and revisions to the Athenian
sacrificial calendar, which Lysias states Nikomachos completed during his second period in
office.125 The anagrapheis were not supposed to create new laws, and this task instead fell
to the syngrapheis (page 74).126
The verb anagrapho in the above example cannot be rendered accurately into English:
neither ‘write up’ or ‘transcribe’ encompass the range of tasks required. The context instead
indicates that Nikomachos and his fellow anagrapheis were to take documents written by
other people, combine them in a lucid way and update them as necessity dictated, and have
the resulting document(s) inscribed on stelai. If anagrapho can be taken to have a wide
119
Ath. Pol. 57.2. One of the duties of the basileus archon was to preside over homicide cases.
120
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 5-7. It is not clear whether the grammateus of the boule is jointly responsible for
this text. It is also not clear whether παραλαβόντες παρὰ refers simply to the passing on of this
information, or also to its finding.
121
Lys. 30.3-4; Todd (1996b) 102-3.
122
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 4-6.
123
IG I3 236 (410-404). Shear (2011) 78: “A naval law concerning hanging and wooden equipment of
triereis (warships) and the obligations of out-going trierarchoi to their successors.”
124
IG I3 105 (c.409 BC); Sickinger (1999) 103.
125
Lambert (2002a) 353-355. One side of the Athenian sacrificial calendar uses Attic script, which was
not used for official purposes after 403/2 BC; the other side uses Ionic. Therefore it may be that the
first side was inscribed during Nikomachos’ first period in office, and the later side during his second
term. Lys. 30.17-25 only notes that Nikomachos worked on this document during his second period in
office; however, it suits Lysias’ aims better to suggest that Nikomachos completed only one document
in six years. See also Clinton (1982) 30, 35; Shear (2011) 86-87; Todd (1996b) 127-8.
126
40
Clinton (1982) 28; Meiggs & Lewis (1989) 265.
range of potential meanings, it may then also follow that the range of potential duties of the
anagrapheis of the laws were also wide and poorly-defined.127
The means by which laws were revised is not known. Revision is likely to have included
gathering information from various locations, and/or copying texts that could not be moved.
Documents were stored in many locations until the end of the fifth century BC, and stelai
were also set up in several places.128 This lack of centralised storage is likely to have
influenced the time that this work took to complete.
A central archive was established in the Metroön c.404 BC,129 and it is tempting to suggest
that recodification by anagrapheis and the creation of the archive were connected; however,
there is no direct evidence for this.130 Ath. Pol. 35.2 notes that immediately prior to this (in
the year of The Thirty, 404 BC), ‘such of the ordinances of Solon that were of doubtful
purport’ (τῶν Σόλωνος θεσμῶν ὅσοι διαμφισβητήσεις ἔσχον) were removed from the
Areopagus. While this reflects the policies of The Thirty, who appear to have attempted to
revise the laws themselves,131 it may also be significant in ascertaining the level of
recodification that had by this time taken place.
During the period 403/2–400/399 BC, further revisions were made to the laws.132 The new
democracy also decided to review the codification which had occurred during the previous
democratic government. Once again, several anagrapheis were elected to do this, at least
one of whom, Nikomachos, had been involved in the previous revisions to the laws.133
In his second period in office, Nikomachos was to revise (anagraphein) the Athenian
sacrificial calendar;134 work which he may have started during his previous term in office. 135
If Nikomachos had previously worked on this text, it would have made sense to take
advantage of this prior knowledge (or expertise) to complete the work in as short a time as
127
The charges laid against Nikomachos (page 44) also help illustrate the wide range of uses of
anagrapho. In Lys. 30.4, Nikomachos is accused of writing up (anegrapsen, ἀνέγραψεν) for four years
instead of thirty days during his first period in office, and of exceeding his authority in the texts he had
to write up (anagrapsein, ἀναγράφειν), i.e. exerting more ‘editorial control’ over this work than the
speaker considered appropriate. Anagrapho is also used in Ath. Pol. 30.1 and 32.1 for writing a politeia.
See also Rhodes (1991) 91-92; Todd (1996b) 108.
128
Ath. Pol. 35.2; Liddel (2003)79-93; Sickinger (1999) 93, 95; Todd (1996b) 123-4.
129
Sickinger (1999) 109-110; Thomas (1989) 39, 73-79; Todd (1996b) 123. Boegehold (1972) 30
suggests slightly earlier, in 409-405 BC. In any case, there was no central archive at the start of
Nikomachos’ first term in office.
130
Boegehold (1972) 29; Sickinger (1999) 103, 105, 113.
131
Ath. Pol. 35.1; D.S. 14.4.2; X. Hell. 2.3.11, 2.3.51. Krentz (1982) 61-2.
132
And. 1.81-82; 1.87. Clinton (1982) 30-31; Maidment (1953) 407.
133
Lys. 30.1, 30.4, 30.19, 30.29.
134
Lys. 30.17-25.
135
Lambert (2002a) 354-355. See n.125.
41
possible. Prior knowledge of these texts may have permitted anagrapheis a certain amount
of editorial control over the phrasing of these laws, without the need to consult others.
Conversely, it is this potential for expertise which made Nikomachos and his fellow-
anagrapheis potentially untrustworthy, as it provided them with the means to use this
knowledge for personal gain.136 Whether or not this actually happened is a matter for
conjecture (see Other Attributes on page 44).
By stating that Nikomachos worked only on the sacrificial calendar in his second term, Lysias
may be implying that he had been given a more limited set of duties;137 however, the
Athenian sacrificial calendar was a complex and extremely important document, listing
sacrifices to be made throughout the year and the deities that these sacrifices were to be
made to. It also included details such as the numbers and types of animals to be sacrificed,
and the funds to be provided for them.138 Immediately after a prolonged war, Athens may
have needed to revisit levels of expenditure on such sacrifices, 139 and it is changes of this
nature that Lysias accuses Nikomachos of making on his own authority (see page 44).
Nikomachos may also have needed to review the dates of newer sacrifices, to ensure that
they did not coincide with other, older sacrifices and/or festivals, and provide celebrants with
sufficient time to travel from one event to another. 140
Further Particulars
The commission of 100 men, who either comprised the anagrapheis of the laws or from
whom the anagrapheis were chosen were elected by show of hands.141 Those who revised
the law took a daily wage until such time as work was completed. 142 Nikomachos’ two terms
as anagrapheus of the laws (six years and four years, respectively), suggest that this
commission was to be disbanded once work had been completed.143 As such, anagrapheis of
the laws did not serve for the same period as the grammateus of the boule, who served for
136
Todd (1996b) 115: “Nikomachos is powerful because he is an expert; and yet his expertise is
(ironically) at the same time his weakness: the expert, particularly the expert upstart, is both
dangerously isolated and therefore hated.” See also Todd (1996b) 116; 130-1.
137
Lys. 30.4; Todd (1996b) 110.
138
The remaining Athenian calendar is extremely fragmentary (see Lambert 2002a). For betterpreserved, fourth-century calendars, see Ferguson (1938) and Lambert (2000).
139
Dow (1968) 180-181. The amount of money and offerings available for sacrifices would depend on
factors such as the current wealth of the polis, and environmental conditions, which would affect the
crops produced and number of livestock born.
140
As suggested for the Salaminioi by Ferguson (1938) 24-25.
141
Ath. Pol. 30.1, page 38.
142
Lys. 30.2. See also n.154.
143
Lys. 30.2-4; Rhodes (1991) 89; Todd (1996b) 102-103; 110.
42
a prytany.144 The commission also differed from democratic boards of officers in that it was
possible to be appointed twice into the same office. 145
The working environment of the anagrapheis of the laws may have changed for Nikomachos’
second period in office (403/2–400/399 BC), when an extraordinary board of nomothetai
were elected, and the existing laws reviewed:
ἐπειδὴ δὲ βουλήν τε ἀπεκληρώσατε νομοθέτας τε εἵλεσθε, εὑρίσκοντες τῶν νόμων
τῶν τε Σόλωνος καὶ τῶν Δράκοντος πολλοὺς ὄντας οἷς πολλοὶ τῶν πολιτῶν ἔνοχοι
ἦσαν τῶν πρότερον ἕνεκα γενομένων, ἐκκλησίαν ποιήσαντες ἐβουλεύσασθε περὶ
αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐψηφίσασθε, δοκιμάσαντες πάντας τοὺς νόμους, εἶτ᾽ ἀναγράψαι ἐν τῇ
στοᾷ τούτους τῶν νόμων οἳ ἂν δοκιμασθῶσι.146
However, after you had chosen a boule by lot and elected nomothetai, you began to
discover that there were many of the laws of Solon and Draco under which many
citizens were liable, owing to previous events. You therefore held an assembly to
discuss them (i.e. the laws), and decreed that all the laws should be reviewed and
that whichever were approved were to be written up in the stoa.
An inserted (and probably fabricated147) decree quoted in Andokides’ On the Mysteries notes
that 500 nomothetai (‘law-givers’) were elected by ‘the demesmen’ (οἱ δημόται) at this time,
and were themselves connected with revisions to the laws of Solon and Draco.148 This text
appears to be both inauthentic and misleading, as nowhere else are this extraordinary board
of nomothetai directly connected with revisions to the laws.149 It may be that the nomothetai
instead carried out functions previously undertaken by the syngrapheis, a board for which
we have no evidence from this time onwards (page 74).
Other Attributes
If the public perception of anagrapheis was influenced by the case of Nikomachos, there is
no evidence for this. The name Nikomachos – but not his official designation – appears in
144
See page 52.
145
Holding the same office two or more times (or for periods of over a year) is generally associated
with oligarchic governments. This is implied, but not overtly stated in (e.g.) Arist. Pol. 1317b-1318a,
Hdt. 3.81 and Ps. X. Ath. Pol. 1.3. Holding office for extended periods was thought to provide officers
with the opportunity to establish a power base from which it was possible to exert influence: see
Moore (1975) 25; Todd (1996b) 113.
146
And. 1.82.
147
Canevaro & Harris (2012) 114-115.
148
And. 1.83-84: such additions as are needed shall be inscribed on boards by the following nomothetai.
149
Canevaro & Harris (2012) 113-115; Maidment (1953) 403, 405; MacDowell (1962) 121-125; Oliver &
Dow (1935) 7-10.
43
Aristophanes’ Frogs, written after Nikomachos’ first period in office, but before his second,
and therefore also before the speech written by Lysias:150
καὶ δὸς τουτὶ Κλεοφῶντι φέρων καὶ τουτουσὶ τοῖσι πορισταῖς, Μύρμηκί θ' ὁμοῦ καὶ
Νικομάχῳ τόδε δ' Ἀρχενόμῳ·151
And take this (a knife) and give it to Kleophon, and these (nooses) to the tax
commissioners, and here’s one for Myrmex and another for Nikomachos; and this (a
bowl of hemlock) is for Archenomos.152
We assume that Kleophon was the demagogue, and that this is the same Nikomachos. The
other two persons are otherwise unknown.
Nikomachos was accused of exceeding his authority in various ways, although we know little
of the formal charge.153 In Nikomachos’ defence, each charge can also be read as the action
necessary in order to bring these documents up-to-date, or can be explained away by the
extraordinary nature of this office, which gave it both an unspecified duration, and a daily
wage as compensation.154
His crimes as alleged in Lysias 30 are as follows. During his first period in office, Nikomachos
was to ‘write up the laws of Solon within four months’ (τεττάρων μηνῶν ἀναγράψαι τοὺς
νόμους τοὺς Σόλωνος), but instead took six years.155 During his second period in office, he
took four years instead of thirty days.156 These charges can perhaps be take as rhetorical
exaggeration on the part of the speaker. It is also possible that the initial time allowed was
calculated by people who were unaware of the amount of work required, and therefore that
Nikomachos took longer through no fault of his own. Elsewhere, specified time limits are
very rare.157 Additionally, while the initial commission of anagrapheis of the laws may have
been intended to be for a fixed period, there is no indication that there was a fixed period in
office for Nikomachos’ second term.158
150
Aristophanes Frogs was first performed in early 405 BC. Dover (1993) 2.
151
Ar. Frogs 1504-1507.
152
Barrett (1964) 211. The items in parentheses are suggested (quite plausibly) by Barrett.
153
Lys. 30.1-6. Todd (1996b) 108.
154
Todd (1996b) 109, 131. In noting that Nikomachos ‘received payment on a daily basis’ (Lys. 30.2:
καθ’ ἑκάστην δὲ ἡμέραν ἀργύριον λαμβάνων), the speaker implies that Nikomachos took bribes for
perverting the written law, rather than taking a daily wage.
155
Lys. 30.2.
156
Lys. 30.4.
157
Time limits of ten days are attested in the mid fourth century BC (page 59), but four months and one
month are unparalleled. (Thirty days is specified in the inserted (probably fabricated) decree And. 1.83-4.)
158
44
Lys. 30.2, 30.4.
Lysias states that Nikomachos ‘added some laws and erased others’ (τοὺς μὲν ἐνέγραφε
τοὺς δὲ ἐξήλειφεν),159 giving the impression that Nikomachos worked independently of any
other authority, and exceeded his own authority. However, ‘adding and erasing’ was part of
the revision process, which included reviewing laws, and removing ordinances that were no
longer in force.160 Additionally, it is unclear how Nikomachos’ work could have been
distinguished from the work of the other anagrapheis, and why other anagrapheis of the
laws were not similarly charged.161 The accusations instead take advantage of fears arising
from the previous particularly unstable period of Athenian government, and the Athenian
fear of experts.162
Nikomachos was also charged with adding sacrifices to the sacrificial calendar, and thereby
increasing public expenditure:163
σὺ δέ, ὦ Νικόμαχε, τούτων τἀναντία πεποίηκας· ἀναγράψας γὰρ πλείω τῶν
προσταχθέντων αἴτιος γεγένησαι τὰ προσιόντα χρήματα εἰς ταῦτα μὲν ἀναλίσκεσθαι,
ἐν δὲ ταῖς πατρίοις θυσίαις ἐπιλείπειν.164
But you, Nikomachos, have done the opposite of this: by writing up a greater
number than had been ordained you have caused the public revenue to be
expended on these, and hence to be deficient for our ancestral offerings.
The speaker implies that the calendar should be kept in its previous form in order to
maintain expenditure at the previous rate for sacrifices of longer standing.165 However, these
changes also fall under the remit of ‘bringing the calendar up-to-date’, with monetary
amounts adjusted to take account of several other factors (see page 41).
Nikomachos is also charged with refusing to hand over the laws he has compiled and
updated,166 and failure to submit his accounts for examination (a process undergone by all
159
Lys. 30.2. A similar phrase occurs in 30.5.
160
And. 1.82 (page 43), with 1.76.
161
Suggestions that other anagrapheis of the laws are considered similarly guilty are at 30.25: οὗτοι δ᾽
ἐπὶ τῇ τῶν νόμων ἀναγραφῇ καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν δῶρα λαμβάνοντες... ‘these men, taking bribes for the
version that they made of our laws’.
162
See page 41 and n.136.
163
Lys. 30.17-22.
164
Lys. 30.19. The verb used to denote editing or updating is also anagrapho.
165
Realistically, there is no way that this could have been construed as for personal gain. The
implication is that Nikomachos is impious (in contrast the speaker’s piety, 30.19). This is not explicitly
stated, however, and the word used instead is ‘temple-robber’ (ἱερόσυλος, 30.21).
166
Lys. 30.3.
45
Athenian officials at the end of their term in office).167 However, we are also told that he did
in fact submit these accounts when the city was overtaken by ‘disasters’ (i.e. in 405/4 BC).168
The fifth- and fourth-century office of anagrapheus of the laws was markedly different from
the office of anagrapheus which came afterwards. The successors of anagrapheis of the
laws appear to have been the nomothetai, rather than the later anagrapheis.169 With the
exception of two brief periods of oligarchic government, the later office of anagrapheus was
much more limited in scope (see below).
ἀναγραφεύς (anagrapheus)
337/6 – 321/0, 319/8 – 294/3, and 292/1 – 95/4 BC
There is no surviving evidence for anagrapheis in the period 399/8 – 338/7. The first
surviving evidence for anagrapheis in the fourth century BC is from 337/6.170
Further particulars
From 337/6 BC, during democratic periods of government, the office of anagrapheus was
most probably an annual and elected office,171 and as such, it would not have been possible
for the same person to be elected in successive years in the same capacity.
Honours for these officers (always in the singular) suggest that during these periods, there
was only one anagrapheus in office at any one time. Additionally, an absence of this
designation from the epigraphic record at the start of the third century BC suggests that the
office may have been temporarily abolished.172
Other attributes
All inscriptions containing an anagrapheus in the periods 337/6 – 321/0, 319/8 – 294/3 and
292/1 – 95/4 BC are texts in which an anagrapheus is honoured by the prytaneis. In the
majority of cases, the anagrapheus is honoured alongside various other secretaries such as
the grammateus kata prytaneian (grammateus of the boule) and grammateus of the boule
and the demos.173 On one occasion, the anagrapheus is honoured individually.174 This
167
Lys. 30.4-5; Dow (1960) 271-2; Todd (1996b) 103-4, 107.
168
Lys. 30.3; Todd (1996b) 109.
169
Dow (1963a) 38-39.
170
IG II2 244 (337/6 BC) 54-5.
171
Ferguson (1898) 40-41; O’Sullivan (2009) 29; Rhodes (1972a) 140. There is some slight evidence that
selection methods for some offices changed from sortition to election during the period 321/20-319/1 BC,
however, it is not known whether these changes applied to anagrapheis.
172
Ferguson (1911) 32, believed that the office of anagrapheus was abolished in 319/18 BC; however
there are several decrees after this date, until as late as 95/4 BC (Ag.15:261 58).
173
46
E.g. IG II² 1700 (335/4 BC) 213-17; Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 45, 58.
example constitutes one of only two surviving instances where an Athenian secretary is
honoured alone:175
ἐπειδὴ ὁ ἀναγραφεὺς Καλλικρα|[τ]ίδης καλῶς καὶ δικαίως ἐπιμεμέλητ|[α]ι τῆς
ἀναγραφῆς τῶγ γραμμάτων καὶ [α]|[ἱ] πρυτανέαι αὐτὸν ἐστεφανώκασιν κα|[ὶ τ]ἆλλα
ἄρχει καλῶς καὶ δικαίως…176
Since the anagrapheus Kallikratides has rightly and in a just manner taken care of the
writing up of the documents and the prytaneis have crowned him, and he holds office
well and justly with regards to other things…
This inscription is also significant in that it is the only surviving text from Athens where a
secretary is categorically honoured for some aspect of his work. Unfortunately, the text does
not provide any detail on what ‘the writing up of the documents’ (τῆς ἀναγραφῆς τῶγ
γραμμάτων) may have been.
Kallikrates was awarded a crown worth 500 drachmas, which he was entitled to once he had
submitted his accounts.177
These texts provide no additional evidence for the duties of anagrapheis; however, if the
frequent inclusion of the same group of secretaries in collective, honorific decrees can be
taken as an indicator of collegial environment, the anagrapheus worked alongside a number
of other secretaries from c.330 BC onwards.
Honours also record a group known as aeisitoi, i.e. those who were ‘always fed’ or
maintained at public cost in the Prytaneion. Secretaries of various designations could be part
of this group (see example on page 80), but while the anagrapheus could be honoured by
the aeisitoi, he does not appear to have ever been one of them. 178
321/20 to 319/18 BC and 294/3 – 292/1 BC
Further particulars
From 321/0 to 319/18 BC, an oligarchic form of government temporarily replaced the
democracy, and an officer known as the anagrapheus replaced the grammateus of the boule
174
IG II² 415 (330/29 BC) 12-16, 22-27 (SEG 32:72); Lambert (2004) 89 prefers to date this text to 340325 BC. See also Dow (1963a) 39-40; Walbank (1982) 44.
175
The other example is honours for the grammateus kata prytaneian of 337/6 BC: see Schwenk 9
(335/4 BC) 1-21 on page 62. This is in contrast to the Peloponnese, which provides several examples of
this type.
176
IG II² 415 (330/29 BC) 12-16.
177
IG II² 415 (330/29 BC) 25-27: …καὶ στεφαν|[ῶσαι αὐ]τὸ[ν] χ[ρ]υσῶι στεφάνωι ἀπὸ ::: | [δραχμῶ]ν
ἐπε[ιδ]ὰν τὰς εὐθύνας δῶι. …and crown him with a gold crown (worth) 500 drachmas, when he has
submitted his accounts (given euthyna).
178
The anagrapheus honoured by the aeisitoi: Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 45, 58. There are several alternative
spellings for aeisitoi, e.g. IG II2 678 42: ἀΐσιτοι. See also Dow (1937) 22-24.
47
in publishing the decrees of the boule and demos.179 Oliver suggests that the prominence of
the anagrapheus in these years indicates a ‘symbolic move away from the auctoritas of the
boule’; one which coincides with an increase in the prominence of the ekklesia.180
This anagrapheus could be the eponymous secretary for the year in decrees.181 In
approximately half of the decrees where the prescript survives, the anagrapheus is recorded
immediately before the eponymous archon, in the nominative. In the other half, he is
recorded immediately after the archon, as part of the dating formula. 182
ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀ[ρχέδικος Ν]αυκρ[ίτ]|[ο]υ Λαμπτρεύς. [ἐπὶ Νεαί]χμου ἄρχ[ο]|[ν]τος
ἐπὶ τῆς Ἀν[τιοχ]ίδος πένπτ[η]|[ς π]ρυτανείας, ἧ[ι Ν]ικόδημος Ἀναφ|λύ[σ]τιος
ἐγρα[μμάτ]ευε[ν]· … ἔδοξεν τῶι [δήμωι]·183
Anagrapheus Archedikos son of Naukritos of Lamptrai. In the archonship of
Neaichmos, during the fifth prytany, that of Antiochis, for which Nikodemos of
Anaphlystos was grammateus. …It was decreed by the [demos:…]
Archedikos is the anagrapheus in eleven surviving decrees from the year 320/19 BC:
extremely prolific in comparison with the surviving evidence for other secretaries.184
Archedikos was a supporter of Macedon,185 and also had a career as a comic poet.186 The
anagrapheus of the preceding year (321/20 BC), Thrasykles, was also pro-Macedon, and in
314/3 BC, was the proposer of an honorific decree for Macedonians. 187
In the two years in which an anagrapheus replaced the grammateus of the boule,
anagrapheis can be shown in conjunction with secretaries referred to simply as grammateis.
(In the above example, Nikodemos is grammateus for the prytany of Antiochis.) This
‘grammateus for the prytany of…’ was the grammateus drawn from the tribe serving as
prytaneis.188 (See page 69.)
A lack of collective honours for secretaries in these years means that we have little evidence
for the collegial environment of the anagrapheus at this time. It is unclear whether some of
179
Dow (1963a) 40.
180
Oliver (2003) 46, 49-51.
181
E.g. Ag.16:100[2] (320/19 BC) 1-2.
182
O’Sullivan (2009) 28.
183
IG II2 381 (320/19 BC) 1-10. Meritt (1961a) 113-114. The year is intercalary, with 59 days in the first
two months, and 39 days in the first prytany.
184
See Appendix A page 254 for the relevant texts (underlined). For the substantially-higher number of
inscriptions in the period 307-301 BC, see Hedrick (2000b) and Dow (1963a) 44-53.
185
O’Sullivan (2009) 29; IG II2 402 (322-319) 1-7.
186
O’Sullivan (2009) 29.
187
Ag. 16 97[1] (321/20 BC) 2-3; IG II2 450 (314/3 BC) 9-10.
188
Dow (1963a) 40.
48
the more minor offices were temporarily abolished, or whether the offices were simply not
recorded.
Other attributes
The anagrapheis only attained a degree of prominence in the years in which Athens had
more oligarchic forms of government. When democracy was restored, the office of
grammateus of the boule was restored to its previous position,189 and the office of
anagrapheus again became a minor one.190 In 294/3–292/1 BC, during the ‘dictatorship’ of
Olympiodoros and in the following year, the anagrapheus once more replaced the
grammateus of the boule as eponymous secretary.191
ἀντιγραφεύς (antigrapheus)
Activities
The antigrapheus (ἀντιγραφεύς), ‘checking-clerk’ or ‘copying-clerk’, is known from the fourth
century BC to the third century AD,192 and was responsible for the boule’s accounts, which he
presented to the boule as a report at the end of every prytany:
Πρότερον μὲν τοίνυν, ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, ἀντιγραφεὺς ἦν χειροτονητὸς τῇ πόλει, ὃς καθ’
ἑκάστην πρυτανείαν ἀπελογίζετο τὰς προσόδους τῷ δήμῳ·193
In earlier times, fellow citizens, the antigrapheus was elected by the polis, who every
prytany made to the people a report of the revenues.
Harpocration, drawing from a now lost section of the Athenaion Politeia, suggests that there
may have been two of these officers, one for the boule, and one for internal administration
(διοίκησις):
Ἀντιγραφεύς: ὁ καθιστάμενος ἐπὶ τῶν καταβαλλόντων τινὰ τῇ πόλει χρήματα, ὥστε
ἀντιγράφεσθαι ταῦτα· Δημοσθένης ἐν τῷ κατ’ Ἀνδροτίωνος καὶ Αἰσχίνης ἐν τῷ κατὰ
Κτησιφῶντος. διττοὶ δὲ ἦσαν ἀντιγραφεῖς, ὁ μὲν τῆς διοικήσεως, ὥς φησι Φιλόχορος, ὁ
δὲ τῆς βουλῆς, ὡς Ἀριστοτέλης ἐν Ἀθηναίων πολιτείᾳ.194
189
Ferguson (1898) 40-42. IG II2 374 (after 319/8 BC) 19-22.
190
Ag.15:58 (305/4 BC) 83-84.
191
Dow (1963a) 40-41; Henry (1977) 50; Rhodes (1972a) 140. E.g. Dinsmoor 7 (293/2 BC) 1-2.
192
Earliest: IG II2 1740 (388/7 BC) 53-6. Latest: IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) 96.
193
Aeschin. 3.25 (330 BC).
194
Harp. Words Used by the Ten Orators 35.4 (1-2C AD) refers to four sources when describing the
antigrapheis: Demosthenes (22.70 & 24.178), Aeschines (3.25 above), Philokhoros (3C BC) and a lost
fragment of the Ath. Pol. See also Poll. 8.98.5 – 8.99.3 (2C AD) (page 50 and n.196). The antigrapheus
in both passages of Demosthenes is connected with the collection of taxes. Dickey (2007) 94, 96.
49
Antigrapheus: The one appointed in charge of those who pay any money to the state.
Demosthenes in the speech against Androtion and Aeschines in that against
Ctesiphon. And there were two antigrapheis, one for internal administration, as
Philokhoros says, and one for the boule, as Aristotle wrote in the Athenaion Politeia.
There is no surviving epigraphic evidence to support the claim that there were two
antigrapheis. Since there is no indication that ‘internal administration’ was in any way
separate from management of boule accounts, Philokhoros’ antigrapheus for internal
administration may be the same officer as Aristotle’s antigrapheus for the boule. In the
approximately 100 inscriptions which include an antigrapheus, there is only ever one per
inscription. Additionally, it would be most unusual, in a situation where many secretaries
were honoured collectively, to always omit one of the antigrapheis. The inference that there
was only one antigrapheus is also supported by the form of the designation. In other
circumstances where two secretaries worked together, their designations differed (e.g. the
grammateus of the boule and the grammateus of the boule and the demos; the grammateus
and syngrammateus of the epistatai, etc). There is no epigraphic evidence for (e.g.) an
antigrapheus of the boule or antigrapheus for internal administration.
Antigrapheis may have stored their work in the Metroön:
ἀντιγραφεὺς Ἡφαι[στος —c.16— ]ι[ος κατασταθεὶς ἐπὶ τὸ Μητρῶιον] | κατὰ τὸ
ψήφισμα …
195
Hephaistos was antigrapheus ... —i[os was set up at the Metroön] according to the
decree…
Further Particulars
As with the grammateus of the boule (page 51), the officer’s method of selection appears to
have changed during the office’s existence:
ἀντιγραφεὺς πρότερον μὲν αἱρετὸς αὖθις δὲ κληρωτὸς ἦν, καὶ πάντα ἀντεγράφετο
παρακαθήμενος τῇ βουλῇ.196
Previously the antigrapheus was elected, but later was chosen by lot, and was
involved in all of the boule’s accounts.
195
SEG 15:104 (127/6 BC) 104-105. The restoration of Metroön in line 104 is based upon an identical
(but also fragmentary) formula in a second decree on this stele (117-118): ἀντιγραφεὺς Ἡφαιστος —
c.18—ιος κατασταθεὶς ἐπὶ τὸ] Μητρῶιον | [κατὰ τὸ ψήφι]σμα. The text is too fragmentary to complete
either phrase. Rhodes (1972a) 238-9; Oliver & Dow (1935) 71, 74-75, 79.
196
Poll. Onom. 8.98.5 – 8.99.3 (2C AD). The paragraph continues: δύο δ’ ἦσαν, ὁ μὲν τῆς βουλῆς ὁ δὲ
τῆς διοικήσεως; And there were two of them, one of the boule, and another for internal administration,
mirroring the information provided by Harpocration.
50
We do not know what is meant by ‘previously’, but this is likely to have been before
367/6 BC (see page 61).
Other Attributes
Like many other officials, the antigrapheus held office for a year. Most references to the
antigrapheus are in decrees in which this secretary is honoured as aeisitos, along with other
officers, after their year in office.197
The antigrapheus does not appear to have achieved any degree of prominence; however, in
three surviving inscriptions from the middle of the second century BC, the antigrapheus
Demokrates from the deme Kydathenaion immediately follows the grammateus in the
prescript.198 The reasons for this are unclear.
Raubitschek suggests that a slave replaced the office of antigrapheus in the fourth century BC.
Unfortunately, there is not sufficient evidence to prove this.199
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule)
The office of grammateus of the boule is known from the sixth century BC to the third
century AD. During this time, the duration of the office changed, as did the way in which the
officer was appointed (see page 59). There is no evidence for changes to the duties of the
grammateus of the boule, however, with the possible exception of reading out documents in
public, not attested before the end of the first century AD (see [ho] peri to bema on page 56).
The grammateus of the boule was known by several different designations, some of which
were in use only at certain times:

γραμματεύς (grammateus), see below.

γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule), see page 52.

γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν (grammateus kata prytaneian), see page 53.

[ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα ([ho] peri to bema) see page 56.
197
Ferguson (1898) 67, 69. See examples on pages 71-72 and 80. For more on the aeisitoi, see page
47 and the Glossary.
198
IG II2 967 (aft. 150 BC) 2-3; Ag.15:238 (145/4 BC) 2-3; Ag.15:239 (145/4 BC) fr.a-b 2-4, c.13-14.
199
Rhodes (1972a) 142. Raubitschek (1942) 305-306 examines Ag.15:37 (343/2 BC) and compares it with
IG II2 1747 (c.350 BC) and IG II2 1740 (before 388/7 BC). Raubitschek argues that by examining the
officials present in a specific type of inscription – dedications made by the prytaneis – one can ascertain
which secretarial offices were in existence at the time. His premise is that, since there were only two
fourth-century inscriptions (as far as he was aware) ‘of this type’ that contain an official in addition to a
grammateus, where one contains an antigrapheus (IG II2 1740 (before 388/7 BC) 55-56) and another
contains a hyperetes (Ag.15:37 (343/2 BC) 4), the latter must have replaced the former. Raubitschek both
ignores the possibility that specific inscriptions may not contain all of the secretaries for that year, and
omits to mention that Ag.15:37 contains only the last four lines of the text.
51
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
From the mid-sixth century BC, the grammateus of the pre-Kleisthenic council was referred
to simply as grammateus (γραμματεύς).200 This designation was also used for the
grammateus of the boule prior to c.450 BC. From the middle to the end of the fifth century BC,
when the grammateus of the boule served for a prytany only, the first grammateus in the
tribal cycle could additionally be identified by the phrase was first grammateus (πρõτος
ἐγραμμάτευε).201 This phrase differentiated the grammateus of the boule at the start of the
year from the grammateus currently in office.
The first grammateus could be included as part of the ἐπί + genitive dating clause
containing the eponymous archon:
ἐπ’ Ἀφ]σεύδος ἄρχοντος κ|[αὶ τες βολες hει Κριτιά]δες πρõτος ἐγραμμ|[άτευε vv
ἔδοχσεν τει βο]λει καὶ τõι δέμοι· Ἀ|[καμαντὶς ἐπρυτάνευε, Χ]αρίας ἐγραμμάτευ|[ε...202
In the archonship of Aphseudos and [the boule in which Kritiades] was first
grammateus, [it was resolved by the] boule and the demos, [Akamantis held the
prytany,] Charias was grammateus.203
Including the first grammateus as part of the ἐπί clause containing the archon may have
assisted in the dating of a decree. Additionally, many of the documents containing was first
grammateus are treasury documents, recording financial transactions between the Athenian
boule and hellenotamiai (the Athenian chief financial officers of the Delian League). This
phrase may therefore also have helped distinguish the grammateus of the boule from the
grammateus of the hellenotamiai, or the grammateus of the treasurers of Athena and the
other gods. See example on page 88.
The grammateus of the boule could be known by either the designation grammateus or one
of the following designations until the early third century AD.204
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule)
From 450 BC, the grammateus (of the boule) could also be known by the longer designation
grammateus of the boule.205 Spelt in the Attic alphabet until the end of the fifth century BC
200
Earliest surviving datable inscriptions: IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6: —c.5—ί]ας ἐ|γρα[μάτευε — ;
IG I3 509 (c.550 BC?) 2-3: vac — ἐγ]ραμάτε|υε.
201
Earliest e.g. IG I3 450 (447/6–433/2 BC) 410-416; latest: IG I3 316 (407/6 BC) 64-67. There is no
deuteros grammateus, etc. For grammateis serving for a prytany, see page 59.
202
IG I3 53 (433/2 BC) 4-8.
203
Translation: Dillon & Garland (1994) 243-4 §8.28.
204
Latest surviving datable inscription: IG II2 1078 (c.220 AD) 2.
205
E.g. IG I3 193 (450-435 BC) 3-4: [ἀναγραφσάτο] hο γραμματεὺ[ς hο τες βολες ἐν στέ]|[λει λιθίνει καὶ
θέ]το ἐμ πόλει. Let the grammateus of the boule write it up on a stone stele and set it up in Athens.
52
(γραμματεὺς τες βολες), the designation γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς was used in this form until
the first century BC. From the first century BC onwards, the title was written without the
article: γραμματεὺς βουλῆς.206
The designation may have been lengthened from γραμματεύς to γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς in
order to distinguish the grammateus of the boule from the grammateus of the hellenotamiai,
who had moved their administration to from Delos to Athens only a few years earlier. 207 (See
example on page 86).
γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν (grammateus kata prytaneian)
In c.367/6 BC, the office of grammateus of the boule became an annual one (see page 60).
From this date, the grammateus of the boule could be referred to either as grammateus of
the boule, or grammateus kata prytaneian (γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν), that is, secretary
serving ‘prytany-by-prytany’ (i.e. for a whole cycle of prytanies).208 This designation is used
only for the grammateus for the whole year (ten prytanies), and is never used for the
secretary for a single prytany (who is referred to only as grammateus or grammateus of the
boule, see above).
The argument for the identification of the grammateus kata prytaneian with the grammateus
of the boule is as follows:

The duties attested for the grammateus of the boule before 367/6 BC are the same as
those ascribed to the grammateus kata prytaneian in Ath. Pol. 54.3 (page 57). No
secretary in the Ath. Pol. is referred to as the grammateus of the boule.

Both designations can be used for the eponymous secretary.209
206
The earliest epigraphic evidence for the longer designation grammateus of the boule (γραμματεὺς
τες βολες) is IG I3 27 (c.450/49 BC) 8-9, though the grammateus was clearly working with the boule
prior to this (e.g. IG I3 5 (c.500 BC) 1). The earliest instance spelt γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς is IG I3 103
(410/9 BC) 11, the latest is IG II2 1061 (1C BC) 16. The latest instance of grammateus (of the) boule (i.e.
without the article) is Ag.15:454 (204/5 AD) 4-5.
207
The dating of the tribute lists places the move of the treasury from Delos to 454 BC.
208
E.g. IG II2 124 (357/6 BC) 1-3. Ferguson (1898) 36. In support of this interpretation of κατὰ
πρυτανείαν, Ferguson cites the phrases καθ' ἡμέραν ‘day after day’, and κατὰ μῆνα, ‘month after
month’. This conflicts with the interpretation given in LSJ; namely that κατὰ πρυτανείαν refers to ‘by
presidencies’, i.e. every 35 or 36 days, or any public office held by rotation for given periods. See also
Rhodes (1972a) 134-7, who summarises the argument that grammateus kata prytaneian is synonymous
with grammateus of the boule.
209
Rhodes (1972a) 135-7. In SEG 19:129 (352/1 BC) 13-14, a stele is set up in front of the Chalkotheke by
Philokedes in 353/3 BC. Philokedes is very probably the eponymous grammateus in both IG II2 138 3 &
139 3-4 (353/2 BC), and this stele is almost certainly the one which the grammateus of the boule is
directed to set up in IG II2 120 (353/2 BC) 13-19. To show that the eponymous secretary could also be
known by the designation grammateus kata prytaneian, Rhodes notes IG II2 223 (343/2 BC) C.1-2:
[γραμματ]ε[ὺ]ς κατὰ π[ρυτα]νείαν·| Κλεόστρατος Τιμοσθένους Αἰγιλιεύς, with IG II2 224 (also 343/2 BC) 2:
ἧι Κλεόστρατος Τιμοσθένους Αἰ[γιλιεὺς] ἐγραμμάτευεν. From this, he declares both titles to be
synonymous. See also IG II2 225 (343/2 BC) 4-5; Ferguson (1898) 9, 11, 34-5; Rhodes (1993) 599-600.
53

The designations grammateus of the boule and grammateus kata prytaneian can
both be used for the secretary who writes and sets up decrees on behalf of the
boule and demos.210 The terms are used interchangeably in epigraphic formulae for
the officer who is responsible for writing up and having inscribed most of the public
documents of the boule and demos until the late second century AD, with a rapid shift
in favour of the designation grammateus kata prytaneian (see Table 14 on page 297).
By the end of the fourth century BC, the term grammateus of the boule had almost
fallen out of use altogether, although there is clearly still a boule secretary.

Of the several thousand Athenian inscriptions which record a grammateus (of the
boule), there are only two instances where both the designation grammateus of the
boule and grammateus kata prytaneian occur in the same text (four if you include
instances where designations have been entirely restored).211
The argument against the synonymous nature of these offices is based on the interpretation
of IG II2 120, the decree on the inventory of treasures in the Chalkotheke, below, where both
designations occur within the space of four lines.212 Neither designation has a personal name
attached, and neither can be Eukles the demosios (public slave). The argument against is
simply that, if both designations occur within a few lines of each other, they must be
different offices; however, this inscription is also unusual in terms of the other officers it
contains, and the verbs used to describe the writing of texts.
...παραγγεῖλαι δὲ τοὺς πρυτάν|[ε]ι[ς] καὶ Ε[ὐκλ]εῖ τῶι δημοσίωι ἥκειν εἰς ἀκρόπολιν
γρα|[ψόμ]ενον τ[ὰ] ἐν τῆι χαλκοθῆκει. καὶ ἐπειδὰν τὸ οἴκημα ἀ|[νοι]χθει ἐξετάζεν κατὰ
ἔθνος ἕκαστα καὶ ἐπιγράφεν τ|[ὸν] ἀριθμὸν, ἀντιγράφεσθαι δὲ τὸγ γραμματέα τὸγ
κατὰ [πρ]υτανείαν καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους γραμματ{τε}έας τοὺς ἐπὶ τοῖ|[ς δ]ημοσίοις
γράμμασιν· ἐπειδὰν δὲ ἐξετασθῆι πάντα κ|[αὶ] ἀναγραφῆι, τὸγ γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς
210
Compare e.g. IG II2 107 (368/7 BC) 7, 18-20 with e.g. IG II2 788 (235/4 BC) 7, 26-8.
211
The earliest of these, IG II2 120 (353/2 BC) 13-19, is covered in some detail on pages 54-55. The
remaining inscription(s) are lists of prytaneis from the late second or early third centuries AD.
IG II2 1789 (c.175 AD) (=Ag.15.454) 4-7: [γραμμ]ατεὺς βουλῆς | — — — ξ Ἐλευθέρου | [γραμμ]ατεὺς
κατὰ π[ρυτανείαν] | [Εὔκ]αρπος Θεογ[ένους] is a seven-line fragment. The line length allowed for
grammateus kata prytaneian indicates that there is space for at least another eight letters after
grammateus boules, which would easily allow for the designation of another secretary, the grammateus
of the boule and the demos. Entirely-restored are Ag.15.410 (c.185/6 AD) 7, 11 and
SEG 26:157 (203/4 AD) 3, 6 (Ag.15.414 with restoration suggested by Follet (1976) 309-310).
Unfortunately, the same man is never referred to using both designations. The issue is complicated by
the way in which personal names are included in inscription formulae. When a text contains a
secretary in the prescript (-egrammateue), and the grammateus of the boule is referred to as
grammateus of the boule, the personal name of the secretary (where given) is the same for both
instances. When a grammateus occurs in the prescript and the grammateus of the boule is referred to
as grammateus kata prytaneian, only one of these two designations has a personal name attached.
212
IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19. For a summary of this argument, see Rhodes (1972a) 136-7. See also
Schulthess (1912) 1707-80, who argues that during this period, duties were divided between two
secretaries.
54
ἀναγράψαντα [ἐν] στήληι λιθίνηι στῆσαι ἔμπροσθεν τῆς χαλκοθῆκη[ς]. || [ἐς] δὲ τὴν
ἀναγραφὴν τῆς στήλης δοῦναι τοὺς ταμίας [τῆ]|[ς] βουλῆς ∶ΔΔΔ∶ [δρ]αχμὰς ἐκ τῶγ
κατὰ ψηφίσματα ἀναλ[ισ]|[κο]μένων τῆι βουλῆι. ποιήσασθαι δὲ τὸγ γραμματέα τ[ῆς] |
[β]ουλῆς ἀντίγραφα ἐκ τῶν στηλῶν τὰ ἀναγεγραμμένα [πε]|ρὶ τῶν ἐν τῆι χαλκοθήκει.213
And the prytaneis are also to instruct Eukles the demosios to come to the acropolis to
write down the objects that are in the Chalkotheke. Whenever the chamber is opened,
he (Eukles) is to examine each particular (object) by nationality and write down the
number, and the grammateus kata prytaneian and the other secretaries in charge of
state documents are to make their own copy. And when all (the calculations) have
been reviewed and transcribed, the grammateus of the boule is to write them up on a
stone stele and set it up in front of the Chalkotheke. And for the writing up of the
stele, the treasurers of the boule are to provide 30 drachmas from the decree funds of
the boule. And the grammateus of the boule is to make transcripts of the things
written on the stele that pertain to the (treasures) in the Chalkotheke.
The inscription contains duties that are otherwise unattested for secretaries of the boule and
demos and public slaves. The demosios is to first create a list of the objects in the
Chalkotheke (see page 81). The grammateus kata prytaneian is then to work with the
demosios and the other secretaries in charge of state documents to create a second list of
these treasures. Both lists are presumably to be organised by the nationality of the donors.
Once the lists are complete and have been reviewed, the grammateus of the boule is to
write them up on a stele, and from the version of the text that is on the stele, make further
lists of the treasures contained in the Chalkotheke. 214 The procedure also calls for several
other secretaries (designations unknown) to check the contents of the Chalkotheke.215
The procedure is curious in that the Chalkotheke treasures are documented three times. The
first copy is made by the demosios, the second, by the grammateus kata prytaneian and the
‘other secretaries,’ and the third, by the grammateus of the boule. It is possible that two or
more lists could have be used against each other, to check the accuracy of the lists and the
stele.
While it is theoretically possible that the grammateus kata prytaneian and the grammateus
of the boule were different officials, this seems to add an unnecessary level of complexity to
an already complex procedure. There is no reason to assume that two different types of
213
IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19.
214
Ferguson (1898) 10. For further examples of secretaries documenting the contents of treasuries,
see Appendix D, page 322.
215
The imprecise phrase the other secretaries in charge of state documents (lines 16-17) is
unprecedented, and could refer to any number of other secretaries, including the grammateus of the
boule and the demos, and the antigrapheus, who was primarily associated with the accounts of the boule
and demos. The phrase is unlikely to refer to hypogrammateis, as they were not ‘in charge’ of anything.
55
secretary were required to create lists, and the final check consists of the grammateus of the
boule checking that his own copy has been rendered accurately by the stonecutter. The
switch of title part-way through this inscription instead seems to be far more likely due to
imprecision, at a time when both designations were used equally, rather than indicating that
these were two separate offices.
[ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα ([ho] peri to bema, secretary ‘in attendance’ or ‘at the platform’)
From the end of the first century AD to the start of the third century AD, the grammateus of
the boule could also be referred to as [ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα ([ho] peri to bema), without the
preceding word ‘grammateus’.216 For example in the following text, Rhodos, the grammateus
in the prescript, is also designated peri to bema in a list of aeisitoi (ἀΐσειτοι, those
maintained at public cost during meals held at the Athenian Prytaneion), later in the text.
ἐγραμμάτευεν Ῥόδων Καλλίστου Μαρα|[θώνιος].
…
ἀΐσειτοι·
…
γραμματεὺς βουλῆς καὶ δήμου Ἀριστόβουλος Ἀττικοῦ Ἀναγυράσιος
περὶ τὸ βῆμα Ῥόδων Καλλίστου Μαραθ.217
Rhodon son of Kallistos from Marathon was grammateus.
…
aeisitoi:
…
grammateus of the boule and demos: Aristoboulos son of Attikos from Anagyrous
peri to bema: Rhodon son of Kallistos from Marathon.
See also the examples on pages 71 and 80.
There are two possible interpretations of this designation. It could refer to the secretary ‘in
attendance’, and be an honorific title. Peri to bema was used to denote the grammateus of
the boule only in inscriptions where honours were bestowed upon Athenian councillors, and
in no other context (such as in epigraphic formulae). 218 In the majority of cases, the peri to
bema is also one of the aeisitoi.219 Alternatively, the word bema (meaning rostrum or
216
Earliest: Ag.15:312 (96/97 AD) 43-44. Latest: IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) III.50. Brillant (1911) 95-96;
Ferguson (1898) 65; Rhodes (1972a) 141; Rhodes (1993) 600.
217
IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) 2-3, III.38, III.47-50.
218
While the grammateus of the boule continues to publish decrees at this time, the designation used is
grammateus kata prytaneian rather than peri to bema. E.g. IG II2 1062 (mid. 1C BC) 6-8.
219
I count 41 inscriptions, dating from the end of the first to the start of the third century AD, that
contain the term peri to bema (see page 281 for a selection). The majority are 2C AD, and in 26/41,
the peri to bema is one of the aeisitoi. In none of these texts does peri to bema have a definite article.
56
speaking platform) could indicate that this secretary stood at the platform.220 One reason for
standing at the platform could be to read documents out in public. 221 If this was the case,
the grammateus of the boule would be associated with a duty that had previously been the
duty of the grammateus of the boule and the demos alone (page 65). This would suggest an
expansion of the responsibilities of the grammateus of the boule.
Three other secretaries have prepositional titles of this kind: [ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα (secretary
in charge of decrees), [ὁ] ἐπι τὸ ἀπόρρητον (secretary for that which cannot be mentioned),
and [ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους (secretary for the laws). See page 72 for more information.
Activities
The grammateus of the boule was the officer who recorded the laws, decrees and decisions
of the boule. This included an abbreviated version of legislation originally proposed by others
(i.e. passages prefaced with ‘<personal name> εἶπεν’).222 He also recorded any other
information deemed worthy of permanent record, such as honours bestowed,223 and
financial accounts.224 Much of this information was written on temporary media only. This
could be either displayed publicly,225 or stored in archives226 managed by a demosios (public
slave, page 81).
Some of the duties ascribed to the grammateus of the boule (here, grammateus kata
prytaneian) are described in Ath. Pol. 54.3:
κληροῦσι δὲ καὶ γραμματέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν καλούμενον, ὃς τῶν γραμμάτων
ἐστὶ κύριος, καὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα τὰ γιγνόμενα φυλάττει, καὶ τἆλλα πάντα ἀντιγράφεται
καὶ παρακάθηται τῇ βουλῇ. πρότερον μὲν οὖν οὗτος ἦν χειροτονητός, καὶ τοὺς
ἐνδοξοτάτους καὶ πιστοτάτους ἐχειροτόνουν. καὶ γὰρ ἐν ταῖς στήλαις πρὸς ταῖς
συμμαχίαις καὶ προξενίαις καὶ πολιτείαις οὗτος ἀναγράφεται. νῦν δὲ γέγονε
κληρωτός.227
They also appoint by lot a grammateus, the one called kata prytaneian, who is in
charge of the documents,228 and is keeper of the decrees that are passed, and sees
220
For the use of ‘peri to bema’, see, e.g. Aeschin. 2.71; Plu. Pericles 11.2.
221
Geagan (1967) 107 uses the literal translation, ‘the man about the rostrum’.
222
MacDowell (1978) 48-49; Osborne (2010) 64-68.
223
E.g. IG II2 26 (394-387 BC) 1-8 on page 62.
224
E.g. the list containing the contents of the Chalkotheke, page 54.
225
Stroud (1979) 3-4. E.g. the axones used to display the law on homicide.
226
Ferguson (1898) 30-31; Sickinger (1999) 5.
227
Ath. Pol. 54.3. Rhodes (1993) 599-603. Rhodes (1993) 601 suggests that the official writing τἆλλα
πάντα ἀντιγράφεται was actually the demosios. See page 81.
228
Alternatively, ‘is authoritative in matters of documents’.
57
to the recording of everything else, and attends meetings of the boule. Formerly this
officer was elected by show of hands, and the most distinguished and trustworthy
men used to be elected, for this officer's name is written up on the stelai for the
alliances and appointments to proxenies229 and grants of citizenship; but now it has
been made an office elected by lot.
As the officer ‘in charge of the documents’ this secretary was the most prominent of the
Athenian secretaries, supervising the transcription of all documents, and working with other
secretaries in a supervisory capacity. In attending all meetings of the boule, the grammateus
would have been present at the preliminary discussion of all decrees.
Copies of texts written by the grammateus of the boule and set up in Athens could also be
set up in other locations. For example, on Delos, references to the grammateus of the boule
almost always (if not always) refer to the grammateus of the boule at Athens.230
The grammateus of the boule was not the person who inscribed the stone.231 In the fifth
century, this may have been because this kind of manual labour was not seen to be
appropriate for a pentakosiomedimnos;232 however, from the mid fourth century, officers were
chosen from all classes,233 and yet evidence still does not suggest that the grammateus of the
boule was ever the stonecutter. The reasons for this may be purely practical. The stonecutter
would have required training, and the grammateus of the boule may not have had either the
time available, or the practical expertise, to write or inscribe all of the texts required.234
Instead, the grammateus of the boule acted as an intermediary between an official body
(and the proposers of decrees) and the stonecutter(s) to ensure that texts were inscribed
correctly, and within any imposed time constraints.235 He was most often the officer
ultimately responsible for the setting up of a text in a public place, 236 and on rare occasions
229
The proxenos hosted foreign ambassadors at his own expense, and would use any personal
connections to promote good relations or alliances between cities.
230
Three Delian inscriptions contain the designation grammateus of the boule: ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 2025, 31-37; ID 502 (297 BC) A25-30; ID 1522 (98-117 AD) 19-21. The first is the Delian copy of an
Athenian proxeny decree, to be written up by the grammateus of the boule at Athens and the
grammateus of the amphictyons at Delos (a position filled by an Athenian man). In the second text it is
impossible to tell the origin of the grammateus, and the officer serves only as one of several witnesses.
In the third text, the grammateus is the recipient of a copy of a Delian decree. See page 327.
231
I have found no evidence from Athens which has both <stonecutter + personal name> and
<grammateus + personal name>. See Appendix F page 347 for more information on stonecutters.
232
For boule officials chosen from the pentakosiomedimnoi, see Ath. Pol. 7.3-8.1, 47.1; Hansen (1999)
30. While ‘the other offices’ (τὰς ἄλλας ἀρχάς) are clearly chosen from the pentakosiomedimnoi, the
grammateus is not singled out for special mention.
233
Ath. Pol. 31.2; Rhodes (1972a) 135.
234
It is unclear why the grammateis of other, smaller, groups do not appear to be stonecutters.
235
See n.241. For the process of creating an inscription, see page 27.
236
E.g. IG II2 410 (c.330 BC) 37-39, page 35.
58
he might update an oath,237 or correct a phrase in an already published decree.238 He may
also have been the officer who ensured that the payment for the text was delivered from the
tamias (treasurer) to the stonecutter, as the treasurer and secretary are often mentioned
together in epigraphic formulae.239
The grammateus of the boule is not attested in the reading out of laws and decrees of the
boule and demos in public until the first century AD, and even here the identification with
this task is uncertain (see [ho] peri to bema on page 56). From the fourth century BC to the
third century AD, this appears to have been primarily the responsibility of the grammateus of
the boule and the demos (see page 64).240
A handful of proxeny or honorific decrees from the middle of the fourth century BC specify
that the grammateus of the boule is required to complete his work ‘within ten days’.241 All
but one of these texts242 specify that the decree is to be on a stone stele, allowing little time
for the drafting, cutting, and final setting up of the text. Time constraints (of any duration)
are not attested for any other Athenian officers.
Further particulars
From the fifth century until 368/7 BC, the grammateus of the boule served for one prytany
only. This secretary was probably also a member of the boule.243 As a member of the boule,
237
Meiggs & Lewis (1989) 111-117. The grammateus could bring a bouleutic oath up to date:
No.45 (450-446 BC) 12: προσγράψαι δὲ πρὸς τὸν ὅρκον [τ]ὸν τῆς βουλης τὸν γραμματέα τὸν τῆς
[βουλης εἰς τὸ λοιπὸν τα]δί…. Rhodes (1972a) 134-5.
238
IG I3 101 (410/09 BC), SEG 12:37; Meritt & Andrewes (1951) 201-3, 207-8. Two decrees on the same
stele. The second decree (47-64) issues corrections to the first (1-46). 7-8: ...[hότι ἄποικοι ὄντες Θασίον]
[καὶ πολιο]|ρκόμενοι [ὑπ' αὐτον] καὶ Πελο[πονν]ησίον... ...that, being colonists of the Thasians and being
besieged by them and the Peloponnesians... is corrected as follows: 58-59: ἐς δὲ τὸ φσέφισμα τὸ
πρό[τερον ἐ]πανορθõσαι τὸγ γραμματέα τε˜ς βολε˜ς : κ[αὶ ἐς αὐτὸ μεταγρ]|[άφ]σαι ἀντὶ τε˜ς ἀποικί[ας τε˜ς
Θασί]ον hότι συνδιεπολέμεσαν τὸμ πόλεμον μ[ετὰ Ἀθεναίον. And the grammateus of the boule is to
amend the earlier decree; and to correct it, where before it said ‘the colony of the Thasians’ to write
‘because they fought through the war with the Athenians’. See also Rhodes (1972a) 139.
239
E.g. IG II2 53 (after 387/6 BC) 5-9.
240
The reading out of documents in law courts was the responsibility of the grammateus who worked
in the lawcourts, who has no known longer official designation. See page 93.
241
The reason for this is not known, and it is impossible to say with any degree of certainty why the
direction appears in 13 surviving decrees from a c.50-year period, and not others. IG II2 141 (376/5 BC)
12-14: τὸ δὲ ψήφισμα τόδε ἀν|αγραψάτω ὁ γραμματεὺς τῆς βολῆς | ἐστήληι λιθίνηι δέκα ἡμερῶν. Also:
IG II2 149 (before 355 BC) 17-23; IG II2 130 (355/4 BC) 15-19; IG II2 133 (355/4  BC) 14-20;
SEG 39:75 (352/2 BC) 9-13; IG II2 206 (349/8 BC) 28-34; SEG 45:59 (c.345 BC) 4-7; IG II2 287
(before 336/5 BC) 12-16; IG II2 253 (336/5 BC) 4-10 (fragmentary); IG II2 289 (before 336/5 BC) 8-11;
IG II2 274 (336/5 BC) 1-3; IG II2 278 (336/5 BC) 10-12; Ag.16:95[2] (322/1 BC) 18-21.
242
IG II2 206 (349/8 BC) 28-34.
243
Rhodes (1972a) 134-6. To support this view, Rhodes examines two decrees on the same stele,
IG II2 1.ii 41-42 (403/2 BC) and IG II2 1.iii (405/4 BC) 56-57, which were written in different prytanies of
the same year. In IG II2 1.ii, Cephisophon is the proposer of a probouleumatic decree, and is therefore
a member of the boule. The prytany is Pandionis and the secretary is Agyrrhius. In IG II2 1.iii, the
proposer of the decree is Eu--, the prytany is Erechtheis, and Cephisophon is now secretary. It is this
59
the secretary was also a member of the tribe ‘in prytany’. There were therefore ten
secretaries a year (one per prytany), one from each of the ten tribes. 244 In the second half of
the fifth century BC, the grammateus of the boule was elected by show of hands,245 and the
order in which the tribes served was chosen by lot.246
There were perhaps 36-40 (or more) items debated in the ekklesia per prytany, each one of
which might lead to the passing of several decrees.247 Few decrees which were passed would
be inscribed, but it was still possible for a grammateus serving for a prytany to organise the
inscribing on stone and setting up in public of several decrees during his period in office.248
The office of grammateus of the boule became an annual one in 367/6 BC.249 The last year
for which secretaries serving for one prytany only are attested is 368/7 BC;250 the first year
for which secretaries serving for a year is attested is 363/2 BC.251 It has been suggested that
the change in the duration of this office from a prytany to a year may indicate awareness
that the duties of the grammateus of the boule could not be completed in a single
prytany.252 However, this change in office did not occur in isolation: the Ath. Pol. notes that
other officers now also served for a year (for reasons which remain unclear).253
From this point onwards, the grammateus of the boule ceased to be drawn from the
members of the boule,254 and could also be known by the designation grammateus kata
prytaneian (see page 53). At approximately the same time that the duration and
connection with the boule that leads Rhodes to conclude both that Cephisophon continued to be a
member of the boule while he was secretary. See also Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 12-17.
244
Ferguson (1898) 14-19 examined evidence from 456-363 BC, noting the tribe ‘in prytany’, and the
name, deme, and tribe of the secretary. His assessment was that for these years, the tribe of the
secretary always differed from the tribe ‘in prytany’.
245
Ath. Pol. 54.3 (page 57), 55.1.
246
Henry (1977) 19-20.
247
Hansen (1989) 98-105. It was also possible for several proposals to be passed as one decree, or no
decree to be passed, and there instead be a debate. Hansen assumes an average of one decree
passed per item on the agenda.
248
Hansen (1989) 98, 104-105 estimates c.500 attested decrees inscribed in the period 355-322 BC,
making an average of 1.5 per prytany, approximately 300 of which survive (0.9 per prytany). However,
see also Develin (1989) 85, where a secretary in 446/5 BC is responsible for several decrees.
249
Ath. Pol. 31.2 (n.253); Rhodes (1972a) 135-6.
250
IG II2 107 (368/7 BC) 4-5.
251
IG II2 109 1-5, IG II2 110 2-6, and IG II2 111 2-4, all 363/2 BC. Each inscription is published in a
different prytany, while the grammateus remains Νικόστρατος Φιλοστράτο Παλληνεύς. Inscriptions
from 367/6–364/3 BC do not substantiate the argument for an annual grammateus of the boule as we
do not have (surviving) named grammateis from more than one prytany in each of these years.
252
Rhodes (1972a) 138.
253
Ath. Pol. 3.4, 45.3.
254
For evidence that this officer ceased to be a member of the boule, see IG II2 228 5-6, IG II2 229 3-4 and
IG II2 1749 63-5, all from 341/0 BC. Ὀνήσιππος Ἀραφήνιος Ἀραφήνιος is the secretary of both IG II2 228
and 229, but does not appear in the list of bouleutai chosen from the Ἀραφήνιοι (IG II2 1749 63-5).
60
membership requirements of the office changed, the selection method also changed, and
became the same as that used for other officers, in that he was elected by lot.255
Secretaryships remained one of the few offices filled by single officials, rather than boards.
Rhodes suggests that the change in duration of this office may have attracted a different
type of person to the role. An elected office, held for a month by a member of the boule
may have attracted someone with political aspirations. An office held for a year and selected
by lot from volunteers would be more likely to be held by someone who was drawn to this
kind of work;256 however, the means of selection would have meant that the office-holder
had no control over whether he was selected or not.
Evidence suggests that one grammateus, Proxenos of Acherdous, was grammateus of the
boule twice; in 335/4 BC and 315/4 BC. This has led some scholars to suggest that it was
possible for any person to be elected grammateus of the boule for a second time, after a
twenty-year period had elapsed.257 However, there is no surviving evidence that any other
grammateis also served twice in this manner, and this second office may instead be due to
administrative disruption under the regime of Demetrius of Phaleron.258 No grammateis
appear to have served in two consecutive years, as was the case with the (fifth century,
oligarchic) syngrammateis (see page 74).
Other attributes
The public profile of the grammateus of the boule did not remain the same throughout the
office’s existence. There were two periods at the end of the fourth and start of the third
century BC when more oligarchic forms of government meant that the anagrapheus became
the eponymous secretary, and took over the duties of the grammateus of the boule (see
page 37).259
The grammateus of the boule could be honoured for his time in office, collectively with other
officials.260 As peri to bema (page 56), the grammateus of the boule could also be honoured
255
Ath. Pol. 54.3: see page 57. Rhodes (1993) 599-603. The change of selection method suggests that
the office of grammateus kata prytaneian was not seen to be a ‘specialist’ function at this time – i.e.
anyone who could be democratically elected would be able to perform the required duties.
256
Rhodes (1993) 603.
257
Ferguson (1898) 36; Rhodes (1972a) 139. Proxenos was grammateus kata prytaneian in IG II2 1700
(335/4 BC) 213-220 (Ag.15:43 (335/4 BC) 227-234) and grammateus in Ag.16:76[1] (335/4 BC) 3-4,
Schwenk 19 (335/4 BC) 3-4, SEG 21:272 (335/4 BC) 4-5 and SEG 23:53 (335/4 BC) 3-4. He was then
grammateus kata prytaneian in IG II2 330 (315/14 BC) 1-2, 23-27 and grammateus in
IG II2 331 (315/14 BC) 2-3.
258
O’Sullivan (2009) 120-4.
259
Rhodes (1972a) 140.
260
See examples on pages 71, 72 and 79.
61
with other secretaries as aeisitoi (ἀΐσειτοι) (see example on page 80).261 There is only one
surviving instance in which the grammateus of the boule is honoured individually,262 and
here, the reason given for these honours is that he has held office ‘well and honourably’;263
the same, unspecific language used for many honours of the boule and demos.
The prominence of the grammateus of the boule is suggested by the position that this office
held in the prescripts of decrees. This grammateus is frequently included using the phrase
<personal name> ἐγραμμάτευε, appearing immediately after the eponymous archon (the
official after whom the year was named) or the tribe. 264 In the fifth and early fourth century
BC, this grammateus could also be included before the eponymous archon or presiding
officer,265 or even be included in the prescript twice:266
Χαρίδημος Θεοτέλος | Λαμπτρεὺς ἐγραμμά|τευεν.
ἔ[δοξ]εν τῶι δήμωι· Ἱπποθωντὶς ἐπρυ|τάνευεν, Χαρίδημος ἐγραμμάτευε[ν], |
[Θ]ρασυμήδης ἐπεστάτε· Ἀθηνόδωρο[ς] | [εἶ]πεν· ἐπαινέσαι μὲν Ἴφιτον τὸν
Φ[α]|ρ[σ]άλιον…267
Charidemos son of Theotelos from Lamptrai was grammateus.
It was decreed by the demos: the prytany was Hippothontis, Charidemos was
grammateus, Thrasymedes presided. Athenodoros proposed: to praise Iphitos the
Pharsalian…268
Sherk’s view is that “for most of the fifth century one gains the impression… that the
eponymous archon had a serious rival in the privilege of having his name used to date
official documents”.269 It is in cases such as this where one might conclude that the
grammateus was in effect replacing the eponymous archon as the most prominent official.
In this decree and a small number of other documents published from the mid-fifth to midfourth centuries BC, the name and designation of the grammateus of the boule could be
261
See page 47 or the Glossary for a definition of aeisitoi.
262
Schwenk 9 (335/4 BC) 1-21; Lambert (2004) 88; Schweigert (1938) 292-294.
263
Schwenk 9 (335/4 BC) 7-9: [ὁ γραμματεὺς ὁ κατ]ὰ πρυταν|[είαν ἐν παντὶ καιρῶι καλῶς καὶ
φιλοτίμω]ς ἄρχει τ|[ὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτοῦ...]
264
For example in the homicide law IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 3-4: ἔδοχσεν τει βουλει καὶ τõι δέμοι·
Ἀκα[μ]αντὶς ἐπ[ρ]υτάνευε, [Δ]ιό[γ]|νετος ἐγραμμάτευε.
265
IG I3 82 (421/0 BC) 2-3: [Προκλες] Ἀτάρβο Ε[ὐονυμεὺς] | [ἐγραμμάτ]ευε ἐπὶ Ἀριστ[ίονος ἄρχοντος] ;
also IG II2 26 (394-387 BC) 1-5; IG II2 49 (beg. 4C BC) 1; IG II2 58 (bef. 378/7 BC) 1-6; IG II2 77 (375 BC) 1;
IG II2 127 (356/5 BC) 1. Henry (1977) 8, 10, 21.
266
IG I3 31 (c.450 BC) 1-5. Henry (1977) 8, 21-22 lists other examples of this type.
267
IG II2 26 (394-387 BC) 1-8.
268
One would normally expect the name in the genitive, e.g. Iphitos of Pharsalus. I write Iphitos the
Pharsalian here to preserve the accusative.
269
62
Sherk (1990a) 249; 271-272.
made more prominent by the use of larger letters than the remainder of the text. In some
cases, his name and designation could also be accentuated by separation from the
remainder of the text by blank space or an incised line (see Table 15 on page 300). It is
possible that this separation and close proximity to any sculptural relief also emphasised the
importance of the office.270 However, the names and designations of only a few secretaries
are shown this way, and therefore this can at best be seen as promoting individual officers,
rather than the office as a whole. Occasionally, the names and designations of other types
of secretaries could also be displayed prominently in this manner. The only surviving
occurrence of this practice from the end of the fourth-century BC onwards is where the
prytaneis of Aiantis honour officers from their own tribe (see page 69).271
Evidence for statues or images of grammateis of the boule is scarce. One possible instance
is panel East 19 of the Parthenon frieze, which may contain the image of one of the fifth
century grammateus of the Kleisthenic boule, along with other Athenian officials taking part
in the procession for the Panathenaic festival. 272
Figure 1 – Figure East 19 from the Parthenon frieze.273
This identification is far from certain. Jenkins’ argument is based on the theory that the
frieze does not represent the ten eponymous heroes, but instead the nine archons. This then
leaves one unidentified official, which he suggests must logically be the grammateus.274
Nagy believes that the archons and grammateus are not fitting candidates for this frieze due
to their importance as Athenian magistrates, and their lack of known connections to the
270
See, e.g. the grammateus in the decree honouring the Samians: IG I3 127 (405/4 BC) 1-4; Blanshard
(2007) 19-20.
271
See also Tracy (2000) 227-233, who describes late 4C BC inscriptions in which the names of
politicians are accentuated by blank spaces, or the positioning of their names at the start of a line.
272
Jenkins (1985) 126.
273
Drawing: Bird, from Jenkins (1985) pl.B, ill.1.
274
Jenkins (1985) 121, 125-6.
63
Panathenaia. He believes that it is much more likely that these figures are the athlothetai,
who had connections with this festival.275
Three, late sixth-century BC statues have also been identified as ‘scribes’ due to their
posture: seated, holding writing-tablets and styluses (now lost).276 The date and status of
these objects suggests that these officers were either grammateis, tamiai or katalogeis: the
only officers known to have used writing for administrative purposes at this time. One of the
three has been tentatively associated with an Ionic column of the same period, inscribed
with a dedication by the son of a man who was tamias.277
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the
boule and the demos)
The grammateus of the boule and the demos is attested from the first quarter of the fourth
century BC until the start of the first century BC.278 This designation can be abbreviated to
grammateus of the demos (γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου) to save space.279 For example, in
Agora 15:130, the designation given for the grammateus in the body of the text:
… τὸν | γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου Κτησικλῆν Κηφι|σοφῶντος Φαληρέα …
The grammateus of the boule and the demos Ktesikles son of Kephisophon of Phaleron.
is abbreviated in the citation:
ἡ βουλή |τὸν γραμ|ματέα τοῦ | δήμου Κτ|ησικλῆν Κη|φισ[ι]έα
The boule (honour) the grammateus of the demos Ktesikles Kephisiea280
The abbreviated form grammateus of the demos is attested from the end of the fourth century
to the end of the second century BC.281 In the second and third centuries AD, the designation
can also be abbreviated to γ βουλῆς δήμου,282 or γρ βο δ.283
275
Nagy (1992) 55-56, 59-60, 62.
276
Trianti (1994) 83-86.
277
Statue: Acr. No. 629, column: DAA no.6; Keesling (2003) 182-185. Inscribed altar dedicated to
Chairion: DAA no.330.
278
See, for example IG II2 1740 (388/7 BC) 53-4; Ag.15:261 53-54 & 262 5-7 (c.95/4 BC).
279
Dow (1937) 16. Meritt & Traill (1974) 15 notes that both γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου and γραμματεὺς τῶι
δήμωι can be used as an abbreviation for γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου: see Ag.15:89, 99 and 43.
280
Meritt & Traill (1974) 122-123, 419; Ag.15:130 (220/19 BC) 51-53, 128-133. The editors suggest that
Κηφισιέα is a demotic cut in error for Φαληρεύς.
281
Earliest grammateus of the demos: IG II2 660 (aft. mid. 4C BC) 19-24. Latest: II2 1011 (106/5 BC) 62.
282
Ag.15:443 (c.198 AD) 24.
283
Ag.15:445 (c.200 AD) 12. See also the alternative designation grammateus of the polis on page 65.
64
Activities
It is likely that the grammateus of the boule and the demos is the secretary referred to in
the Athenaion Politeia, whose function was to read documents to the boule and assembly:284
χειροτονεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ δῆμος γραμματέα, τὸν ἀναγνωσόμενον αὐτῷ καὶ τῇ βουλῇ, καὶ
οὗτος οὐδενός ἐστι κύριος285 ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἀναγνῶναι.286
The demos also elects by show of hands a grammateus, to read documents to the
assembly and to the boule, and this man has authority over nothing but reading.
While the grammateus of the boule and the demos had authority only in the reading of
documents to the assembly and boule, this was not his only function. This officer could also
write up texts to be inscribed, and was directed to do this in the same manner as specified
for the grammateus of the boule:287
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν γραμματέα τοῦ δήμου ἐν στήλει λιθίνῃ
καὶ στῆσαι ἐν ἀκροπόλει...288
And the grammateus of the boule and the demos is to write up this decree on a
stone stele and set it up on the acropolis….
It is the association with reading that has led Rhodes to suggest that the grammateus of the
boule and the demos is the officer referred to by Thucydides, when he uses the term
‘grammateus of the polis’:289
τοῦ δ᾽ ἐπιγιγνομένου χειμῶνος ἥκοντες ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας οἱ παρὰ τοῦ Νικίου ὅσα τε ἀπὸ
γλώσσης εἴρητο αὐτοῖς εἶπον, καὶ εἴ τίς τι ἐπηρώτα ἀπεκρίνοντο, καὶ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν
ἀπέδοσαν. ὁ δὲ γραμματεὺς ὁ τῆς πόλεως παρελθὼν ἀνέγνω τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις
δηλοῦσαν τοιάδε.290
In the following winter, the persons sent by Nicias, reaching Athens, gave the verbal
messages which had been entrusted to them, and answered any questions that
were asked them, and delivered the letter. The grammateus of the polis now came
forward and read out to the Athenians the letter, which was as follows…
284
Rhodes (1993) 604 §54.5.
285
κύριος could alternatively be translated as ‘is responsible for’, i.e. the grammateus of the demos is
responsible for nothing but reading. This interpretation is misleading as this officer also wrote and saw
to the setting up of inscriptions.
286
Ath. Pol. 54.5.
287
See Table 14 on page 297.
288
IG II2 496 (303/2 BC) 36-39.
289
Rhodes (1993) 604 §54.5. See also Rhodes (1972a) 136.
290
Th. 7.10.1 (5C BC).
65
It is difficult if not impossible to associate this grammateus of the polis with any other
officer, as no other officers of the boule and demos were associated with the reading out of
texts in public at this time, and later associations with this duty are only inferences based
upon the officer’s designation.291 This passage therefore contains the earliest use of the term
grammateus of the polis,292 and, if synonymous with grammateus of the boule and the
demos, is the earliest reference to this officer.
In calling the grammateus of the boule and the demos the grammateus of the polis,
Thucydides deliberately avoids the use of a technical term, something he does frequently.293
Further Particulars
The office of grammateus of the boule and the demos was separate from that of grammateus of
the boule, both designations frequently occurring together in honorific texts.294
Little is known about the earliest period of this office. In c.367/6 BC (when the office of
grammateus of the boule became annual), the office of grammateus of the boule and the
demos is likely to have also been annual;295 however, it retained the selection method
previously used for the grammateus of the boule when he served for a prytany only, that of
election by show of hands.296 This selection method may have been because the office was
deemed to require special expertise297 – the ability to read out documents to the boule and
demos.
The only qualifications required in order to be eligible for office as grammateus of the boule
and the demos were citizen status and sufficient funds to be able to support oneself. The
orator Aeschines, who is believed to have held office as grammateus of the boule and the
demos in the 360s BC,298 was able to serve in this capacity as he had obtained sufficient
finances through marriage that he did not need to seek regular, paid employment.299
291
See [ho] peri to bema on page 56.
292
A designation known later from several locations, including Delos (see page 322).
293
Hornblower (2008) 559-560 notes the “untechnicality” of Thucydides’ terminology here, which he
believes enhances the “impression of impetuous action”. Hornblower (1991) 87, 218, 273: Throughout,
“Thucydides cannot be relied upon to use technical language precisely, though sometimes he does.”
See also Hornblower (1987) 7-10, 36-37, 75-76, 96-100.
294
See e.g. the examples on pages 72 and 80.
295
Ferguson (1898) 66.
296
Compare the selection of the grammateus kata prytaneian in Ath. Pol. 54.3, page 57 with that of
the grammateus of the boule and the demos in Ath. Pol. 54.4, page 65.
297
298
Taylor (2007) 323.
Evidence for Aeschines’ office is found in both the speeches of Aeschines (1, 2 & 3) and (his bitter
rival) Demosthenes (18 & 19). Demosthenes frequently refers to Aeschines as grammateus, but in
19.70 describes him as ὑπογραμματεύων γὰρ ὑμῖν καὶ ὑπηρετῶν τῇ βουλῇ, undersecretary to you (the
people) and servant to the boule, with hypogrammateus used in a derogatory sense (as in Lys. 30.27).
66
Other attributes
Earlier in his life, Aeschines appears to have been an assistant to his father (a schoolteacher),
and an actor.300 Aeschines never refers directly to his previous occupations, making it
impossible to ascertain his own perceptions of the office. This may be to reduce the chances
that Demosthenes would attempt to use this information to convict him. The only potential
veiled reference to his time as grammateus of the boule and the demos is in Against
Ctesiphon, though this too is doubtful. Here, when attempting to refute Demosthenes’
charge of treason against him, he comments on the way in which he expects decrees to be
heard. He says that it used to be the case that jurors frequently asked the clerk of the court
(grammateus, page 93) to stop, in order to assess the case fairly, and to see whether a
motion is legal or not. However, this does not happen any more; the clerk reads the
statement, and the jurors do not listen. 301 In this, he may be unfavourably comparing the
clerk of the court with the reading activities of the grammateus of the boule and the demos.
Demosthenes uses the term grammateus in a derogatory manner, as part of a string of
insults after ‘knave and scoundrel’302 and ‘gossip-monger and market-place layabout’.303 By
using grammateus last, he implies that it is the worst of these terms. He also suggests that
even Aeschines believed that being called a grammateus was defamation of character:
κἂν ‘ὁ γεγραμματευκὼς Αἰσχίνης’ εἴπῃ τις, ἐχθρὸς εὐθέως καὶ κακῶς φησιν ἀκηκοέναι
If a man speaks of “Aeschines, the man who had been secretary,” he makes a
private quarrel of it, and talks of defamation of character.304
The majority of Demosthenes’ insults are personal. He comments that Aeschines does not
read out documents correctly (an important part both of the office of grammateus of the
boule and the demos and his current occupation),305 and he is equally as scathing about
Aeschines’ personal performance as actor306 and as teacher’s assistant.307
The reference to both boule and demos makes his designation most likely that of grammateus of the
boule and the demos. Harris (1995) 7, 30.
299
According to Demosthenes 18.312, Aeschines inherited “more than five talents” from his father-in-law.
Harris (1995) 31-32; Lane Fox (1994) 139-140. While this figure may be erroneous, Aeschines would
have received up to a talent as a dowry from his father-in-law Philon, on his marriage. See also n.298.
300
D. 18.129, 18.258; Adams (1919) vii-xi; Lane Fox (1994) 140.
301
Aeschin. 3.192.
302
D. 19.95: πανοῦργος οὗτος καὶ θεοῖς ἐχθρὸς καὶ γραμματεύς. He (is) a knave, and hateful to the
gods (lit.) and grammateus.
303
D. 18.127: …σπερμολόγος, περίτριμμ᾽ ἀγορᾶς, ὄλεθρος γραμματεύς…. …gossip-monger, market-
place layabout and wretched grammateus.
304
D. 19.314.
305
D. 18.121.
306
D. 18.262, 18.287; 19.200.
67
As personal insults, the testimony of Demosthenes cannot tell us how the majority of
Athenian citizens perceived either grammateis generally or this office specifically. It is also
unclear whether opinions could be swayed by comments such as these. Conversely,
Aeschines’ speeches appear to show that he was unable to use skills or knowledge gained
during his time as grammateus of the boule and the demos in such a way that this would
not also have been used against him by Demosthenes.308
The grammateus of the boule and the demos was one of several secretaries honoured
collectively as aeisitoi (see page 47), and Aeschines also appears to have had this honour.309
γραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (grammateus of the eisagogeis)
The eisagogeis were the officers who brought the lawsuits of the tribes to court. 310 There
were five eisagogeis, and each one performed services for two phylai. 311
Of the five eisagogeis, one may have been grammateus, and another syngrammateus:
τά[χσι]ς [φ]ό[ρο]·
ἔδοχσεν τε[ι βολει καὶ τõι δέμοι· Λεοντὶς] ἐπρ[υτάνευε, ...]ον ἐγρα[μμάτευε,
…
κυαμεῦσαι δὲ ἐ]σαγογέα[ς —8—· τού]τος δὲ [hελέσθαι καὶ γραμμα]|τέα καὶ
χσυ[γγραμματέα ἐχ σφõν αὐτ]õν·312
Assessment of tribute.
Resolved by the [boule and demos: Leontis] held the prytany, …-on was grammateus,
…
And they (the boule and demos) [shall select by lot] — — eisagogeis. They [shall
also elect] a grammateus and a syngrammateus [from among] themselves.313
If the restoration is secure, this text provides evidence for officers who have more than one
function: two of the five eisagogeis served as secretary in addition to their legal
responsibilities. Unfortunately, the sentence is ambiguous, and it could be read that the boule,
rather than the eisagogeis were electing secretaries. If so, these officers would be the
307
D. 18.129, 18.258.
308
Lane Fox (1994) 141 draws similar conclusions.
309
D. 19.249.
310
Ath. Pol. 52.2.
311
Jones (1987) 43; Rhodes (1993) 582-3.
312
IG I3 71 (425/4 BC) 2-3, 7-8.
313
Fornara (1983) 154-157 No.136.
68
grammateus of the boule (page 51), and the syngrammateus recorded in earlier assessments
of tribute (see page 74). In these earlier texts, there is no mention of the eisagogeis.314
An additional member of the eisagogeis may have been added when the number of phylai was
increased to twelve.315 There are no other references to the secretaries of the eisagogeis.
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων (grammateus of the prytaneis)
The prytaneis were the fifty men from a single Athenian tribe who formed the executive
officers of the boule for a tenth of the year (a period called a prytany). 316 Each group of fifty
prytaneis had their own secretary.
Activities
Evidence for this secretary is limited, and primarily comprises registers of prytaneis. It is
likely that the grammateus of the prytaneis was responsible for administration pertaining to
his own tribe’s representatives (prytaneis) only.317
The grammateus of the prytaneis may also be the presiding official in one (fragmentary)
decree of the tribe of Aiantis, which honours several officers of this tribe.
Φειδίας [Ῥαμνούσιος γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων ? εἶπεν] |
ἐπειδὴ οἱ πρυτά[νεις τῆς Αἰαντίδος οἱ ἐπὶ — — — ἄρχοντος καὶ] | οἱ ἀίσειτοι
ἐπα[ινέσαντες καὶ στεφανώσαντες318
Pheidias [of Rhamnous, grammateus of the prytaneis said:]
since the prytaneis [of Aiantis in the archonship of — — — and] the aeisitoi praise
[and crown…]
314
The reference to two different selection methods for these officers is ambiguous. If the secretaries
are of the eisagogeis, the phrase indicates that the eisagogeis had control over the election of their
own officers. If the secretaries are officers of the boule and demos, the text neither confirms nor
contradicts our information on the early selection methods of these officers.
315
Crosby (1937) 459; Jones (1987) 43; Rhodes (1993) 582-3. References to six eisagogeis have been
restored in Hesp.6 457-460 No.7 (after 167/6 BC) and 460-461 No.8.
316
Hansen (1999) 104-105, 141.
317
The office may have had similar duties to the secretaries of demes. See Osborne (1985) 79 & 206.
318
Ag.15:322 (c.120 AD) 1-3. Dow (1937) 193-197. Dow does not explain the basis for restoring
Pheidias as secretary. Pheidias also appears in line 58 as the first of the individuals from Rhamnous.
Graindor (1914) 415 no.3.
69
Other attributes
The name of the secretary, Pheidas, is prominently displayed at the head of the stele, above
the deeply-incised border surrounding the text, in larger letters than the rest of the decree:
Figure 2 - Agora 15:322: The tribe of Aiantis honours its prytaneis.319
See Table 15 on page 300 for other instances where a secretary’s name and/or designation
is displayed prominently in this way.
While the grammateus of the prytaneis could be placed in a prominent position in tribal
decrees, the surviving evidence does not show this officer attaining any degree of
319
Image: Dow (1937) 194. Dow (1937) 193-197 No.121 196. Total preserved height of stele: 0.73m,
thickness:0.14m, original width (estimated): 0.74m. Dow believes that the decree would have
originally been much taller, the top portion containing citations and crowns, in which case, proximity to
the sculptural relief may have emphasised the secretary’s importance.
70
prominence; neither does he appear to have received the privileges of the aeisitoi which
were bestowed upon many other types of secretary .320
The grammateus of the prytaneis could be directed to write up a decree. The formula given
is similar to that typically used for the duties of the grammateus of the boule:
...ἀναγράψα]ι δὲ τόδε|[τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν γραμματέ]α τῶν πρυ|[τάνεων ἐν τῇ στήληι
λι]θίνηι καὶ | [στῆσαι ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ] βουλευτηρ|[ίου·321
And [the grammateus] of the prytaneis is to [write up] this [decree on the] stone
[stele] and [set it up in front of the] bouleuterion.
The grammateus of the prytaneis was not the grammateus kata prytaneian. Both offices can
be recorded together in decrees of the boule and demos. For example, the following register
of officers from Marathon includes both a peri to bema (another name for the grammateus
kata prytaneian, also known as the grammateus of the boule, page 56) and a grammateus
of the prytaneis:
[Μαραθώνιοι]
[Marathon]
…
…
<κῆρυξ> βουλῆς καὶ δ[ήμου — — —]
herald of the boule and demos <name>
περὶ τὸ βῆμα Ἐπι — — —
peri to bema Epi—
ἀντιγραφεὺς Νει[κ — —]
antigrapheus Neik—322
ἱεραύλης Ἑρμόδω[ρος]
sacred flute-player Hermodoros
ἐπὶ Σκιάδος Πρωτ[— — ἐπιστάτης]
in the [foremanship] of Skias Prot—323
γρ(αμματεύς) π[ρυ]τάνεων Ν — —324
grammateus of the prytaneis N—
In some instances, the designation grammateus of the prytaneis could be shortened to
grammateus (see example on page 72). In the second century AD (above), it could also be
shortened to γρ. πρυτάνεων.
See also grammateus of the bouleutai on page 96.
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα (secretary in charge of decrees)
See secretary for the laws on page 72.
320
Dow (1937) 195 comments that the column containing the aeisitoi in Ag.15:322 is missing.
321
SEG 28:52 (c.333 BC) 22-26.
322
For the antigrapheus, see page 49.
323
Epistates could also be ‘the person presiding for the day,’ e.g. at a meeting of the assembly.
324
IG II2 1806 (190-200 AD) 1, 19-24 (Ag.15:424). Line 24 is the last line of the inscription.
71
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον (secretary for that which cannot be
mentioned)
Seven honorific decrees from the end of the second to start of the first century BC note a
secretary for that which cannot be mentioned ([ὁ] ἐπι τὸ ἀπόρρητον, [ho] epi to aporreton).325
This secretary is known from his designation in inscriptions only. See example on page 72.
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους (secretary for the laws)
Several honorific inscriptions of the boule and demos which bestow honours on their officers
include a secretary for the laws ([ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους, [ho] epi tous nomous) and a secretary
in charge of decrees ([ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα, [ho] epi ta psephismata).326 The following
example is included as one of only three texts that include both designations.327
[vacat]
[γραμματεὺς τῆς Πτολεμαιί]δος Αἰσχρία[ς Φ]λυεύς· [ἱ]ερεὺς Πτολ[εμαίου v]
[— — c.18 — — ἱ]ερεὺς Ἀττάλ[ου Ἀ]νθεμίων Περιθοίδης· [— c.6-7 —]
[— — c.18 — —]πος Ἀχαρνεύς· [γρ]αμμαπεὺς κατὰ πρ[υτανείαν v]
[— — c.16 — — Λαμ]πτρεύς· ἀντιγραφε[ὺς] Νικ<ί>ας Στειριε[ύς· — — —]
[— — c.16 — — Εἰτ]εαῖος· ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματ[α Ἐ]ξηκίας [Ἐ]λευ[σίνιος· — c.4 —]
[— — c.12 — —· ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπ]όρρητον Φιλωνίδης Ἀφιδ[ν]αῖος· ἐπὶ τοὺς [— — c.7 — —]
[— — — c.20 — — —] Φιλήμων Πόριος, Φίλων Ὀῆ[θε]ν, Ἰάσων [— c.9 —]
[— — — c.20 — — — Δ]ημοκλῆς Ἀθμονεὺς· ἐπὶ το[ὺς] νό[μους — c.6 —]
[— — — c.21 — — — Κ]ολλυτεύς· γραμματε[ὺς βουλῆς καὶ δήμου v]
[— — — c.20 — — — ἐκ Κ]ολωνοῦ· ὑπογραμματε[ὺς βουλῆς καὶ δήμου]
[— — — c.22 — — —· κῆ]ρυξ βουλῆς καὶ δήμου Ε[ὐκλῆς Εὐκλέους]…328
[grammateus of the (prytaneis of?) Ptolemais] Aischrias of Phlya; priest of Ptolemais
… priest of Attalos, Anthemion son of Perithoides; …—pos of Acharnai; grammateus
kata prytaneian … of Lamptrai; antigrapheus Nikias son of Steiries; … of Eiteaios;
secretary in charge of decrees Exekias of Eleusis; … secretary for that which cannot be
mentioned, Philonides of Aphidna; (office for the?) … Philemon of Poros, Philon of Oe,
Jason … Demokles of Athmon; secretary for the laws … of Kollytos; grammateus [of
325
Rhodes (1972a) 140. See Appendix A page 280 for a list of inscriptions.
326
For inscriptions containing the secretary for the laws, see Appendix A page 280. For the secretary in
charge of decrees, see Appendix A page 279. Rhodes (1972a) 138.
327
Brillant (1911) 106-107, writing before the discovery of many of the Agora 15 texts, considered
secretary for the laws and secretary in charge of decrees to be synonymous. This example disproves
this, as both designations occur in the same text, and a personal name is supplied for each.
328
72
Ag.15:259 (97/6 BC) 85-96. Dow (1937) 33 no.1, Meritt (1941) 45.
the boule and demos,] … of Kolonos; hypogrammateus [of the boule and demos] …
herald of the boule and demos Eukles [son of Eukles]….
It is difficult to produce an adequate reconstruction of the missing sections of the text,
however, this inscription is similar to many honorific texts for officers of the boule and
demos, in that it contains no verbs (e.g. of writing) to assist us in ascertaining the
responsibilities of these officers.
Activities
The secretary for the laws may be the officer described in the Athenaion Politeia as the
officer who attends meetings of the boule, and has copies made of all the laws:
κληροῦσι δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους ἕτερον, ὃς παρακάθηται τῇ βουλῇ, καὶ ἀντιγράφεται
καὶ οὗτος πάντας.329
They also elect by lot a second officer to superintend the laws, who attends the
sittings of the council, and he also has copies made of all the laws.
The Ath. Pol. describes this officer immediately after the grammateus kata prytaneian (54.3)
and immediately before the grammateus of the boule and the demos (54.5), suggesting a
close association of these three officers. On the strength of this, Sickinger suggests that the
secretary for the laws worked under the supervision of the grammateus kata prytaneian.330
The association of the secretary for the laws with the grammateus kata prytaneian and
grammateus of the boule and the demos suggests that this office was held for a year.
There is no additional evidence for the duties of this officer in epigraphic or literary sources:
inscriptions preserve his designation only.
Even less is known of the secretary in charge of decrees, who was also honoured as one of
the secretaries of the boule and demos (see example on page 72), and is known from his
designation in epigraphic sources only. The secretary in charge of decrees may have
attended council sessions, writing copies of the decrees in the same way that the secretary
for the laws wrote copies of the laws.331
329
Ath. Pol. 54.4.
330
Sickinger (1999) 143.
331
Sickinger (1999) 143.
73
συγγραμματεύς (syngrammateus)
An officer known as the syngrammateus (spelt συγγραμματεύς, συνγραμματεύς or
χσυγγραμματεύς) or ‘co-grammateus’ (grammateus working with another grammateus)
appears in a small number of decrees from the middle of the fifth century BC.332
Three different types of secretary appear to have been known by the designation
syngrammateus: a secretary of the boule, one of the two secretaries of the eisagogeis
(page 68), and one of the two secretaries of the epistatai (page 100).
Activities
The syngrammateus is named alongside the grammateus of the boule and hellenotamiai in
decrees recording tribute, and was presumably involved in the recording of tribute:
ἐπὶ τες τρίτες καὶ δεκάτε[ς] ἀρχες [hει Χαλ]κιδεὺς Μελιτεὺ[ς ἐγραμμάτευε,
Δ]ο[ρ]ύφιλ|ος Ἰκαριεὺς hελλενοταμίας εν, Σά[τυρος] Λευκονοιεὺς
συνε[γραμμάτευε]· | Ἰονικὸς φόρος· (There then follows the record of tribute.)333
In the thirteenth archonship, [in which] Kalkideus of Melite [was grammateus,]
Doryphilos of Ikaria was hellenotamias, [Satyros] of Leukone was syngrammateus:
Ionic tribute: …
Further Particulars
The syngrammateus Satyros (above) is present in two decrees: one from 443/2 BC and
another from 442/1 BC.334 This suggests that the office was held for more than a year.335
συγγραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (syngrammateus of the
eisagogeis)
See grammateus of the eisagogeis on page 68.
συγγραφεύς (syngrapheus)
The syngrapheus (spelt συγγραφεύς, συνγραφεύς, χσυγγραφεύς, χσυνγγραφεύς or
ξυγγραφεύς) or ‘commissioner’ is attested in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, and
the second century AD.
332
E.g. IG I3 269 (443/2 BC) 36.
333
IG I3 270 (442/1 BC) 1-3.
334
Satyros of Leukonoe is syngrammateus in IG I3 269 (443/2 BC) 1, 36 and IG I3 270 (442/1 BC) 1-2.
There is no evidence for the syngrammateus in the year prior to, or after this.
335
Develin (1989) 20 suggests that the syngrammateus and (some) other secretaries were not
permitted to serve the same magistracy twice, but does not elaborate. He instead refers to Brillant
(1911), Ferguson (1898) and Rhodes (1972a) 139, none of whom mention the syngrammateus.
74
Activities
In the fifth century BC, syngrapheis were employed by the boule and demos as
commissioners for the drafting of laws, and were involved in the creation of a law
concerning arrangements for the Milesians:336
[Μι]λεσί[οις χσυγ]γρ[αφαί]·
[ἔδοχσεν] τει βολει κα[ὶ τõι δέμοι· ․․6․․․ὶς ἐπρ]υτάν[ευε, ․c.6․․ ἐγραμμάτ]|[ευε,
․c.4․]ορ ἐπεστάτε, [Εὔθυνος ερχε· τάδε hοι χ]συνγγρα[φες χσυνέγραφσαν·337
Agreement for the Milesians:
[It was decreed] by the boule and [the demos:] … —is held the prytany, … [ — was
grammateus,] … —os presided, [Euthynos was archon. The following <document>]
syngrapheis [commissioned:] 338
The remainder of the inscription sets out regulations for the Milesians, including the election
of their magistrates, the extent of their responsibilities, and punishments for transgressing
their agreement with Athens.
Syngrapheis were also used by Peisander during the four-month period known as the
‘government of the Four Hundred’ (411 BC). Their duties were to compose Peisander’s
changes to the constitution, which would make it more oligarchic in nature.339
The office of syngrapheus existed at the same time as anagrapheus of the laws (page 38).
The most significant difference between these offices appears to be that the syngrapheus
could create new laws, while the anagrapheus could only revise existing laws.340
Further particulars
The number of syngrapheis originally employed by the boule and demos is uncertain.
Thucydides claims that there were ten of them, while the Ath. Pol. notes that an additional
twenty officers were proposed by Pythodorus in 404/3 BC.341
336
IG I3 21 (450/49 BC) 1-3, SEG 21:27. And. 1.96; Bradeen & McGregor (1973) 37; Clinton (1982) 28;
Develin (1989) 81.
337
IG I3 21 (450/49 BC) 1-3, SEG 21:27.
338
Fornara (1983) 92-93 No.92.
339
Ath. Pol. 29.2; 33.1; Th. 8.67. Gallia (2004) 451; Hansen (1999) 40-41.
340
Clinton (1982) 28-29, 40; Meiggs (1989) 265.
341
Th. 8.67; Ath. Pol. 29.2.
75
The duration of this office is unknown, and may have been on an ad hoc basis, in much the
same way that the office of anagrapheus of the laws was ad hoc (see page 38).
Harpocration describes the office as follows:
Συγγραφεῖς: Ἰσοκράτης Ἀρεοπαγιτικῷ. εἰθισμένον ἦν παρ’ Ἀθηναίοις, ὁπότε δέοι,
πλῆθός τι αἱρεῖσθαι, εἰς ῥητὴν ἡμέραν εἰσφέ|ρον γνώμας εἰς τὸν δῆμον. τοῦτο δὲ καὶ
πρὸ τῆς καταστάσεως τῶν υʹ ἐγένετο, καθὰ Θουκυδίδης ἐν τῇ ηʹ φησίν “ἐν δὲ
τούτῳ τῷ καιρῷ οἱ περὶ Πείσανδρον ἐλθόντες εὐθὺς τῶν λοιπῶν εἴχοντο, καὶ πρῶτον
μὲν τὸν δῆμον συλλέξαντες εἶπον γνώμην, ιʹ ἄνδρας ἑλέσθαι συγγραφέας
αὐτοκράτορας, τούτους δὲ συγγράψαντας γνώμην ἐξενεγκεῖν ἐς τὸν δῆμον ἐς
ἡμέραν ῥητὴν, καθότι ἄριστα ἡ πόλις οἰκήσεται.” ἦσαν δὲ οἱ μὲν πάντες συγγραφεῖς
λʹ οἱ τότε αἱρεθέντες, καθά φησιν Ἀνδροτίων τε καὶ Φιλόχορος, ἑκάτερος ἐν τῇ
Ἀτθίδι· ὁ δὲ Θουκυδίδης τῶν ιʹ ἐμνημόνευσε μόνων τῶν προβούλων.342
Syngrapheis: Isokrates (in the) Areiopagitikos (7.58). It was a practice amongst the
Athenians, whenever necessary, to select a certain number (of men), who
introduced proposals before the demos on an appointed day. And this happened
also before the establishment of the Four Hundred, as Thucydides says in his (book)
eight (8.67.1). ‘At this crucial moment Peisander’s faction arrived and immediately
took control of the remaining details. And they first assembled the demos and
proposed that ten men be chosen as syngrapheis with full authority, and that when
these men had composed (their ideas) they should bring forth a proposal before the
demos at an appointed day regarding the way the city will be managed best.’ But
the total (number of) syngrapheis who were elected at that time were thirty, as both
Androtion and Philokhoros say, each one in his Atthis. But Thucydides only
mentioned the ten probouloi.343
In the second century AD, syngrapheus refers to a writer, author or historian.344
342
FGrH 3b 324 F43/FGrH 3b 328 F136 = Harp. Words Used by the Ten Orators 283-4.
343
Translation: Harding (2008) 132. Harding notes that “even for the history of the 5C, Philokhoros
often derived his material from Androtion”. The text from Thucydides 8.67 is as follows: καὶ πρῶτον
μὲν τὸν δῆμον ξυλλέξαντες εἶπον γνώμην δέκα ἄνδρας ἑλέσθαι ξυγγραφέας αὐτοκράτορας, τούτους δὲ
ξυγγράψαντας γνώμην ἐσενεγκεῖν ἐς τὸν δῆμον ἐς ἡμέραν ῥητὴν καθ᾽ ὅτι ἄριστα ἡ πόλις οἰκήσεται:
First, they called an assembly and proposed the election of ten syngrapheis, who should be
empowered to frame for the city the best constitution which they could devise; this was to be laid
before the people on a fixed day.
344
E.g. I.Patras 364 (mid 2C AD) 13-14; Chaniotis (1988) 318-319. The designation is also found on a
funerary dedication: IG II2 5506 (117-138 AD) 1-3: Μόσχος hερμέροτος καὶ | Δορίδος hαλαιεὺς hο |
συνγραφεύς. Moschos with a bust of Eros and Doridos of Halai the syngrapheus; and an honorific
inscription from the Asklepieion, which honours people by profession: IG II2 3806 (end 2C AD) 1-7:
Πομπηιανὸν Κο[λ]|λυτέα τὸν συγγρα|φέα· Σωσιγένης | Παλληνεὺς ὁ σο|φιστὴς ψηφισαμέ|νης τῆς ἐξ
Ἀρείου|πάγου βουλῆς. Pompeianos of Kollytos the syngrapheus: Sosigenes of Pallene the sophist: [by]
vote of the council of the Areopagus. This text either honours two people with one inscription, or
Sosigenes is the proposer of honours for Pompeianos. Geagan (1991) 154.
76
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus)
Designations
The office of hypogrammateus or ‘under-secretary’ is known from Athens from at least the end
of the fifth century BC to the third century AD.345 The prefix ὑπο- refers to the status of this
grammateus as subordinate to any other grammateus serving in the same organisation,346 in
the same way that ὑποπαιδοτρίβης (under-gymnastic-master) and ὑποστράτηγος, (under-
strategos or ‘lieutenant-general’) were subordinate officers to the παιδοτρίβης and στράτηγος.
The hypogrammateus is known from a variety of contexts, but is most frequently attested as
an officer of the boule and demos, honoured with other secretaries (see example on page
79).347 Hypogrammateis working for the boule and demos could be designated either
hypogrammateus, hypogrammateus of the boule and demos, or hypogrammateus of the
demos.348 The designation hypogrammateus of the demos may be an abbreviation of
hypogrammateus of the boule and demos, in the same way that grammateus of the demos
is an abbreviation of grammateus of the boule and the demos (see page 64). This officer
may have worked as under-secretary to the grammateus of the boule and the demos. 349 It is
unclear whether the designation hypogrammateus also refers to this officer, or to another
type of under-secretary.
Hypogrammateis are also found as officers of the ephebes,350 and in this context can be
designated either hypogrammateus, or (in the third century AD) hypogrammateus for life
(διὰ βίου).351 Either designation can occur in inscriptions alongside a grammateus and other
officers who serve ‘for life’.352 For more information, see grammateus for life on page 111.
345
E.g. IG I3 476 (408/7 BC) 61-2. See Appendix A page 284.
346
The implication of Lys. 30.29 is that ὑπο- in ὑπογραμματεῦσαι can denote a subordinate relationship to
a particular official. While the speaker here provides Nikomachos’ with a different designation from that
given elsewhere in the speech (e.g. Lys. 30.1), the statement works only if there is a basis for it in fact.
347
Meritt & Traill (1974) 2, 6-7. The majority of honours for hypogrammateis are from the third and
second centuries BC. A fall in numbers of honours from this point onwards is related to the sack of Athens
by Sulla in 86 BC, when the practice of honouring officers en masse came to an end. Officers could be
honoured as aeisitoi until the third century AD (see e.g. IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) III 38-56). In the second
and third centuries AD, a rise and then fall in instances of hypogrammateis is also in line with epigraphic
production generally. For a table showing instances of hypogrammateis, see Figure 7 on page 284.
348
Hypogrammateus of the boule and the demos, e.g.: Ag.15:260 (beg. 1C BC) 23-25.
Hypogrammateus of the demos, e.g.: Ag.15:225 (155/4 BC) 56-8.
349
Meritt & Traill (1974) 15.
350
E.g. IG II2 2086 (163/4 AD) 132-3.
351
E.g. SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 48-51, page 111; Oliver (1933) 506-511.
352
E.g. IG II2 2239 (238/9–243/4 AD) 7-8.
77
Hypogrammateis are also known from other contexts, such as with the Athenian
amphictyons,353 treasurers of Athena,354 and other magistrates such as grain inspectors,355
where they are designated simply hypogrammateus.
Activities
It is difficult to ascertain the duties of hypogrammateis. None of the texts containing this
designation contain information on the work to be carried out by this officer, and most
instances are either honorific decrees of the boule and demos (see examples on pages 72
and 79-80), or registers of ephebes.
Further Particulars
The earliest surviving reference to a hypogrammateus are the fifth-century BC Erechtheum
accounts, which provide the amount given as wages to the hypogrammateus, but no other
information.356 Although Lysias uses the term hypogrammateus in a pejorative sense to refer
to an anagrapheus of the laws,357 there is no evidence that hypogrammateis were involved
in any way in the fifth-century revisions to the laws of Drakon and Solon.
If proximity in inscribed decrees can be taken as an indicator of collegial environment, the
hypogrammateus (as an officer of the boule and demos) worked alongside a range of other
officers, including several types of secretary, from the end of the fourth century BC onwards,
and could also be honoured with them (see example on page 72).358 As honours were
bestowed upon officers at the end of their year in office, we can assume that these
hypogrammateis also held office for a year.
Lysias suggests that, in the late-fifth and early-fourth centuries BC, hypogrammateis could
serve for two or more years, though not for the same magistracy.359 There is also a small
amount of evidence to suggest that in the late second- and early third-centuries AD,
hypogrammateis could also serve for two or more years: see Table 12 on page 288.
The hypogrammateis of the ephebes also worked alongside a variety of other officers, but
usually only one grammateus (the fragmentary nature of some texts makes it impossible to
353
IG II2 1635 (374/3 BC) 49-50, 74-5.
354
IG II2 1484 (306/5 BC) 1, 6-8.
355
IG II2 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-11, page 79, esp. n.361.
IG I3 476 (408/7 BC) 61-2: hυ[πογρ]|αμματεῖ Πυργίονι : ΔΔΔΙΙΙ[ΙΙ:,  268-9: hυπογραμματεῖ Πυργίον|ι
hοτρυνεῖ : ΔΔΔ. Line 430 also contains a grammateus: Δορόθ[εος —5— ἐγραμμάτευε].
356
357
Lys. 30.28-29: “He (Nikomachos) has exchanged… the position of hypogrammateus for that of
lawgiver (νομοθέτης).” For the anagrapheus of the laws, see page 38.
358
Meritt & Traill (1974) 2.
359
Lys. 30.29.
78
be more precise). This indicates a very different collegial environment from that of the
hypogrammateus of the boule and demos.360
In the second century BC, magistrates at the Piraeus who are most likely to have been grain
inspectors employed two secretaries: the grammateus elected by lot, and the grammateus
elected by hairesis, designations which reflect the manner in which they were selected (see
pages 94-95). These magistrates also had a hypogrammateus (selection method unknown),
who may have been under-secretary for one, or both of these grammateis.361 Nothing else is
known about this officer.
Other Attributes
Little is known about the ‘career’ of hypogrammateis. While Lysias uses the term in a
pejorative sense to describe the career of Nikomachos (an anagrapheus of the laws)362 and
Demosthenes tells us that Aeschines was a hypogrammateus for several years before going
into public life,363 there is no firm evidence to suggest that one could use experience gained
as hypogrammateus to gain a ‘higher’ or other office. Only one substantially restored
inscription may provide evidence that a hypogrammateus became grammateus of the boule
and the demos.364
In 193/2 BC, Euthymachos son of Ergochares of Kerameis was praised after serving as
hypogrammateus, as follows:
ἐπαινέσαι δὲ καὶ τὸν γραμματέα Π]υθαγόραν Τιμαίου | [Λαμπτρέα καὶ τὸν γραμματέα
τῆς βουλῆς καὶ] τοῦ δήμου Κίμωνα | [— c.13 — καὶ τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Εὐθ]ύμαχον
Ἐργοχάρου ἐκ | [Κεραμέων καὶ τὸν κήρυκα τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δ]ήμου …365
[And also praise the grammateus] Pythagoras son of Timaios [of Lamptrai and the
grammateus of the boule and] the demos Kimon [— c.13 – and the hypogrammateus]
Euthymachos son of Ergochares of [Kerameis and the herald of the boule and the]
demos...
Euthymachos’ (entirely restored) office as hypogrammateus is based on the presence of the
grammateus of the boule and grammateus of the boule and the demos earlier in the text.
360
E.g. IG II2 2086 (163/4 AD) 132-3.
361
IG II2 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-11: γραμματεὺς κληρωτός | Διόδοτος Θεοδώρου Ἁμαξαντεύς | γραμματεὺς
αἱρετός | Τιμογένης Αἰσχρίωνος Ἁφιδναῖος | ὑπογραμματεύς | Ζωπυρίων Τέχνωνος Προβαλίσιος.
SEG 32:348.
362
Lys. 30.28-29.
363
D. 19.249; Plu. Mor. 10.840 a-b.
364
Meritt & Traill (1974) 10.
365
Ag.15:168 (193/2 BC) 37-40.
79
In c.190/89 BC, Euthymachos was praised as follows:
ἐπαινέσα]ι δ[ὲ] καὶ στεφανῶσαι καὶ τὸν ἱε[ρέα] | [τοῦ ἐπωνύμου — c.18 — καὶ τ]ὸν
ταμ[ί]αν τῆς βουλῆς Ἡγήτορα Ἀριστοβούλο[υ Οἰ]|[ναῖον καὶ τὸν γραμματέα τῆς
βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου Ε]ὐθ[ύ]μαχον Ἐργοχάρου ἐκ Κεραμέων [καὶ] | [τὸν
ὑπογραμματέα Δημήτριον Κτήσωνος Προβαλίσιον … 366
And also [praise] and additionally crown the priest [of the eponymous – c.18 – and]
the treasurer of the boule Hegetor son of Aristoboulos [of Oinaios, and the
grammateus of the boule and the demos] Euthymachos son of Ergochares of
Kerameis, [and the hypogrammateus Demetrios son of Kteson of Probalisos] ...
If the restoration of the first text is to be trusted, within the space of three years, Euthymachos
moved from the office of hypogrammateus to the office of grammateus of the boule and the
demos.367 This potential change of office should not be understood as a ‘promotion’ in the
modern sense; rather it should be seen as a change of office that required additional skills.
In the third and second centuries BC, the hypogrammateus was frequently honoured alongside
other officers and some or all secretaries of the boule and demos, some of whom would also
receive a crown.368 In the first and second centuries AD, this type of honour was no longer
bestowed, and secretaries (including hypogrammateis) could instead be honoured as aeisitoi:369
ἀΐσιτοι
...
γραμματεὺς βουλῆς καὶ δήμου Ἀλέξανδρος Θεοδοσίου Λαμπτ[ρεύς] | περὶ τὸ βῆμα
Μυστικὸς Ἐροιάδης | ἀντιγραφεὺς Ἀλέξανδρος [Ἀ]χωρίστου Παιονίδης | ἱεραύλης
Ἐπαφρόδιτος ὁ καὶ Ἀφροδείσιος | ἱερεὺς Φωσφόρων καὶ ἐπὶ Σκιάδος Ἑρμείας
Ἀζηνιεύς | ὑπογραμματεὺς Μύρων Λαμπτρεύς370
The aeisitoi:
...
grammateus of the boule and demos: Alexandros son of Theodosios of Lamptrai;
peri to bema: Mustikos son of Eroiades; antigrapheus: Alexandros son of Achoristos
of Paionides; flute-player: Epaphroditos, also called Aphrodeisios, priest of the light-
366
Ag.15:170 (c.190/89 BC) 9-12. As with the previous example, the office of hypogrammateus is
restored due to the presence of other secretaries earlier in the text.
367
The grammateus of the boule and the demos was responsible for the reading out of decrees, and
occasionally also for having inscriptions inscribed and set up. See page 64.
368
See, for example Ag.15:89 (254/3 BC) 35-39, and the example on page 72.
369
For more on the aeisitoi, see page 47.
370
Ag.15:406 (182/3 AD) 54-63; Oliver & Dow (1935) 48-49.
80
bearing (gods)371 and warden of the Skias, Hermeias of Azenia; hypogrammateus:
Muron of Lamptrai.
From the evidence presented in literary sources, hypogrammateis were perceived to be of
lower status than grammateis.372 This is also borne out by epigraphic evidence. If one
examines the relative position of hypogrammateis in inscriptions honouring officers of the
boule and demos, while the order in which officials are listed is extremely variable, the
hypogrammateus is almost always the last of the secretaries,373 suggesting that this office
was thought to be of lower status than secretaries with any other designation. Where
officers are listed after the hypogrammateus, they tend to have designations such as herald
(κήρυξ, kerux) or flute-player (ἱεραύλης, hieraules).
Hypogrammateis were rarely found outside Athens. In the regions covered by this thesis,
hypogrammateis were present in Sparta in the first and second centuries AD (see page 165),
and on Delos in the fourth century BC, while it was administered by Athens (see page 335).374
Other officers of the boule and demos
From the fourth until possibly the second century BC, officers of the boule and demos other
than secretaries could occasionally record the results of their work in writing, or write and
set up inscriptions in the same way as stipulated for secretaries.
δημόσιος (demosios)
The demosios was a public slave who could be employed by the boule as an official clerk.
Activities
The demosios looked after financial records, including tablets containing details of
expenditure, which were displayed publicly:
εἰσφέρεται μὲν οὖν εἰς τὴν βουλὴν τὰ γραμματεῖα κατὰ τὰς καταβολὰς
ἀναγεγραμμένα, τηρεῖ δ᾽ ὁ δημόσιος· ὅταν δ᾽ ᾖ χρημάτων καταβολή, παραδίδωσι τοῖς
ἀποδέκταις αὐτὰ ταῦτα καθελὼν ἀπὸ τῶν ἐπιστυλίων, ὧν ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ δεῖ τὰ
χρήματα καταβληθῆναι καὶ ἀπαλειφθῆναι, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα ἀπόκειται χωρὶς, ἵνα μὴ
προεξαλειφθῇ.375
371
LSJ: φωσφόρος or ‘torch-bearing’ is an epithet of various deities, especially Hecate (E. Hel. 569) and
Hephaestus (Orph. H. 66.3).
372
See page 77, especially n.346.
373
In 39/43 instances. See Appendix E page 344.
374
Chankowski (2008) 236. At least one of these hypogrammateis was Athenian: ID 104-31 (333-331 BC) 4.
375
Ath. Pol. 47.5.
81
The tablets written up with the list of payments are brought before the boule, but
the public slave keeps them; and whenever a payment of money is made, he takes
down from the pillars and hands over just these tablets showing the persons whose
money is to be paid on that day and wiped off the record, but the other tablets are
stored away separately in order that they may not be wiped off beforehand.
When payment had been received, the demosios removed only those tablets containing
information of debts paid. These were given to ten apodektai (ἀποδέκται, ‘receivers’),376 who
wiped off the sums paid, and handed the tablets back to the demosios, presumably so that
they could be re-used.377
The demosios was also responsible for looking after tablets containing details of unpaid
debts.378 Those who had defaulted on their payments were added to these tablets, which
were then stored separately, as a safeguard against the tablets being wiped clean before the
debt was paid.
While the demosios was not the author of these financial records (and it was the apodektai
who reviewed, amended and edited them), the demosios could not have performed his
duties without being able to read and understand the names on these tablets, and possibly
also the monetary amounts on them. A decree concerning the contents of the Chalkotheke
(the treasury in which all metal objects were stored) illustrates that a demosios could be
both literate and numerate, and could also be given a degree of autonomy:
...παραγγεῖλαι δὲ τοὺς πρυτάν|[ε]ι[ς] καὶ Ε[ὐκλ]εῖ τῶι δημοσίωι ἥκειν εἰς ἀκρόπολιν
γρα|[ψόμ]ενον τ[ὰ] ἐν τῆι χαλκοθῆκει. καὶ ἐπειδὰν τὸ οἴκημα ἀ|[νοι]χθει ἐξετάζεν
κατὰ ἔθνος ἕκαστα καὶ ἐπιγράφεν τ|[ὸν] ἀριθμὸν...379
And the prytaneis are to instruct Eukles the demosios to come to the acropolis to
write down the objects that are in the Chalkotheke. Whenever the chamber is
opened, he (Eukles) is to examine each particular (object) by nationality and write
down the number…
In this inscription, Eukles the demosios reports directly to the prytaneis. He is to write down
the names and numbers of everything in the treasury, and must categorise the objects by
376
Ath. Pol. 48.1: εἰσὶ δ᾽ ἀποδέκται δέκα κεκληρωμένοι κατὰ φυλάς: οὗτοι δὲ παραλαβόντες τὰ
γραμματεῖα, ἀπαλείφουσι τὰ καταβαλλόμενα χρήματα ἐναντίον τῆς βουλῆς ἐν τῷ βουλευτηρίῳ, καὶ
πάλιν ἀποδιδόασιν τὰ γραμματεῖα τῷ δημοσίῳ. κἄν τις ἐλλίπῃ καταβολὴν, ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἐγγέγραπται... There
are ten receivers elected by lot, one from each tribe; these take over the tablets and wipe off the sums
paid in the presence of the boule in the council-chamber, and give the tablets back again to the official
clerk; and anybody that has defaulted in a payment is entered on them...
377
A flawed method of accounting, in which loss of a record was effectively equivalent to proof of payment.
378
Ath. Pol. 48.1.
379
IG II2 120 (358/7 BC to 354/3 BC) 13-15.
82
nationality (κατὰ ἔθνος). He appears to be unsupervised while examining treasury contents.
Further instructions direct the grammateus kata prytaneian and ‘the other secretaries in
charge of state documents’ to make additional copies.
ἀντιγράφεσθαι δὲ τὸγ γραμματέα τὸγ κατὰ | [πρ]υτανείαν καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους
γραμματ{τε}έας τοὺς ἐπὶ τοῖ|[ς δ]ημοσίοις γράμμασιν·
…and the grammateus kata prytaneian and the other secretaries in charge of state
documents are to make their own copy.380
The text implies that the grammateus kata prytaneian and other secretaries are to copy
from Eukles’ copy; i.e. make copies without going through the laborious process of verifying
Eukles’ accuracy by checking the contents of the Chalkotheke for themselves. 381
A demosios was also in charge of legal records stored in the Metroön:
ἀλλ’ ὑπὲρ μὲν τῆς ἐξωμοσίας ἐν τοῖς κοινοῖς τοῖς ὑμετέροις γράμμασιν ἐν τῷ μητρῴῳ
ταῦτ’ ἐστίν, ἐφ’ οἷς ὁ δημόσιος τέτακται, καὶ ψήφισμ’ ἄντικρυς περὶ τούτου τοῦ
ὀνόματος γέγραπται·382
As for the affidavit of refusal, there is an entry in the record-office at the Metroön,
of which the demosios is in charge, and a decree in which he is mentioned by name.
Other Attributes
The demosios was not honoured alongside secretaries and other officers of the boule and
demos. However, another type of slave, the ὑπηρέτης (hyperetes), was honoured when
working with the ephebes. See following section.
ὑπηρέτης (hyperetes)
The hyperetes (ὑπηρέτης) or servant could also be a petty officer of the council:
[γραμματεὺ]ς τ[ῶ]ι δ[ήμωι] | [καὶ τῆι] βουλῆι Βλ[έπυρος] | Πε[ιθάν]δρο Παιον[ίδης]
| ὑπηρέτης : Μητρόδ[ωρ?ος] vacat383
380
IG II2 120 (358/7 BC to 354/3 BC) 15-17.
381
Rhodes (1993) 601 suggests, on the strength of this inscription, that the demosios is the officer in
Ath. Pol. 54.3 who “supervises the transcription of all other documents” rather than the grammateus
kata prytaneian. This seems to give the demosios rather more responsibility than is borne out by other
evidence. See also Rhodes (1972a) 141. For Ath. Pol. 54.3, see page 57. For more on this inscription,
see page 54.
382
D. 19.129. Two, fragmentary texts back up Demosthenes’ statement that a demosios looked after
the records in the Metroön: IG II2 463 (307/6BC) 28-9: —26— [ν —6— τοῦ τεί]χους κ[α]ὶ εἰς τὸ
μ[ητ]ρῶιον πρὸ[ς] τὸν δημ[όσ]|[ιον —18— ἀναγράψ]α[ι τό τε ὄνομ]α τοῦ μεμισθωμέν[ου] καὶ τὸ
ἀργύριον ὅσ[ου] | [ἂν μισθώσηται... — of the wall and to the Metroön for the demosios ... write up
both the name of the person who has been hired and how much money he might cost. See also IG II2
583 (end 4C BC) 1-10 (esp. 5-7) and Ag.16:322 (c.120 BC) 1, 3-4.
83
[Grammateus] for the demos [and the] boule [Blepyros] son of Peithandros of
Paionidai : hyperetes : Metrodoros…
There is not enough evidence in our sources to assess the duties of the council hyperetes.
On the strength of the above example, Raubitschek (1942) suggests that the hyperetes
replaced the antigrapheus in the mid fourth century BC, taking on his duties. However, this
inference is based on a comparison of two inscriptions of uncertain date only.384
A hyperetes also appears in a second century BC inscription listing magistrates, alongside a
grammateus hairetos and grammateus elected by lot,385 in the same way that a
hypogrammateus is listed after these secretaries in IG II2 1711 (see page 94).386 Using
Raubitschek’s line of reasoning, this inscription could be taken as evidence that the
hyperetes could perform the duties of a hypogrammateus, which seems more likely.387
Other Attributes
The hyperetes could be honoured as an officer of the ephebes,388 and in texts of this type is
typically listed after the grammateus. These honours also lack a hypogrammateus, adding weight
to the argument that the hyperetes could perform duties usually given to this officer.
Treasury officers and secretaries
In the fifth century BC, Athens had three boards of financial officers: the kolakretai
(κωλακρέται),389 who managed the expenses of the demos; the treasurers of Athena (ταμιῶν
τῆς θεοῦ), and the treasurers of the other gods (ταμιῶν τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν), who looked after
the treasures held in the temples and the loans made to the state. There were also the
hellenotamiai, the chief financial officers of the Delian League, who were based in Delos from
383
Ag.15:37 (343/2 BC) 1-4; Meritt (1934) 63 No.54; Raubitschek (1942) 305-6. This is the entire
inscription. Note the unusual reversal of the words demos and boule.
384
Raubitschek (1942) 305-6 bases his argument on a comparison of Ag.15:37 above with IG II2 1740
(early 4C BC) 53-56: [γραμ]ματεὺς τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι | —λείδης : Φιλοθήρο : ἐξ Οἴο.|
[ἀντι]γραφεὺς | [Ἀρισ?]τίων Ἀριστωνύμο Παλληνεύ[ς] and IG II2 1747 (c.350 BC) 33-4, which also
contains the grammateus Blepyros. Rhodes (1972a) 142 notes that Raubitschek’s date of 355/4 BC for
the disappearance of the antigrapheus rests on a dubious chronology for Eubulus. Also see Rhodes
(1972a) 235-7, Additional Note D.
385
IG II2 1710 (beg. 2C BC) 6-11.
386
IG II2 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-19. See page 79.
387
This may also be the case in SEG 21:587 (beg. 2C BC) 12-19; unfortunately, the text is too
fragmentary to be able to restore this decree. For the hyperetes with other secretaries, see Hesp.
6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 7-20.
388
IG II2 876 (end 3C BC?) 5-8 (fragment); IG II2 1007 (end 2C BC) 5-7 (fragment); IG II2 1008 (118/7 BC)
83-87, 129-133; IG II2 1009 (116/5 BC) 20-24 (before grammateus); IG II2 1011 (106/5 BC) 59-62;
IG II2 1028 (100/99 BC) 49-5; SEG 15:104 (127/6 BC) 39-42, 301-5.
389
84
Ferguson (1932) 4; Pritchett (1977) 295.
the end of the Persian wars until 454/3 BC, when they moved to Athens.390 The hellenotamiai,
treasurers of Athena and treasurers of other gods each had their own secretary (see example
on page 88). It is not known whether the kolakretai also had their own secretary.
These boards and their secretaries will be treated together, as the hellenotamiai took on the
duties of the kolakretai in c.411, and the boards of the treasurers of Athena, and the
treasurers of other gods were amalgamated, and feature in the same inscriptions as the
hellenotamiai. The following diagram provides an overview of the times at which these
various boards were in operation.
Date BC
477? 454/3
454/3
Kolakretai
Hellenotamiai –
Athens: Expenses
of the demos were
met by payments
from the treasury
of the kolakretai,
abolished in
411.391
Delos: The Delian
League received and
recorded tribute,
administered payments
to strategoi, etc.
434/3
Chief financial officers
of the Delian League
Athens: The
hellenotamiai of the
Delian League
administered the
expenses of the
Athenian Empire.392
Treasurers of
Athena393
Treasurers of the
other gods
Based in Athens.394
Based in Athens.
Hellenotamiai were responsible for both the
c.411
league and state treasuries. After c.411,
they also paid for the inscribing of
documents on stone.395
406/5–404
(Empire
falls)
Hellenotamiai
abolished.396
Boards of the treasurers of Athena and the
treasurers of other the gods were
amalgamated,397 and shared a secretary.
?
Boards split again.
> 342/1
Boards combined again.398
340/339
Combined board abolished(?) c.340/399.399
Figure 3: Boards of treasurers in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
390
Plut. Per. 12.1-2; OCD 320-321.
391
Pritchett (1977) 295.
392
Pritchett (1977) 295.
393
The treasurers of Athena and the treasurers of other gods were not hellenotamiai, as these two
boards continue in operation for more than sixty years after the hellenotamiai were abolished.
394
Earliest attestation of the secretary of the treasurers of Athena: e.g. IG I3 317 (434/3) 2.
395
OCD 679-80; Woodhead (1959) 149-152.
396
OCD 679-80; Woodhead (1959) 149-152.
397
Blanshard (2007) 22; Ferguson (1932) 105.
398
Ferguson (1932) 105.
399
Ferguson (1898) 74.
85
The secretaries of these boards were all known by the designation γραμματεύς (grammateus).
The kolakretai
The kolakretai administered the expenses of the demos from c.460-450 BC400 until c.411,
when the responsibility was given to the hellenotamiai (see below).401
The kolakretai are known only from a handful of documents of the Athenian boule, where
they performed functions such as providing the funds for stelai, 402 sometimes in conjunction
with the treasurers of Athena.403 There is no evidence to suggest that this board had its own
secretary.
The hellenotamiai and their grammateus
The hellenotamiai, ‘stewards of the Greeks’ were the Athenian chief financial officers of the
Delian League. Their primary function was to receive tribute from the allies, but they also
administered these funds, providing payments to strategoi for campaigns, and occasionally
provided money for building projects, such as the acropolis buildings. From 478 to 454 BC,
the treasury of the Delian League was at Delos.404
In the mid-fifth century BC, this treasury and the hellenotamiai were moved to Athens.405
The board of hellenotamiai was then enlarged, and given the functions previously belonging
to the kolakretai. It became responsible for the administration of both the treasuries of the
Delian League, and those of the state, 406 which included funds for inscribing documents on
stone,407 including those used for Draco’s revised homicide law.408
Activities
The grammateus of the hellenotamiai recorded tributes received, and payments made on
the instructions of the boule, such as those for military campaigns or building work. 409 The
majority of these transactions were recorded on temporary media,410 with only the tribute
400
IG I3 7 (460-50 BC) 4-9.
401
OCD 679-80; Woodhead (1959) 149-52.
402
E.g. IG I3 80 (421/0 BC) 18-20: τὸ δὲ ἀ|ργύριον δόντον h<ο> κολακρ|έται.
403
IG I3 7 (460-50 BC) 4-9.
404
Th. 1.96.2; OCD 320-321; Laidlaw (1933) 62-63.
405
OCD 320-321.
406
OCD 679-80; Woodhead (1959) 149-52.
407
Ferguson (1932) 4.
408
IG I3 104 (409/8) 8-10.
409
OCD 679-80. See example on page 88.
410
Ferguson (1932) vii-viii.
86
(aparche) recorded on stone.411 The designation is found in Athenian tribute lists, 412 and the
building accounts of the Propylaia. Since these accounts record transactions for a year, it is
likely that this office was also annual.413 See example on page 88.
Decrees can also note that the hellenotamiai themselves were to record information related
to Athenian tribute on temporary media:
ἀναγ[ραφόντον δὲ hοι ἑλ]λενοτα|[μ]ίαι ἐς σανίδι τὰς [πόλες τὰς ἐλλιπό]σας τõ φό|[ρ]ο
καὶ τõν ἀπαγόντ[ον τὰ ὀνόματα κ]αὶ τιθέναι |[h]εκάστοτε πρόσθε[ν τõν hερόον.414
Let [the] hellenotamiai record on a board the [names of the cities in default] of
tribute and (the names) of those who bring the tribute. And it is to be placed on
each occasion in front of [the Heröon.]
The board of hellenotamiai was abolished in 406/5-4.415
The Treasurers of Athena and the Treasurers of the Other Gods,
and their grammateus
From 434/3 to 340/399 BC, Athens had two additional boards of treasurers: the treasurers of
Athena,416 and the treasurers of the other gods.417 On two separate occasions, these boards
were amalgamated, and then split up again, depending on the number of offerings held by
the temple.418 These boards existed alongside the hellenotamiai during their period in
Athens, and continued in operation until approximately sixty years after the hellenotamiai
were abolished.419
411
Ferguson (1932) 82.
412
E.g. IG I3 465 (437/6-433-2 BC) 123-125: [π]αρὰ hελλενοταμ[ιõν h]οῖς Προτόν[ικος] | [ἐγραμ]μάτευε
Meritt (1949) 125.
413
Rhodes (1972a) 227-228. Pritchett (1977) 295 suggests that the hellenotamiai were elected by lot,
one from each tribe. However, when discussing “the weight of scholarly opinion” on the election or
selection methods of the hellenotamiai, he refers only to one of his own earlier papers.
414
IG I3 68 (426/5 BC) 18-21. Fornara (1983) 149 No.133. See also IG I3 34 (448/7 BC) 43-45.
415
OCD 679-80: The office of hellenotamiai was abolished with the fall of the Athenian empire in 404 BC.
De Ste Croix (1956) 15; Pritchett (1977) 295.
416
First attested in IG I3 317 (434/3 BC) 2 (and several other texts from that year).
417
Ferguson (1932) 8.
418
Ferguson (1932) 109.
419
Ferguson (1898) 70-74.
87
The Treasurers of Athena and their grammateus
The treasurers of Athena managed the contents of the temple of Athena. They had their
own secretary, known simply by the designation grammateus.420 Together, the treasurers
and secretary managed and recorded temple inventories, and loans made by the treasurers
to the state. These accounts were inscribed on stone annually until 430/29 BC, and every
four years after this.421
The grammateus of the treasurers of Athena appears alongside the grammateus of the
hellenotamiai, grammateus of the boule (here, ‘first grammateus’ ( see page 52)), and
grammateus of the epistatai (or board of commissioners, page 100) in the building accounts
of the Propylaia:
[ἐπὶ τες τετ]άρτες ἀρχες hει Διογέ[νες ἐ]γρ[αμμάτευε] | [— 9 —] ἐπὶ τες βολες hει
Μετα[γένες] πρ[õτος ἐγραμ]|[μάτευε : ἐπι]στάται : <names of commissioners>·
τούτοις λ[έμματα τ]õ ἐνια[υτõ τάδε]·
— — ΗΗΗΔ
παρὰ τõμ πρ[οτέρον ἐ]πιστατ[õν hοῖς] | Ἐπικλες
ἐγρα[μμάτευ]ε Θορίκ[ιος]
———
παρὰ ταμιõν hο[ὶ τὰ τε]ς θεõ ἐτα[μίευον] | hοῖς Κράτες
ἐγρα[μμά]τε[υ]ε Λαμπ[τρεύς]
———
[π]αρὰ hελλενοταμ[ιõν h]οῖς Προτόν[ικος] | [ἐγραμ]μάτευε
Κερ[αμε]ύς, τõ χσυμ[μαχ]|[ικõ φόρο μ]νᾶ ἀπὸ τõ [τα]λάντο.422
[In (the year of) the] fourth board, for which Diogenes was grammateus,423 [— 9 —]
during the boule for whom Metagenes was first [grammateus,]424 commissioners:
<names of the commissioners>. Their receipts for the year [are as follows]:
319 drachmas
From the previous commissioners, [for whom] Epikles from
Thorikos was grammateus.425
———
From the treasurers in charge of [the possessions of the]
goddess, for whom Krates of Lamptrai was grammateus.426
420
Ferguson (1898) 70-74 provides a list of secretaries of the treasurers of Athena for the period
434/3 to 407/6 BC, and a list of the secretaries of the combined boards of the treasurers of Athena and
the treasurers of other gods for the period 406/5-387/6. See Appendix A page 260 for a list of
inscriptions in which Euthias was the grammateus of the treasurers of Athena.
421
Ferguson (1932) 41, 81-82, 97-99.
422
IG I3 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 114-125; Fornara (1983) 133 No.118B.
423
Diogenes was grammateus of the epistatai in the year in which commissioners submitted these receipts.
424
Metagenes was the first grammateus of the boule in this same year, serving for one prytany only.
425
Epikles was grammateus of the epistatai in the year before Diogenes. 319 drachmas is carried forward.
426
Krates was grammateus of the treasurers of Athena in the year that Diogenes was grammateus.
88
———
From the hellenotamiai, for whom Protonikos of Kerameis was
secretary,427 one mna from each talent from the allies’ [tribute].
In recording the accounts for a year, the inscription shows that Krates, the grammateus of
the treasurers of Athena, and Protonikos, the grammateus of the hellenotamiai both served
for a year.428
The Treasurers of the Other Gods
There is no evidence for a dedicated secretary of this board. When the board of the
treasurers of the other gods was amalgamated with the board of the treasurers of Athena
(see below), this enlarged board had the same number of secretaries (one) as had been
employed by the board of the treasurers of Athena alone (see previous section).
The Treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods
The board of the treasurers of Athena was amalgamated with the treasurers of the other
gods for the period 406/5 – 386/5 to form the treasurers of Athena and the other gods. 429
There appears to have been only one secretary for this enlarged board.
Secretaries of archons
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου (grammateus of the polemarch)
The grammateus of the polemarch (γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου) was the personal secretary
of a polemarch.430 This office and that of the grammateus of the strategoi (γραμματεὺς τῶν
στρατηγῶν) are known from a late fourth-century BC decree honouring Thessalian exiles.
The grammateus of the polemarch and the grammateus of the strategoi received the names
of those to be honoured, as follows:
ἀπογρ[ά]|[ψασθαι δὲ αὐτοὺς τὰ ὀνόματ]α πρὸς τὸγ γραμματέα [τ]|[οῦ πολεμάρχου
καὶ τὸν γραμ]ματέα τῶν στ[ρ]α[τηγ]ῶ[ν]·431
[And they are to hand over a list of names] to the grammateus [of the polemarch
and the] grammateus of the strategoi.
Nothing else is known of these officers.
427
Protonikos was grammateus of the hellenotamiai in the year that Diogenes was grammateus.
428
Ferguson (1898) 72; Ferguson (1932) 8.
429
Ferguson (1898) 70-74; Ferguson (1932) 8.
430
Plu. Pel. 7.3, 9.2 describes the actions of Phillidas, who contrived to become grammateus to two
Theban polemarchs, Archias and Philip.
431
IG II2 545 (318/7 BC) 15-17; SEG 45:83.
89
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα (grammateus of the Eleven)
The Eleven were officials who enforced legal decisions of the courts. They had the authority to
arrest criminals and bring them to trial; they were also empowered to prosecute – and execute
– some criminals under special circumstances.432 The Eleven had their own secretary.433
Activities
The grammateus of the Eleven is known from one surviving inscription only, which describes
irregularities and debt-collection in the naval dockyards.434 The dockyard epimeletai and the
Eleven are instructed by the boule as to how a man called Sopolis could pay off liability
inherited from his brother, who had been treasurer of the dockyard. Sopolis’ debts are to be
paid out of his confiscated property, which includes some oars. The grammateus of the
Eleven is to keep the accounts of this.435
…τὸγ γραμματέα τῶν ἕνδεκα | ἀπαλεῖψαι ἀπὸ τοῦ ὠφλημένου Σ|ωπόλιδι ἀργυρίου ὅ
τι ἂν ἀποφα[ί]νει α|ὐτῶι ὁ ταμίας παρειληφὼς…436
…the grammateus of the Eleven is to expunge from the money owed by Sopolis that
which the treasurer declares to him (the grammateus) upon receiving it…
In keeping these accounts, the grammateus of the Eleven must work in conjunction with the
treasurer. He can only write the figure the treasurer tells him to write, and can only fulfil this
part of his duties after the treasurer has calculated the remaining balance.
Magistrates are to then calculate value of Sopolis’ belongings, and the grammateus of the
Eleven is to re-calculate his debt, depending on whether the oars have been received or not:
…ἐὰν δὲ οἱ τῶν νεωρί|ων ἄρχοντες οἱ ἐφ’ Ἡγησίου ἄρχοντ|ος παραλαβούσης τῆς
πόλεως τ|οὺς κωπέ[α]ς μὴ ἀναγράψωσιν εἰς τ|ὴν στήλην ἢ ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν
ἕνδεκα | μὴ ἀπαλείψει ἀπὸ τοῦ ὀφλήματος τοῦ Σωπ|όλιδος τὸ γιγνόμενον τῶν
κωπέων κατὰ | τὰ ἐψηφισμένα τῆι βουλῆι, ὀφειλέτω ἕκαστος | αὐτῶ<ν> : ΧΧΧ :
δραχμ ∶ τῶι δημοσί …437
…and if the magistrates of the dockyards in the archonship of Hegesias, upon the
city taking receipt of the oars, do not record this on the stele or if the grammateus
of the Eleven does not expunge the proceeds from the oars from the debt of
432
Ath. Pol. 52.1.
433
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 377, 389.
434
See Gabrielsen (1993) 175-183 for a full account.
435
Gabrielsen (1993) 179-180.
436
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 377-380.
437
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 385-393. Gabrielsen (1993) 98.
90
Sopolis, according to the decree of the boule, then let each of them owe 30
drachmas to the demos...
In both passages, the role of the grammateus of the Eleven (in this inscription at least) was
purely one of accounting.
This inscription also contains the only surviving reference to the grammateus of the
dockyard epimeletai; see page 99.438
γραμματεὺς τῶν θεσμοθετῶν (grammateus of the thesmothetai)
The thesmothetai or ‘law-givers’ were six junior archons, who, together with three senior
archons and a grammateus formed the board of archons (archontes).439 The grammateus of
the thesmothetai was therefore also the grammateus of the archontes.
The thesmothetai were elected by lot by the archontes. The inclusion of a grammateus
among their number enabled the archontes to have one representative from each tribe.
τὰ δὲ δικαστήρια κληροῦσιν οἱ θ’ ἄρχοντες κατὰ φυλάς, ὁ δὲ γραμματεὺς τῶν
θεσμοθετῶν τῆς δεκάτης φυλῆς.440
The jury-courts are elected by lot by the nine archons by tribe, and the grammateus
of the thesmothetai from the tenth tribe.
The qualifications of the nine archons were checked by the boule and in the law court, but
the qualifications of the grammateus were checked by the law court only.441 There is no
evidence for the duties of the grammateus of the thesmothetai.
For information on the thesmothetai, see page 103.
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων (grammateus of the hipparchs)
The grammateus of the hipparchs is known from the start of the third, to the mid-second
century BC.442
438
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 410-412.
439
Ath. Pol. 55.1: νῦν δὲ κληροῦσιν θεσμοθέτας μὲν ἓξ καὶ γραμματέα τούτοις; 63.1. McLean (2002)
311-12; Rhodes (1993) 613-4.
440
Ath. Pol. 63.1.
441
Ath. Pol. 55.1; 55.2.
442
SEG 21:525 (282/1 BC) 40-44; SEG 46:167 (282/1 BC) 40-43; Hesp. 6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 14-15 (page 98).
91
Activities
In 282/1 BC, grammateis of the hipparchs (plural) wrote and set up stelai honouring
hipparchs and phylarchs:
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε | [τ]ὸ ψήφισμα τοὺς γραμματεῖς τῶν ἱππάρχων | [ἐν] στήλαις
λιθίναις δυεῖν καὶ στῆσαι τὴμ | [μὲν] πρὸς τῶι Ποσειδωνίωι, τὴν δ’ ἑτέραν ἐν | [τῆι
σ]τοᾶι τῶν Ἑρμῶν.443
And the grammateis of the hipparchs are to write up this decree on two stone stelai
and set one up near the temple of Poseidon, and the other in the stoa of the herms.
The grammateis of the hipparchs appear to have carried out duties for the hipparchs as a
whole, and also for a unit within the hipparchs, the tarantinoi (cavalry armed with javelins),
as they also set up a decree for the tarantinoi in the same location.444
It is not clear why the hipparchs would have required more than one grammateus. No
secretaries are named in these inscriptions, and so it is unclear whether the same officers
are indicated in both cases.
Further particulars
The designation grammateus of the hipparchs is likely to be synonymous with the
designation grammateus for the hipparchs of the (members of the) phylai (γραμματεὺς
ἱππάρχοις φυλετῶν)445 (see example on page 98). This grammateus was chosen by lot, at
the same time as several other officers.
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν (grammateus of the strategoi)
See grammateus of the polemarch on page 89.
Secretaries of other polis-level bodies
ἀρχιγραμματεύς (archigrammateus)
The archigrammateus, ‘chief clerk’ or ‘chief secretary’ is an infrequently-occurring designation
found in several locations throughout the Greek world. The designation is also used by
Plutarch to refer to a military secretary;446 however, this office appears unrelated to the
443
SEG 21:525 (282/1 BC) 40-44.
444
SEG 46:167 (282/1 BC) 14-16.
445
Hesp. 6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 14-15.
446
Plu. Eum. 1.2-1.3, 2.2-2.5, 3.2, 3.6, 11.2. Plb. 5.54.12 also uses the designation for Tychon, the
military secretary of Antiochus III. See also Perrin (1919) 79.
92
Athenian archigrammateus, and may have had more in common with the Spartan epistoleus
(second-in-command of the Spartan navy)447 than any other Athenian secretary.
In Athens, the designation survives in one mid-third century AD inscription only, where it
refers to one of several offices held by the voice trainer Marcus Aurelius Mousaios:
ὑπὸ φωνασκὸν Μ Αὐρ Μουσαῖον τὸν καὶ Ἑορ|τάσιον, Σαρδιανὸν γερουσιαστήν,
Δελφὸν | βουλευτὴν καὶ Ἠλεῖον καὶ Ἀφροδεισιέα, ἀρχιγραμ|ματέα, τειμηθέντα ὑπὸ
Ἠλείων καὶ Δελφῶν | ἀνδριᾶσι μόνον καὶ πρῶτον τῶν ἐπὶ φωνα|σκίᾳ.448
Under the vocal coach Marcus Aurelius Mousaios, the Heortasios and Sardian
gerousiastes and Delphian bouleutes and Eleian and Aphrodisian, archigrammateus,
honoured by the Eleians and Delphians with statues alone and first of those at the
declamation.
The offices held by Marcus Aurelius Mousaios are likely to have been held over the course of
his lifetime, rather than simultaneously.
γραμματεύς (grammateus, the clerk of the court)
The grammateus was the secretary or clerk of the court who was often asked to read out
decrees and witness statements in legal cases. For example, in the following speech,
Aeschines instructs the grammateus of the court to provide information on the embassy
which he and Demosthenes undertook together.
ὅτι δ᾽ οὐδὲν ψεῦδος εἴρηκα πρὸς ὑμᾶς, λαβέτω μοι τὸ ψήφισμα ὁ γραμματεύς, καὶ
τὰς τῶν συμπρέσβεων μαρτυρίας ἀναγνώτω.“Ψήφισμα”“Μαρτυρίαι”449
To prove that I have spoken nothing but the truth to you, let the grammateus take
the decree from me, and let him read the testimony of my colleagues in the
embassy. “Decree” “Testimonies”450
The grammateus could be asked to read out any kind of document; for example, Aeschines
asks the grammateus to read out some verses from the Iliad, in order to illustrate a point.451
It is clear that these grammateis needed to be able to read fluently, and also speak clearly
447
X. Hell. 2.1.7.
448
IG II2 3169/70 (253/257 AD) 32-37.
449
Aeschin. 2.46.
450
Adams (1919) 195.
451
Aeschin. 1.147-150 = Iliad 18.95, 18.333-35, 23.77. Adams (1919) 117. See also D. 20.84, where
the aside “just look and see, it must be there somewhere” is intended to give an air of reality and
suggest that the grammateus is having trouble finding the correct decree from among the many
documents that he has with him.
93
and loudly in public. It is possible that the confidence of the grammateus in public speaking
may have contributed to the credibility of the account.
This grammateus may not have been a separate office at all: he may have been the
grammateus of the eisagogeis,452 the grammateus of the Eleven,453 or the grammateus of
the thesmothetai,454 depending on the type of legal case, as different legal cases were heard
in different courts.
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός (grammateus elected by hairesis)
The grammateus elected by hairesis (γραμματεὺς αἱρετός) and grammateus elected by lot
(γραμματεὺς κληρωτός) occur together as pairs of officials in inscriptions dating from an
approximately 25-year period from the late third, to the start of the second century BC. The
terms distinguish a secretary who was elected by show of hands from a secretary who was
elected by lot.455 In lists of officials, neither term occurs without the other. 456
While these designations could theoretically be used to identify any secretaries elected by
these methods, the fragmentary surviving evidence suggests that these designations are
only used to differentiate between two officers who worked for either the graincommissioners of the city,457 or the inspectors of weights and measures (the metronomoi):
μετρονόμοι οἱ ἐπὶ Ἀρχελάου ἄρχοντος | <personal names of five officers>
…
καὶ γραμματεὺς κληρωτὸς | Νικίας Φίλωνος Κυδαθηναιεὺς | καὶ γραμματεὺς αἱρετὸς
|| Ἡράκλειτος Τιμοθέου Κριωεὺς | τάδε παρέδωκαν μέτρα καὶ σταθμ|ά· χαλκὰ
σιτηρὰ ἡμιέκτεα
, χοίνι|κας δύο, ἡμιχ[ο]ί[νικας — — — —]— — —458
Inspectors of weights and measures in the archonship of Archelaos: <personal
names of officers>
…
and grammateus elected by lot, Nikias son of Philon of Kydathenaion, and
grammateus elected by hairesis, Herakleitos son of Timotheos of Krioa. They
452
See page 68.
453
See page 90.
454
See page 91.
455
Arist. Pol. 1300a19-24.
456
See Appendix A pages 260 and 263. The exception is the honorific inscription Hesp. 6:445
No.2B (239/38 BC) 9-10, where only the grammateus klerotos is mentioned, but this designation is
completely restored. Crosby (1937) 445-8.
457
Three inscriptions may refer to officers of the grain-commissioners: SEG 21:587 (beg. 2C BC) 12-19;
SEG 21:588 (beg. 2C BC) 3-6; SEG 24:157 (222/1 BC) 1, 7-13. Meritt (1961b) 225-226, esp. nos. 23 and 24.
458
94
SEG 24:157 (222/1 BC) 1, 7-13.
handed over the following measures and standard weights: 12 brass corn measures
(weighing) a half-hekteus,459 two choinikes,460 measure(s) of half a choinix…
The letters in lines 1, 7 and 9 containing the designation metronomoi and the designations of
the secretaries (here shown underlined) were painted red, along with the number in line 12, to
draw attention to these parts of the text, but not the names of the officers.461 See Table 15 on
page 300 for other instances where the designation of the secretary is displayed prominently.
Activities
The context of the inscription strongly suggests that both grammateis recorded the
distribution of grain.462
Further particulars
At this point in the second century BC, there were ten grain inspectors: five for Athens and
five for the Piraeus.463 Only the Athenian metronomoi are listed here; therefore it is possible
that the metronomoi of the Piraeus had their own grammateis.
Crosby offers the following, alternative hypothesis: at this time, there were twelve tribes,
and ten metronomoi plus two grammateis would have allowed all twelve tribes to be
represented. This hypothesis does not explain why only five of the metronomoi (but both
secretaries) are recorded here.464 If this hypothesis is the correct one, the grammateus
elected by hairesis and the grammateus elected by lot, in serving both Athens and the
Piraeus, may have been required to work in two different locations.
The grammateus elected by hairesis and the grammateus elected by lot are the only
grammateis in Athens referred to by their mode of appointment. The reason for the different
selection methods for these officials is not known.
These secretaries also had their own hypogrammateus. See n.361 on page 79.
459
A hekteus was a sixth of a medimnos, the common Attic corn-measure – nearly 12 gallons;
therefore a half-hekteus was just under one gallon.
460
A measure of a choinix was one man’s daily allowance of grain, 1/48 of a medimnos.
461
Vanderpool (1968) 74. If another colour was used for the remaining text, there is no surviving
evidence of this. Vanderpool notes that he has seen no other examples where red colouring has been
used to emphasise ‘headings’ in this way.
462
Context suggests that both the γραμματεὺς σιτοφύλαξιν, appointed by lot (Hesp. 6:460,8 (after
166 BC), 8, page 98) and the γραμματεὺς μετρονόμοις, appointed by lot (Hesp. 6:457,7 (after 167/6
BC) 18-19) may be synonymous with the γραμματεὺς κληρωτός (grammateus appointed by lot). Also
see page 98 for the late use of selection by lot.
463
Ath. Pol. 51.3; Crosby (1937) 446.
464
Crosby (1937) 460; Reinmuth (1974) 252. Six tribes are represented in SEG 24:157. Five officials
and both secretaries are recorded in IG II2 1711 (mid 2C BC).
95
Other attributes
Both the grammateus elected by hairesis and the grammateus elected by lot could be
honoured by the archons.465 Only one grammateus elected by lot, Diodotus son of
Theodorus, is known to have been honoured by the boule and demos. 466 This same man was
also councillor of Hippothontis in 178/7 BC, approximately twenty years before.467
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν (grammateus of the bouleutai)
The bouleutai were the 500 councillors who were the members of the boule. In the period of
the ten tribes, the boule comprised ten groups, each containing fifty representatives from a
tribe or phyle. The bouleutai sometimes had their own secretary, the grammateus of the
bouleutai (γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν).468 Occasionally, this secretary is also identified with the
bouleutai of a particular tribe; i.e. grammateus of the bouleutai of the <phyle name> phyle
(γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς <phyle name> φυλῆς).469 Both designations are known
from the second and third centuries AD.
Other attributes
All inscriptions containing the designation grammateus of the bouleutai are honorific texts in
which the grammateus is honoured by the boule and demos, along with the prytaneis. For
example, in 167/8 AD, the prytaneis of the tribe Akamantis honoured officers from several
different tribes as follows:
οἱ πρυτάνεις τῆς Ἀκαμαντίδος | φυλῆς τιμήσαντες ἑαυτοὺς καὶ τοὺς ἀισίτους |
<ἀνέγραψαν > …
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶ[ν] | <Ζ>ήνων Ͻ470 …
ἀίσιτοι …
γραμματεὺς βουλῆς καὶ | δήμου Μᾶρκος Εὐκαρ||πίδου Ἀ[ζ]ηνιεύς | γραμματεὺς κατὰ
465
IG II2 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-9, 12, 15-19.
466
As far as we can tell, from the one surviving inscription of this type: Hesp. 6:445 No.2B (239/38 BC)
9-10. This inscription is the sole instance of the grammateus appointed by lot mentioned without the
grammateus elected by hairesis, and here, τὸν κλεροτὸν γραμματέα is restored.
467
IG II2 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-7, 15-18; Reinmuth (1974) 252.
468
See following example. In the second and third centuries AD, grammateus of the bouleutai could be
abbreviated to γρ. βο. See, e.g. Ag.15.445 (c.200 AD) 11-12, in which the designation grammateus of
the boule and the demos is also abbreviated: γρ(αμματεὺς) βο(υλευτῶν) Κ[— — —] | γρ(αμματεὺς)
βο(υλῆς) δ(ήμου)[— — —].
469
For the grammateus of the bouleutai of the <phyle name> phyle, see e.g. IG II2 1775 (168/9 AD) 5-7:
ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς Ἀκαμαν|τίδος φυλῆς Φιλουμενὸς Ἔρωτος Κεφαλ|ῆθεν The
grammateus of the bouleutai of the phyle of Akamantis, Philoumenos son of Eros of the deme Kephale.
Geagan (1967) 101; Rhodes (1972a) 141 n. 2.
470
96
Indicates a homonymous patronymic, i.e. Zenon son of Zenon.
πρυτα|νείαν Μουσαῖος Ͻ Φυλάσιος | ἀντιγραφεὺς Δημοσθέ|νης Ͻ Σουνιεύς |
ἱεραύλης Εὐχάριστος Παρα|μόνου Ἐπεικίδης | ὑπο<γ>ρ<α>μματεὺς Εἰσίδοτος… 471
The prytaneis of the phyle Akamantis on honouring themselves and the aeisitoi
recorded (below) …
grammateus of the bouleutai, Zenon son of Zenon. …
aeisitoi …
grammateus of the boule and demos, Markos son of Eukarpidos of Azenia,
grammateus kata prytaneian Mousaios son of Mousaios of Phyla, antigrapheus
Demosthenes son of Demosthenes of Sounion, sacred flute-player Eucharistos son
of Paramonos of Epieikidai, hypogrammateus Eisidotos…
The grammateus of the bouleutai was typically placed just above the list of aeisitoi;472 and in
only two surviving instances is included as one of the aeisitoi.473 The honouring of this officer
along with other secretaries of the boule and demos who serve for a year suggests that this
office was also an annual one. The grammateus of the boule (here, grammateus kata
prytaneian) is honoured as aeisitos in lines 71-72, making it clear that the office of
grammateus of the bouleutai was not synonymous with grammateus of the boule.
The bouleutai presiding were known as prytaneis.474 This suggests that grammateus of the
bouleutai was also synonymous with grammateus of the prytaneis (see page 69); the
difference being that the bouleutai in question held the prytany.
We are given no indication of the duties performed by this secretary from the mid thirdcentury BC onwards.
γραμματεὺς ἐπὶ τὸν μισθὸν καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἄλλην οἰκονομίαν
(grammateus for the wages and for the other administration)
See grammateus for the assessors on page 98.
γραμματεὺς κληρωτός (grammateus elected by lot)
See grammateus elected by hairesis on page 94.
471
IG II2 1774 (167/8 AD) 7-9, 58-59, 62, 68-77.
472
See e.g. IG II2 1773 (166/7 AD) 53-65.
473
IG II2 1796 (c.180 AD) 31-32 & 40; Ag.15:411 (186/7 AD) 23-42.
474
E.g. Antiph. 6.45: οὗτοι δ᾽ … ὁρῶντες δ᾽ ἐμὲ βουλεύοντα καὶ εἰσιόντ᾽ ἐς τὸ βουλευτήριον… καὶ πρὸς
τούτοις πρυτανεύσας τὴν πρώτην πρυτανείαν ἅπασαν πλὴν δυοῖν ἡμέραιν. But they (the prosecution)
… (and) could see that I was a member of the boule and used the bouleuterion… and I served as
prytanis for the whole of the first prytany except for two days.
97
γραμματεὺς συνηγόροις (grammateus for the assessors)
The synegoroi were the ten assessors who, together with the ten logistai, were the officials
to whom all other officials had to submit their accounts at the end of their year in office. 475
One second century BC inscription reveals that this body had their own grammateus:
εἰσαγωγεῖ]ς ἕξ | [ἀστυνόμοι εἰ]ς πόλιν πέντε | [ἵππαρχο]ς εἰς Μύριναν | [ὑπηρέ]της
στρατηγοῖς | [γραμμ]ατεὺς σιτοφύλαξιν εἰς ἄστ[υ] | εἰληχώς || [γραμ]ματεὺς
συνηγόροις | [ε]ἰληχώς | [γραμ]ματεὺς ἄρχοντι | [εἰ]ληχώς | [γραμμ]ατεὺς ἱππάρχοις
φυ[λετῶν] | [εἰ]ληχώς | [γραμμ]ατεὺς φυλεῖ | [ε]ἰληχώς | [γραμμ]ατεὺς ἐπὶ τὸν
μ[ισθὸν] | [καὶ ἐπὶ τ]ὴν ἄλλην οἰκον[ομίαν] || [εἰλ]ηχώς476
…six [eisagogeis],477 five [astynomoi] for the city, [hipparch] for Myrrhinous,
[hyperetes] for the strategoi, grammateus of the grain-inspectors for the city chosen
by lot, grammateus for the assessors chosen by lot, grammateus for the archons 478
chosen by lot, grammateus for the hipparchs of the phylai479 chosen by lot,
grammateus of the phylai480 chosen by lot, grammateus for the [wages and for]
other administration chosen by lot.
The duties of this secretary are not known, but it is likely that he assisted in the checking
and storing of accounts submitted to the synegoroi.
The text shows that the secretaries for several bodies were still elected by lot in the midsecond century.481 It also suggests that these officials were elected at the same time.
The designations grammateus of the assessors and the grammateus for the wages and for
other administration are not attested elsewhere. Grammateus of the corn-inspectors is likely to
be synonymous with the grammateus elected by lot (for the corn inspectors) on page 94.
γραμματεὺς τῇ ἀρχῇ (grammateus for the board)
See grammateus of the epimeletai of the trading place on page 101.
475
See Ath. Pol. 54.2, and page 104 for the logistai and synegoroi. There is no record of a grammateus
of the logistai. See also MacDowell (1978) 61-2.
476
Hesp. 6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 4-20; Crosby (1937) 446, 459-460.
477
For the grammateus of the eisagogeis, see page 68. Note that eisagogeis in this inscription is
restored on the basis of one letter only.
478
See page 101.
479
See page 91.
480
See page 108.
481
Crosby (1937) 460. See also IG II2 2876 (25/4-18/7 BC) 1: Παλληνεὺς λαχὼν γραμματεύς – of
Pallene, grammateus appointed by lot.
98
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedrion)
A synedrion was either a council, or a board of trade. The designation grammateus of the
synedrion survives in four fragmentary inscriptions, in which honours are bestowed upon
various magistrates including the grammateus.482 It is not clear which synedrion is referred
to here.
In the most extensive example, the lines immediately preceding the honour for this
grammateus relate to an honour bestowed upon an officer of the ephebes. The lines
immediately after comprise an honour bestowed upon a man whose office is unknown:
ἡ ἐξ Ἀρείου πάγου βουλὴ | τὸν κοσμητὴν τὸν ἐπὶ Κλ | Λυσιάδου ἄρχοντος | Ὄνασον
Τροφίμου Παλλη|νέα γραμματεύσαντα | τοῦ συνεδρίου.483
The council of the Areopagus (honour) Onasos son of Trophimos of Pallene who was
magistrate in the archonship of Kl. (Claudius) Lusiades, having been grammateus of
the synedrion.
The designation grammateus of the synedrion is known from several other locations,
including several Peloponnesian poleis, and Delphi, where synedrion refers to the council of
the Delphic amphictyony.484
γραμματεὺς τῶν νεωρíων ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the
dockyard epimeletai)
The grammateus of the dockyard epimeletai (γραμματεὺς τῶν νεώριων ἐπιμελητῶν) is
known from one inscription only, which details irregularities and debt-collection in the naval
dockyards.485
The inscription does not describe the duties of the grammateus, and simply records that the
dockyard epimeletai and their grammateus (οἱ τῶν νεωρίων ἐπιμεληταὶ… καὶ ὁ γραμματεὺς
αὐτῶν) have delivered two (cheap) heavy sails, instead of two lighter (more expensive) sails
of better quality, and are required to pay the balance:
τάδε ὀφείλουσιν οἱ τῶν νεωριων ἐπι|μεληταὶ οἱ ἐπ’ Ἀντικλέους ἄρχοντ|ος καὶ ὁ
γραμματεὺς αὐτῶν τῶν σ|κευῶν, ὧν γράψαντες εἰς τὴν στήλ|ην οὐ παρέδοσαν ὄντα
ἐν τοῖς νεωρ|ίοις.486
482
IG II2 2893 (85/6-94/5 AD) 1, 9-12; IG II2 2898 (1-2C AD) 2-4; IG II2 2930 (2-3C AD) 1-3; IG II2 3744
(mid. 2C AD) 5-10.
483
IG II2 3744 (mid. 2C AD) 5-10.
484
IG II2 1134 (117/6 BC) 3 (FD III 2:69). See also Appendix A page 271.
485
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 410-415. See Gabrielsen (1993) 175-183 for a full account.
99
The dockyard epimeletai in the archonship of Antikles and their grammateus owe
these pieces (things) of equipment, which, having written them up on a stele, they
did not hand over, being in the dockyard.
No additional information is provided for this grammateus; however it is likely that he
performed financial and administrative duties for the dockyard epimeletai. The grammateus
of the dockyard epimeletai may also be the officer responsible for having the record of the
debt inscribed.
This inscription also contains the only surviving reference to the grammateus of the Eleven.
See page 90.
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (grammateus of the epistatai)
In the third quarter of the fifth century BC, a major programme of building work was carried
out on the acropolis. The building of various temples and other structures was overseen by
boards of epistatai, or ‘commissioners.’ These boards are likely to have existed for the
duration of the building work only. Some of these boards (and possibly all of them) had a
grammateus487 and/or a syngrammateus.488
One secretary, Antikles, appears in several decrees from 447/6-433/2 BC, in conjunction with
a series of named grammateis of the boule and grammateis of the treasurers of Athena,
suggesting that he served for more than a year. 489 He can be designated either grammateus
or syngrammateus, suggesting a certain fluidity in the use of these terms. That is, he
appears as either:
[τοῖς ἐπιστάτεσι h]οῖς Ἀντ[ικλες χσυ]νεγραμμάτευ[ε]490
[For the epistatai], for whom Antikles was syngrammateus…
Or:
[τ]οῖς ἐπιστάτεσι hο|[ῖ]ς Ἀντικλες ἐγραμ|μάτευε491
For the epistatai, for whom Antikles was grammateus…
486
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 410-415.
487
E.g. IG I3 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 114-125, page 88.
488
E.g. IG I3 446 (447/6–433/2 BC) 312-314. Dinsmoor (1913a) 59-63: epistatai and their secretaries at
the building of the Parthenon; Dinsmoor (1913b) 383-5: the Propylaia. See also Meritt (1935) 367-373.
489
Meritt (1935) 378; Rhodes (1993) 603. See Appendix A page 282.
490
IG I3 446 (447/6-433/2 BC) 312-314.
491
IG I3 450 (447/6-433/2 BC) 410-412.
100
Activities
Our most extensive evidence for these secretaries comes from the building accounts of the
Parthenon492 and the Propylaia (see example on page 88).493 The duties of these secretaries
are not described, but since the inscriptions detail amounts spent on building work, they are
likely to have included the recording of financial transactions.
γραμματεὺς τῶν τοῦ ἐμπορίου ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the
epimeletai of the trading place)
The designations grammateus of the epimeletai of the trading place (γραμματεὺς τῶν τοῦ
ἐμπορίου ἐπιμελητῶν) and grammateus for the board (γραμματεὺς τῇ ἀρχῇ) are known from
one surviving instance only, Demosthenes 58.8:
ταύτην τὴν φάσιν, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, ἔδωκεν μὲν οὑτοσὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τὸν
Μίκωνα, ἔλαβεν δὲ ὁ γραμματεὺς ὁ τῶν τοῦ ἐμπορίου ἐπιμελητῶν, Εὐθύφημος.
ἐξέκειτο δὲ πολὺν χρόνον ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ συνεδρίου ἡ φάσις, ἕως λαβὼν ἀργύριον
οὗτος εἴασε διαγραφῆναι καλούντων αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν ἀνάκρισιν τῶν ἀρχόντων. ὅτι δὲ
ταῦτ᾽ ἀληθῆ λέγω, πρῶτον μὲν κάλει ὃς ἐγραμμάτευε τῇ ἀρχῇ, Εὐθύφημον.
“Μαρτυρία”
494
This denunciation, men of the jury, was lodged by the defendant after he had
summoned Micon to appear. It was received by Euthyphemos, the grammateus of
the epimeletai of the trading place, and was exposed to public view for a long time
in front of the meeting-place of the board, until this fellow was bribed to allow it to
be crossed out, just when the magistrates were summoning him for the preliminary
hearing. To prove that these statements of mine are true, call first Euthyphemos,
who was grammateus for the board. “Deposition”
The designations appear to be synonymous, with ‘board’ used rather loosely to refer to the
epimeletai, as both are used to refer to Euthyphemos.
This grammateus is not shown in the context of writing any document; however, it is not
unreasonable to assume that he performed a range of administrative functions for the
epimeletai of the trading-place. This apparently included some executive control over the
public display of, and amendments to, documents relating to the epimeletai.
492
Dinsmoor (1913a) 59-63.
493
Plu. Per. 13.7; Dinsmoor (1913b) 375, 397-398. The Propylaia was built over a period of five years. See
also the accounts for the statue of Athena Promachos, Schweigert (1938) 264-268.
494
[D.] 58.8.
101
διαγραφεύς (diagrapheus)
A diagrapheus was a magistrate who wrote diagramma (διάγραμμα), registers of taxable
properties for the symmoria (συμμορία).495 This designation is a very rare occurrence.
ἐπιγραφεύς (epigrapheus)
The epigrapheus was a registrar of taxable property.496 It is unclear whether this office was
distinct from that of diagrapheus (above), or whether the two terms were synonymous. 497
καταλογεύς (katalogeus)
In the late fifth-century BC, the term katalogeus (‘registrar’) was used for the one hundred
(ad-hoc) officers (ten from each tribe)498 appointed by the Four Hundred to register citizens
for the Five Thousand:499
…ὅστις ὑμῶν ψηφισαμένων πεντακισχιλίοις παραδοῦναι τὰ πράγματα καταλογεὺς ὢν
ἐνακισχιλίους κατέλεξεν, ἵνα μηδεὶς αὐτῷ διάφορος εἴη τῶν δημοτῶν…500
...the man who served as katalogeus after you had voted to hand over public affairs
to five thousand people and who registered nine thousand. He did this to avoid
quarrelling with any of the deme members…501
In the fourth century BC, the term katalogeus was also used for the one officer per tribe
who compiled lists (katalogoi) of cavalry commanders and tribal commanders, and gave
these lists to the phylarchs and hipparchs. These officers then took the registers before the
council, where the names of those exempt from service would be removed. 502
See also the Epidaurian katalogos boulas, page 147.
495
Hyp. Orat. fr.152.2; Harp. Words Used by the Ten Orators 91.1; Suid. Lexicon δ.529 3; Gabrielsen
(1993) 211.
496
Harp. Words Used by the Ten Orators 122.5: ἐπιγραφέας, citing Lys. fr.342.5 (Carey (2007) fr.102).
Isoc. 17.41: πρὸς δὲ τούτοις εἰσφορᾶς ἡμῖν προσταχθείσης καὶ ἑτέρων ἐπιγραφέων γενομένων ἐγὼ
πλεῖστον εἰσήνεγκα τῶν ξένων, αὐτός θ᾽ αἱρεθεὶς ἐμαυτῷ μὲν ἐπέγραψα τὴν μεγίστην εἰσφοράν... In
addition to this, when a special tax was imposed upon us and other men than I were appointed
registrars, I contributed more than any other foreigner and when I was myself chosen registrar, I
subscribed the largest contribution…
497
In Suda, diagraphein is used to describe the duties of the epigrapheus: Suid. Lexicon ε.2271.1:
…οἱ ταῦτα διαγράφοντες ἐπιγραφεῖς ἐκαλοῦντο.
498
Ath. Pol. 29.5.
499
Lys. 20.13: Polystratos is said to have made a list of 9,000 citizens instead of 5,000. He may also
have been a member of the Four Hundred. Suid. Lexicon κ.627.1. De Ste Croix (1956) 4-5; Todd
(2000) 217-222.
500
Lys. 20.13.
501
Todd (2000) 221-222.
502
Ath. Pol. 49.2; Christ (2001) 400 n.8.
102
συνγραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (syngrammateus of the epistatai)
See grammateus of the epistatai on page 100.
Other officers of the polis
θεσμοθέτης (thesmothetes)
The thesmothetai (θεσμοθέται, ‘law-givers’ or legislators) were six junior archons, who,
together with three senior archons and a grammateus (page 91), formed the board of
archons (archontes).503
According to Aristotle, thesmothetai wrote up legal judgements (θεσμοί) and preserved them
for the trial of litigants.504 The thesmothetai also received statements of irregularities in the
accounts submitted by magistrates at the end of their year in office, which they then reintroduced to the court,505 and dealt with various categories of public case that did not go to
the three senior archons. They also had other judicial powers, and were authorised to
punish by death anyone who had gone into exile on a charge of murder and had returned to
Athens.506
κήρυξ (kerux)
An honorific decree of the Council of the Areopagus at Eleusis507 was set up in three
locations: on the acropolis, in Eleusis, and in Epidauros.508 The Epidaurian copy contains the
unprecedented direction that a kerux (herald) is to act as an official representative of
Epidauros,509 and write the Epidaurian copy of the decree:
…τὴν ἐπιγραφὴν | ἔχοντας· "ἡ ἐξ Ἀρείου πάγου βουλὴ καὶ ἡ βουλὴ τῶν ἑξακοσίων
καὶ ὁ δῆμος Τίτον Στα|τείλιον Στατειλίου υἱὸν Τειμοκράτους Λαμπρίαν ἥρωα." τὸν δὲ
503
Ath. Pol. 55.1; 63.1. McLean (2002) 311-12; Rhodes (1993) 613-4.
504
Ath. Pol. 3.4.
505
Ath. Pol. 48.5. Accounts submitted by officials at the end of their terms in office were passed first to
accountants (logistai λογισταί) and reviewed in meetings. Any official was then permitted to submit a
charge against another official within three days, which he gave to auditors ( euthynoi εὐθύνοι), who
(in public suits) handed the charge to the thesmothetai. Complaints made in private cases were
handed to local (phyle) magistrates (dikastai δικασταί). The thesmothetai served for a year.
506
D. 23.31.
507
IG IV2,1 83 (40-42 AD) 7: Ἄρειος πάγος ἐν Ἐλευσεῖνι.
508
IG IV2,1 83 (40-42 AD) 14-15; Geagan (1983) 164; Oliver (1978) 187-188.
509
The inference that the herald was Athenian rather than from Epidauros or Eleusis is drawn from his
name. Lysiadēs (Λυσιάδης) is attested in Athens (LGPN II 289-90), Euboia (LGPN I 292) and Sicily
(LGPN IIIa 282), but not Eleusis, Epidauros, or elsewhere in the Peloponnese.
103
κήρυκα Λυσιάδην γρά|[ψ]αι τῆι Ἐπιδαυρίων πόλει καὶ διαπέμψασθαι τὸν
ὑπομνηματισμὸν σημηνά|μενον τῆι δημο[σί]αι σφραγεῖδι ∶∶510
…having the inscription: “The boule of the Areopagus and the boule of the 600 and
the demos (honour) as a hero Titus Statilius Lamprias, son of (Titus) Statilius
Teimokrates.” And the herald Lysiades is to write for (on behalf of) the polis of the
Epidaurians and to send the written record, authenticating it with the public seal.
λογισταί and συνήγοροι (auditors and assessors)
The ten logistai (λογισταί) and ten synegoroi (συνήγοροι) were the auditors and assessors to
whom other officials submitted their accounts at the end of their term in office. 511 Although
these magistrates received written accounts from others, and must have made extensive use
of records on temporary media in order to carry out their duties, they are nowhere described
as writing anything themselves.512
Secretaries and other officers of demes
The majority of deme decrees published on stone were honorific in nature.513 They could be
written by either a grammateus (see next section), demarch (page 105), or tamias (page 106).
The use of these other officers suggests that demes did not always have their own grammateis.
Deme decrees are unusual in that instructions to inscribe the text can be given to more than
one official (such as epimeletai (plural), page 109), or more than one type of official, as in
the contract on page 105, which is written by both the demarch and tamiai.514
γραμματεὺς τῶν δημοτῶν (grammateus of the demesmen)
The secretary of a deme was known either as the grammateus,515 or grammateus of the
demesmen:
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα ἐ στήληι | λιθίνει τὸν γραμματέα τῶν δημοτῶν κα|ὶ
στῆσαι ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς τῆς Ἱππί|ας…516
510
IG IV2,1 83 (40-42 AD) 15-19. For a similar authentication formula, see IG XII,5 833 (2C BC) 13-15 (Tenos).
For the family of Titus Statilius Lamprias, see Bradford (1977) 413.
511
Ath. Pol. 54.2: … καὶ λογιστὰς δέκα καὶ συνηγόρους τούτοις δέκα, πρὸς οὓς ἅπαντας ἀνάγκη τοὺς
τὰς ἀρχὰς ἄρξαντας λόγον ἀπενεγκεῖν. …and ten Auditors and ten Assessors with them, to whom all
retiring officials have to render account. Trans. Rackham (1932b) 147.
512
NB In Messenia, a secretary is also logistes: IG V,1 1412 (193-195 BC) 7-9: λογιστοῦ | καὶ
γραμματέος | Αἰλίου Φ[α]ι{α}νίδου.
513
Osborne (1985) 206, Tables 6 and 7.
514
The demarch and tamiai are also collectively responsible for writing an honorific decree of the deme
Aixone: IG II2 1202 (313/2 BC) 18-21.
515
IG II2 1206 (end 4C BC) 7-19.
104
And the grammateus of the demesmen is to write up this decree on a stone stele, and
set it up in the sanctuary of Athena Hippias.
It is likely that the grammateus of the demesmen wrote a range of documents, but
published few of them on stone. The majority of inscriptions written up by the grammateus
were honorific, although one exception concerns revenues to be raised for a thysia
(sacrifice, or festival at which sacrifices were made).517
δήμαρχος (demarch)
Activities
The demarch (literally, chief official of a demos) had a great deal of local influence, though few
went on to take a part in the running of the polis.518 Demarchs performed a wide range of
functions, from the convening of deme assemblies and financial administration of the deme, to
cult administration.519 They could also record information in writing. In the fifth century BC,
one demarch is described as writing a grammateion (list of citizens),520 and in the fourth
century BC, demarchs could additionally be called upon to write up deme decrees.521
The majority of decrees written by demarchs were honorific, and similar if not identical in
style to the decrees written by grammateis.522 Demarchs could also write contracts, such as
the following, in which three men are granted the rights to the front seats for viewings in
the theatre:
Ἡ]γήσιας [εἶπεν· καταβάλλειν δὲ τοὺς ἥκον]|τας θεωρεῖν ἀργύριο[ν τὸ τεταγμένον
πλὴν ὁπό]|σοις οἱ δημόται πρ[οεδρίαν δεδώκασιν εἰς τὰς θέας]·| τούτους δ’
ἀπογράψα[ι τὸν δήμαρχον πρὸς τοὺς πριαμέ]|νους τὸ θέατρον·
...
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν δήμαρχον καὶ τοὺς ταμίας ἀντί|γραφα τῶν συνθηκῶν εἰς στήλην
λιθίνην καὶ στῆσα||ι ἐν τῆι ἀγορᾶι τῶν δημοτῶν· παραγράψαι δὲ καὶ τὸ ὄνομα, παρ’
ὧι ἂν κείωνται αἱ συνθῆκαι.523
516
SEG 43:26 (315/4 BC) A22-25.
517
IG II2 1206 (end 4C BC) 12-16.
518
Osborne (1985) 85.
519
Whitehead (1986) 122-129.
520
IG I3 138 (after 434 BC) 5-6. See also D. 57.60 for an incident where the alleged loss of a lexiarchikon
grammateion by another demarch means that a list of citizens is revised in such a way that ten men
are expelled.
521
See Appendix A page 278 for a list.
522
SEG 43:26 (315/4 BC) contains two decrees: Side A is written up by the grammateus, Side B, by the
demarch.
523
IG II2 1176 (c.360 BC) 2-6, 18-21 (Piraeus).
105
Hegesias [proposed: Those having come] to watch [are to pay the set amount of]
money [except any to whom] the demesmen [have given proedria for the spectacles.]
And [the demarch] is to record these people [for those buying] the theatre.
…
And the demarch and the tamiai are to write up copies of the contracts
(agreements) on a stone stele and set it up in the agora of the demesmen. And
write beside it the name of the person in whose hands the contracts are deposited.
There is no evidence for the writing of deme decrees by demarchs after the end of the fourth
century BC. The reasons for this are unclear, but may be due to the uneven chronological
distribution of the surviving evidence, two-thirds of which dates from the fourth century.524
ταμίας (tamias)
A tamias was a treasurer: someone who managed the funds of any organisation.525 At polis
level, the most important treasurers were the treasurers of Athena ( hellenotamiai), and the
treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods (page 84). After these boards were abolished,
funds were administered by the tamias of the demos. It was this officer who gave the funds
for the creation and setting up of stelai to whichever secretary had been charged with
having the text inscribed.526
In the fourth century BC, tamiai of demes could also collectively write deme decrees. These
could be of a technical and financial nature, such as expenses for the lease of land, 527 or
contracts, such as that written in conjunction with the demarch on page 105. They could
also write honorific inscriptions, unrelated to the tamias’ duties as financial officer.528
Officers of phratries
ἱερεύς (priest)
Activities
The priest (ἱερεύς) and phratriarch (φρατρίαρχος) of the phratry Demotionidai were jointly
responsible for recording new phratry members, public notices containing potential new
members,529 and the erasure of the names of anyone introduced into the phratry in error.
524
Whitehead (1986) 41-2, 362.
525
Lys. 29.3. Occasionally, individual magistrates could also employ tamiai to administer their funds.
526
E.g. IG II2 109 (363/2 BC) b.24-29.
527
IG II2 2492 (345/4 BC) 20-24, 38-39 (Aixone).
528
SEG 36:186 and MDAI(A) 66:218,1 (313/2 BC) 5-6 & 11-12 (Glyphada).
529
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 116-126.
106
ὃς δ’ ἂν δόξηι μὴ ὢν φρατὴρ ἐσα|χθῆναι, ἐξαλειψάτω τὸ ὄνομα αὐτõ ὁ ἱερ|εὺς καὶ ὁ
φρατρίαρχος ἐκ τõ γραμματεί|ο ἐν Δημοτιωνιδῶν καὶ τõ ἀντιγράφ|ο.530
Whoever should appear to have been introduced, not being a phrater, the priest and
the phratriarch shall erase his name from the register in the keeping of the
Demotionidai and the copy.
They also collected fines (on pain of paying them themselves) for the introduction of
someone who was later found to be ineligible. 531
Two copies were kept of the record of phratry members. When boys were to be introduced
to the phratry, their names were recorded in advance by the phratriarch and displayed in the
meeting place of the Dekeleans in Athens (most likely to have been the barber’s shop near
the Stoa of the Herms).532 A second copy of the same text was written up by the priest on a
whitened board, and displayed in the temple of Leto.533
The priest also gave advance notice of the meia and koureia (phratry introduction ceremonies)
on a whitened board, which was displayed in the city five days before these events were due
to occur.534
The priest was also solely responsible for setting up four decrees on a single stele,
concerning local sacrifices and the introduction of new phraters. 535 He is a prominent figure
in the text. Each decree contains an epigraphic formula referring to the writing and setting
up of the stele by the priest, the first occurring immediately after the dedication to Zeus.536
However, the first occurrence of the priest’s name (line 2) has been reinscribed, suggesting
that the name may have been changed (and a previous priest erased) when a new decree
was added to the stone.537
530
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 18-22. Lambert (1998) 288-289.
531
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 22-26. Lambert (1998) 289; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 36.
532
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 116-123. Lys. 23.2-3; Lambert (1998) 99, 290–293. The Dekeleans (i.e.
people from the deme of Dekeleia) are likely to have been a subgroup of this phratry.
533
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 123-126. This temple was presumably in or near Dekeleia.
534
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 61-64. Lambert (1998) 289-290; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 35-36.
535
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 2-3. Lambert (1998) 285, 290.
536
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 1-3: Διὸς Φρατρίο | ἱερεὺς Θεόδωρος Εὐφαντίδο vv ἀν|έγραψε καὶ ἔστησε τὴν
στήλην. Of Zeus Phratrios. The priest, Theodoros son of Euphantides, -- inscribed and set up the stele.
Other inscription formulae at 64-68, 106-108, 121-126.
537
Lambert (1998) 285, 290-291; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 36.
107
Other attributes
The second decree on this stele stipulates that the priest was to pay for the stele from his
own money.538 This strongly suggests that (most unusually) all decrees on this stone were
paid for by the priest.539
φρατρίαρχος (phratriarch)
The phratriarch (chief officer of a phratry) of the Demotionidai and phratry priest (ἱερεύς)
were jointly responsible for the recording of new phratry members. See page 106.
Secretaries and other officers of phylai
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς (grammateus of the phyle)
The grammateus of the phyle (γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς) is attested in decrees from the midfourth, to the mid-second century BC.540
Activities
The grammateus of the phyle carried out a limited range of secretarial and administrative
functions for a phyle, such as writing tribal decrees.541 These texts could honour groups such
as the ephebes (as in the following example), or occasionally, serve other purposes, such as
recording the re-building of a statue.542
στῆσαι δὲ στή]λην εἰς τ|[ὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Κέκροπος ἀναγρ]άψαντα τ|[όδε τὸ ψήφισμα
τὸν γραμματ]έα τῆς φυ|[λῆς].543
[And the] grammateus of the phyle, having written up [the decree, is to set up the]
stele in the [sanctuary of Kekrops.]
Other attributes
No grammateis of the phyle are known to have also held other offices in Athens;544 however,
it is possible that previous experience as grammateus of the phyle would have given a
538
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 64-68: τὸ δ|ὲ ψήφισμα τόδε καὶ τὰ ἱερεώσυνα ἀναγ|ράψαι τὸν ἱερέα ἐν στήληι
λιθίνηι πρ|όσθεν τõ βωμõ Δεκελειᾶσιν τέλεσι το|ῖς ἑαυτõ. The priest is to inscribe this decree and the
priestly dues on a stone stele in front of the altar at Dekeleia at his own expense. Lambert (1998) 289290; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 36. It is not certain what is meant by ‘priestly dues’.
539
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 36.
540
All instances contain some restoration. See Appendix A page 270 for a list of relevant texts.
541
E.g. SEG 23:78  (361/0 BC) 22.
542
SEG 2:8 (4C BC) 3-4.
543
IG II2 1158 (after mid 4C BC) 9-12.
108
secretary an advantage in terms of experience, if he were chosen as one of the secretaries
of the boule. The converse is also theoretically possible: that the grammateus of the phyle
may have previously represented his tribe, e.g. as grammateus of the boule for a single
prytany (before 368/7 BC), or as grammateus of the boule for a year (after 367/6 BC).
The grammateus of the phyle could be honoured by the boule and demos along with the
prytaneis.545
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes)
An epimeletes was an overseer or manager, and the term is widely used for (e.g.)
magistrates who oversaw the docks, festivals, or building-work.546
Attributes
From the end of the fifth century BC, epimeletai of phylai could write and set up honorific
inscriptions. These texts honour men who had held office at Athens,547 or who had held office
in the deme and had done their job well,548 or honour victors in dithyrambic contests.549
The instructions to inscribe and display these inscriptions are broadly similar to the formulae
used in documents of the boule and demos, with the final location for the display typically a
local sanctuary. For example:
ἀ[να]γράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα ἐν στήλει λιθίνει | [τοὺς] ἐπιμελητὰς καὶ στῆσαι ἐν
τῶι Μητρώιωι550
And [the] epimeletai (plural) are to write up this decree on a stone stele and set it
up in the Metroön.
In all but two cases,551 the direction to write and set up the stele is given to epimeletai in the
plural, suggesting that responsibility was shared by all serving epimeletai.
544
Jones (1999) 178-181, 189. An examination of the names of the grammateis of the phyle does not
provide the names of any officers who were also grammateus of the boule.
545
Ag.15:86 (256/5 BC) 17-20, 97.
546
For example, the dockyard epimeletai (page 99), or the epimeletai of the trading place (page 101).
547
Pandionis: IG II2 1148 (after mid 4C BC) 11-16.
548
Pandionis: IG II2 1140 (c.386/5 BC) 15-19; IG II2 1157 (326/5 BC) 11-15. Hippothontis: IG II2 1163
(c.288/7 BC) 22-28.
549
Pandionis: IG II2 1138 (c.403/2) 7-9; IG II2 1139 (c.403/2) 6-8. Erechtheis: IG II2 1147 (after mid
4C BC) 11-13.
550
IG II2 1327 (c.178/7 BC) 26-29.
551
IG II2 1138 (c.403/2) 7-9; IG II2 1140 (c.386/5 BC) 15-19.
109
Secretaries of the ephebes
Officers of the ephebes were elected by the demos. 552 Although ephebes were organised,
billeted and drilled by tribe, administratively, they were a single unit, with officers such as
the kosmetes, antikosmetes and grammateus serving all tribes collectively.553 Most
administrative officers were elected by lot (presumably including their secretaries); other
officers were elected by show of hands.554
ἀντιγραμματεύς (antigrammateus)
The antigrammateus was a secretary of the ephebes.
ἐπὶ Πραξαγόρου Μελιτέως ἄρχοντος∙ ὁ κοσμητὴς | τῶν ἐφήβων Ἀθήναιος
Ἀριστοβούλου Κηφισιεὺς | τοὺς συνάρξαντας καὶ τοὺς ἐφηβεύσαντας ἀνέγραψεν.
…
ἀντιγραμματεύς | Πατρόβιος Ἀριστοβούλου
Κηφι(σιεὺς)555
In the archonship of Praxagoras of Melite. The kosmetes of the ephebes was
Athenaios son of Aristoboulos of Kephisia. He wrote up those who were in office
together and who were ephebes.
…
antigrammateus Patrobios son of Aristoboulos
(of) Kephi(sia).
This designation is unusual, and, in Athens, is known from this list of ephebes and their
officers only. We are provided with no other information about this officer, and it is the
kosmetes who apparently compiles the list (although the text also contains a grammateus).
The designation antigrammateus could be understood in a financial sense, cf. ἀντιγραφεία,
ἀντιγραφεύς, ‘checking-clerk’ or ‘copying-clerk’, a secretary with financial duties;556
alternatively, the prefix could indicate that this secretary acted ‘opposite’ or ‘instead of’
another officer, such as the grammateus in lines 203-4.557 This is substantiated, possibly, by
the fact that the text contains both a kosmetes (above) and antikosmetes.558
552
Ath. Pol. 42.2-3.
553
Ath. Pol. 42.2-3; IG II2 2245 (262/3 or 266/7 AD) 29-41: administrative officers for all tribes; 160-172:
twelve gymnasiarchs, one per tribe; 43-408: ephebes from all twelve tribes. See also Reinmuth, EI 2-3.
554
Ath. Pol. 43.1.
555
IG II2 2067 (154/5 AD)  2-4, 225-6.
556
See page 49.
557
IG II2 2067 (154/5 AD) 203-4. The grammateus is Komarchos from Χολα, which could be an
abbreviation of Cholargos.
558
IG II2 2067 (154/5 AD) 5-6.
110
The antigrammateus, kosmetes and antikosmetes (Aristoboulos son of Athenaios from
Kephisia) are all from the same deme, and appear to be related.
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου (grammateus for life)
From the second century BC, some officers of the ephebes held the office ‘for life’ (διὰ βίου).
In the second and third centuries AD, the ephebes could also employ a grammateus for life
(γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου).559
ἀντικοσμήτης· Ἐλευσείνιος Κίττου Αἰθαλίδης | ἡγεμὼν διὰ βίου· Γά Τυρ Τειμαγένης
Σφήττιος | παιδοτρίβης διὰ βίου· Τελεσφόρος Μενεκράτους Φλυ | γραμματεὺς διὰ
βίου· ἱερεὺς Στράτων Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρ | σωφρονισταί | list of personal names |
ὑποσωφρ<ο>νισταί | list of personal names560
antikosmetes: Eleuseinios son of Kittos of Aithalidai | leader for life: Gaius Tyr.
Teimagenes of Sphettos | training-master for life: Telesphoros son of Menekrates of
Phlya. | grammateus for life: priest Straton son of Kithairon of Acharnai. | censors:
<names> | under-censors: <names>
Officers serving for life can also be listed collectively under the heading hoi dia biou (οἱ διὰ
βίου, those who hold this office for life).561 A grammateus and hypogrammateus may be
included in this list, or listed separately in the text. 562
οἱ διὰ βίου
Officers for life:
...
...
ἰατρὸς Ἰουλιανός
Doctor: Ioulianos
γραμματεὺς Ἀλκιβιάδης
Grammateus: Alcibiades
ὑποöπλομάχος Ὀλύμπιος
Hypooplomachos: Olympius
ὑπογραμματεὺς Ἀλκιβιάδης
Hypogrammateus: Alcibiades563
Activities
The grammateus for life is likely to have performed administrative and secretarial duties for
the ephebes and their officers. It is difficult to be more precise about the nature of these
duties, as the inscriptions in which these officials occur are predominantly registers of
officers and ephebes.
559
See Appendix A page 261 for a list of texts.
560
IG II2 2193 (c.200 AD) 32-93.
561
E.g. IG II2 2245 (262/3 or 266/7 AD) 29, 31, 39; SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 49, 51.
562
Both methods of describing officers ‘for life’ can be used within the same text: e.g. SEG
39:189 (226/7–234/5 AD)  8: grammateus for life; 60: oi dia biou;65-55: hypogrammateus.
563
SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 48-51. For a photograph and more about this inscription, see Oliver (1933)
506-511. It is unlikely that the grammateus Alcibiades and hypogrammateus Alcibiades were the same man.
111
Other attributes
The grammateus for life could serve in more than one office simultaneously. For example,
from 179/80-90/1 AD to 212/3 AD or later, the ephebes had a grammateus for life named
Straton.564 Straton is grammateus for life in twelve inscriptions, and in seven of these, he is
also described as hiereus, priest. One could speculate that the office of grammateus was not
particularly taxing, and that this provided Straton with sufficient spare time in which to
perform additional duties. A parallel to this may be IG II2 1335 (page 113), where the
grammateus of a private religious organisation was also treasurer (tamias) and epimeletes.565
It is possible that Straton was initially a grammateus only, and became a priest later, as
none of the texts from his first ten years in office include this additional title. However, this
is not certain, as one text from the middle of his period in office also lacks this term.
As Straton held the office of grammateus for life for over thirty years, it is clear that ‘for life’
was not purely an honorary title.
The grammateus for life could be assisted by a hypogrammateus. From 212/3 AD, the
hypogrammateus could also be ‘for life’, suggesting an increased requirement for secretarial
or administrative staff. Straton was succeeded by Syntrophos, who held the office of
grammateus for life (and occasionally, priest) for at least twenty years (218/9 – 238/9243/4 AD), assisted by a single hypogrammateus for life, Onesimos.566
Secretaries and other officers of religious associations of
Attica
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Three religious organisations are known to have had their own grammateis: the orgeones,567
the sabaziastai,568 and the theatrical artists of Dionysus.569 The majority of inscriptions
564
For all inscriptions where Straton was grammateus for life, see Appendix A page 261.
565
IG II2 1335 (102/1 BC) 10-13.
566
Syntrophos as grammateus for life: IG II2 2223 (218/9 AD or later) 14-15, 34-35 (hypogrammateus
Onesimos); IG II2 2242 (238/9 or 242/3 AD) 9-10 (and hiereus); IG II2 2239 (238/9-243/4 AD) 21-24 (and
hiereus, hypogrammateus Onesimos); SEG 39:189 (226/7–234/5 AD) 8 (and hiereus), 60 hoi dia biou,
65-66 (hypogrammateus Onesimos).
567
E.g. IG II2 1284 (mid. 3C BC) 22-34.
568
See IG II2 1335 (102/1 BC) 2-14 on page 113.
569
E.g. IG II2 1330 (c.130 BC) 1, 63-65.
112
containing a secretary are honorific in nature, as in the following decree, enacted by the
theatrical artists of Dionysus:570
ἀνα[γράψαι δὲ τὸν γραμματέα τόδε τὸ] | ψήφισμα εἰς στήλην λιθίνην κ[α]ὶ στῆσα[ι
παρὰ τὴν εἰκόνα, εἰς δὲ τὴν ποί]|ησιν καὶ τὴν [ἀ]ναγραφὴν μερίσαι τὸν ἐπ[ιμελητὴν
τὸ γενόμενον ἀνάλωμα].571
[And the grammateus is to] write up [this] decree on a stone stele and set it up
[beside the statue, and the] epimeletes is to [provide the] amount [required for the]
manufacture and the engraving.
The text also contains the fragmentary line: τὸν [δ’] ὑπηρέτην προγρ[ά]ψαι — — — and the
hyperetes is to write in addition…;572 unfortunately, the remainder of this line has been lost.
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes)
Texts written by epimeletai of private religious associations honour officers on having done
their job well.573
At the end of the second century BC, one inscription listing contributors to a private religious
association gives one of its officers the designation tamias and grammateus and epimeletes:
ἀγαθεῖ τύχει· ἐπὶ Θεοκλέους ἄρχον|τος· Μουνιχιῶνος ἀγορᾶι κυρίαι·| ἔδοξεν τοῖς
Σαβαζιασταῖς, ἀνα|γράψαι τὰ ὀνόματα τῶν ἐρανι|στῶν ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι καὶ στῆσαι |
ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι. | ἱερεὺς | Ζήνων Ἀντιοχεύς·| ταμίας καὶ | γραμματεὺς | καὶ ἐπιμελητὴς |
Δωρόθεος Ὄαθεν. | Ἐρανισταί·| <51 personal names>574
Good fortune. In the archonship of Theokles, month of Mounichion, in the regular
assembly. It was resolved by the Sabaziastai to write up the names of the eranistai
on a stone stele and set it up in the sanctuary. Priest: Zenon of Antioch. Tamias and
grammateus and epimeletes Dorotheos of Oa. Eranistai: < names>
It is possible that in small organisations such as this, one man held all three offices,
managing association funds, writing their decrees, and organising the creation of any stelai.
570
Le Guen (2001) 67-74.
571
IG II2 1330 (c.130 BC) 63-65.
572
IG II2 1330 (c.130 BC) 35.
573
IG II2 1277 (c.278/7 BC) 3-6, 33-36; IG II2 1319 (end 3C BC) 11-14; IG II2 1327 (c.178/7 BC) 26-29.
574
IG II2 1335 (102/1 BC) 2-14; Kloppenborg & Ascough (2011) 207-210.
113
ταμίας (tamias)
Tamiai could write decrees on the behalf of religious organisations, such as the following
text, in which a decree of the demos on behalf of the Eumolpidai (the family or clan of
priests at Eleusis) was written up by the tamias of the genos of the Eumolpidai:
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸ ψήφισμα τοῦτο τὸν [τα]μία[ν τ]οῦ γέ|νους τῶν Εὐμολπιδῶν ἐν
τρισὶν [στή]λαις καὶ στῆσαι | τὴν μὲν ἐν Ἐλευσινίωι τῶι ὑπὸ [τ]ῆι πόλει, τὴν δὲ ἐν |
τῶι Διογενείωι, τὴν δὲ ἐν Ἐλευσεῖνι ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι πρὸ|τοῦ βου[λ]ευτηρίου.575
And the tamias of the genos of the Eumolpidai is to write up this decree on three
stelai and set one up in the temple of Eleusinian Mysteries (the one) near the polis,
and another in the school of Diogenes, and the third in the sanctuary of Eleusinian
Mysteries, in front of the bouleuterion.
At the end of the first century BC, another tamias of a religious organisation, the tamias of the
arrangement of the sanctuary (ταμίαν τῆς ἱερᾶς διατάξεως) wrote up the details of the
restoration of the sanctuaries of Attica:
[ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν ταμίαν τῆς ἱερᾶς διατάξεως ἐν στήλαιν λιθίναιν δυοῖν τάδε τὰ
ψηφίσματα] περὶ τῶ[ν ἱερῶν κ]αὶ τεμενῶν [καὶ τ]ὰ ἀποκατασταθέντα ἱερὰ καὶ
τεμένη...576
[The tamias of the arrangement of the sanctuary is to write up these decrees] about
the [sanctuaries] and sacred land, [and] the restoration of sanctuaries and sacred
land, [on two stone stelai]...
The stelai are to include financial information: the names of the people who have been
hired, and how much they have been hired for. 577
These sanctuaries may have been restored at the same time as they had been neglected
under the previous three emperors.578 It is unclear who is meant by tamias of the
arrangement of the sanctuary.
575
IG II2 1078 (c.220 AD) 39-43.
576
SEG 26:121 (10/9-3/2 BC) 14. Culley (1975) 218-219. Culley provides no explanation for the
restoration of the designation tamias of the sanctuary; however this is also found in IG II2 3503 (end
1C BC) 16-18 (Ag.15:287) and Ag.15:307 (start 1C AD) 15-16.
577
SEG 26:121 (10/9-3/2 BC) 16-17.
578
Culley (1975) 218-219.
114
Other
γραφεύς (grapheus)
The term grapheus was used to indicate a painter,579 or (informally) a writer580 or private
secretary.581 References to a grapheus are rare, and incidental, providing no details about
the work undertaken. The term does not occur in epigraphic evidence.
Conclusions
Athens employed secretaries to write official documents from the sixth century BC onwards.
The earliest of these were grammateis of the pre-Kleisthenic council.582 From the fifth
century BC, other bodies such as the hellenotamiai,583 law-courts584 and building
commissions585 also had their own secretaries. Most of our evidence is for the grammateus of
the boule.586 While we have large numbers of inscriptions containing evidence for other
secretaries, there is significantly less detail, and we are heavily reliant upon extrapolating from
the evidence for the grammateus of the boule.
Activities
The number of types of secretary present in Athens means that there are many different
answers to the question ‘what does it mean to be a secretary in Athens?’ Based on their
duties, secretaries can be divided into several broad categories. 1) Secretaries whose duties
primarily consisted of drafting or writing a range of documents for a large body, many of
which were later inscribed. This category contains only the grammateus of the boule587 and
anagrapheus of the laws.588 2) Secretaries whose duties included writing texts serving a
narrower range of purposes (such as honorific decrees or registers of officers), some of
which were later inscribed. This category contains most of the other secretaries in this
chapter, i.e., most of the secretaries at polis level, and secretaries of demes, phratries and
579
E. Hec. 807: ὡς γραφεύς τ’ ἀποσταθεὶς; like an artist standing back from his picture.
580
Minon (2007) 504.
581
Plu. Ages. 13.1-2: Agesilaus gives the decorated headgear of his secretary’s horse (ἵππον Ἰδαίου
τοῦ γραφέως) to Pharnabazus’ son.
582
IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6, page 52.
583
Page 86.
584
E.g. the grammateus of the Eleven, page 90.
585
E.g. the grammateus of the epistatai, page 100.
586
See page 51.
587
See page 51.
588
See page 38.
115
phylai.589 3) Secretaries who may have performed a limited range of duties such as creating
accounts on temporary media, but whose precise duties are unknown since they are
primarily known from honorific inscriptions which contain only their designation(s).590
4) Secretaries whose job was to read out documents, either in addition to, or instead of,
writing, such as the grammateus of the boule and the demos,591 or the grammateus of the
court.592 The duty most often attested in the widest range of contexts is the creation of
honorific decrees, however, there is no ‘core’ set of duties, and not all bodies (and far from
all secretaries) are known to have done this.
There is much we do not know about the work of Athenian secretaries. For example, even
with the well-attested office of grammateus of the boule, we cannot know the average
number of decrees written during his period in office, and whether this changed over time. 593
We can at best generalise with statements such as that certain (oligarchic) anagrapheis
appear to have been more fanatical inscribers of decrees than the (democratic) grammateis
of the boule they temporarily replaced.594
The limited evidence for some offices means that it is difficult to assess the degree to which
there was specialisation among secretaries. 595 Many officers are known primarily from their
official designations in lists of officers honoured, but designations do not provide precise
indicators of an officer’s actual (attested) duties. For example, the antigrapheus, the
‘checking-’ or ‘copying-clerk’ compiled reports containing boule accounts once every
prytany,596 but while his designation hints that he was a ‘copyist’, it does not tell us what
type of information was copied, or indicate that he was an officer of the boule. Neither does
the designation suggest accounting duties, and we must infer these from context. In the
same way, some of the most technical accounting duties known from Athens were given to
the demosios or public slave.597
The only Athenian officer known from a single type of document is the grammateus for life,
a secretary of the ephebes.598 This officer is known only from the presence of his name in
589
E.g. the hellenotamiai and their grammateus, page 86; the grammateus for life of the ephebes,
page 111.
590
For example, the secretary in charge of decrees and secretary for the laws, pages 71-73.
591
See page 64.
592
See page 93.
593
See Hansen (1989) 98-105 and page 60 for an estimate.
594
I.e. those in the periods 321/20-319/18 BC and 294/3 – 292/1 BC: see page 47.
595
As defined in n.32, page 23.
596
See page 49.
597
See page 81. See also page 244, for more on attempting to assess specialization from designations.
598
See page 111.
116
registers of officers; however, if we were able to prove that the grammateus for life wrote
membership lists only (unlikely), we would still need to justify whether this could be classed
as ‘specialisation’, or whether the office simply had a limited scope. Additionally, the duties
of an office could change over time; for example, the duties of the anagrapheus of the laws
bear little resemblance to the later, oligarchic anagrapheus.
Writing itself was not a specialist activity, since officers other than secretaries are connected
with the writing of official documents from our earliest evidence.
There is no evidence that Athenian secretaries could also be stonecutters. Stonecutters were
craftsmen who inscribed stelai, but they could also paint statues, paint words onto any flat
surface, or add colour to words incised on stone.599 All of these duties took time and
required training, and do not seem to fit with what we know of the lives of the men from
whom (for example) the secretaries of the boule and demos were chosen. The creation of
inscriptions by men other than secretaries would have provided secretaries with more time
for other administrative duties, and allow several documents to be inscribed simultaneously.
It would also enable the entire process of creating a stele, from the drafting of the decree to
the setting up of the stone, to take place within the ten-day time limit specified in some
fourth century BC decrees.600 This time limit also points to well-established connections
between magistrates and stonecutters.
Duties are analysed in greater detail on pages 235-241.
Further particulars
The office of secretary was not a career. In the fifth and early fourth centuries BC,
secretaries of the boule and demos were elected by show of hands, 601 but this selection
method changed to by lot from the mid-fourth century BC onwards, at approximately the
same time that these offices became annual. 602 This selection method meant that a
candidate’s experience (or personality) could no longer influence whether he was elected or
not (although certain skills would have made some duties easier).603 Additionally, offices held
after secretaryship do not appear to have been more (or less) prestigious, and there is little
evidence that any office holder subsequently drew on experience gained while a secretary.604
599
See Appendix F, page 347.
600
See page 59, especially n.241.
601
See pages 57 and 65.
602
See pages 60-61.
603
From the mid-fourth century BC onwards, only the grammateus elected by hairesis was elected by
show of hands. See page 94.
604
See Aeschines as grammateus of the boule and the demos, page 66.
117
There is evidence that some secretaries drew a wage; however, these wages were small,
would not have attracted the financially-motivated, and seem to have been introduced to
allow poorer men to hold office. Ath. Pol. 62.2 states that the boule take five obols per day,
and that the Delphic amphictyons receive a drachma a day. The text does not categorically
state the wage for the grammateis of either group, but in the case of Delos, this figure can be
verified from the amounts given in temple inventories (see page 349). Therefore, it is likely
that the figure given here accurately reflects the wage of the grammateus of the boule, in the
period in which he was a member of the boule (i.e. from the fifth century to 368/7 BC).605
It is possible that wages for officials were abolished during oligarchic periods of government,
but not clear if they were reinstated after the year of the Thirty. 606 However, as Gabrielsen
notes, it is unlikely that most men would have been able to give up paid work for a year in
order to take an unpaid position.607
In general, a man could stand for any office, and did not need special qualifications to
become a secretary. The only cases where a different level of qualifications were required
were for the grammateus of the thesmothetai, whose qualifications (whatever these may
have been) were checked less thoroughly than those of the thesmothetai,608 and where one
had to first be selected as eisagogeus in order to be eligible for the office of grammateus or
syngrammateus of the eisagogeis.609
A secretary could be a member of the body with whom he worked – or not – with no
apparent change in his responsibilities (as was the case with the grammateus of the boule
before and after 368/7 BC).610 Other secretaries may have been chosen to ensure that each
tribe was represented (as was the case with the grammateus of the thesmothetai).611
The duration of a secretary’s office depended upon the period in question. In the fifth
century BC, the office of grammateus of the boule was held for a prytany only,612 while the
boards of epistatai (and their grammateis and syngrammateis)613 involved in the building
work on the acropolis, and the special commission of anagrapheis of the laws,614 were
605
Ath. Pol. 54.3, page 57. Lys. 30.2 also claims that the anagrapheis of the laws took a daily wage
until their work was completed; however, we do not know what this wage was.
606
Gabrielsen (1981) 19-21, 28 34.
607
Gabrielsen (1981) 118-9.
608
See page 91.
609
See page 68.
610
See page 59.
611
See page 91.
612
See page 59.
613
See page 100.
614
See page 38.
118
employed to carry out specific tasks, and were in office for several years. From the middle of
the fourth century BC onwards, most secretaries held office for a year. The only secretaries
known to have served for longer were the grammateis for life of the ephebes, in the late
second- and third centuries AD.615 While the duration of the office may have been influenced
by the nature of the government, the office of ‘secretary’ itself was not inherently
democratic or oligarchic.
In the case of all secretaryships (apart from those held ‘for life’), once that office was over,
the office-holder would be free to seek other employment, and a new secretary would be
appointed to perform the same functions, possibly with little understanding of what was
required beforehand.
The secretaries of the boule and demos were part of a large collegial environment, and had
several other officers within this body with whom they may have collaborated. Most other
secretaries were members of, or worked for, smaller groups, and so their opportunities for
collaboration were fewer. Evidence for interaction between secretaries of different bodies is
rare, but is likely to have occurred between the grammateus of the treasurers of Athena, the
grammateus of the hellenotamiai and the grammateus of the boule in the recording of
Athenian tribute.
Other attributes
Secretaries appear to have had a relatively low profile in terms of political significance. From
the middle of the fourth to the first century BC, secretaries of the boule and demos were
frequently honoured, but this was almost without exception collectively, along with other
officers of the boule and demos.616 Only two secretaries are known to have been the sole
honorands of a decree. One anagrapheus was honoured for the way he has ‘taken care of
the writing up of the documents’,617 and one grammateus kata prytaneian was honoured for
his euergetism.618
On rare occasions, the name and designation of a secretary could appear in a prominent
position, and in larger lettering than the remainder of an inscription. However, the secretary
is rarely the only officer represented in this way, and the practice ceased in documents of
615
See grammateus for life on page 111.
616
See Meritt & Traill (1974) for over 130 inscriptions of this type, and the example on page 72. In the
same period, almost all secretaries of the boule and demos could be honoured as aeisitoi, along with
offices such as the hieraules (sacred flute player) and hiereus (priest). See, e.g.
Ag.15:406 (182/3 AD) 54-63 on page 80.
617
See IG II² 415 (330/29 BC) 12-16 on page 46.
618
Schwenk 9 (335/4 BC) 1-21 on page 62. Both honours date from 337/6 – 330/29 BC.
119
the boule and demos once election was by lot, rather than by show of hands. 619 Secretaries
were rarely (if ever) honoured with statues. 620
The office of secretary at Athens was typically a low-profile one, with few rewards. However,
the range of duties that could be carried out by these officers was diverse. To be grammateus
of the boule was to be temporarily responsible for the creation of the most important state
documents. To be secretary of a less prominent body was to be responsible for some or all of
their administrative records: usually for a short time, but possibly for life.621
619
See Table 15 on page 300.
620
Three statues and one panel of a frieze may depict officers who were grammateis. See page 63.
621
E.g. the grammateus for life of the ephebes, page 111.
120
Chapter 3 – The Peloponnese
Overview
A variety of secretaries is known from the Peloponnese. Some poleis had their own specific
types of officers, known from that polis (or a single inscription) only; other designations are
known from several poleis, but from no locations outside the Peloponnese; still other offices
were widespread throughout the ancient Greek world.
The majority of our sources for the Peloponnese are epigraphic; the most significant issue
when interpreting this data is one of sample size. There are approximately 250 inscriptions
unevenly distributed across the Peloponnese, for the period from the sixth century BC to the
third century AD, that contain officers whose designations are formed from verbs of writing,
or whose duties include writing.622 Drawing firm conclusions about the history of an office
from the small subset of inscriptions for each designation may therefore provide an
inaccurate picture of the roles that these individuals would have performed. Similar problems
exist when drawing comparisons between officers who share the same designation, but who
lived in different parts of the Peloponnese and/or several centuries apart. Although these
officers were known by the same designation, their daily duties and working environment
may have been very different.
By analysing the Peloponnese polis by polis, this chapter aims to illustrate the range of
duties associated with each designation, and any regional and contextual differences that
occur, separating the duties of (for example) a grammateus who worked with the boule at
Orchomenos in the third century BC,623 from a solitary grammateus recorded alongside
temple officials in Thalamai, Laconia, in the second century AD.624
622
See What is a Secretary? on page 21. For all epigraphic sources used in this chapter, and maps
detailing the distribution of these offices across the Peloponnese, see Appendix B, page 302.
623
See page 193.
624
See page 166.
121
Geographical Distribution
Secretaries and officers who perform the duties of secretaries are known from the following
locations:
Figure 4 – The Peloponnese: geographical distribution of secretaries and
other officers who perform the duties of secretaries.
Polis
Page
Polis
Page
Polis
Page
Polis
Page
 1  Abia
169 11 Epidauros
141 21 Korone
169
31 Sicyon
128
 2  Aigina
123 12 Epidauros Limera
158 22 Kortyrta
158
32 Sparta
160
 3  Aigion
219 13 Gerenia
158 23 Kyparissos
169
33 Stymphalos
182
 4  Alipheira
181 14 Geronthrai
158 24 Lykaia
186
34 Tainaron
166
 5  Amyklai
156 15 Gytheion
158 25 Mantinea
187
35 Tegea
195
 6  Andania
169 16 Heraia
182 26 Megalopolis
190
36 Thalamai
166
 7  Argos
130 17 Hermione
149 27 Messene
171
37 Thisoa
198
 8  Asine
169 18 Kalaureia
150 28 Olympia
202
38 Thouria
176
 9  Corinth
125 19 Kletor
182 29 Orchomenos
192
39 Tritaia
218
10 Dyme
212 20 Kolonides
169 30 Patrai
217
40 Troizen
151
122
Saronic Gulf: Aigina
In the Archaic period, local politics at Aigina was controlled by several aristocratic families, 625
and its economy was dominated by the importance of its fleet and trade. 626 A lack of
evidence may be held to suggest that Aigina published few decrees on stone.
While Aigina was under Athenian control from 431-404 BC,627 and was the subject of an
Aristotelian constitution,628 the Aiginetan boule and demos are attested from the second
century BC onwards only,629 with a grammateus of the demos who wrote up (ἀναγράφω)
decrees on their behalf (see below).630
Aigina:
grammateus of the demos
Total:
4C BC
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
Table 1 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Aigina. 631
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the demos)
In the second century BC, the boule and demos of Aigina set up an honorific decree and
bronze statue for Kleon, governor of the Attalids, the dynasty which ruled Pergamum. 632
Pergamum was at that time governed by Attalos Philadelphos,633 who in addition to
governing Pergamum, was epistates of Aigina.634 The decree was written up by the
grammateus of the demos:
τὸν δὲ γραμμα[τέα τ]οῦ δήμου ἀναγράψαι | [ἐς σ]τήλην, ἣν σταθῆναι ἐν τῶι
Ἀτταλείωι635
625
Dickie (1979) 193-196. Figueira (1981) 300-313: The precise nature of social organisation on Aigina
is difficult to discern as Pindar (our primary ancient source on the matter), appears to use both oikos
and genos for genos: e.g. Pin. Pyth. 7.1-9. See also Ath. Pol. 20.1 and 28.2. Aigina is a one-polis island.
626
Figueira (2004) 620-623.
627
Th. 2.27; X. Hell. 2.2.9. Polinskaya (2009) 234, 256. Athens removed the original population in 431
and settled Athenians there. Some Aiginetans returned at the end of the Peloponnesian war.
628
Arist. fr.475 [Rose].
629
E.g. IG IV 1 (158-144 BC) 1.
630
IG IV2 748 (before 160 BC) 11-12; IG IV2 749 (158-144 BC) 45-46 (IG IV 1, Dittenberger).
631
On rare occasions where a designation is given in the plural form but the number of officials is not
known, I have assumed two officers are indicated. See Appendix B page 302 for more information.
632
IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 34-35.
633
IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 38.
634
IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 35: τ[ὸν ἐπιστατ]ήσαντα ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως. Previously IG IV 1, Dittenberger.
Dittenberger reconstructs this phrase as [τὸν προσ]τά[την] τῆς πόλεως.
635
IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 45-46; SEG 50:1716. Le Bas (1842) 23, 48-51. The Aiginetan grammateus of
the demos is also attested in the substantially-restored IG IV2 748 (after 160 BC) 11-12.
123
…and the grammateus of the demos is to write (it) up on a stele, which is to be set
up in the Attaleion…
The strategoi then sent this decree to the basileus,636 who was to approve the text:637
ἀναπέμψαι δὲ [τό]|[δε τὸ] ψ[ή]φισμα τοὺ<ς> στρατηγοὺς πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα, ἵνα
μετὰ τῆς ἐ|κείν[ο]υ γνώμης συντελῆται τὰ ἐψηφισμένα.638
The strategoi are to send this decree (up) to the basileus, in order that the things
carried by vote might be brought to completion with his resolution.
While a man from Siphnos is known to have been personal secretary and treasurer
(grammateus and tamias) for his adopted father on Aigina in the fourth century BC,639 a local
grammateus of the demos is known only from the middle of the second century BC.640 This
designation also rarely occurs elsewhere. Of the regions covered in this thesis, it is known
only from Arcadia,641 and from Athens, where it is an abbreviation of grammateus of the
boule and the demos (see page 64).
636
Most probably Attalos, rather than a local basileus.
637
This caveat directly involving the basileus with the decree is highly unusual, and not otherwise
attested in the Peloponnese.
638
IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 51-53.
639
Isoc. 19.38. Van Hook (1945) 298-9.
640
IG IV2 748 (before 160 BC) 11-12; IG IV2 749 (158-144 BC) 45-46 (IG IV 1, Dittenberger).
641
See IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 11 on page 183.
124
Corinthia: Corinth
From the sixth century BC, Corinth had an oligarchic constitution.642 This was interrupted only
twice in the period before 146 BC: by a brief period of democracy from 392 to 386 BC, and by
a short-lived tyranny in 366 BC. From the fourth century BC (and possibly as early as the
seventh century BC), Corinth was governed by the Council of Eighty, which was presided over
by eight probouloi.643 Only wealthy citizens were admitted on to the council, and, according to
Plutarch, ‘not much’ public business was conducted in the assembly.644
Very few decrees appear to have been published on stone before the Roman period. There
are three potential explanations for this. The prevailing form of government may have
limited epigraphic output; Corinth, with a thriving bronze industry,645 may have inscribed
many of its documents on bronze (which was later re-used); and the Classical and Hellenistic
agora has yet to be found.646 This lack of epigraphic evidence means that we have little
information on local civic administration, including the designations of persons involved, and
the roles that they performed.
The earliest surviving evidence for secretaries from Corinth uses the designation grammatistas
for the local secretary (see below),647 while a fourth-century BC text refers to the grammateis
of the Hellenic League (see page 228).648 From the second century BC onwards, the
designation used is grammateus; however, from the end of the second century BC to the third
century AD, evidence is limited to a single third century AD inscription, honouring a Roman
official who held several offices including that of grammateus.649
Corinth:
grammatistas
grammateus
Total:
Grand total:
4C BC
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
3C AD
1
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
6
0
3
1
0
0
1
Table 2 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Corinth.650
642
Hdt. 5.92.b: Corinth was originally governed by the Bacchiadae family.
643
Legon (2004) 465-468.
644
Plu. Dion 53.2: τοὺς Κορινθίους ὀλιγαρχικώτερόν τε πολιτευομένους καὶ μὴ πολλὰ τῶν κοινῶν ἑν τῷ
δήμῷ πράττοντας. (That) the Corinthians had a form of government which had a tendency to be
oligarchic, and they transacted not much of their public business in the assembly.
645
Salmon (1984) 118-9.
646
Millender (2001) 141.
647
SEG 30:990 (c.325-275 BC) 2.
648
IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 78-83.
649
SEG 26:396 (3C AD) 2 (Corinth 8,3 486).
650
Does not include the grammateis of the Hellenic League.
125
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas)
The earliest surviving evidence for a secretary in Corinth is a late fourth / early third-century
BC proxeny decree for two Athenian men, Xenokles and Pausimachos. The name and
designation of the grammatistas651 is given first in the decree, before the enactment formula:
[Ἐπ]ὶ γραμματιστᾶ Εὐθέα· vac | [Γ]αμιλίου· ἔδοξε τᾶι ἐκκλησί|αι·652
In the secretaryship of Eutheas. In the month of Gamilios.653 It was decreed by the
ekklesia:…
The use of epi + grammatistas (in the genitive) identifies the grammatistas as the
eponymous official: the earliest datable eponymous official known from Corinth, 654
suggesting the importance of this officer in the administration of the polis. We have no other
secure evidence for the Corinthian grammatistas, although the existence of this office may
be substantiated by two further undated and fragmentary decrees. 655 Nothing is known of
the Corinthian ekklesia except that it was an elected body. 656
Secretaries also played an eponymous role for the Achaian League (see page 222), and for
various poleis throughout the Peloponnese (see Appendix B). In 146 BC, Corinth became a
Roman colony, after which time the eponymous officials were Roman duoviri (represented in
Greek in this location by the designation strategos (στρατηγός));657 therefore no eponymous
secretaries are found after this date.
The grammatistas is also known from Dyme (page 212), Elis (page 207) and several other
locations outside the scope of this thesis. The Ionic-Attic form of the word, grammatistes
(γραμματιστής), is used by Herodotus for a personal secretary,658 and for the official who
651
For the derivation of grammatistas, see page 21.
652
SEG 30:990 (c.325-275 BC) 2-4. Jones (1980) 165-167; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 72-73; Sherk (1990a)
267. This decree was previously allocated to Delos, where it was found. It has been allocated to Corinthia
based on its use of Doric dialect, the enactment formula ἔδοξε τᾶι ἐκκλησίαι (known only from Corinth
and Ithaka) and several other points such as the reference to the month Gamilios, a month name
otherwise attested only in Epirus (see n.653), a place with strong ties to Corinth.
653
The use of ἐπὶ + official <in the month of X> is otherwise attested only in decrees from Epirus, e.g.:
I.Bouthrotos 45 (after 163 BC) 1-2: ἐπὶ ἱερέος Μυρτίλου Δρυ|μίου, μηνὸς Γαμιλίου… in the priesthood of
Myrtilos son of Drumios, in the month of Gamilios. See also Jones (1980) 167.
654
Sherk (1990a) 267.
655
Corinth 8,1 8 (undated) 1-2: is currently reconstructed as [ἐπὶ γρ]αμμα[τέος — —]|[ἐπειδὴ]
Θιόδο[τος — —], though as Jones (1980) 167 notes, [ἐπὶ γρ]αμμα[τιστᾶ — ] would fit equally well.
Corinth 8,1 7 (undated) 1-2: —]ας γρα[μματεὺς(?) — — ]|[ἐπειδ]ὴ ὁ Πυθο[—… could also be
reconstructed as grammatistas.
656
Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 90 F 60(2); Jones (1980) 185-6 n.28. The verb indicating means of
selection is absent.
657
Mason (1974) 161; Sherk (1990a) 267.
658
Hdt. 3.123.4: Maiandrios was the grammatistes of Polykrates.
126
looked after the sacred treasures of Athena at Saïs in Egypt.659 In Athens, grammatistes can
mean ‘elementary teacher’,660 and is also found in one inscription from Athens, referring to
the eponymous secretary of the Ambrakiots (i.e. from Epirus).661
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Several extremely fragmentary inscriptions from Corinth dating from the second and first
centuries BC refer to a grammateus. They contain very little evidence to illustrate the duties
that these officers performed, or the bodies for whom they worked. These texts fall into two
categories: fragments where the grammateus appears to be in either the dating formula or
the prescript,662 and honorific inscriptions for secretaries and other Corinthian officials. 663 The
following text constitutes the most extensive example. Reconstructed sections are shown in
grey to illustrate the fragmentary nature of the Corinthian evidence.
— — ὑπάρχειν δὲ τοῖς τε δικασ]
ταῖς καὶ γραμματε[ῖ αὐτῶν καὶ τοῖς ἐκγόνοις(?) — — — — — τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν ἐπὶ τῆι ἀ]
ναγραφῆι εἶναι· το[ῦτο τὸ ψήφισμα ἀναγράψαι εἰς στήλην λιθίνην — — — — καὶ στή]
[λη]ν ἀναθεῖν[αι — —664
[And to grant] to [the judges] and their secretary [and their descendants (?) …
(various privileges?) … the responsibility for ] writing up this [decree, and that this
decree is to be inscribed on a stone stele … and the stele is to be] set up…665
If the restoration of this text is secure, the text is an honorific inscription for judges (dikasts)
and their secretary.666
659
Hdt. 2.28.1: τοῦ δὲ Νείλου τὰς πηγὰς οὔτε Αἰγυπτίων οὔτε Λιβύων οὔτε Ἑλλήνων τῶν ἐμοὶ
ἀπικομένων ἐς λόγους οὐδεὶς ὑπέσχετο εἰδέναι, εἰ μὴ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἐν Σάι πόλι ὁ γραμματιστὴς τῶν ἱρῶν
χρημάτων τῆς Ἀθηναίης. But as to the sources of the Nile, neither Egyptian nor Libyan nor Greek that
spoke to me professed to know them, except the grammatistes of the sacred treasures of Athena, in
the Egyptian city of Saïs.
660
E.g. Pl. Charmides 161δ.6: δοκεῖ οὖν σοι τὸ αὑτοῦ ὄνομα μόνον γράφειν ὁ γραμματιστὴς καὶ
ἀναγιγνώσκειν ἢ ὑμᾶς τοὺς παῖδας διδάσκειν, So does it seem to you that the teacher, in your opinion,
writes and reads his own name only, and teaches you boys this?
661
SEG 47:136 (167/166 BC) Full text: ὡ[ς Ἀθηναῖοι ἄγουσιν] | ἐπὶ γραμ[ματιστοῦ] | [ὑπὸ τ]οῦ [δήμου
Ἀμβρ]ακιώταις. Also restored by Cabanes & Andréou (1985) 534-5 as γραμ[ματιστᾶ]. Habicht (1986)
190-192.
662
Corinth 8,1 7 (undated) 1-2; Corinth 8,1 8 (undated) 1-2. These texts could alternatively be restored
with the designation grammatistas; see n.655.
663
Corinth 8,1 4 (c. mid 2C BC) 9; Corinth 8,3 46 (before 44BC), b.2-5.
664
Corinth 8,3 46 (before 44 BC) b.2-5.
665
Kent (1966) 14-15; Woodward (1932) 143. My translation. For similar ‘dicastic’ texts, and to explain
this restoration, Kent points to e.g. IG VII 4130 (after 146 BC). See e.g. lines 43-44 and 53. It is unclear
why descendants would also be honoured in this way.
666
Other reconstructions are also possible; however an honorific decree is the most likely scenario,
using the model set out by Osborne (1985) 206 for Attic deme decrees. The closest parallel from the
127
In the third century AD, the designation grammateus is also found in an inscription
honouring a man who held a variety of magistracies in his lifetime, including membership of
the council (synedrion) and agoranomos of the city:
[.]αρχην ταμίαν Α[— 24 —] | τῆς πόλεως ·β'· γραμμ[ατέα — 15 —] | σύνεδρον ·β'·
ἀγορανομ[ον]. καί [— 19 —] | στρατηγὸν· τῆς λαμπροτάτης Κ[ορινθίων πόλεως]…667
—arch, tamias … of the polis twice; grammateus, … synedros twice; agoranomos
and … strategos of the most illustrious [polis] of Corinth…
Other attributes
This inscription differs from earlier Corinthian inscriptions that include secretaries; however,
it is similar to several other Roman-era honorific inscriptions from the Peloponnese in that it
lists offices held, and provides no additional information. 668
The synedrion referred to is probably not the Corinthian council, since membership of this
was permanent at the time.669 It is therefore likely to refer to another council to which
Corinth sent representatives, most probably that of the Achaian League.670 If this is the case,
the office of grammateus referred to in line 2 may also have been for the Achaian League.671
Corinthia: Sicyon
As in Corinth, the prevailing form of government in Sicyon was oligarchy. This oligarchy took
various forms, and prevailed despite a short-lived democratic government in 367 BC.672
Evidence for a Sicyonian council is scarce. Pausanias mentions a bouleuterion673 and Xenophon
Peloponnese is IG V,1 1428, a decree of an unknown polis honouring Messenian judges and their
secretary. There are a number of significant differences between these two texts. See page 173.
667
SEG 26:396 (3C AD) 2 (Corinth 8,3 486). Kent (1966) 159 places this fragment in the section
‘fragments too small to classify’. The current restoration is Martin (1977) 189-195 No.10.
668
See Table 16 page 321 for a list. Keppie (1991) 72-73, 145 notes that the order in which these
offices are listed in Latin inscriptions denotes the perceived importance of the office, rather than the
chronological order in which offices were held. However, this sequence was not strictly enforced, and
the importance of some offices is subjective. It is unclear whether this pattern is followed when Roman
officers are honoured in Greek.
669
Martin (1977) 192. Membership was permanent because Corinth was a Roman colony.
670
Martin (1977) 192-3. For secretaries of the Achaian League, see page 221.
671
Martin (1977) 189-195, no.10 (ph.); Mason (1974) 201. The equivalent office of quaestor is
otherwise unattested in the administration of Roman Corinth. Tamias (treasurer) in line 1 may also be
another office held by the honorand, in the service of the Achaian League.
672
Arist. fr.598; X. Hell. 7.1.44-46. Griffin (1982) 68-75; Legon (2004) 469-470. The democratic coup of
Euphron in 367 BC had become a tyranny by 366 BC, when he was overthrown by Aineas of Stymphalos.
Euphron was then assassinated while trying to amass forces to recapture the city. The history of Sicyon is
patchy from this point onwards, and the precise nature of government unclear.
673
Paus. 2.9.6.
128
a gathering of the demos in the agora.674 The only epigraphic evidence for a Sicyonian boule is
an undated but probably third-century BC decree of the demos of the Sicyonians, which refers
to a gropheus of the bola.675 See below.
γροφεὺς τᾶς βωλᾶς (gropheus of the bola)
An undated decree from the demos676 of Sicyon accepts the invitation of Magnesia on the
Maeander to the games in honour of Artemis Leukophryene, and also honours ambassadors
from Magnesia. The instructions for the secretary are as follows:
δ[ό]μ[εν δὲ κα]ὶ ἐνεκέχειρα τοῖς θεαροῖς | τὸν γροφῆ τᾶς βωλ[ᾶς] τ[ὰ ἐ]κ τᾶν
πινακίδων, καταστᾶσαι | [δὲ θε]αροδόκον·677
[And the] gropheus678 of the bola is to provide the envoys with travelling expenses
in accordance with the writing tablets, [and] the thearodokos is to validate them.679
Activities
The gropheus of the bola above was required to refer to records on temporary media;
however, there is no evidence that he wrote these himself. He also had access to a fund that
could be used for embassies and games.
Corinthia: concluding remarks
Evidence for the activities of secretaries in the Saronic Gulf and Corinthia is scarce, and
makes any conclusions we can draw tentative at best. Secretaries are found at polis-level in
all three poleis: as eponymous officials680 and secretaries of judges681 at Corinth, and with
the boule and/or demos at Aigina682 and Sicyon.683 However, the nature of their duties is to a
great extent unknown, other than that they wrote and oversaw the setting up of inscriptions
at Aigina, and had financial duties at Sicyon.
674
X. Hell. 7.1.45.
675
Magnesia 55 [I.Magn 41] (undated) 1, 9, 16-18. The only reference to the boule is in the designation
of the gropheus. This inscription was previously attributed to Delos.
676
Magnesia 55 [I.Magn 41] (undated) 1: [παρὰ] Σικυωνίων·; 9: δεδόχθαι τῶ[ι δά]μωι·
677
Magnesia 55 [I.Magn 41] (undated) 16-18.
678
For information on the derivation of gropheus, see page 21.
679
The meaning of καταστᾶσαι is unclear, and may also refer to the ‘setting down’, i.e. physical
movement of the tablets, or the establishment of these fees in a collection of similar permitted
financial expenses. Not enough is known about the thearodokos, the officer who received sacred
envoys, to form any firm conclusions on this matter.
680
SEG 30:990 (c.325-275 BC) 2-4: page 126.
681
Corinth 8,3 46 (before 44 BC) b.2-5: page 127.
682
IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 45-46: page 123.
683
Magnesia 55 [I.Magn 41] (undated) 16-18: page 129.
129
Argolis: Argos
Evidence suggests that in the archaic period, Argos went from being a monarchy, to an
oligarchy and then a democracy, and apart from two brief periods of oligarchy, remained a
democracy from c.470-460 BC until the end of the Classical period.684
The principal officials of Argos from this period until 146 BC (when Argos became part of the
Roman province of Achaia) were the damiorgoi, supported by boards of strategoi,
hiaromnamones and artunai (ἀρτύναι, treasurers).685 While there is no surviving evidence for
officers whose duties include writing prior to democracy, artunai may have been associated
with written proposals (see page 131).686
Argos had two councils: the aliaia (ἀλιαία) sometimes known as the bola (βωλά), and the
Eighty.687 The aliaia held a monthly aliaia teleia,688 with business adjourned to the following
month if necessary, and additional meetings held in times of crisis.689 The secretary of this
council was known as the gropheus (γροφεύς), or gropheus bolas (γροφεὺς βωλᾶς), these
terms being used interchangeably in decrees (see page 137). There is no evidence for the
Argive aliaia after 146 BC;690 consequently, there is no evidence for the gropheus bolas from
this point onwards.691
The Eighty was an independent authority, possibly dating from Argos’ oligarchic period of
government, which co-existed alongside the aliaia. It is likely to have comprised four
divisions of twenty men, one for each of the four phylai.692 The precise nature of this council
and its relationship with the aliaia is unclear, but it appears to have been similar to the
relationship between the Council of the Areopagus and the boule at Athens. 693 The Eighty
684
Htd. 7.149.2; D.S. 12.80.2-3 & 58.1-4; Plu. Alc. 15.2; Th. 5.81.1-2 & 5.82.1-2. Piérart (2004a) 603-604.
685
Piérart (2004a) 604.
686
IG IV 554 (480-470 BC) 2, 4.
687
Piérart (2004a) 604; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70-71.
688
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70-71: from the 4C BC the standard pattern is ἀλιαίαι ἔδοξε τελείαι /
month, day / note of adjournment if needed / ἀρήτευε βωλᾶς (chairman of council) name / γροφεὺς
βωλᾶς (secretary of council) name / substance / at end ἔλεξε name.
689
Budin (2009) 201; Piérart (2000) 303-310.
690
Piérart (2004a) 604; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 71.
691
The verb gropheo is still used, however, and gropheosanta is used instead of grammateusanta in
an honorific decree for a Roman officer. See page 136.
692
Hdt. 5.68. Budin (2009) 201; Jones (1987) 112; Piérart (2000) 307; Piérart (2004a) 604; Rhodes
with Lewis (1997) 70-71; Wörrle (1964) 56-61. It is not known whether the Eighty predate the creation
of Argos’ fourth Dorian phyle.
693
Wörrle (1964) 56-61.
130
ensured that decrees were made public, and its officers also served as judicial functionaries
and arbitrators.694 The Eighty had two grophees (see page 138).
From 146 BC onwards, the Argive council was referred to as the synedrion,695 and its
secretary as the grammateus (γραμματεύς) or grammateus of the synedroi (γραμματεὺς
συνέδρων) (see page 133). The change in government indicates that this was not a
replacement of terms: the gropheus cannot be ‘replaced’ by the grammateus, since they
were officers of different bodies.696
Grammateus could also be one of several magistracies held by Roman officers, 697 and
grammateis could also work with sub-polis groups, such as theatrical guilds (see page 133).
artunas
grammateus
gropheus
gropheus bolas
gropheus for the 80
gropheus of the polemarchs
gropheus for the stratagoi
Total:
Grand total: 40
5C BC
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
4C BC
0
0
0
6
2
1
0
3C BC
0
0
2
15
0
0
1
2C BC
0
3
3
1
2
0
0
1C BC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1C AD
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
18
9
0
3
Table 3 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Argos.
ἀρτύνας (artunas)
There is very little evidence for the writing of bureaucratic procedures by officials in the
Peloponnese in or before the fifth century BC. One possible exception could be the following
reference to written proposals in connection with magistrates known as artunai (ἀρτύναι),
from the oligarchic period approximately ten years before the beginnings of democratic
government in Argos.
The inscription uses what I take to be a participle from a compound of the verb that gives
the stem of ἀρτύνας:698 συναρτύοντας, that is, ‘those being artunai together’:
[θ]εσαυρõν [τõ]ν ⋮ τᾶς ⋮ ⋮ Ἀθαναίας ⋮ αἴ τις <τις>⋮ | [ τὰ]ν βōλὰν ⋮ τ[ὰ]ν ἀνφ᾽
Ἀρίσστōνα ⋮
τὸν<ς> συναρτύοντας | [ ἄ]λλον τινὰ ταμίαν εὐθύνοι ⋮ τέλος ἔχōν ⋮
694
Budin (2009) 201; Piérart (2000) 307; Piérart (2004a) 604; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70-71. Piérart
(2000) 304. An unpublished decree (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69-70 unpublished decree: (A.i), (146
BC and after)) shows the Eighty arbitrating a dispute between a priest and a contractor relating to fees.
695
See n.706.
696
There are almost no surviving inscriptions containing secretaries of any designation in the Roman
era. c.100 BC, a decree is of the synedroi and people, with no grammateus listed: SEG 22:266; Piérart
(2000), 297-298; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70-71.
697
E.g. IG IV 606 (Roman Imp.) 1-5 on page 135.
698
Though it is curious that the verb shows no ‘ν’ in its stem.
131
δικάσ|[ζο]ι
⋮ δικάσζοιτο ⋮ τõν γρασσμάτōν ⋮ hένεκα τᾶς ⋮ κατα|θέσιος ⋮
τᾶς ⋮
ἀλιάσσιος ⋮ τρετο καὶ δαμευέσσθō⋮ ἐνς | Ἀθαναίαν ⋮ hα δὲ βōλὰ ποτελάτō⋮
hαντιτυχόνσα ⋮ αἰ | δέ κα με ⋮ αὐτοὶ ⋮ ἔνοχοι ἔντō ⋮ ἐνς Ἀθαναίαν.699
Concerning the treasures of Athena. If anybody, holding office as magistrate, calls
to account either the council presided over by Arisston, or his fellow artunai, or any
other treasurer, or if he judges them or brings a lawsuit against them, on account of
the written records, either their deposition or their submission to the aliaia, 700 he
shall be exiled and his property confiscated with the proceeds going to the treasury
of Athena; and the current council will also pursue these charges, otherwise they
(the council) will also be liable to a penalty to Athena.
The artunai are attested in a cache of bronze Argive inscriptions discovered in 2000/2001,701
and are also known from Thucydides:
…ὀμνύντων δὲ Ἀθήνησι μὲν ἡ βουλὴ καὶ αἱ ἔνδημοι ἀρχαί, ἐξορκούντων δὲ οἱ
πρυτάνεις· ἐν Ἄργει δὲ ἡ βουλὴ καὶ οἱ ὀγδοήκοντα καὶ οἱ ἀρτῦναι, ἐξορκούντων δὲ
οἱ ὀγδοήκοντα·
702
…This oath shall be sworn in Athens by the boule and the local magistrates, and
administered by the prytaneis. And in Argos, it shall be sworn by the boule and the
Eighty and the artunai, and administered by the Eighty.
Magistrates known as artunoi were also officers of the boule at Epidauros.703
Activities
The Argive council (here, βōλά) had its own treasury (which held the ‘treasures of Athena’).
The artunai, as magistrates of this council, could also act as treasurers (which we know from
the use of the word tamias (ταμίας) in line 3). The written proposals (genitive plural
γρασσμάτōν, line 4),704 are likely to have been written by one of these magistrates, since no
other persons are mentioned.
699
IG IV 554 (480-470 BC) 1-7; Buck 84; Nomima 107.
700
The precise meanings of καταθέσιος and ἀλιάσσιος are unclear: i.e., whether both should be read
together (as above) with γρασσμάτōν, or separately, providing the alternative translation “on account of
the written proposals, or on account of the decision of the aliaia”. Other interpretations are also possible.
701
Kritzas (2006) 434: 1-2: Θυρομάτον : ἀρτύναι : hαιρέθε : ἐκ τõ πέτρο : Ἀπελλαίο : ΧΧ | Α :
ἰαρομναμόνον : Hαγὲν : Hυρνάθιος : ἀρτύνας : Θιλόδαμος : Hυλλεὺς...
702
Th. 5.47.9, quoting a treaty made between Athens, Argos, Mantinea and Elis at Athens.
703
Plu. Quaest. Graec. 1.1.
704
Buck (1955) 131 §164.4. Buck notes γράσσμα as synonymous with γράμμα (gramma). σ has replaced
an earlier dental, which is sometimes preserved. Grassmaton therefore refers to written proposals, and
τõν γρασσμάτōν hένεκα τᾶς καταθέσιος (4-5), “on account of the deposition of written proposals”.
132
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
The earliest inscriptions referring to grammateis in Argos date from 146 BC or later. Three
types of grammateus are known from these texts:

the grammateus of the synedroi705 (the Argive council was known as the synedrion
after 146 BC);706

grammateis of sub-polis groups (in this instance, a theatrical guild, see following
example);707

Roman officials who held various offices during their career, including that of
grammateus (see page 135).708
Activities
The grammateis of a theatrical guild performed various administrative functions. In the
following honorific decree, two (or perhaps three) grammateis are mentioned in relation to
honours bestowed upon a man called Zenon by the theatrical artists of Dionysus. Zenon is
honoured with a statue and inscription. 709
The grammateis referred to are:

The grammateus Aristokles (whose duties are marked here with a dotted line);

ho katastatheis grammateus or ‘the grammateus currently in office,’ most likely also
Aristokles (whose duties are marked with dashes);710

ho aei grammateus, ‘the grammateus appointed in any given year’ or ‘the subsequent
grammateus’, i.e. any other grammateus (whose duties are underlined).711
We assume that one man could not be both katastatheis (currently in office) and aei (appointed
in any given year) as there would be little need to differentiate between offices in the text.
705
This inscription is unpublished: Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70 (A.vi.a) (146 BC and after): Δ Σικυωνίων
γραμματεύς συνέδρων / Ἀργείων δαμιοργοῖς χ[αί]ρειν. There was no assembly in Sicyon at this time.
706
SEG 22:266 (c.100 BC) 1-2: οἱ ἄρχοντες καὶ οἱ σύνεδροι οἱ ἐπὶ Ἀρχεδ[ά]|μου…
707
IG IV 558 (114 BC) 35-43.
708
IG IV 606 (Roman Imp.) 3; IG IV 589 (undated) 2-4 (SEG 13:244). Also IG IV 609 (Roman) 8, where a
Roman official was gropheus (page 136).
709
IG IV 558 (114 BC) 29-43. 29-30: δεδόχθαι τοῖς [περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τε]||χνίταις τοῖς ἐξ Ἰσθμοῦ καὶ
Νεμέας τῆς ἐν Ἄργει συνόδου ἐπαι[νέ]σαι Ζήνωνα Ἑκα[τοδώρου Ἀργεῖον; 32-34. Le Guen (2001) 190197 No.36.
710
If Aristoles is both the grammateus and ho katastatheis grammateus, it is unclear why he is
referred to in two different ways.
711
That he is the subsequent grammateus is inferred from ‘οἱ νῦν κατασταθέντες ἄρχοντες’ and ‘οἵ ἀεὶ
κατασταθέντες ἄρχοντες’ in the preceding lines.
133
τὴν] δὲ [ἐπιμέλειαν εἰς τὴν παρασκευὴν τοῦ στε]|φάνου ποιησάσθω ὁ γραμματεὺς
Ἀριστοκλῆς, καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες [οἵ τε νῦν] κ[αὶ οἱ ἀεὶ κατασταθέντες καὶ ὁ ἀεὶ] |
γραμματεὺς ποιείσθωσαν τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν ἐν τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡ[μέραι ὅπως ἀναγορεύηται
τὸ ψήφισμα τόδε, ποιείσθω] | δὲ τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν ὁ κατασταθεὶς γραμματεὺς ε[—
c.32?—, ὅπως ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις Νε]|μείοις ἐν τῶι ἀγῶνι τῶι γυμνικῶι ἀνακηρυχθῇ τὸ
κήρυγμ[α τόδε "<the text of the proclamation>". ἀναγραψάτω δὲ καὶ ὁ καταστ[αθεὶς
τῆς εἰκόνος ἐπιστάτης τὸ τῆς συνόδου ψήφισμα τόδε] | εἰς τὸ βάθρον τῆς εἰκόνος.712
And the secretary Aristokles is to [have responsibility for the] preparation of the
crown; and the archons, [both those who are currently in office] and [those who are
appointed in any given year,] and the secretary [at the time] are to have responsibility
for [proclaiming this decree] on the day of the god (i.e. his festival), and the
grammateus currently in office is to have responsibility for —32 —, [in order to make
this following] proclamation [in the first] Nemean games in the gymnastics competition:
“<the text of the proclamation>.” And the man appointed (overseer [of the statue])
is to write up [the following decree of the synodos] onto the base of the statue.
Aristokles is responsible for the procuring of a crown for Zenon (lines 35-36). The grammateus
currently in office (ho katastatheis grammateus, most probably also Aristokles) is then to
make something (text lost), which will facilitate the proclamation of the decree at the first
Nemean games.713 The grammateus appointed in any given year (ho aei grammateus) and
the current and subsequent archons are collectively responsible for the proclamation of this
decree (lines 36-37). The archons in this text also appear to be magistrates of the guild.
It is unclear which officer is to be in charge of the inscribed decree. ‘The man appointed
overseer’ (ὁ κατασταθεὶς ἐπιστάτης) could be chosen from among the archons, be a
grammateus, or possibly be another officer altogether.
The reference to proclamation is highly unusual and is an otherwise unattested duty for
grammateis in the Peloponnese.
For parallels to the term ho katastatheis grammateus (ὁ κατασταθεὶς γραμματεύς), see
pages 149 (Hermione) and 164 (Sparta). For parallels to ho katastatheis (officer) in
conjunction with ho aei (officer), see SIG3 672 (Delphi).714
712
IG IV 558 (114 BC) 35-43.
713
The proclamation at the games (lines 39-42) is similar, but not identical to the text that is written
on the statue base (lines 32-34).
714
Delphi: SIG3 672 (160/59 BC) 36-39.
134
Other attributes
In Argos (as in Corinth and various other locations), during the Roman period, the office of
grammateus could be one of several magistracies held during a person’s lifetime. 715 These
offices could be listed in honorific inscriptions, with no obvious connections between them.
For example:
Τιβ(έριον) ∙ Κλαύδιον Διοδότου | υἱὸν Διόδοτον, ἀγορανομήσαντα | καὶ
γραμματεύσαντα, καὶ ἱεροφαντή|σαντα καὶ ἀγωνοθετήσαντα Σεβά|στεια καὶ
Νέμεια…716
Tiberius Claudius Diodotus son of Diodotus, who was aedile and secretary, and
hierophant and judge at the Augustan and Nemean games.
γροφεύς (gropheus)
The designation gropheus is the term used most often to refer to a secretary in Argos.717 The
majority of grophees were grophees of the boule (gropheus bolas, see page 137). The
designation could also refer to the gropheus for the Eighty (page 138), gropheus of the
polemarchs (page 139), or gropheus for the stratagoi (page 140).718
Two further inscriptions contain grophees that do not appear to fit into any of these
categories: grophees associated with temple repairs,719 and a Roman official who served as
gropheus in addition to holding other offices.720 These are described below.
Activities
Two grophees are associated with considerable improvements to the temple of Pythian Apollo:
…γροφέ[ες] Αἰσχύλος Ἀραχνά|δας, Τρύγης Αἰθωνίδας, καὶ κα|τεσκεύασσαν καὶ
[ἥ]σσαντο [θείας] | ἐκ μαντήας γᾶς ὀμφαλὸν καὶ τ[ὰ]|ν περίσταιν καὶ τὸ φάργμα καὶ
τὸν | βωμὸν προ[άγαγ]ον ποτ' ἀ[ϝ]ῶ …721
715
See page 128 for a similar example from Corinth. Also see Appendix C page 321 for a list of all
inscriptions from the Peloponnese which contain similar honours.
716
IG IV 606 (Roman Imp.) 1-5. Τιβ(έριον) at the start of line 1 is most likely to be given in the accusative
due to an implied verb of honouring.
717
See page 21 for the derivation of gropheus. The gropheus is also known from several other
locations in the Peloponnese: see Appendix B page 276.
718
Kritzas (2006) 412-415 also notes the existence of secretaries of previously-unattested magistracies
(the Ἐπιγνόμα and the Hαϝεθλοθέται), in currently unpublished material.
719
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-5. See following example.
720
IG IV 609 (Roman) 8. See n.727.
721
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-6. See also Schwyzer (1939) 241.
135
…grophees Aischylos (phratry) Arachnadai,722 Tryges son of Aithon.723 And they have
made and put in place, in accordance with the [divine] oracle, the Omphalos of the
Earth, the colonnade and the enclosing wall, and have moved the altar to the east…724
Amongst the improvements listed, the grophees organise the construction of a treasury
within the oracle chamber, within which monetary offerings could be stored and locked, the
construction of a stone conduit, a colonnade and enclosing wall, and the road and ramp
leading to the shrine.725
These grophees are not associated with the writing of any decrees, or other functions
typically associated with the office of secretary. 726
Further particulars
The designation gropheus fell out of use shortly after 146 BC, the year in which Greece
became the Roman province of Achaia, with the exception of one inscription honouring a
Roman magistrate for having held several offices, including ‘having been gropheus’
(γροφεύσαντα).727 This text can only be dated very imprecisely to the Roman period,728
therefore it is unclear why this officer has been given the designation gropheus rather than
grammateus.
722
Caskey & Amandry (1949) 219; Jones (1987) 114: Ἀραχνάδαι is an Argive phratry name. For Argive
naming conventions, see Charneux (1984) 208, 210; Jones (1987) 112-115; Mitsos (1947) 83; Piérart
(2000) 297, 300-301. Argive citizens were enrolled into a phyle (tribe), phratry and pentekostys (see
example on page 140). The precise nature of this subdivision is not known. Piérart believes that pentekostys
was a toponym of some sort, synonymous with kome. Jones and Charneux believe that a pentekostys and
kome were separate entities, and that some names contain both. Neither provide any conclusive examples
of a separate pentekostys. I have therefore adopted Piérart’s point of view.
Argive names comprise a personal name followed by any one or two of the following elements: a
patronymic, phratronymic, or pentekostys (kome). Charneux suggests that a phyletic was also used by
the holders of certain offices. This may explain why a phyletic was used by the gropheus bolas during
regular boule business (page 137), but not why phyletics are absent from the interstate arbitration on
page 138 (the oldest surviving document containing Argive subdivisions). In some cases, a phratry and
pentekostys have morphologically-identical names (e.g. Ἀράχνας and Ἀραχνάδαι). This peculiarity can
be explained by the two systems being created at different times, with an increase in Argive territory
requiring ‘topographic regrouping’.
723
I consider Αἰθωνίδας a patronymic as it is not otherwise attested as an Argive phratry name, and
Αἰθωνας is not attested as a kome name.
724
Buck (1955) 287-8.
725
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-20. The final portion of the text is missing.
726
Paus. 2.24.1; Buck (1955) 287-288; Vollgraff (1903) 260-276; Vollgraff (1956) 109-117; Vollgraff
(1957) 475-477.
727
IG IV 609 (Roman) 5-8: ἀγορανομήσαντα … καὶ σιτωνήσαντα καὶ γροφεύσαντα having been
agoranomos, and public buyer of corn and gropheus. See Appendix C page 321 for similar honours.
728
The text cannot be dated by the use of the participial form, as use of participles for designations in
the Peloponnese can also only be dated very imprecisely to the Roman period.
136
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς (gropheus bolas)
The secretary of the democratic council or aliaia of Argos was known as either the gropheus
(γροφεύς), or gropheus bolas (γροφεὺς βωλᾶς), these terms being used interchangeably in
decrees.729
Activities
The majority of decrees containing a gropheus bolas are proxeny decrees. Argive diplomatic
texts such as this start as early as in Athens,730 but differ in style. These texts are formulaic,
and rarely vary from the following format.731 The chairman of the council is introduced by the
verb phrase ἀρήτευε βωλᾶς (areteue bolas),732 and is immediately followed by the gropheus:
Ἁλιαίαι ἔδοξε τελείαι· … ἀρήτευε βωλᾶς Νικαγόρας Ναυπλιάδας Ἐρύνειον· γροφεὺς
βωλᾶς Ἀριστεὺς Μναϊτίμου Ἡραιεὺς Παλλάς· πρόξενον [ἦμεν] καὶ εὐεργέταν τᾶς
πόλιος τῶν Ἀργείων…733
It was decreed by the aliaia teleia: … Chairman of the council: Nikagoras, (phratry)
Naupliadai734 (kome) Eruneion.735 Gropheus bolas: Aristeus son of Mnaitimos,
(phratry) Heraieis736 (kome) Pallas:737 [to be] proxenos and benefactor of the polis of
the Argives…
Officials can also be named at the end of decrees, instead of in the prescript. Instructions for
display are not always given, but where they are included, they specify that the stele is to be
set up in the sanctuary of Apollo.738
729
For the interchangeability of the designations γροφεύς and γροφεὺς βωλᾶς, compare SEG 17:144
on page 137 with e.g. SEG 13:240 (3C BC) 1-2: Ἁλιαίαι ἔδοξε τελείαι, … ἀρήτευε βωλᾶς Νίκων Ἀστιος
Διωνύσιος, γροφεὺς Παναίτιος Βραχᾶ Κλεοδαΐδας·
730
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70-71.
731
An exception is the decree for Alexandros of Sicyon (page 140), in which the gropheus bolas is
accompanied in the enactment formula by the gropheus of the generals. Argive proxeny decrees
usually honour one person only, with the exception of SEG 13:243 and SEG 39:345, which each contain
two decrees.
732
See n.688.
733
SEG 17:144 (3C BC) 1-5. Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69.
734
Charneux (1984) 217.
735
Jones (1987) 114.
736
Charneux (1984) 222.
737
Jones (1987) 114.
738
E.g. SEG 30:355 (c.330-300 BC) 11-12 (Piérart (1980) 272). See page 135 for grophees
administering repair work to this sanctuary.
137
Further particulars
In the fourth century BC, Argos was asked by the League of Corinth (of which it was a
member at the time) to arbitrate in a dispute between the islands of Melos and Cimolos,
regarding which of the two islands owned the islands of Polyaega, Heterea and Libea.739 The
results of this arbitration were recorded in a decree, which ends with the names and
designations of the presiding official and the gropheus.
ἀρήτευε Λέων | [β]ωλᾶς σευτέρας, Ποσίδα|ον· γρο[φ]εὺς βωλᾶς, Πέριλ|λος Πεδίον.740
Presiding official of the second boule, Leon, (kome) Posidaon; gropheus bolas,
Perillos, (kome) Pedion.
The use of the Argive komai names Posidaon and Pedion shows that an Argive official acted
as arbitrator and was accompanied by an Argive gropheus.741
The phrase βωλᾶς σευτέρας (second boule) is problematic, and not found in other Argive
texts. Rhodes suggests that this refers to an otherwise unattested council held for half a
year only; i.e. a council in which members served for six months. 742 Vollgraff prefers to read
βωλᾶς σευτέρας as βωλᾶσ(ς) Ευτέρας, making Leon and Euteras of Posidaon two separate
members of the council, with Euteras the presiding officer. This is also problematic as it
requires ἀρήτευε to be read twice: first, absolutely, and then with bolas.743
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι (gropheus for the Eighty)
The Eighty had two grophees; however, evidence for these officers is scarce, and exists only
in two unpublished inscriptions.744 The grophees for the Eighty do not appear to have had
responsibility for creating versions of decrees which would later be inscribed, and this duty
may have instead fallen to the gropheus bolas.
The relationship between the Eighty and their grophees, and the aliaia and its gropheus is
unclear. In an honorific decree for the Rhodians enacted by the aliaia, the responsibility for
739
The decision was that the islands should belong to Cimolos. See also SEG 12:367; Ager (1996) 4345; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 402-405.
740
IG XII,3 1259 (after 338 BC) 14-17 (Buck 86).
741
Jones (1987) 114. The komai names appear to be in the nominative. It is unclear why the kome
name Posidaon follows the reference to the boule.
742
Buck (1955) 287. σευτέρας: δευτέρας; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 402-405.
743
Vollgraff (1916) 61-63. Wörrle (1964) 52-54.
744
1: SEG 33:286 (4C BC?) B5-6 (Inventory no.E.67, γροφέε); Charneux (1983) 264; Piérart (2000)
304. 2: Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69(A.i) (146 and after): ἐπὶ γροφέος τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι Δ / μηνὸς Μ
/ γράψαντος Δ* (=L. Mummius) τοῦ ὑπάτου, στραταγοῦ τῶν Ῥωμαίων, ὃπως ... / ἐπελθόντων δὲ καὶ
αὐτῶν τεχνιτᾶν ... ἐπὶ τὰς συναρχίας καὶ παρακαλεσάντων ... / δοξε ταῖς συναρχίαις. This text appears
to show one of the two grophees acting as an eponymous officer for the Eighty. See also n.694.
138
the ‘taking care of’ (ἐπιμεληθῆμεν) three stelai falls to a treasurer and the Eighty. The
gropheus bolas is named in the prescript, but no specific officers (such as the grophees for
the Eighty) are charged with writing the text.745
Ῥοδίων. | Ἁλιαίαι ἔδοξε τελείαι … ἀρήτευε βουλᾶ[ς] Καλλίστρα|τος Ϝανίδας
Μάνσητος· γροφεὺς βωλᾶς Τιμοκλῆς Φολυγάδας Πρόσυμνα.
…<the honours bestowed, and the reasons for them>
ἀγγράψαι δὲ τὸ δόκημα ἐν στάλαις λιθί|ναις καὶ ἀνθῆμεν ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος
τοῦ Λυκείου καὶ [τᾶι] | Ἥραι καὶ ἐν Νεμέαι, ἐπιμεληθῆμεν δὲ τούτων τὸν ταμίαν καὶ
[τὸν]||ς ὀγδοήκοντα, καθὰ ἔδοξε τῶι δάμωι τῶν Ἀργείων· ἀγγραψ[άντων] | δὲ καὶ ἐν
Ῥόδωι τὸ ψάφισμα, ἷ κα ἀποδειξεῖ ἁ βωλὰ καὶ ὁ δᾶμος τ[ῶν] | Ῥοδίων· 746
Concerning the Rhodians. It was decreed at the aliaia teleia, … chairman of the
council: Kallistratos, (phratry) Wanidai747 (kome) Mansetos,748 gropheus bolas:
Timokles, (phratry) Pholygadai749 (kome) Prosymna.750
…
And to write up the decree on stone stelai and place them (the copies) in the
sanctuary of Lycean Apollo, and in [that for] Hera, and in Nemea, and to undertake
the care of these things are the treasurer and the Eighty, according to what was
decreed by the demos of the Argives. And let them write up the decree also in
Rhodes, wherever the boule and the people of the Rhodians proclaim. 751
The Eighty and its grophees appear to have lasted slightly longer than the aliaia at Argos
(for which there is no surviving evidence after Argos became part of the Roman province of
Achaia), with one surviving text dated to after 146 BC.752
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχων (gropheus of the polemarchs)
An unpublished inscription containing a list of deserters is dated by the gropheus of the
polemarchs.753
745
ISE 40 (c.300 BC) 2-4, 27-33.
746
ISE 40 (c.300 BC) 2-4, 27-33. Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 68.
747
Charneux (1984) 222.
748
Charneux (1984) 217; Jones (1987) 114.
749
Caskey & Amandry (1949) 219; Jones (1987) 114.
750
Jones (1987) 114.
751
Moretti (1967) 90-94.
752
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69-70 unpublished decree: (A.i), (146 BC and after). See n.694 and n.744.
753
Piérart (2000) 309: Inv. E.98+99 (c.322-18 BC?); Piérart (1987b) 177 and n.20; SEG 37:280.
139
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς (gropheus for the stratagoi)
In the third century BC, the aliaia honoured Alexandros of Sicyon with citizenship rights for
himself and his descendants.754 The decree was written up by a man called Dameas, on
behalf of the stratagoi (generals). We infer that Dameas was the gropheus for the stratagoi
from the prior reference to the gropheus bolas (in the dative) in the dating formula:
ἐπὶ γροφέος τᾶι βουλᾶι Θιοδέκτα, τοῖς δὲ στραταγοῖς Δαμέα, ἁλιαίαι ἔ[δοξε] |
τελείαι…755
In (the year when) the gropheus for the bola (was) Thiodektas, and (the gropheus)
for the stratagoi (was) Dameas, it was decreed at the aliaia teleia…
Activities
The text specifies that the stratagoi are to write up Alexander’s name, and the names of his
descendants. However, the form of the text suggests that it is Dameas who carries out the
work on their behalf:
τὸνς δὲ στραταγόνς, οἷς γράφει Δαμέας, ἀ[ν]|γράψαι ἐνς τὰνς στάλανς τὰνς ἐν τῶι
ἱερῶι τοῦ Ἀπολλωνος | τοῦ Λυκείου, ἷ καὶ τοὶ ἄλλοι πολῖται γεγράβανται, ἐ[ν]ς
φυ|λὰν καὶ φάτραν καὶ πεντηκοστύν ἅν κα αὐτὸς προαιρῆται…756
And the stratagoi, for whom Dameas writes, are to write up (Alexandros and his
descendants) onto the stelai which are in the sanctuary of Lycean Apollo, where also
the other citizens are written, into whichever phyle (tribe), and phratry, and
pentekostys757 he chooses…
οἷς γράφει Δαμέας ‘for whom Dameas writes’, could alternatively be translated as ‘for whom
Dameas acts as gropheus’.
It is not known why the duty of writing up (or enrolling) citizens should fall to the stratagoi;
however, we do not have evidence for any other officer (such as the gropheus bolas)
performing this duty at Argos.
754
ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC?) 1-3; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 68.
755
ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC?) 2-3.
756
ISE 41 (1st half  3C BC?) 10-13.
757
For information on the pentekostys, see n.722.
140
Further particulars
This decree is unparalleled in that it does not mention a presiding officer at the aliaia teleia.
Instead, the gropheus bolas and gropheus for the stratagoi are included in the enactment
formula.758
There is no evidence that the gropheus for the stratagoi interacted or cooperated with the
gropheus bolas in any way. Neither of the two grophees oversaw the setting up of the
inscription, and this duty instead fell to the stratagoi and the architect.759
Argolis: Epidauros
In the Archaic period, Epidauros was an oligarchy, but by the fourth century BC, decrees were
passed by the boule and demos, a situation which implies a more democratic constitution.760
Epidauros had a body of 180 enfranchised citizens from which councillors (artunoi) were
drawn,761 and each of the four Epidaurian phylai was represented on boards of officials (see
example on page 145).762
Secretaries at Epidauros are found in two contexts: as officers of the boule, and as
secretaries of temple officials known as hiaromnamones. The secretary of the boule was
known as either the gropheus, or gropheus boulas.763 This officer appears in a small number
of inscriptions from the fourth and third centuries BC, and was far less prominent than the
gropheus at Argos (see page 145). From the fourth to the second century BC, the officer
who represented the boule and demos in decrees was the katalogos boulas (κατάλογος
βουλᾶς).764 This officer may or may not have also been a type of secretary (see page 147).
758
ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC?) 1-3. Moretti (1967) 94-97 suggests that the prominence of generals in this
text indicates that the inscription was written during the time of either Aristomachos I, Aristippos I, or
Aristomachos II.
759
ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC?) 18-20: τὸ δὲ ψάφιζμα ἐγδόμεν τὸνς στρα|[ταγὸνς] μετὰ τοῦ ἀρχιτέκτονος
ἀνγράψαι ἐνς στάλαν καὶ ἐν|[ στᾶ αι ἐν τ]ῶι ἱαρῶι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος τοῦ Λυκείου… and the generals are
to provide the decree (in consultation) with the architect to write it up on a stele, and set it up in the
sanctuary of Lycean Apollo. The reference to the architect may indicate on-going work in the temple.
760
Arist. fr.498; IG IV2,1 51 (4C BC) 1-2; Piérart (2004a) 606-608.
761
Plu. Quaest. Graec. 1.1. The artunoi do not appear in epigraphic evidence, and it is impossible to assess
the extent to which Epidaurian artunoi were like Argive artunai (page 131). Piérart (2004a) 607.
762
Jones (1987) 107-11: the phylai (Dymanes, Hylleis, Asdantioi and Hysminatai) were subdivided into
at least 39 territorial units “of uncertain identification”. These units were also included in the personal
names of Epidaurian citizens. See examples on pages 145 and 147.
763
Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 1-8 = IG IV²,1 69, page 144.
764
Piérart (2004a) 607. Jones (1987) 108-109. The officer’s name and designation appear at the end
of these decrees, and we assume that he passed the decree. See example on page 147.
141
The secretary at the temple was known as either the gropheus (page 145),765 or, from the
third century BC, the grammateus (see page 142). The gropheus (or grammateus) of the
hiaromnamones occurs far more often in the surviving evidence than the gropheus boulas,
suggesting that the Asklepieion generated more bureaucracy than the boule.
Boule and temple grophees could appear together in temple accounts, and it is likely that
there was a limited amount of interaction between these officers.766
Most references to grammateis in Epidauros refer to the grammateis of the Achaian League
(see page 221).
grammateus
gropheus
gropheus bolas
gropheus of hiaromnamones
katalogos boulas
Total:
Grand total: 33
4C BC
0
3
1
11
6
3C BC
2
2
0
1
4
2C BC
1
0
0
0
1
1C BC
0
0
0
0
0
1C AD
0
0
0
0
0
2C AD
1
0
0
0
0
21
9
2
0
0
1
Table 4 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Epidauros.
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Grammateis are attested at Epidauros from the third century BC onwards. The majority of
references to this officer refer to either the grammateis of the Achaian League (page 221),767
or grammateis of the nomographoi of the Achaian League (page 225).768 The designation
could also be used instead of gropheus for the secretary of the hiaromnamones (page
145),769 is found in one, brief dedication (see below), 770 and occurs in an honorific inscription
for a Roman magistrate.771 There is no surviving evidence for an Epidaurian grammateus of
the boule, and duties typically carried out by this officer elsewhere may have instead been
carried out by the katalogos boulas (see page 147).
765
IG IV²,1 165 (4-3C BC) 1-8.
766
See page 145 and n.795.
767
IG IV2,1 60 (191 BC) 1 (Peek, Asklepieion 17); IG IV2,1 61 (c.150 BC) 2; IG IV2,1 80 (34/35 AD) 5;
IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 9-10, 17 (Peek, Asklepieion 34).
768
IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 78-83 (Peek, Asklepieion 23).
769
Peek NI 32 (undated) 1-7.
770
IG IV2,1 306 (c.206 BC) A1-C5 (Peek, Asklepieion 129) (two grammateis).
771
IG IV2,1 25 (117-138 AD) 1-11: Apollonius Maleatus had been grammateus, ambassador,
gymnasiarchos and agoranomos. See Appendix C page 321 for inscriptions of a similar nature.
142
A monument dated to the start of the third century BC contains three short statements, two
of which contain the designation grammateus:
(I) Τιμοκ[ρί]νης, γραμματεὺς | Εὔανδρος καὶ τὸ στράτευ[μα] | ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων
[πᾶσι?] | τοῖς θεοῖς.
(II) Νίκων Ἱαροκλέος ἐπόησε.
(III) ὁ ἱαρεὺς vac. [Ἀρι]στόφιλο[ς] Ἀριστ[ομ]έ[ν]ε[ος] | Λακρίτου, γραμματεὺ[ς]
Δαμοκ[— —] | Καλλικράτη[ς] Ἀθηναῖος | ἐποίησε.772
(I) Timokrines, the grammateus Euandros and the army (dedicated this) from the
(booty of the) enemy, to [all?] the gods.
(II) Nikon son of Hiarokles made this.
(III) The priest — Aristophilos son of Aristomenes son of Lakritos, the grammateus
Damok— Kallikrates of Athens made this.
Statement (I) appears to be a dedication made collectively by a man called Timokrines, a
grammateus, and the army. As Timokrines is not given a designation, he is likely to have been
someone who did not need identifying, such as their commander. The origins of these men
are unknown.773 Nikon in (II) may be the stonecutter for (I), or this line may be unrelated.
The purpose of statement (III) is uncertain, but may also be a dedication made after
Aristophilos served in the army. The grammateus Damok— may be from Athens, or he may
be local. Either Damok— or Kallikrates may be the stonecutter for (III). Kallikrates may also
be the mason who worked on the monument and/or statue accompanying this dedication
(see below).774
Other attributes
It is unclear whether all three texts are contemporaneous. The monument is in the form of a
ship, which was itself the base of a statue. 775 Each part of the text is written on a different
part of the ship.776 The monument was appropriated by Lucius Mummius in 146 BC, who
appended an additional dedication.777 It is likely that this monument was moved from its
original location, as it was placed in a prominent location in the Asklepieion.778
772
IG IV2,1 306 (c.206 BC) A1-C5 (Peek, Asklepieion 129).
773
Palagia (2010) 159.
774
For further information on stonecutters, see page 347.
775
Palagia (2010) 159.
776
See IG IV2,1 306 app. crit.
777
IG IV2,1 306D (c.146-5 AD) 1-3. Gruen (1986) 171; Melfi (2008) 21-22.
778
IG IV2,1 306 app. crit; Melfi (2008) 21.
143
γροφεὺς [βουλᾶς] (gropheus bolas)
The gropheus bolas at Epidauros is the secretary in a fourth-century proxeny decree for
Menekles of Phleious (in the north-west Argolid):
[Μεν]εκλέ[ος]. | [ἁλιαίαι ἔδο]ξε, Ἱάρων ⋮ ἀρή(τευε) ⋮ Δ[— c.5 —]|τος Κερκάδας ⋮
γρο(φεὺς) ⋮ Λυσικλ[— —]|α Εὐκυρίδας· Μενεκλῆ Μ[ενεκλέος ?] | Φλειάσιον
πρό[ξ]ενον [καὶ εὐεργέ]|ταν εἶμεν τοῦ [δάμου(?) τοῦ ἐν Ἐ]|πιδαύρωι κα[— c.11? —
]|ΠΕΙΘΙΛΑ — — —779
Concerning Menekles. It was decreed by the [aliaia], Iaron was presiding, D – tos,
(phratry) Kerkadai780 gropheus, Lusikl — —a son of Eukuros. Menekles son of
[Menekles?] of Phleious is to be proxenos [and] to be a benefactor of the [damos in]
Epidauros…
This inscription is one of the earliest surviving decrees found in the Epidaurian Asklepieion,
and comes from a period when Menekles could have been appointed proxenos as a
democrat in exile.781
Both the word order and personal names in this inscription present us with certain problems.
Kerkadai (Κερκάδαι) was an Argive phratry, rather than an Epidaurian subdivision. 782
Therefore either the presiding officer of the Epidaurian boule was originally from Argos
(unlikely),783 and his name is split by ἀρή(τευε),784 or (as given here), the presiding officer is
given a single name only, the gropheus was originally from Argos, and Lusikl — —a son of
Eukuros is an unknown magistrate.
The inscription is written in a similar form to Argive proxeny decrees in that it contains the
term ἀρήτευε in line 2, used to denote the presiding official at Argos, and otherwise
unattested in Epidauros. This makes it unlikely that the text was written by an Epidaurian.
There is also space for ἁλιαίαι ἔδοξε in line 1, similar to ἁλιαίαι ἔδοξε τελείαι, the formula
used to introduce Argive monthly council meetings.785
779
Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 1-8 = IG IV²,1 69. Mitsos (1947) 82-84 and Plate XIV 1 adds a new left-hand
side to the fragment published in IG in 1929. See also Piérart (2004b) 32-34; Peek, Asklepieion 24.
780
Caskey & Amandry (1949) 218; Charneux (1984) 217; Jones (1987) 114-115.
781
Charneux (1990) 395-415; Mitsos (1947) 82-84; Piérart (2004b) 19-34.
782
See n.722 for more information on Argive naming conventions. Epidaurian phylai were divided into
further units “of uncertain identification” (Jones (1987) 107).
783
Unlikely as officials were chosen from each of the four Epidaurian phylai (Jones (1987) 107-11).
784
Providing the alternative translation: Concerning Menekles. It was decreed by the council, Iaron son
of D – tos (phratry) Kerkadai presiding, gropheus, Lusikl — —a son of Eukuros… A similar splitting of
the enactment formula occurs on page 138.
785
See e.g. page 137. The officer usually associated with Epidaurian proxeny decrees was the
katalogos boulas. See page 147.
144
γροφεὺς [ἱαρομναμόνων] (gropheus of the hiaromnamones)
Grophees could work at the Asklepieion alongside officials known as hiaromnamones. The
following example shows a register of such officials. I include alongside this example a similar
(undated) text, where the secretary of the group is given the designation grammateus.
(i)
(ii)
ἱαρομνά[μον]ες
hiaromnamones:
[ἱαρο]μνάμονες
hiaromnamones:
Ἀριστ[οκράτ]ης,
Aristokrates
[Ξ]ενόδοκος,
Xenodokos
Τιμοκρ[άτη]ς,
Timokrates
[.3-4.κ]λῆς,
—kles
Ἀρισ[τ..5..ς,
Arist—
[….]οκλῆς,
—okles
Τελέα[ς].
Teleas.
[Καλλ]ιτίων.
Kallition.
γρο[φῆ]ς·
grophees:
[γραμ]ματεύς
grammateus:
Τιμυλ[— —]
Timul—
[..5..]ς.786
—s.
Α..ο[— —]
A..o—
787
Line 6 of example (i) is generally interpreted as γρο[φή]ς, that is, gropheus singular;
however the use of a single personal name for each officer, and the presence of two names
after the designation suggests that there were two grophees (hence my accentuation).788
The similar nature of these texts suggests that the designations gropheus and grammateus
were synonymous when the secretary in question worked for the hiaromnamones.789
Without a date for the second inscription (ii), it is impossible to tell whether these
designations were in use concurrently, or whether the designation grammateus replaced
gropheus.
Attributes
As an officer working with hiaromnamones, the gropheus may have assisted in the recording
of temple accounts. The duty is not directly attested; however the gropheus occurs in close
proximity to monetary amounts in accounting documents:
ἐπιστάταις τοῦ ἀναλάμματος τοῦ παρ’ Ἀπόλλωνι, Ὑσμινατᾶν Σωκλεῖ, Ὑλλέων
Σωτηρίωνι, Δυμάνω[ν] Νικάνδρωι, Ἀζαντί|ων Δαμοπ[ί]θ[ε]ι, γροφ[ε]ῖ Ἀλε[ξ]ιμ[ά]χωι,
ἐπὶ [ἱα]ρεῦς Ἀριστοκλεῦς, μηνὸς Γάμου, λάμματα παρ’ ἱαρομναμόνων, οἷς ἔγραφε
786
Peek NI 32 (undated) 1-7.
787
IG IV²,1 165 (4-3C BC) 1-8. See also Buck (1955) 91-92.
788
There does not seem to be an appropriate designation that would fit the available letters of
Α..ο[— —] instead: ἀρχός seems unlikely in this context.
789
A similar office to the hiaromnamones, hieropoioi, administered temple funds at Delos. Their
secretaries were grammateis. See page 330.
145
Ἀρ|χιτέλης, [ἐπ]ὶ καταλόγων βουλᾶς Ὑσμιναίας, Δαμοκλείδα· δραχμὰς ΧΗΗΗΗ||
λόγος λάμματος ΧΗΗΗΗ·||
790
For the epistatai of expenditure for Apollo, (namely) for (phyle) Hysminatai: Sokles,
for (phyle) Hylleis: Soterion, for (phyle) Dymanes: Nikandros, for (phyle) Asdantioi:
Damopeithes, gropheus Aleximachos. In the priesthood of Aristokles, 791 in the month
of Gamos, received by the hiaromnamones, for whom Architeles wrote, when the
katalogoi boulas (were) (subdivision) Hysminaia: Damokleidas: 10,914 drachmas,
account receipts: 10,913 (drachmas).792
The epistatai were a board of Epidaurian magistrates responsible for building works. 793
Aleximachos was either the gropheus of the epistatai (an otherwise unattested office), or the
gropheus bolas.794 The katalogoi boulas were administrative officers of the Epidaurian boule
(see next section).
Further particulars
‘The hiaromnamones, for whom Architeles wrote’ (ἱαρομναμόνων, οἷς ἔγραφε Ἀρχιτέλης)
could alternatively be translated as ‘The hiaromnamones, for whom Architeles acted as
gropheus’. Writing for the hiaromnamones (or being their gropheus) may have been an
ad hoc office, with one officer chosen from among the hiaromnamones to record information
as and when required.
Three accounts give the names of several officers who wrote for the hiaromnamones, with
some names listed more than once. For example, in IG IV2,1 106, Dionysios wrote for the
hiaromnamones in the months of Praratios and Posidaios, while Kallinos wrote for them in
the month of Artamitios, and Timokles wrote for them in the month of Panamos.795
For a similar example, see gropheus for the stratagoi on page 140.
790
IG IV2,1 108 (4/3C BC) 159-161. The vertical lines after the monetary amounts are separators, and
not the number 1.
791
Sherk (1990a) 267. The hiareus (ἱαρεῦς, priest of Asklepios) is the eponymous official in Epidaurian
decrees.
792
The number of katalogoi boulas named varies, and in some cases (as here) can be one official only.
See also page 148, abbreviated proxeny decree (X).
793
Jones (1987) 109. One was chosen from each of the four Epidaurian phylai.
794
Arist. fr.498; Plu. Quaest. Graec. 1.1; Piérart (2004a) 607. Since all boards were drawn from only
180 enfranchised citizens, it seems unlikely that individual boards had their own gropheus.
795
Three, fragmentary accounts of this type survive: IG IV²,1 106 (4C BC) 6, 10, 13-14 (gropheus
Dionysios), 30-1 (Kallinos), 75-6 (Timokles), 107 (-ro-s), C.41-3, C.115-6 (Timokles) (gropheus of other
body Kleidikos C.40-41) this inscription appears to contain the accounts for more than one year; IG IV²,1
108 (4/3C BC) 107, 111-2 (gropheus Damophilos), 116, 123, 141 (Kallikles), 144, 150 (Timokles), 155-6,
160-1, 167 (Architeles) (gropheus of other body Aleximachos 160); Peek, NI 18 (4/early 3C BC) 19-20
(gropheus Eukl-). These texts can also refer to the stonecutter (see page 347), and appear to show
officers of the boule working with temple officials in a similar way to that found in Delos (see page 333).
146
κατάλογος βουλᾶς (katalogos boulas)
From the fourth to the second centuries BC, Epidauros passed a number of proxeny decrees.
These decrees took two forms: short, formulaic decrees, where one or occasionally two
persons were granted proxenos status on a single stele, and ‘abbreviated’ proxeny decrees,
where a single stele contains a series of short proxeny decrees.796 The format of these
decrees is not consistent (even within the same inscription), with rather more content for
some honorands than others. The officer who represented the boule and demos in these
decrees was called the katalogos boulas (κατάλογος βουλᾶς).797
Activities
The katalogos boulas was not a secretary in any formal sense.798 He may have been the
officer who recorded the proxeny, but this cannot be proven, as neither the katalogos boulas
nor any other officer are the subject of a verb of writing in texts containing this designation.
The identification of this officer as a secretary appears to be based upon both the officer’s
prominent position in proxeny decrees from Epidauros, which otherwise lack a secretary,
and an assumption that the katalogos boulas performed a similar role to that of the
katalogeus (καταλογεύς) in Athens, whose function was to enrol citizens.799
In short proxeny decrees (granting the position of proxenos to one or two people), the name
and designation of a katalogos boulas appear at the end of the decree, for example:
Ἡγησιστράτου. | ἔδοξε βουλᾶι καὶ δάμωι | τῶν Ἐπιδαυρίων· Ἡγησί|στρατον
Ἑκαταίου Καρδι|ανὸν πρόξενον εἶμεν τᾶς | πόλιος τᾶς Ἐπιδαυρίων | καὶ θεαροδόκον
τοῦ Ἀσ|κλαπιοῦ καὶ αὐτὸν καὶ | ἐκγόνους, καὶ εἶμεν αὐ||τοῖς ἀτέλειαν καὶ ἀσυ|λίαν
καὶ ἐμ πολέμωι καὶ | ἐν εἰράναι καὶ κατὰ | γᾶν καὶ κατὰ θάλασσαν. | κατάλογος
βουλᾶς Ἀρι|στίων Ἐριλαΐς.800
Concerning Hegesistratos. It was decreed by the boule and demos of the Epidaurians:
that Hegesistratos son of Hekataios the Kardian is to be proxenos of the polis of the
Epidaurians, and thearodokos of Asklepios, both he himself and his descendants, and
that there is to be for them immunity and inviolability both in war and in peace both
on land and by sea. Katalogos boulas, Aristion, (subdivision) Erilais.801
796
For example, IG IV2,1 96 contains 12 abbreviated proxeny decrees.
797
Piérart (2004a) 606-608; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 75.
798
For more information, see ‘What is a secretary?’ on page 21.
799
Lys. 20.13; Ath. Pol. 49.2. See page 102.
800
IG IV2,1 49 (4/3C BC) 1-15.
801
Jones (1987) 107-110. Ἐριλαΐς is one of the 37 known subdivisions of the four Epidaurian phylai.
These may be territorial in nature, although some are mythological (e.g. Τανταλίς).
147
The content of these decrees varies little from inscription to inscription.
In ‘abbreviated’ proxeny decrees, the phrase ‘ἐπὶ καταλόγων βουλᾶς’ is followed by a list of
personal names for the katalogoi boulas, denoting a group of officials who have agreed that
a person is to be proxenos:
(VIII) ἐπὶ καταλόγων βουλᾶς ἐπὶ τᾶς τελείας, Μυσιάδος· Ἀριστόλα καὶ Δαμοκλεῦς καὶ
Ἀριστόλα τοῦ Ἀριστο[κ]ρά[τευς], | μηνὸς Ἀπελλαίου τετάρται, ἔδο[ξ]ε προξένους
εἶμεν τᾶς πόλιος καὶ θεαροδόκους τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος [καὶ τοῦ] | Ἀσκλαπιοῦ Λυσίβιον
Θευδώρου Ἀλεῖον, Τιμίαν Ἀθανίωνος Κλειτόριον.
(IX) ἐπὶ καταλόγων βουλᾶς ἐπὶ τᾶς τελείας, Ἀζα[ντίων Π]αγασίνας· Ἀριστάρχου,
Ξενοδόκου, Ζευξία, Ἀριστομήδευς, Ἀρ[ιστάν]|δρου, ἔδοξε πρόξενον καὶ θεαροδόκον
εἶ[μεν Ἀπόλλω]νος Γόργιππον Τυχανίδα Φενεάταν.
(X) ἐπὶ καταλόγου βουλᾶς ἐπὶ τᾶς τελείας, [—7— Κλε]ισθένευς(?), [ἔδοξε] πρόξενον
εἶμεν Ἵπ[π]αρχον [— —] || Πελλανῆ.802
(VIII) (When the) katalogoi boulas at the teleia803 (were) of (subdivision) Musias:804
Aristolas and Damokles and Aristolas son of Aristokrates. On the fourth day on the
month of Apellaios, it was decreed that Lusibios son of Theudoros of Haleios, and
Timias son of Athanion of Kleitor are to be proxenoi of the polis and thearodokoi of
Apollo and Asklepios.
(IX) (When the) katalogoi boulas at the teleia (were) of the (phyle) Asdantioi
(subdivision) Pagasina:805 Aristarchos, Xenodokos, Sdeuxias, Aristomedes,
Aristandros, it was decreed that Gorgippos son of Tuchanidas of Pheneus is to be
proxenos and thearodokos [of Apollo].
(X) (When the) katalogos boulas at the teleia (was): — —Kleisthenes(?). [It was
decreed] that Hipparchos — — of Pellana is to be proxenos.
The number of katalogoi boulas named varies between one and five persons from a single
phyle or subdivision of a phyle (as in proxeny decrees (X) and (IX), above). 806
Further particulars
In ‘abbreviated’ proxeny decrees, the board of katalogoi boulas are identified by phyle,
suggesting a monthly rotation of officers, either by phylai or subdivision of a phyle.807
802
IG IV2,1 96 (c.300-250 BC) 44-50.
803
See page 130 for Argive decrees enacted at a monthly aliaia teleia.
804
Jones (1987) 107-110. Μυσιάς is a subdivision of an Epidaurian phyle.
805
Jones (1987) 109. Ἀζαντίοι is the phyle and Παγασίνα is a subdivision of Ἀζαντίοι.
806
See also example on page 145.
807
Jones (1987) 107-108.
148
The office of katalogos boulas appears to have been similar to that of bouleutes, with the
additional requirement that the officer also performed secretarial duties on an ad-hoc basis.
One member of the council was chosen to represent the boule in individual proxeny decrees,
and several members of a phyle (or subdivision of a phyle) represented the boule each
month in ‘abbreviated’ proxeny decrees.
Argolis: Hermione
There is no information about the early political institutions of Hermione, 808 although a boule
is attested in the Roman Imperial period.809 Evidence for secretaries is limited to a single
reference to nomographoi and damiourgoi, from the late third / second century BC.
δαμιουργός (damiourgos)
The damiourgoi (magistrates) at Hermione were responsible for providing a stele for, and
writing up a decree pertaining to, a festival, which had previously been established by
nomographoi (see page 150).
τοὺς δὲ νομογράφους | [τοὺς νῦν κα]τασταθέντας κατα[χ]ω|ρίσαι τοῦτο <τὸ> δόγμα
εἰς τοὺς [νόμους]. | [τοὺς δὲ] δαμιουργοὺς τοὺς ἐπὶ Λαΐδα ἐ|γδόμεν στάλαν καὶ
ἀναγρά[ψαι τὸ] | δόγμα καὶ ἀναθέμεν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν τᾶς | Δάματρος τᾶς Χθονίας ὅπως
ὑ|πόμναμα ἦ<ι> ἑκατέραις ταῖς πόλε|σιν εἰς ἅπαντα τὸν χρόνον.810
And the nomographoi, those [now] in office, should establish this decree among the
[laws. And the] damiourgoi (in office) during the office of Laidas are to provide the
stele and write up [the] decree and set it up in the sanctuary of Chthonian Demeter
in order to be a reminder for both of the cities for all time.811
‘Establish’ (καταχωρίσαι) in this context may mean the incorporation of the (abstract) law
into the body of laws, rather than (e.g.) placement of the physical object, which is described
in the following line.
Activities
The damiourgoi were to create the inscribed version of the law from the law established by
nomographoi. It is unclear why the duty was split between the two boards; however, one
808
Piérart (2004a) 610, 615-616.
809
For example, IG IV 713 (Roman Imperial period) 1, 6.
810
IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 23-31.
811
IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 4-13. ‘Both cities’ refers to Hermione and Asine. The decree permits the
people of Asine to participate in the festival of Chthonian Demeter.
149
could speculate that the damiourgoi had responsibilities related to worship at the temple of
Chthonian Demeter, while the nomographoi did not.
The stipulation that the inscription is to be written by the damiourgoi in the office of Laidas
suggests that the decree was passed towards the end of the period in office of the current
damiourgoi. That is, there was time to draft the law, but not to inscribe it in this period.
While the reference to damiourgoi publishing a stele is unusual, it is also attested in
Alipheira (Arcadia). See page 182.
νομογράφος (nomographos)
Nomographoi (‘drafters of laws’) were boards of officials associated with periodic revisions of
the laws of the Achaian, Aetolian and Acarnanian Leagues.812 They are also attested as local
officials in several poleis;813 however, little is known about these officers in either context.
Activities
The nomographoi at Hermione are known from one inscription from the late third or second
century BC, where they are instructed to ‘establish’ a decree pertaining to the festival of
Chthonian Demeter ‘among the laws’.814 The instruction is most likely to refer to the writing
of a law on a temporary medium, since it implies storage in an archive; however, there are
no surviving references to an archive (grammatophylakion, γραμματοφυλάκιον) at
Hermione. The nomographoi were not responsible for having the text inscribed. This task
instead fell to the damiourgoi. See page 149.
Argolis: Kalaureia
The island (and polis) of Kalaureia (modern-day Poros) was a possession of Troizen until the
fourth century BC. Its eponymous magistrate was a tamias.815
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Evidence for secretaries on Kalaureia comprises a single, ten-line list of names and
designations:
Πα[σ]ιξεν[ο— ] vacat | γραμματεῖς·| Μενεκράτης Φρασισθένεος, | Ἀπολλόδωρος
Ἀθανάδα. | κᾶρυξ· Θεόδωρος Κλειτάνδρου. | διάκονος· Χλίδων. | παῖδες· Ξενολαΐδας
Νικοστράτο[υ], | Σωγένης Νικοστράτου, | Σάτυρος. 816
812
Larsen (1968) xxiv, 209, 235. See page 226 for the nomographoi of the Achaian League.
813
Larsen (1968) 234-235. See Appendix A page 281.
814
IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 23-25 (page 149); see also n.811.
815
Figueira (2004) 622-623. IG IV 839 (4C BC) 3-5.
150
Pasixeno— . Grammateis: Menekrates son of Phrasisthenes, Apollodoros son of
Athanadas. Herald: Theodoros son of Kleitandros. Temple attendant: Chlidon.817
Slaves: Xenolaidas, property of Nikostratos, Sogenes, property of Nikostratos,
Satyros.818
It is unclear why there are two secretaries. Kalaureia is a small island, which did not have its
own boule and produced few decrees of its own.819 It may be that these grammateis were
not local, and had been called in from elsewhere specifically to create one or two texts
(including this one), as appears to have been the case with the stalographoi at Mantinea
(page 189).820
The third-century BC date of the inscription suggests that it was created after Troizen lost
control of the island of Kalaureia and it became an independent polis.821
Argolis: Troizen
In fourth- and third-century BC Troizen, decrees could be enacted by either the boule and
demos, or (while Troizen was part of the Achaian League) the synarchai (leading
magistrates) and the boule.822 During the Roman period, decrees could be enacted either by
the boule and demos together, or by the boule or demos separately. 823
Epigraphic evidence from Troizen does not typically provide the designation of the officer
charged with creating inscriptions. Evidence for secretaries is therefore limited to a single,
honorific inscription for a Roman official who served as grammateus of the Achaian
League.824 Evidence for other officials connected with the writing of public documents is
limited to a third century BC decree set up by tamiai (see below).825
816
IG IV 824 (3C BC) 1-9.
817
LGPN IIIA 477. The single name of the temple attendant suggests that he was also a slave.
818
‘Slaves’ could alternatively be read as (temple) servants, with Xenolaidas and Sogenes both sons of
Nikostratos and therefore related. This would leave us with the rather unusual name ‘Satyros’ at the
end of the text.
819
Figuera (2004) 622-3.
820
The name of the father of the grammateus, Phrasisthenes, is known only from this inscription, and
so this is inconclusive.
821
IG IV 824 (3C BC); Piérart (2004a) 615.
822
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 78. 3-4C BC enactment by boule and demos: E.g.: IG IV 748 (369 BC) 1;
enactment by synarchai and demos: IG IV 751 (3C BC) 4-5.
823
Roman era: boule only: IG IV 795 (103-113 AD) 15; demos only: IG IV 783 (undated) B8; boule and
demos: IG IV 796 (Imperial Period) 6.
824
IG IV 795 (103-113 AD) 11-12. See also page 222.
825
IG IV 755 (3C BC) 9-11.
151
ταμίας (tamias)
Tamiai (treasurers) often provided funds for the creation and setting up of stelai. On rare
occasions, they could also write the text itself. In the following honorific inscription, tamiai
are instead connected with the setting up of a stele.
[τὸ δὲ δόγμα τόδε τοὺς ταμί]ας ἀνθέμεν ἐν σ[τά]|[λαι γεγραμμένον ἐν τῶι ἱαρῶι
το]ῦ Ἀπόλλωνος τ[οῦ]|[Θεαρίου.826
[The tamiai] are to set up [this decision after it has been written] on a stele [in the
sanctuary] of Apollo Thearios.827
The decree was passed by the synarchai and the demos;828 therefore the tamiai were
treasurers for the boule of Troizen while Troizen was part of the Achaian League.
Argolis: concluding remarks
There is no one statement that applies to all secretaries of the Argolid. The three largest
poleis (Argos, Epidauros and Hermione) vary in the secretaries (or those who perform the
duties of secretaries) attested, and the range of duties that they performed. As with many
other locations, other officers could perform the duties of secretaries when their polis
produced few inscriptions and/or did not employ secretaries of its own.829
Shared characteristics are the dates from which secretaries (or their substitutes) are
present. Both Argos and Epidauros had officers who performed the duties of secretaries
from the fifth and fourth centuries BC. To put this into context: there are four times as many
surviving examples of secretaries from fifth and fourth century BC Argos and Epidauros than
there are from the rest of the Peloponnese in the same period. 830 Additionally, there is a
comparative lack of evidence for secretaries after 146 BC. This is in contrast to (e.g.)
Laconia, where the majority of instances are from this date onwards. This makes it difficult
to compare the functions of the (early) gropheus with the (later) grammateus.
Most secretaries were officers of a boule or synedrion; however, grophees and grammateis
also worked with hiaromnamones at the Asklepieion at Epidauros,831 and grophees are known
826
IG IV 755 (3C BC) 9-11. Θεάρίος is an epithet of Apollo as the god of Oracles. See also IG IV 748
(369 BC) 15-16.
827
Piérart (2004a) 610, 615-616. The typical location for public enactments.
828
IG IV 755 (3C BC) 4.
829
The damiourgos and nomographos at Hermione, pages 149-150; the tamias at Troizen, page 152.
830
Total numbers are still rather small. See Appendix B page 303.
831
Peek, NI 32 (undated) 6-7; IG IV²,1 165 (4-3C BC) 1-8.
152
from the temple of Pythian Apollo in Argos.832 In these contexts, secretaries could be part of a
varied collegial environment. However, it is difficult to form any conclusions about these
environments, as little is known about any of the officers concerned. Argos also provides
evidence for grammateis of a theatrical guild.833
Taking the Argolid as a whole, the functions of secretaries range from the writing of proxeny
decrees and honorific inscriptions, to various forms of administration: taking part in
arbitration,834 organising building work,835 and procuring a crown and ensuring a decree was
proclaimed.836 In most instances, inscriptions lack the epigraphic formulae or verbs of writing
which would provide detail about bureaucratic procedures and secretarial duties.
There is a small amount of inconclusive evidence for secretaries who worked in a polis other
than the one in which they were born. A gropheus at Epidauros bears the name of an Argive
phratry;837 two grammateis at Kalaureia worked in a location which otherwise provides no
evidence for secretaries and little evidence for bureaucracy; 838 and a gropheus may have
accompanied boule members to an arbitration between Melos and Cimolos.839
832
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-6, page 135.
833
IG IV 558 (114 BC) 36-38.
834
IG XII,3 1259 (after 338 BC) 1-17, page 138.
835
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-5, page 135.
836
IG IV 558 (114 BC) 36-37, page 133.
837
Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 1-8, page 144.
838
IG IV 824 (3C BC) 1-9, page 150.
839
IG XII,3 1259 (after 338 BC) 14-16, page 138.
153
Laconia: Introduction
Discussions about Laconia invariably focus on Sparta. Sparta controlled all other poleis in
Laconia: all political decisions for Laconia were made at Sparta, and the perioikoi had no say
in these matters.840 Perioikic communities may have had some autonomy in local decisions,
but the extent of this autonomy is unknown.841
A lack of early written sources makes the nature of bureaucratic procedures at Sparta
uncertain. Laws probably required the approval of one of the five Spartan ephors, after
which they were discussed by the gerousia, which comprised 28 council elders over sixty
years old, plus the two basileis.842 Ephors also presided over the assembly,843 and each of
the surrounding poleis had three ephors of its own.844 Few laws were inscribed, and the
practice may have been forbidden due to the belief that correct moral virtues could be more
efficiently instilled in citizens through adherence to certain customs. 845 However, writing
itself was not forbidden.846 If we are to believe Plutarch’s statement that men were taught
only as much reading and writing as they required, 847 this would in fact indicate that Spartan
literacy was of a similar level to that in the rest of the ancient Greek world. 848
While we should be wary of conflating the ancient office of ephor with that of ephors in the
Roman period, the importance of this office to the early Spartan political system may help
explain why it was these officers (rather than a grammateus or other officer) who were
directed to write up decrees in several perioikic poleis in the second and first centuries BC.849
Ancient authors note that ephors and other magistrates used the skytale as a means of
sending short messages to each other, and to commanders in the field.850 However, the
840
Shipley (1997) 205.
841
Shipley (1997) 202, 205-211; Todd (2000) 29.
842
Boring (1979) 24-30. Shipley (2004) 588, 591; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 82-83. For the Spartan
constitution, see X. Lac., esp. 8.4, 10.1-2. Although some towns in Laconia had assemblies, there is no
evidence for a council anywhere in Laconia until the Roman period.
843
Shipley (2004) 591-2. Th. 1.87.1-2.
844
Atkinson (1949) 283.
845
Plu. Lyc. 13.1-3. Admittedly, our view of a Sparta without complex bureaucracy and written laws
remains coloured by the ‘Spartan mirage’.
846
Plu. Lyc. 27.2; Todd (2000) 29. The only writing forbidden was inscribing on tombs the names of men
who had not died in battle, and the names of women who had died in sacred office (or possibly, childbirth).
847
Plu. Lyc. 16.6.
848
For this argument, see, e.g. Harris (1989) 3-20.
849
See Appendix A page 280 for a list. There is no epigraphic evidence for ephors writing in Sparta.
850
Plu. Ages. 10.5 & 15.5, Alc. 38.4, Art. 6.3, Lys. 19.4-20.4. Kelly (1985) 141-6, 156. The form that
these messages took is unclear. It is not known for certain whether these messages were encoded,
154
terms used to describe these messages are imprecise, and it is difficult to connect this
evidence with specific designations or particular poleis. 851 Instead, our earliest evidence
notes that the Spartan epistoleus in the field sent a written message rather than a skytale
back to Sparta (εἰς Λακεδαίμονα γράμματα πεμφθέντα),852 and in the second and first
centuries BC, ephors sent a copy of a document to another polis (ἀποστεῖλαι γράμματα),853
and Spartan nomographoi sent a message to Amphissa.854
Paradoxically for a state which produced few written laws, there are a greater number of
grammateis known from Sparta than from any other Peloponnesian polis. The majority of
this evidence comprises registers of officials, which provide the names and designations of
council members only.855
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
3C AD
grammateus
dogmatographos
0
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ephor
0
3
0
0
0
0
ephor
0
3
0
0
0
0
ephor
0
9
3
0
0
0
ephor
0
0
9
0
0
0
ephor
0
6
0
0
0
0
grammateus
grammateus of the boule
nomographos
hypogrammateus
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
10
1
0
4
4
1
0
0
18
28
1
6
1
0
0
0
tamias
0
2
0
0
0
0
grammateus
0
0
0
0
2
0
Total:
Grand total: 118
3
27
27
5
55
1
Amyklai:
Epidauros Limera:
Gerenia:
Geronthrai:
Gytheion
Kortyrta:
Sparta:
Tainaron:
Thalamai:
Table 5 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Laconia.856
and the term skytale can be used to mean both the message, and the message and staff that it could
be wrapped around. See also Millender (2001) 143.
851
Plutarch, for instance, notes that a skytale came “from home” (Ages. 10.5) or from “the
Lacedaemonians” (Art. 6.3), rather than from any board of magistrates.
852
X. Hell. 1.1.23.
853
IG V,1 1336 (undated) 20.
854
SEG 52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7. See also Th. 1.133.1; Millender (2001) 142.
855
See example on page 160.
856
Atkinson (1949) 283: Three ephors per polis. See e.g. IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18 on page 156,
IG V,1 1114 (1C BC) 2-4 and IG V,1 1240 (213-217 AD), 12-15.
155
Occasionally, texts may also refer to a stonecutter. See page 347.
Laconia: Amyklai
Amyklai was a semi-autonomous polis in Spartan territory, and, as such, may not have been
able to pass its own laws.857
γραμματεὺς [τῶν ἐφόρων] (grammateus of the ephors)
A single inscription from Amyklai set up by dogmatographoi praises three ephors, and also
their grammateus.858 (For the text, see under dogmatographos, immediately below.)
The grammateus was honoured separately from the ephors, and is thus removed from any
connection with, or responsibility for, the duties for which the ephors are praised.859
This is the only surviving reference to a grammateus of the ephors, and as such it is difficult
to say anything further about this office.
δογματογράφος (dogmatographos)
Activities
The dogmatographoi (‘drafters of decrees’) were a board of three men, involved in financial
and administrative decisions made in Amyklai. They are known from one, second- or firstcentury BC decree:860
δογματογράφων Λυσινίκου τοῦ Σωτηρίδα, Νηκλέος | τοῦ Ἀριστοκράτεος,
Πασικράτεος τοῦ Πασικλέος·| τὸ δοχθὲν ὑπὸ Ἀμυκλαιέων. |{anaglyphum} | ἐπεὶ
κα[τ]ασταθέντες ἔφοροι εἰς τὸν ἐπὶ Νικέα ἐνιαυτὸν Πασιτέλης | Τετάρτου, Εὔθυμος
Λυσικράτεος, Δαμιάδας Δαμιάδα ἀξίως | ἀνεστρέφησαν αὑτῶν τε καὶ τᾶς
ἐνχειρισθείσας αὐτοῖς πίσ|τεως, ἐμ πᾶσιν ἀκερδῶς καὶ ἡμέρως τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν
διεξα|γαγόντες, δεδόχθαι τοῖς Ἀμυκλαιέοις· ἐπαινέσαι ἐφόρους….
ἐγδόμεν δὲ τοὺς κατασταθέντας στάλαν λιθίναν, | εἰς ἃν ἀναγραφήσεται τὸ δόγμα,
καὶ στᾶσαι εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν τᾶς | Ἀλεξάνδρας. τὰν δὲ εἰς ταύταν δαπάναν δότω ἁ ὠβὰ καὶ
857
Kennell (1995) 162-166.
858
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 17-18. See example on page 156.
859
Boring (1979) 84-85 suggests that this is due to carelessness in the drafting of the text, rather than
through any conscious decision on the part of the author(s).
860
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18; SEG 46:397; Kennell (1995) 162-169; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 82.
Boring (1979) 86 states that the “chief responsibility” of this board was probably to “draft decrees such
as this one”, but cites no additional evidence.
156
λόγον | ἐνεγκόντω περὶ τᾶς γεγενημένας δαπάνας τοὺς ἐπὶ ταῦτα | κατασταθέντας.
ἐπαινέσαι δὲ καὶ τὸν γραμματέα αὐτῶν | Καλλικλῆ.861
(In the year) of the dogmatographoi: Lysinikos son of Soteridas, Nekles son of
Aristokrates, Pasikrates son of Pasikles, the decision reached by (the) Amyklaians.
Since the ephors appointed for the year of (the office of) Nikeas, Pasiteles son of
Tetartos, Euthymos son of Lysikrates, Damiadas son of Damiadas have conducted
themselves in a manner worthy both of themselves and of the trust placed in them,
in all ways carrying out their year without thought of profit and in a civilized
manner, it was decreed by the Amyklaians: To praise the ephors….
And those in office are to provide862 a stone stele, on which the decision is to be
written up, and set it up in the sanctuary of Alexandra. And let the Oba (a local
division of the Spartan people) pay the expense for it, and let those in office (for
this) submit an account concerning the expenses incurred. And also praise their
secretary, Kallikles.863
In this decree honouring ephors, the dogmatographoi function as local magistrates,
presiding over local decisions (dogmata). The person(s) who are to write the decision are
not specified, but may also be the dogmatographoi. This connection with writing can be
inferred from the direction that the dogma is to be written up (ἀναγραφήσεται τὸ δόγμα),
given in much the same way that nomographoi are directed to write up nomoi.864
‘Those in office’ (τοὺς κατασταθέντας) in lines 13 and 16-17 who provide the stele,
administer the funds and compile the expenses for the Oba are most likely to be the ephors.
The account is not included in the inscribed record, and is likely to have been on temporary
media and stored with other accounts.
Further particulars
Amyklai’s semi-autonomous status may have placed limitations on the duties which could be
carried out by the dogmatographoi.
This inscription has been used to prove both Amyklai’s ties to Sparta (through the use of a
Spartan eponymous archon in the dating formula 865 and the reference to the Oba), and
861
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18.
862
I have avoided using the alternative translation ‘publish’. For ἐγδόμεν see also IG IV 679 (late 3-2C
BC) 23-31 on page 149.
863
Kennell (1995) 163-164. For obai, see Plu. Lyc. 6.1-2.
864
See IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10 on page 164; also see n.911.
865
Kennell (1995) 165 goes through all possible offices for Nikeas, and concludes that he must have
been patronomos of Sparta.
157
Amyklai’s independence from Sparta (in its inclusion of the apparently non-Spartan
dogmatographoi).866
The office of dogmatographos is also known from elsewhere in the Greek world, including
several locations in Asia Minor.867
Laconia: Epidauros Limera, Gerenia, Geronthrai, Gytheion,
Kortyrta
ἔφορος (ephor)
Activities
In four small poleis in Laconia, ephors (plural) were the officers who wrote up (ἀναγράφω)
proxeny decrees,868 honorific decrees869 and laws.870
Ephors wrote up proxeny decrees for Gerenia,871 Geronthrai,872 Gytheion873 and Kortyrta.874
For example, in the following decree from Gytheion, ephors are directed to write a proxeny
decree and display it in the most visible part of the agora:
…τὰν δὲ προξενίαν ταύ[ταν οἱ ἔφο]|[ροι ο]ἱ ἐπὶ στραταγοῦ Βιάδα ἀναγράψαν[τες εἰς] |
[στ]άλαν λιθίναν ἀναθέντων εἰς τὸν ἐ[πιφανέσ]|[τα]τ ον τᾶς ἀγορᾶς τόπον, ὅπως πᾶσιν
[φανερὸν ἦι] | [τό τ]ε Δαμιάδα καλοκαγαθίας καὶ εὐν[οίας τᾶς] | [πό]λεως ἁμῶν εἰς
τοὺς εὐεργέτας [ὑπόμνα]|μα·875
And this proxeny [the ephors] in the generalship of Biadas after writing it [onto] a
stone stele are to set it up in the [most visible] area of the agora,876 so that [the]
866
Kennell (1995) 162-166.
867
E.g. Thyateira, Lydia: TAM V,2 857 (undated) 8: <δ>[ογ]<μα>τογράφος τῆι πό[λει —.
868
Gerenia: IG V,1 1336 (undated) 17-22. Geronthrai: IG V,1 1110 (after 146 BC) 9-16; IG V,1 1111 (after
146 BC) 34-38, see also Ager (1996) 223-226 no.81; IG V,1 1113 (undated) 9-13. Gytheion:
IG V,1 1145 (c.70 BC) 4-5, 44-51. Kortyrta: IG V,1 965 (2C BC) 16-17, 20; IG V,1 962 (undated) 31-38.
869
Epidauros Limera: IG V,1 931 (after 146 BC) 34-37. Geronthrai: IG V,1 1114 (1C BC) 27-30; Gytheion:
IG V,1 1146 (after 71/70 BC) 51, 52-54.
870
Gytheion: IG V,1 1144 (c.80 BC) 33-36.
871
IG V,1 1336 (undated) 17-22.
872
IG V,1 1110 (after 146 BC) 9-16; IG V,1 1111 (after 146 BC) 34-38, see also Ager (1996) 223-226
no.81; IG V,1 1113 (undated) 9-13.
873
IG V,1 1145 (c.70 BC) 4-5, 44-51.
874
IG V,1 965 (2C BC) 16-17, 20; IG V,1 962 (undated) 31-38. Ephors may also be the officers who write
a proxeny decree at Kythera: IG V,1 936 (1C BC) 28-29; the text is too fragmentary to allow restoration.
875
IG V,1 1145 (c.70 BC) 44-51. The phrase ‘the most visible area of the agora’ is also known from
Geronthrai (IG V,1 1114 (1C BC) 29-30).
876
The English reflects the word order of the Greek.
158
reminder of Damiadas’ nobility and of the goodwill of our city towards its benefactors
might [be manifest] to all.
The final location of the stele can be indicated in a similar fashion to that used in instructions
given to grammateis elsewhere.877 On one occasion, additional instructions also specify that
the ephors are to make a copy of the decree (γράφω… ἀντίγραφον), to be sent away to
another location:878
… ἀναγράψαι δὲ τοὺς ἐφόρους τοὺς | περὶ Φιλωνίδαν τὰν προξενίαν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ
| Μαχάονος· γράψαι δὲ καὶ ἀντίγραφον τᾶς προ|[ξ]ενίας καὶ ἀποστεῖλαι γράμματα
ποτὶ τὰ[ν] | [π]όλιν τῶν Ἱππολαίων καὶ τοὺς ἐφόρους, ὅπω[ς] | [ἀ]ναγραφῆι εἰς τὸ
ἱερὸν τοῦ Ποσιδᾶνος…879
…and Philonidas and his fellow ephors are to write up the proxeny in the sanctuary
of Machaon. And they, the ephors are also to write a copy of the proxeny and send
the document to the polis of the Hippolaians, in order that it can be written up in
the sanctuary of Poseidon…880
The copy of this decree was sent to Hippola (near Tainaron) presumably because it was the
honorand’s home town, on the understanding that the Hippolaians would create their own
copy of the decree.
Ephors also wrote decrees honouring citizens from other poleis; for example for their
services in arbitration,881 or for having lent money to the polis on reasonable terms. 882 They
may also have written laws on behalf of the demos.883
There is no surviving evidence for grammateis or any other secretaries at Epidauros Limera,
Gerenia, Geronthrai, Gytheion or Kortyrta. Instead, in the second and first centuries BC,
ephors performed every duty which we would normally expect of a secretary: writing
proxeny and honorific decrees and laws, working with or on behalf of an assembly, and
877
Compare the following example with, e.g. IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 45-46 on page 123.
878
The verb usually used for ‘copy’ is γράφω (e.g. IG V,1 1145 (c.70 BC) 50-51; V,1 1144 (c.80 BC) 3336). The only time ἀναγράφω is used in the sense of ‘make a copy’ in these decrees is the (restored)
IG V,1 1145 (c.70 BC) 4 and IG V,1 1146 (after 71/70 BC) 52-54, where <ἀντίγραφον> is supplied.
879
IG V,1 1336 (undated) 17-22.
880
Copies of documents are also made in IG V,1 1111 (after 146 BC) 26 (Geronthrai), and IG V,1 1145
(c.70 BC) 4-5 (Gytheion).
881
IG V,1 931 (after 196 BC) 34-37; Ager (1996) 221-223 no.80; SEG 49:381; SEG 46:2340. An honorific
decree of Epidauros Limera honours two citizens of Tenos for arbitrating between Zarax (Ζάραξ, on the
East coast of Laconia) and Epidauros Limera (approximately five miles south of Zarax).
882
IG V,1 1146 (after 71/70 BC) 51, 52-54.
883
Gytheion: IG V,1 1144 (c.80 BC) 20-21, 33-36.
159
ensuring that inscriptions were set up in a specific location. They also continued to perform
the previous functions of ephors, presiding over the assembly and supporting new laws.884
Further particulars
Spartan ephors had considerable power, including jurisdiction in legal cases. 885 Since all
political decisions for Laconia were made at Sparta,886 perioikic ephors are likely to have had
far less power, although they may have had some autonomy with local decisions. 887
Spartan ephors served for a year. As they were appointed from the entire citizen body, it
was believed (by Aristotle, at least) that poorer ephors could be easily bought.888 It is
unclear how similar the office of perioikic ‘ephor as secretary’ (in the second century BC to
first century AD) was to the office of ephor known to Aristotle.
While ephors are the only officials known to have performed secretarial functions in the
above locations, there are no surviving examples of ephors performing similar functions in
Sparta (from which location we have many examples of grammateis). From this we might
infer that smaller towns had smaller administrations, and that some (if not all) officers had
to perform a wider range of duties.
Ephors also worked with nomographoi, writing an honorific decree in Messenia. See page 177.
Laconia: Sparta
γραμματεύς (grammateus) and γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς
(grammateus of the boule)
The Spartan grammateus is primarily known from registers of members of boards of
magistrates or religious officials, which provide the names and designations of the officers
only. These texts contain few if any verbs which would assist in identifying the duties of
these officers. An indication of their duties can therefore only be ascertained by examining
grammateis’ collegial environment: i.e. by noting the officers with whom they worked.
For example, some boards could employ several secretaries at the same time. They could
also employ either one or three hypogrammateis:
Ἀπολλωνίδα[ς] | Πασικλέος. | γραμματεῖς· | Δαμιάδας, | Στ<ρ>άτων. |
ὑπογραμματεῖς· | Εὐδαίμων, | Κ[λ]έων, | [Ε]ὐδαιμοκλῆς. || ὑπηρέται· | Σωτηρίδας, |
884
See e.g. IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18 (page 156) and IG V,1 1566 (c.29 BC) 1-5.
885
Arist. Pol. 1270b7-32. Rackham (1932a) 140-142; Shipley (2004) 592.
886
Shipley (1997) 205.
887
Shipley (1997) 202, 205-211; Todd (2000) 29.
888
Arist. Pol. 1270b7-8: election ἐκ τοῦ δήμου παντός.
160
Ἀθηνίων. | [βίδ]υοι οἱ περὶ Σοιξιτέλη | Εὐδάμου, ἀρχιερέως [τῶν Σεβα]|[στῶν]
<δ>ιὰ βίου, <κατὰ> γένος ἐπὶ <π>[α]|τ<ρο>ν(όμου) <Γ>αΐου Ἰουλίου Λάμ[πι]δος·
| <Σ>οιξιτέλης Εὐδάμου, | Εὐδαμίδας, | Σωσικράτης Πλάκωνος, || Δαμονικίδας
Βασιλίδου, | Καλλικράτης Τιμ<ο>στράτου, | Ἀγαθοκλῆς Ἀγαθοκλέους. | vacat |
γραμ(ματεὺς) | βο[υλᾶς]· | [— — — —]889
Apollonidas son of Pasikles. Grammateis: Damiadas, Straton. Hypogrammateis:
Eudaimon, Kleon, Eudaimokles. Public servants: Soteridas, Athenion. Biduoi
(overseers) holding office with Soixiteles son of Eudamos, chief priest of the games
of Augustus for life, by tribe, in the patronomos-ship of Gaius Julius Lampis:
Soixiteles son of Eudamos, Eudamidas,890 Sosikrates son of Plakon,891 Damonikidas
son of Basileidas, Kallikrates son of Timostratos, Agathokles son of Agathokles.
< vacat > grammateus of the boule…
The above example illustrates the typical extent of information in these inscriptions. The two
grammateis and three hypogrammateis are named before a priest and biduoi, in what is little
more than a list of names and designations. The biduoi (βίδυοι), also written as bidiaioi
(βιδιαῖοι) or bideoi (βίδεοι), were officers in charge of the ephebes, providing the context and
working environment for these grammateis and hypogrammateis.892
Approximately half of the surviving instances of grammateus from Sparta are grammateis of
the boule.893 For the remainder, it is difficult to ascertain the body to which these
grammateis were attached (or indeed whether these texts also refer to the grammateus of
the boule), as more than one board of magistrates could be recorded together, and not all
lists indicate the body to which the magistrates belong.894 The following photograph shows
four of 28 such lists which cover the East Parados-wall of the theatre at Sparta.895
889
IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 1-25. This is the full text.
890
The father’s name appears to be accidentally omitted.
891
Not otherwise attested as a personal name.
892
See also hypogrammateus on page 165.
893
See Table 5 on page 155.
894
Woodward (1925) 227-229. See e.g. IG V,1 34 (117-138 AD) 3-13. The ephors may also have
occasionally had their own grammateus. See page 156.
895
Woodward (1925) 159.
161
Figure 5 – Registers of Spartan magistrates.
Top row: ABSA 26 D.3. Middle row: ABSA 26 C.8, C.9. Bottom row: ABSA 26 B.8.896
Activities
The duties of the Spartan grammateis are difficult to assess, as in the vast majority of these
texts, grammateis are not the subject of a verb. The existence of a grammatophylakion
(archive or place to store records) in the second century AD suggests that they carried out at
least some of their duties using temporary media:
ἔσται δὲ ὁ γυμνικὸς ἀγὼν κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν κατὰ τὴν ῥή|τραν τῇ κζʹ· τοὺς δὲ
νεικήσαντας ἀναγράψουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ἐν τῶι γυμνασίῳ καὶ εἰς τὸ |
γραμματοφυλάκιον παραδώσουσιν·897
And there is to be the gymnastic contest every year according to the ordinance for
the 27th (day of the month). And the grammateis are to write up the victors in the
gymnasium, and hand them over to the grammatophylakion.
In this text, victors were written up (on an unspecified medium) in the gymnastic school,
with a copy stored in the grammatophylakion. As the archive copy was not intended for
public display, it is likely to have been on temporary media.898
896
Woodward (1925) D3: 170, 195; C8: 168, 193; C9: 169, 193-4; B8: 166, 185-6.
897
IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4. The grammateis may be grammateis specifically of the gymnastic
school, although this is far from certain. The grammateus of the boule is noted in B5.
898
Boring (1979) 31-32; Millender (2001) 129. No archive building has been found. A reference to
archives and decrees written on papyrus also occurs in a fragmentary letter sent to Sparta from an
unknown polis: IG V,1 30 (123/121 BC) 1-9: [Φε]νεατᾶν. vacat | [— — γρα]μματεὺς συνέ|[δρων — — ]ς
ὁ τὸ πέμπτον καὶ εἰ|[κοστὸν ἔτος Λ]ακεδαιμονίων ἐφόροις | [καὶ τᾶι πόλει χα]ίρειν· | τῶν ὄντων παρ’
ἐ|[μοὶ κειμένων ἐν] τῶι ἀρχείωι ἐν βυβλίωι |[ψηφισμάτων γ]έγραφα ὑμῖν τὸ ἀντί|[γραφον. Concerning
the Pheneatans. — —grammateus of the synedroi— — -s, the one for the twenty-fifth year, to the
162
Grammateis are also noted in (and may record) honorific decrees,899 and are known from
two highly fragmentary texts relating to building work, where a board appears to have been
appointed and expenses allocated from public funds.900
For use of the public archive and letters written by other officers, see page 165.
Other attributes
It was possible for Spartan grammateis to hold other offices either before or after their time
as grammateus. For example, Gaius Julius Lysikrates was grammateus of the boule either
before or after he held the office of ephor, 901 and Aristokrates son of Kamillos was
grammateus either before or after he was a member of the gerousia.902 Sitimos son of
Pratonikos is known from four different inscriptions, and holds a different office in each: as
an unspecified type of magistrate, as grammateus, as a member of the gerousia, and as
president of the gerousia.903
The office of grammateus of the boule could be held late in one’s career, and in at least one
instance, a new grammateus was elected to replace a grammateus who had died in office.904
There were also family connections between officials: the grammateus Tiberius Kla.
(Claudius) Neolaos was the son of the geron (member of the gerousia) Pratomelidas,905 and
ephors and the polis of the Spartans, greetings. Of those decrees which are with me, which are placed
in the archive on papyrus, I have written for you a copy. Boring (1979) 86-87; Nielsen (2004) 527;
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 81, 90. Boring suggests that this letter originated in Macedonia or Achaia;
Rhodes with Lewis suggests Pheneus in Arcadia. Archives are known from Dyme in Achaia (page 216)
and Megalopolis in Arcadia (page 192), but not otherwise known from Pheneus. This grammateus of
the synedroi could be either the grammateus at the originating location, or the grammateus of the
Achaians (see page 222), as the grammateus of the synedroi is otherwise unattested in Sparta. The
dating of this inscription may be down to an interpretation of ‘the twenty-fifth year’, i.e. the 25th year of
the Roman province of Achaia.
899
IG V,1 152 (2C AD) 9.
900
ABSA 26 20b 5-6 and ibid 20c 9-12; Woodward (1925) 227-230. Woodward restores the text of
ABSA 26 20c 9-12 as: [γ]ρα[μμ]ατεὺς — — — — | Μν[ά]σ[ιπ]π[ο]ς (?) | ὑπηρέτ[η]ς [γ]ρα(μματέως) |
[Σ]τέφανος, which may show that this grammateus had his own public slave.
901
SEG 48:459 (ABSA 93 5a) & SEG 11:498; Steinhauer (1998) 436.
902
ABSA 26 A5 6 & IG V,1 103 (early 2C AD) 7; Woodward (1925) 177. Aristokrates is also known from a
statue dedicated by his wife (IG V,1 483).
903
Σίτιμος Πρατονίκου: IG V,1 153 23-24; ABSA 26 B4a 1-3; ABSA 26 C1 3; ABSA 26 E2 (Σείτειμος
Πρατονείκου).
904
SEG 48:458 (160-165 AD) 27-31: Γραμματεὺς Βουλῆς | Γά(ϊος) Ἰούλιος Φειδίας οὗ τε|λευτήσαντος
διεδέ|[ξα]το τὴν διοίκησι[ν] | vac. Δαμαίνετος | vac. Grammateus of the boule, Gaius Julius Pheidias,
whose office (on his death) — Damainetos — took over. (See also SEG 35:327). See also IG V,1 116, 69: Γραμματεὺς βουλῆς Ἀριστονικίδας Νικηφόρου, οὗ τελευτήσαντος ἐπεμελήθη τῆς ἀρχῆς Γάϊος Ἰούλιος
Νίκανδρος. Steinhauer (1998) 433-435 No.4.
905
ABSA 26 C.7 8; E3 6.
163
the grammateus P. (Publius) Memmius Damares was almost certainly the son of P. M.
(Publius Memmius) Sidektas, eponymous in c.125 AD.906
As with several other locations in the Peloponnese, Sparta provides examples of honours
bestowed upon officials who held several magistracies including that of grammateus. For
example, one man was honoured for the way in which he managed expenses while
grammateus of the boule, and also for having been a cavalry commander and judge at two
Olympic games.907
νομογράφος (nomographos)
The earliest surviving inscription from Laconia that refers to an officer who writes official
documents is a third century BC law pertaining to provisions for Roman officials.908 The law
dates from the period before the Roman occupation of the Peloponnese, and the titles of
officials therefore refer to the pre-Roman regime.
Activities
The nomographoi, a board of an unknown number of men, 909 were directed to write up a
law, the nature of which has been lost. The total surviving text is as follows:
γ[ραψ]άν[τ]ω δὲ καὶ οἱ καταστα[θέντες νομο]|γράφοι νόμον περὶ τούτων· ἐπαι[νέσαι
δὲ αὐ]|τὸν καὶ ἐπὶ τᾶι ἐνδαμίαι καὶ ἀνασ[τροφᾶι, ἇι] | πεποίηται ἐν τᾶι πόλει· δόντω
δὲ [αὐτῶι οἱ] | ἐπιμεληταὶ τοῦ Ῥωμαίου καταλύμ[ατος καὶ παρε]|χόντω αὐτῶι τε καὶ
τοῖς μετ’ αὐτο[ῦ, ἅτινα αὐ]|τοῖς ἐν τοῖς νόμοις διατέτακται· δό[ντω δὲ αὐ]|τῶι καὶ οἱ
ταμίαι ξένια τὰ μέγιστα ἐκ τ[ῶν νό]|[μων ἀ]ποδεξάμενοι, ἅν τε διεγρά[ψαμεν] ||
[περὶ] τούτων, καὶ ὁ ἱερὸς [— — —]910
Let the nomographoi currently in office write a law about these things: (and) praise
him both in his presence and [on his return for what] he did in the polis, and let the
epimeletai of the Roman lodgings give [to him and] hand over both to him and
those with him [whatever] is stated for them in the laws. And let the tamiai give him
the greatest hospitality (xenia) allowed by the [laws] both which we have drafted
[about] these things, and the priest…
906
ABSA 26 C.10 4-5; B9 1. See also IG V,1 536 (c.150 AD) 2-4; Woodward (1925) 193-4. For more on
the family of Sidektas, see Woodward (1930) 215-216.
907
IG V,1 479 (131/132 AD) 1-14; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 82.
908
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10.
909
Polybius is silent on Peloponnesian nomographoi, and mentions only Aetolian nomographoi (Plb. 13.1).
910
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 81.
164
The nomographoi are to write (γράφω) a law based on this decision.911 There also appear to
be laws concerning hospitality which the epimeletai and treasurers must obey, and it may be
that these laws were drafted or ‘sketched out’ (διαγράφω) by the nomographoi. Significantly,
there appears to be a procedure in place whereby laws are enforceable while in draft form (ἐκ
τῶν νόμων ἀποδεξάμενοι… ἅν τε διεγράψαμεν, allowed by the laws… which we have drafted).
Spartan nomographoi are also known from a letter sent to Amphissa, in Central Greece:
τῶν ὄντων παρ’ ἁμὲ γραμμάτων ἐν τῶι δαμοσίωι ὑπο|γέγραφα ὑμῖν τὸ ἀντίγραφον·
νομογράφων Δαμοκρά|της Λαφρίου· Δημήτριον Μονίμου Ἀμφισσῆ πρόξενον εἶμεν…912
Of those documents that are with us in the public archive, I have written below for
you a copy. Of the nomographoi: Damokrates son of Laphrios. Demetrios son of
Monimos of Amphissa is to be proxenos…
The text contains the earliest reference to a Spartan public archive (δαμόσιος). No
archaeological evidence for this survives, and it is not known whether this was a dedicated
archive building, or (e.g.) a place for storage within another building.913 The text also
connects Spartan nomographoi with the process of appointing someone proxenos.914
Further particulars
While more than one officer served as nomographos in the third century BC,915 only one
nomographos is named in the second century BC letter to Amphissa. This may be because
only a single officer served as nomographos at this time, because the letter only includes the
nomographos who acted as chairman for that board, or because this is not a faithful copy of
the original text.916 Spartan nomographoi are also known from a fragmentary second century
AD list of magistrates.917
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus)
In the Peloponnese, the office of hypogrammateus is known from a few registers of officials
from Roman Sparta only. This is significantly later than in Athens and Delos (pages 77 and
911
For parallels, see: IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 4-5: γραψάτωσαν… νόμον, page 197 and SIG3 684 (c.144
BC) 9: νόμους γράψας, page 216.
912
SEG 52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7. 4-5 contains similar phrasing to IG V,1 30 (123/121 BC) 5-8 (n.898 page
162), which also notes archived records, and a copy made for the recipient of the letter.
913
Millender (2001) 129-130. An archive (grammatophylakion) is also known from the late first/second
century AD. The use of a different term suggests that this may have been a different building. See page 162.
914
SEG 52:541.
915
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 81.
916
SEG 52:541 also suggests that Damokrates may have been the nomographos who proposed the
decree. The alternative Δαμοκρά|της, Λαφρίου is less probable.
917
SEG 48:470 (2C AD) 5; Steinhauer (1998) 446 no.14. See Appendix A page 281 for a list of texts.
165
335), where the office is known from the fifth and fourth centuries BC onwards. These
registers contain grammateis, and may additionally list either one or three hypogrammateis
(see example on page 160).918
These lists give no indication of the duties that each officer would have performed. Two of
these lists also contain ὑπηρέται (hyperetai, public servants) who may have assisted with
administration.919
Laconia: Tainaron
ταμίας (tamias)
A tamias (treasurer) was charged with the writing and setting up of two proxeny decrees in
Tainaron.920 For example:
τὰν δὲ | προξενίαν ταύταν ἀνα|γραψάτω ὁ ταμίας εἰς στά|λαν λιθίναν καὶ ἀναθέτω |
<ε>ἰς τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Ποσειδᾶ|νος τοῦ ἐπὶ Ταινάρωι.921
And let the tamias write up this proxeny onto a stone stele and set it up in the
sanctuary of Poseidon at Tainaron.
There are no extant examples of secretaries from Tainaron. The use of a tamias for this duty
may have been because the polis did not produce sufficient decrees to warrant a full-time
secretary. It may also be that Tainaron, as a small polis, required its relatively small number
of officials to perform a wider range of functions. 922
Laconia: Thalamai
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Thalamai, Amyklai (page 156) and Sparta (page 160) are the only poleis in Laconia which
provide evidence for grammateis.923 As at Sparta, evidence from Thalamai comprises
registers of officers, with no additional information. Two such texts survive. The first is a list
918
Woodward (1925) 230. See Appendix A page 288 for a list of texts.
919
IG V,1 48 (1C BC) 19; IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 10-12.
920
IG V,1 1226 (2/1C BC) 17-21; IG V,1 1227 (undated) 2-7.
921
IG V,1 1227 (undated) 2-7.
922
This also seems to have been the case with damiorgoi at Alipheira (page 182) and epimeletai at
Thisoa (page 198).
923
Shipley (2004) 565. By placing Thalamai in Book 3, Pausanias associates Thalamai with Laconia;
however, he also associates Thalamai with Messenia in 3.1.4.
166
of worshippers of Damoia;924 the second comprises a register of officers on the same stele as
a proxeny decree.925 The final lines contain the grammateus, and the stonecutter.
γρα(μματεὺς) Κλα(ύδιος) Ἀνείκητος Πανκ[— —], | ἔγρα(ψε) καὶ ἐχάραξε
Δαμονικίδα[ς].926
Grammateus Claudius Aniketos Pank—, Damonikidas wrote and engraved this.
For more information on stonecutters, see page 347.
Laconia: concluding remarks
The earliest known officers who performed the duties of secretaries in Laconia were a board of
third century BC nomographoi.927 No other evidence for secretaries in Laconia survives from
the third- or early-second century BC.
From the mid-second century BC onwards, approximately 75% of the evidence for secretaries
(or officers who perform the duties of secretaries) is from Sparta.928 Almost all of these officers
are designated either grammateus or grammateus of the boule. Most of our evidence for these
officers comprises registers of officials, which provide the names and designations of these
officers only;929 therefore the precise nature of their duties remains uncertain.
Elsewhere in Laconia, the officers most often charged with writing inscriptions were ephors.930
Ephors were prominent in regional administrations, and in addition to carrying out their more
traditional functions, could be charged with writing the same types of documents as
grammateis (etc.) in other parts of the Peloponnese, such as proxeny decrees, honours and
laws. The terms used to describe the duties of ephors are also the same as those used for
secretaries in other parts of the Peloponnese, and in Athens.
Other officers who carried out duties more often associated with secretaries were the
dogmatographos and the tamias, Laconia as a whole providing evidence for a wider range of
officials who are not secretaries writing than in other parts of the Peloponnese. From this we
may be able to infer that small Laconian poleis, with small administrations, required their
officers to perform a wide range of functions.
924
IG V,1 1314 (125/6–after 129/30 AD) 12. Cook (1925) 890. Auxesia and Damoia are described by
Cook as “the Peloponnesian equivalents of Demeter and Kore”. Their worship is known from several
locations in the Peloponnese. See also SEG 42:334, SEG 36:370.
925
IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 29-30 & app. crit.; the proxeny decree: IG V,1 1312 (undated).
926
IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 29-30; SEG 48:2127.
927
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-2, page 164.
928
See Appendix B page 306 for a list of texts.
929
See example on page 160.
930
See page 158.
167
Messenia: Introduction
From the end of the eighth to the fourth century BC, Messenia was ruled by the
Lakedaimonians, and early poleis were perioikic communities dependent on Sparta.931 The
nature of government and communities in Messenia is reflected in its epigraphic record.
Evidence for secretaries or other such officers dates from the third century BC onwards,932
later than in other Peloponnesian states, with the exception of Laconia. Secretaries are
known from eight locations;933 however, surviving evidence is usually limited to only one or
two fragmentary or short texts per location, which contain little or no information about the
creation or display of the text.
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
3C AD
grammateus of the synedroi 0
0
1
0
0
0
grammateus
0
0
0
0
1
0
grammateus
0
1
0
0
0
0
grammateus of the synedroi 0
0
1
0
0
0
grammateus
0
0
1
0
0
0
grammateus
0
grammateus of the synedroi 0
gropheus
1
2
0
0
0
2
0
2
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
grammateus of the synedroi 0
ephor
0
nomographos
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
5
9
3
0
Andania:
Asine:
Kolonides:
Korone:
Kyparissos:
Messene:
Thouria:
Total:
Grand total: 23
1
Table 6 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Messenia.
The earliest attested secretary in Messenia is a third-century BC gropheus, listed as one of
several cult officials (see page 175).934 From the second century BC to the third century AD,
the designation used for secretaries is either grammateus, or grammateus of the synedroi;935
there is also a single surviving instance of nomographoi.936
931
Shipley (2004) 547-8; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 86.
932
SEG 51:474 II.1-2: γροφεὺς Ἀριστόδαμος, page 175.
933
Including Abia, which provides evidence for the grammateus of the Achaian League. See page 223.
934
SEG 51:474 II.1-2.
935
The synedrion was the name for the council at Messene (page 173), Korone (page 169) and
Thouria (page 176).
936
See page 178.
168
Messenia: Abia, Asine, Kolonides, Kyparissos
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
The designation grammateus is known from a single short inscription from each of the poleis
of Asine,937 Kolonides938 and Kyparissos.939 At Kolonides940 and Kyparissos,941 the name and
designation of the grammateus could be used as part of the dating formula in a decree,
suggesting the absence of other officials in these locations.
The grammateus is also known from a late second-century AD honorific inscription from Asine:
Αὐτοκράτορα Καί|σαρα Λούκιον Σε|πτίμιον Σεουῆρον | Περτίνακα Σεβαστὸν | ἡ πόλις
τὸν ἀνείκη|τον ἐπὶ Φλαβίου | Σαιθίδα λογιστοῦ | καὶ γραμματέος | Αἰλίου Φαιανίδου 942
The polis (honours) Emperor Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus the
undefeated in the period of office of Flavius Saithidas 943 as auditor and Ailios
Phaianides944 as grammateus.
The auditor (logistes) Flavius Saithidas was Messenian.945 The origins of the grammateus are
not known.
Messenia: Andania, Korone
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi)
In Messenia, the office of grammateus of the synedroi is known from Andania,946 Korone,947
Thouria948 and Messene (see page 173).
937
IG V,1 1412 (193-5 AD) 7-9.
938
IG V,1 1402 (late 2C BC) 1.
939
IG V,1 1559 (undated) 2-3. Shipley (2004) 561.
940
IG V,1 1402 (late 2C BC) 1: ἐπὶ γραμματέος Εὐμέν[εος]. The secretary is followed by a gymnasiarch,
hypogymnasiarch, and a list of ephebes. Shipley (2004) 554, 556-7.
941
IG V,1 1559 (undated) 2-3: [— — ἐπὶ γραμ]ματέος | [—c.6—]λίπου. Shipley (2004) 561.
942
IG V,1 1412 (193-5 AD) 1-9 (the entire text).
943
Σαϊθίδας = LGPN III.A 387.
944
Φαιανίδης = LGPN III.A 441.
945
Camia (2007) 409-410.
946
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 1, 134-5. This grammateus appears to be the grammateus of the synedroi at
Messene. See page 173.
947
IG V,1 1392 (58 BC) 1-4 (see n.949).
948
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23. See example on page 176.
169
Activities
Not enough of the text from Korone survives to be able to assess the duties of the
grammateus of the synedroi at this location;949 however, as in Abia, Asine, Kolonides and
Kyparissos (page 169), the grammateus is eponymous in the dating formula, suggesting his
relative importance.
At Andania, the grammateus of the synedroi worked with priests in administering an oath
related to the mysteries of the Great Gods.950 A stele sets out the regulations for these
mysteries, including the order of procession, services to be performed, and punishments for
misdemeanours.951 The first few lines of the text are missing. The remaining text specifies
that the grammateus of the synedroi is to swear that the priests who will be in office next
are in good health,952 and must administer the oath (whatever this means) 953 sworn by the
priests:
… τοὺς δὲ | κατασταθέντας ὁ[ρ]|κιξάτω ὁ γραμματεὺς | τῶν συνέδρων τὸν | ὅρκον
ὃν οἱ ἱεροὶ ὀμν[ύ]|οντι.954
…and to those who have been established in office the grammateus of the synedroi
is to administer the oath which the priests swear.
No officers are directly linked with the final version of the law and the creation of the stele.
The procedure for writing regulations is also unclear, but suggests that the grammateus of
the synedroi, priests, and nomodeiktai were collectively responsible for the draft regulations
(διάγραμμα) that comprised the law once approved:
ἀναγραψάντω δὲ καὶ | [εἰς τ]ὸν οἶκον τὸν ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι οὓς ἂν κατακρίνωντι καὶ ἐπὶ
ποίωι ἀδικήματι ἀντίγραφον ἔχειν τοῦ διαγράμματος. οἱ κατεσταμέ|[νοι ὥ]στε
γράψαι τὸ διάγραμμα, καθὼς ἂν δοκιμασθεῖ, δόντω τοῖς νομοδείκταις ἀντίγραφον.955
And let them also write up [in] the room in the sanctuary (the names of) whoever
they condemn and for what offence, so as to have a copy of the regulations. Let
949
IG V,1 1392 (58 BC)  2-3: ἐπὶ γραμματέος τῶν συνέδρων Νικαγόρου | τοῦ Δ[ι]οκλείδα…. Only four
lines remain. Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 83; Shipley (2004) 561.
950
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 1, 134-5. Sokolowski (1969) 130: The law dates from a year in which the cult
went through one of many reforms. See also Deshours (2008) 178-9.
951
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC); Robert & Robert (1939) 465-7 no.118; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 85;
Sokolowski (1969) 130.
952
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 1: ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων τοὺς γενηθέντας ἱεροὺς ὁρκιξάτω
παραχρῆμα, ἂμ μή τις ἀρρωστε῀ι The grammateus of the synedroi is to swear an oath forthwith, that
not one of the priests who will be in office (next) is in ill health.
953
A similar, unspecific event occurs in Plb. 6.33.1.
954
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 132-137.
955
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 112-114. For draft documents, see also page 164.
170
those currently in office give a copy to the nomodeiktai for them to write the
regulation in whatever form it is approved.
Peloponnesian nomodeiktai are known from this inscription only. The phrasing of this text
means that we are unable to assess the extent of secretarial duties carried out by these
officers. If nomodeiktai were synonymous with nomophylakes ‘guardians of the laws’, as
suggested by Sokolowski, the room (oikos) containing the law would have had a similar
function to a nomophylakion (‘law repository’ or archive).956
Further particulars
If priests worked with the grammateus of the synedroi in the creation of these regulations,
this inscription provides evidence for a higher level of cooperation between secretaries and
priests than is found in Athens, Delos, or elsewhere in the Peloponnese.
Little epigraphic evidence from Andania survives, and this inscription provides the only
surviving references to synedroi in this location.957 Rhodes notes that this inscription dates
from a period when Andania was under the control of Messene; 958 therefore the synedroi
may be members of the council at Messene, and the grammateus of the synedroi may also
be a Messenian official (see page 173).
Messenia: Messene
The polis of Messene was founded in 370-69BC,959 and so we should not expect any texts
from before this date. Decrees indicate that Messene had democratic institutions from the
second century BC, and that decisions could be made by vote.960 Messene also granted
several proxeny decrees,961 and was at times a member of the Arcadian Confederacy.962
956
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 86. Sokolowski (1969) 133. A nomophylakion is not attested in the
Peloponnese. Although the guardians of the law at Sparta were nomophylakes, archives are referred to
either as the grammatophylakion (page 162) or damiosion (public archive) (page 165).
957
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 49, 56-57, 89, 185-6.
958
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 86.
959
Paus. 4.26.7; Shipley (2004) 562. Founded after the first Boiotian invasion of Laconia by
Epameinondas and his allies. It is not possible to ascertain any bureaucratic procedures of the original
komai in the surviving epigraphic record.
960
IG V,1 1432 (39 BC); SEG 23:208 (42 AD).
961
For example IG V,1 1425 (late 4/3C BC).
962
Larsen (1968) 180-184, 186; Shipley (2004) 562-3. Treaty with the Arcadian Confederacy:
SEG 22:339. The Confederacy was initially a federation of poleis comprising Mantinea, Tegea and a few
minor poleis, which expanded after the Peloponnesian expedition of the Boeotians and their allies in 37069 BC. Decisions were made by an assembly known as the myrioi (Ten Thousand), in which all citizens of
the Confederacy had a right to take part. (See e.g. IG V,2 (362/361 BC) 1.)
171
The earliest known secretary from Messene (and Messenia) is the gropheus, known from a
single fragmentary inscription from the third century BC.963 All other secretaries from Messene
are referred to either as grammateus (see below) or as grammateus of the synedroi.964
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Grammateis could be employed by various boards at Messene. The designation appears in
two registers of officials,965 and in a decree of the council elders of the Oupesia (the officials
who administered the cult of Artemis Ortheia in Messene), honouring their grammateus for
his good deeds:
[Γραμματ]έος Μνασιστράτου…
ἔδοξε τοῖς τᾶς Οὐπησίας ἐπαινέσαι Μνασί|σρατον Φιλοξενίδα ἐπὶ πᾶσι τοῖς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ
| γεινομένοις εὐεργετήμασι καὶ ἀναθέμεν | αὐτῷ στάλαν ἀναγραπτάν, ἐν ᾧ ἂν
[α]ὐτὸς τόπῳ | θέλῃ, καὶ ἐπιγράψαι “Οἱ τᾶς Οὐπησίας Μνασίστρα||τον Φιλοξενίδα
διὰ παντὸς εὐεργετούμενοι | ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ ἀρετᾶς ἕνεκεν”· στεφανοῦσθαι δὲ αὐ|τὸν
κατὰ ἔτος ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητᾶν ἐν τῷ τᾶς Ἀρτέμιτος στεφάνῳ, καὶ | ἀνακαρύσσεσθαι
“Οἱ τᾶς Οὐπησίας στεφανοῦν|τι Μνασίστρατον Φιλοξενίδα ἀρετᾶς ἕνε|κεν”·vacat |
ἀναθέμεν δὲ καὶ στάλαν λιθίναν παρὰ τὸν ναὸν | τᾶς Ἀρτέμιτος ἔχουσαν τοῦτο τὸ
ψάφισμα. | Ἀναδοθεισᾶν ψάφων οε’, ἔδοξε πάσαις.966
(Concerning) the grammateus Mnasistratos…
It was decreed by those of the Oupesia to praise Mnasistratos son of Philoxenidas
for all of the benefactions made by him, and to set up for him an inscribed stele, in
whichever location he himself wishes and to write on it: “Those of the Oupesia (so
honour) Mnasistratos son of Philoxenidas as they have been continually well served
by him on account of his excellence.” And he is to be crowned each year by the
epimeletai in the (temple of) Artemis with a crown, and it is to be proclaimed:
“Those of the Oupesia crown Mnasistratos son of Philoxenidas, on account of his
excellence.” <vacat> And to also set up a stone stele beside the temple of Artemis,
bearing this decree. 75 votes having been cast, it was a unanimous decision.
Although Mnasistratos was honoured for his excellence and good works, there is no
information regarding what these deeds were. The phrase ‘continually well served by him’
963
SEG 51:474 (early 3C) II.1-2, page 175.
964
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 85-86. The term used for the council at Messene. See example on page 173.
965
IG V,1 1467 (1C AD) 7; IG V,1 1469 (126 AD) 6.
966
SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2, 15-29; Bremmer (1997) 15; Robert (1926) 487-492; Rhodes with Lewis (1997)
84. An additional fragmentary example simply contains the name and designation of the grammateus:
SEG 31:346 (Hellenistic) 1-2: Γραμματέ[ος — —] | Ἐπινίκ[ου — — ]. The use of the genitive suggests that
grammateus may have been preceded by ἐπὶ; i.e. that he may have been eponymous.
172
(διὰ παντὸς εὐεργετούμενοι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ), suggests that this period of euergetism lasted longer
than a single period in office, and so is unlikely to have been good deeds carried out during, or
as part of his term as grammateus. The way in which Mnasistratos was honoured (with two
stelai, a crown each year, and a proclamation) suggests that he made several significant
benefactions to the polis, which in turn implies that he was independently wealthy.967
A grammateus is also found in a decree of an unknown polis, which honours judges from
Messene and their secretary:
— τοὺς αἱρε]|[θ]έντας δικαστὰς καὶ τὸν γραμμα[τέα αὐτῶν — — <personal name>
— — χρυ]|[σ]ῶι στεφάνωι ἀρετῆς ἕνεκεν κα[ὶ εὐνοίας τῆς εἰς ἡμᾶς. 968
[The elected] dikasts and [their] grammateus — — — — with a gold crown,
on account of his excellence and [goodwill towards us].
Messenian dikasts are also known from an inscription found in Andania, which may have
originated in Messene (see page 171).969 The grammateus of the dikasts is otherwise
unattested in Messenia.970
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi)
Activities
The grammateus of the synedroi at Messene is known from several, fragmentary
inscriptions,971 and a single well-preserved honorific decree in which a holder of this office
was honoured for his diligence and the precision he has shown in his work:972
… ἔδοξε τοῖς συνέδροις· ἐπαινέ[σ]αι Ἀριστοκλῆ ἐπὶ τᾶι ἐπιμε|λείαι καὶ καθαρειότατι ἐφ’
ἇι ἔχει περὶ τὰ κοινὰ τᾶς πόλεος πράγματα ἔ[ν τ]ε τούτοις καὶ ἐν τοῖς vacat | λοιποῖς
πᾶσι τοῖς ὑπὲρ τὰν πόλιν διοικουμένοις, καὶ εἶμεν καταμόνο[υς] τὰς δεδομένας αὐ|τῶι
τιμὰς ὑπό τε τῶν συνέδρων καὶ τοῦ στραταγοῦ· καὶ ἐξέστω αὐτῶι στᾶσαι τὰ[ν]
ε[ἰ]κόνα πρὸ τοῦ ἀρ|χείου τοῦ γραμματέος τῶν συνέδρων καὶ ἐπιγράψαι ἐπὶ τὸ βάθρον
967
Veyne (1990) 85-6, 93, 101, 106-8. It is not clear whether this is voluntary euergetism, or euergetism
caused by external pressures. While the concept of euergetism remains essentially the same from the
end of the 4C BC to the Imperial period, Imperial decrees are more effusive in style.
968
IG V,1 1428 (late 2-1C BC) 3-5. Robert (1926) 487-92: It is possible that this text should more
accurately refer to Messenian officials known as theoroi (Th. 5.47.9). However, theoroi are unattested
in the epigraphic record, and it is not known whether they had their own secretary.
969
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 52, with a grammateus of the synedrion in 1.
970
For the grammateus of the dikasts at Corinth, see page 127.
971
IG V,1 1463 (1C BC) 3; IG V,1 1448 (14 AD) 2 (Rossi (2002) 16-18); IG V,1 1449 (54-68 AD) 8;
SEG 23:206 (2-3C AD) 1.
972
IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 2, 13-25, 41-42; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 84-86.
173
αὐτᾶς, "ἁ πόλι[ς] Ἀριστοκλῆ vacat | Καλλικράτεος γραμματίζοντα973 συνέδροις ἀρετᾶς
ἕνεκεν καὶ εὐνοίας, ἇς ἔχων δ[ια]τελεῖ εἰς αὑ||τάν". τὸ δὲ εἰς τὰν εἰκόνα καὶ τὸ βάθρον
ἀνάλωμα ἐξοδιασθῆμεν ἐκ τᾶν τᾶς πόλεος εἰσόδων κ[αὶ ἔ]στω ἐπι|στάτας ἐπί τε τὰν
εἰκόνα καὶ τὸ βάθρον αὐτός. vacat974
It was decreed by the synedroi: to praise Aristokles for the diligence and honesty
with which he conducts the common business of the polis, both in these things and
in all the other arrangements on behalf of the polis, and the honours conferred upon
him by both the synedroi and the stratagos are to be permanent: and he is to be
allowed to set up his statue in front of the office of the grammateus of the synedroi,
and to inscribe on its base: “The polis (honours) Aristokles (vacat) son of Kallikrates,
who is grammateus for the synedroi, on account of his excellence and goodwill,
which he continues to have for her (the polis).” And the expenses for the statue and
the base are to be paid in full from the revenue of the polis, and let the overseer of
both the statue and the base be (Aristokles) himself.
Later lines in this decree link Aristokles with the day-to-day recording of polis business:
ἐπεὶ Ἀριστοκλῆς ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων παραλαβὼν τὰν ἐμπιστευθεῖσαν ἀρχὰν
αὐτῶι ὑ[πὸ] | τῶν ἀρχόντων καὶ συνέδρων ἐποιεῖτο πρόνοιαν εὐθέως τοῦ τάν τε
πόλιν καὶ τοὺς κατοικοῦντας αὐτὰν φυ[λά]|ξαι καθηκόντως, ὅσον ἐπ’ αὐτῶι, καὶ
πρῶτον μὲν ἐπιμέλειαν ἐποιήσατο τοῦ πάντας τοὺς τᾶς πόλεος χ[ει]|ρισμοὺς εἰς τὸ
ἐμφανὲς ἀναγράφεσθαι εἰς τὸν τοῖχον ἐπ’ ἀμέρας ὑπὸ τῶν χειριζόντων τι τᾶς
πόλεος…975
Since Aristokles the grammateus of the synedroi, on taking the office entrusted to
him by the archons and the synedroi, immediately took precautions to safeguard
both the polis and its inhabitants properly, as was his duty, and first he took care to
have publically written down all the administrative business of the city on the wall
on a daily basis by those managing anything belonging to the polis…
The primary function of the grammateus of the synedroi at Messene therefore appears to
have been the recording and public display of any polis business, which he did ‘on a daily
basis’ (ἐπ’ ἀμέρας).976 However, it may also be that this public record of daily administrative
973
The form γραμματίζοντα is unusual, and otherwise known only from Boiotia (IG VII 3294 (2C BC) 2;
IG VII 3296 (1C BC) 3-4). This inscription is also unusual in its use of both the participial (plus dative)
and noun (plus genitive) form of the designation within the same decree.
974
IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 14-21; Rhodes with Lewis (1997); 84. Rossi (2002) 15. See page 172 to compare
honours granted for services performed while in office, with honours for services rendered outside of it.
975
IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 22-25. Rossi (2002) 15.
976
‘Immediately taking precautions’ may indicate a change in policy. The reasons for this are unknown.
174
business (i.e. a calendar) was Aristokles’ innovation. 977 Diligence and honesty were also
important to this role, being mentioned twice in the decree,978 and suggested by the
apparently transparent way that accountability was ensured through the public recording of
business transactions.979
No evidence from Messenia directly links the grammateus of the synedroi with writing on
stelai.
Other attributes
The grammateus of the synedroi at Messene may have been required to assist priests at
Andania with certain aspects of their sacred law: see page 169. This grammateus may have
also occasionally been used as part of the dating formula.980
γροφεύς (gropheus)
A fragmentary, third century BC inscription from Messene contains a list of cult officials,
including a gropheus. The full text is given below.
[— — —]
γροφεὺς
———
gropheus:
[— — —]ς
Ἀριστόδαμος
— — —s
Aristodamos
[— — —]εος
θεῶν ἁγητὴρ
son of —es
leader of gods(?):981
[— — —]δα
Εὔτυχος
— — —da
Eutuchos
[— — —]μέρου
πρόσπολος
son of —meros
attendant:
[— — —]δα
Λυδεύτυχος
— — —da
Ludeutuchos982
This text is the only surviving inscription from either Messenia or Laconia that includes the
designation gropheus. It is also the earliest surviving inscription from Messenia that includes a
secretary. It provides some evidence for titles of officials in the pre-Roman era, and, in listing
the gropheus as one of several officials connected with a cult, shows the gropheus in a context
similar to that found in Epidauros in the fourth and third centuries BC.983
977
I would like to thank Stephen Todd for this suggestion.
978
Occurring both in the section of the decree quoted above, and also in 42-43.
979
IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 26-30: Further phrases expand upon issues of transparency, noting that
Aristokles did not handle money either in person or for other people, but transacted financial matters
honestly through men such as accountants. Rossi (2002) 15.
980
IG V,1 1463 (1C BC) 3: ἐπὶ γραμματέο[ς τῶν συνέδρων —].
981
Ἀγήτωρ or ‘leader’ is an epithet of Zeus at Sparta.
982
SEG 51:474 (3C BC) II.1-6; Themelis (1999) 88-89. The text may have originally been three columns.
983
IG IV²,1 165 (4-3C BC) 1-8, page 145. For a graphic representation of pre-Roman/Roman
designations in the Peloponnese, see Figures 8-15, pages 313-320.
175
Messenia: Thouria
Thouria was under Spartan control until the mid-fourth century BC, and appears to have had
a democratic constitution from this time onwards. 984 Inscriptions from Thouria show a wider
range of officials associated with writing than in other Messenian poleis. Designations found
are grammateus of the synedroi, nomographos and ephor.985
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi)
Activities
The grammateus of the synedroi at Thouria is known from a decree pertaining to funds for
the supply of grain:
καὶ μ[ὴ] | [ἀγοραξάτω καὶ διοικησάτω τὸν σῖτο]ν ὁ γραμματεύς, ἀλλὰ διαι<τ>είσθω
περὶ τοῦ καταγορά<ξ>α[ι] | [και διοικῆσαι, καθώς κα τοῖς συνέδρ]οις δόξει περὶ δὲ
τοῦ ἀργυρίου…
…
καὶ ὁ γραμματεὺς δόγμα γραψάτω, καθώς κα οἱ σύνεδροι κελεύ{ι}|[ωντι.986
And the secretary is not [to buy (for himself) or manage the grain,] but to moderate
its sale [and management, however the synedroi] decree, and about the money…
…
…and the secretary is to write up the decision, in whichever way the synedroi order.
No other officials were assigned this duty. The codicil forbidding the re-selling of grain for
the secretary’s own financial gain indicates that some care was taken to ensure that the
grammateus remained accountable for his behaviour.987
The secretary was also responsible for keeping records related to the distribution of this
grain,988 and had the additional, unparalleled duty of distributing it.
Other attributes
The grammateus of the synedroi at Thouria was one of two eponymous officials in a decree
arbitrating between Thouria and Megalopolis.989 The arbitration took place at Patrai, and was
written up by the grammateus there. See page 217.
984
Shipley (2004) 566. Thouria’s democratic constitution can be dated to either 369 or 338 BC.
985
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23; SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-36.
986
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23.
987
For other evidence for accountability, see IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 13-25 (Messene, page 173), in which
a grammateus was honoured partly for carrying out polis business in a transparent manner.
988
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 18: …καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν τῶι διαγραμ|[ματι… …as it was written in the register….
176
ἔφορος (ephor)
Ephors performed the duties of secretaries in several poleis in Laconia (see page 158). The
following example comprises the only surviving evidence that they could also carry out these
duties in Messenia.
Activities
In a proxeny decree for a Spartan named Damocharis, ephors are directed to oversee the
creation of a statue with writing on the base (ἐπιγράφω). They are also directed to write up
(ἀναγράφω) a decree in his honour. The decree contains the additional direction that a
message is to be written (γράφω) by nomographoi (see page 178).990
ἀναθέντω καὶ οἱ μετὰ Μενέ|[σ]στρατον ἔφοροι εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ γραπτὰν εἰς τὸν ναὸ[ν
τ]|ᾶς Συρίας θεοῦ ἐπιγράψαντες “Ἁ πόλις ἁ τῶν Θου[ριέ]|ων Δαμόχαριν Τειμοξένου
Λακεδαιμόνιον ἀρ[ετᾶς] | ἕνεκεν καὶ εὐνοίας, ἇς ἔχων διατελεῖ εἰς α[ὑτάν].” |
Γραψάντω δὲ καὶ οἱ νομογράφοι οἱ περὶ Νίκ[ωνα ἐπιστολὰ]||ν σύμφωνον τούτῳ τῷ
ψαφίσζματι, παρα[καλοῦντες αὐτ]|ὸν καὶ εἰς τὰ μετὰ ταῦτα τὰν αὐτὰν ἔ[χειν φιλίαν
καὶ] | εὔνοιαν εἴσς τε τὰν πόλιν καὶ τοὺς [πολείτας ἁμῶν]. | οὐδε γὰρ ὁ ἁμὸς δᾶμος
ἐλλείψε[ται ἐγ χάριτος ἀποδό]|σει. Ἀναγραψάντω δὲ τοῦτο τὸ ψάφισ[ζμα οἱ ἔφοροι
οἱ μ]|ετὰ Μενέσστρατον εἰς στάλαν λ[ιθίναν, ἃν καὶ στασάντω] | πρὸ τοῦ ναοῦ τᾶς
Συρίας θε[οῦ].991
…and the ephors with Menes[s]tratos are to set up a statue of him (Damocharis)
with writing on it in the temple of the Syrian goddess, inscribing it as follows: “The
polis of the Thourians (so honours) Damocharis son of Teimoxenos the Spartan on
account of his excellence and goodwill, which he perpetually shows to her (the
polis).” And the nomographoi under the presidency of Nikon are to write [a letter] in
accordance with this decree, [inviting] him also hereafter to [display the same
friendship and] goodwill both to the city and to [our citizens]. For neither will our
demos be deficient [in repayment of a favour]. And [those ephors] with
Menes[s]tratos are to write up the decree on a stone stele, [and let them set it up]
in front of the temple of the Syrian goddess.
The use of meta + accusative in οἱ μετὰ Μενέσστρατον implies that Menes[s]tratos was one
of the ephors.
989
ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 1-2.
990
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-36; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 85; Tod (1931) 229-230.
991
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-36.
177
νομογράφος (nomographos)
A proxeny decree for a Spartan contains the only surviving reference to nomographoi from
Messenia, and the only surviving instance where nomographoi appear alongside ephors,
although both offices existed at the same time in Sparta.992
Activities
The decree was written by ephors (see page 177). The role of the nomographoi was to write
a letter ‘in accordance with this decree’, suggesting a degree of collaboration between these
officers.
The number of nomographoi at Thouria is not known. They appear to have worked on
behalf of the archons and the demos,993 and may have functioned as magistrates in a very
general sense, rather than (e.g.) drafting laws.
Messenia: concluding remarks
The evidence for Messenian secretaries is scarce, with only twenty attestations from the
region as a whole. Additionally, the only officers explicitly linked with the writing and/or
inscribing of stelai are ephors in Thouria.994 However, Messenia provides a variety of
evidence for the use of temporary media. We know that the grammateus of the synedroi
could conduct the day-to-day business of the polis via the public display of records,995 and
that these grammateis could also keep other accounts, such as those related to the
distribution of grain.996
The high proportion of decrees in which the secretary is part of the dating formula, 997 in
conjunction with the attestation of additional duties (such as the distribution of grain), 998
suggests both the relative importance of the grammateus in these locations, and an absence
of some other officials. Within this environment, care could be taken to ensure that a
grammateus remained accountable for his actions, diligent and honest,999 and honours may
992
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 26-32. See page 164 for nomographoi in Sparta, and Appendix A page 281 for
nomographoi elsewhere in the Peloponnese.
993
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 14-15: ἔδοξε το|[ῖς ἀρχ]όντοις καὶ τῷ δάμῳ.
994
See IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 23 and SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-26 on page 177.
995
See IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 22-25 on page 174.
996
See IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 18 on page 176.
997
The grammateus can be eponymous in Kolonides, Korone, Kyparissos and Messene. See Appendix B
page 308.
998
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16.
999
See IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 14-21 on page 174 and IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16 on page 176.
178
have encouraged this behaviour. Additionally, a secretary could be honoured for his
euergetism, suggesting that it was possible for a secretary to be independently wealthy. 1000
Although Messenia is often compared to Laconia due to Sparta’s early control of the region,
our evidence suggests that Messenia differs from Laconia both in the presence of
grammateis in several contexts (as officers of the synedroi,1001 with judges,1002 and with cult
officials1003), and in the almost complete absence of evidence for ephors.1004
The evidence also reveals few if any similarities between the types of inscriptions produced
in Laconia and Messenia. While Laconian material contains a high proportion of Roman-era
registers of officers, the small number of surviving texts from Messenia suggests that
registers of this type were rarely produced in this region. Additionally, Messenia seems to
have only rarely bestowed proxenos-status.1005
1000
See SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2, 15-29 on page 172.
1001
The grammateus of the synedroi is present in Andania, Korone, Messene, and Thouria. See
Appendix A page 271 for a list of texts.
1002
See IG V,1 1428 (late 2-1C BC) 3-5 on page 173.
1003
See IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 1, 134-5 on page 170 and SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2, 15-29 on page 172.
1004
Other than SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-36 on page 177, ephors are found in IG V,1 1381 (102-114 AD) 8
and IG V,1 1472 (undated) 2 only.
1005
See SEG 11:974 on page 177. See also IG V,1 1425 (late 4/3C BC), which lacks a secretary.
179
Arcadia: Introduction
Evidence for the various governments and constitutions of the poleis of Arcadia is limited to a
few scattered passages of Aristotle, Thucydides and Xenophon, and occasional references in
epigraphy. Mantinea, a major power in Arcadia, appears to have had an aristocratic
constitution before the Spartan dioikismos of 385 BC,1006 after which time it appears to have
been a moderate democracy, with political decisions made by the demos in an assembly.1007
We infer that Tegea was an oligarchy and became a democracy from references to a stasis,1008
and infer that Megalopolis was always a democracy due to its late, federal foundation.1009
Where one exists, a council can be referred to as either the boule,1010 the ekklesia,1011 the
synedrion,1012 or the triakasioi.1013 It is not clear whether some of the smaller states had their
own council involved in the decision-making process.1014 Extraordinarily, the inhabitants of
these poleis can occasionally be referred to collectively as Arcadians.1015
Arcadia provides extraordinary richness in legal texts on stone, and evidence for secretaries,
or officers who performed the duties of secretaries, is found in ten poleis, and is also varied.
In the fourth century BC, on one occasion, stalographoi (stele-writers) were called to
Mantinea from an unknown location to assist local epimeletai;1016 an isolated temple records
a gropheus among its officers,1017 and another text records katakooi (‘listeners’) who may
have been either secretaries or clerks in a court setting.1018 Other inscriptions contain the
designation graphes (γραφής), the Arcadian dialect form of γραφεύς.1019
1006
X. Hell. 5.2.6-7.
1007
Arist. Pol. 1318b27; Th. 5.29.1 & 5.47.9; Nielsen (2004) 519.
1008
X. Hell. 6.5.7-10. The start of democracy in Tegea is dated to after the stasis of 370, when 800
oligarchs were sent into exile at Sparta. There is also evidence for an Aristotelian Tegeaton politeia,
but no direct evidence for the form of constitution at Tegea: Arist. frr.608-9 [Rose]; SEG 11:1051 (end
4C BC) 1-2: Ἔδοξε τᾶι πόλει τῶν Τεγε[α]|τᾶν…; Nielsen (2004) 531-2.
1009
Nielsen (2004) 521-2;
1010
E.g. IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 10-11 (Stymphalos).
1011
E.g. IG V,2 367 (168-146 BC) 23, 49 (Kletor).
1012
E.g. IG V,2 313 (2C AD) 1-2 (Mantinea); IG V,2 345 (79/78 BC) 15-16 (Achaian League, Orchomenos);
IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 8 (Megalopolis).
1013
IPArk 2 (late 5-early 4C BC) 20-21 (Tegea). Nielsen (2004) 531-2.
1014
Nielsen (2004) 505-539.
1015
See page 187.
1016
See IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC?) 18 on page 189.
1017
See IG V,2 550 (4C BC) 5 on page 186.
1018
See IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 7-10, 19-26 on page 184.
1019
See page 196.
180
From the third century BC onwards, the secretaries of most Arcadian poleis were
grammateis; however, documents were also written by nomographoi, damiorgoi, epimeletai,
or stratagoi.
4C BC
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
damiorgos
0
2
0
0
0
0
grammateus
0
1
0
0
0
0
grammateus of the synedroi 0
0
1
0
0
0
gropheus
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
grammateus of the synedroi 0
nomographos
0
0
2
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
grammateus
0
5
0
0
0
0
grammateus
grammateus of the demos
gropheus
katakoos
0
0
1
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
grammateus
graphes
nomographos
stratagos
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
epimeletes
0
8
4
22
0
10
0
2
0
0
0
2
Alipheira:
Heraia:
Kletor:
Lykaia:
Mantinea:
epimeletes
grammateus
stalographos
Megalopolis:
Orchomenos:
Stymphalos:
Tegea:
Thisoa:
Total:
Grand total: 44
Table 7 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Arcadia.
Arcadia: Alipheira
Alipheira may have been a member of the Arcadian Confederacy,1020 and one of the cities
the Confederacy voted to incorporate into Megalopolis; 1021 however, this resolution does not
seem to have been carried out.1022
1020
IG V,2 1 (362/1 BC) 2-3: ἔδοξεν τῆι βουλῆι τῶν | Ἀρκάδων. See n.962 for a definition of the
Arcadian Confederacy.
1021
Paus. 8.27.4-7.
1022
Nielsen (2004) 509.
181
δαμιοργός (damiorgos)
Activities
The damiorgoi at Alipheira are known from the following inscription only, making any
assessment of their duties difficult.1023
…τὰς δὲ καδίκας τὰς ὦφλε Μίλων | καὶ Ἀπέλιχος ταῖ πόλι τῶ σίτω ἀφεῶσθαι, καὶ τὰς
λιποδαμ[ί]||ας ἐτάσαι τὸς δαμιοργὸς καὶ τὸς χρεονόμος, καὶ τὰς ἐ[π]ιγρ[α]|φάς·
…
(IV) τὰν δὲ στάλαν γράψαντες οἱ δαμιο[ρ]|γοὶ ὐνθεάντω ἰν τὸ ἱερὸν τᾶς Ἀθάνας,
καθέντω δὲ καὶ τὸ[ν ὅρκο]|ν τὸν ὠμόσαμες ἐπεὶ Κλεώνυμος παρῆλθε, ἰν τὸν ναὸν
τ[ᾶς θεῶ…1024
And the fines which Milon and Apelichos were liable to pay to the city for the grain
are to be remitted, and the damiorgoi and chreonomoi are to examine the
lipodamiai1025 and the inscribed records.
…
And let the damiorgoi, having written the stele, set it up in the sanctuary of Athena,
and let them set down also the [oath] which we swore when Kleonymos came, in
the temple of the [goddess]…
The damiorgoi appear to have had some responsibilities related to the financial administration
of the polis, which they carried out in conjunction with an officer known as the chreonomos,
a designation otherwise known only from second century AD Sparta, which makes any
comparison of their roles problematic.1026
Arcadia: Heraia, Kletor, Stymphalos
Evidence for the constitutions of Heraia, Kletor and Stymphalos is limited. The only surviving
reference to the Heraian constitution notes a reform in the selection process (from election
to sortition) in or before the early fourth century BC.1027 Kletor may have had a democratic
constitution in the fourth century BC;1028 evidence from Stymphalos is limited to a few
1023
See page 149 for damiourgoi publishing a decree at Hermione.
1024
IPArk 24 (273 BC) 8-11, 14-18. Thür & Taeuber (1994) 280-283.
1025
Thür & Taeuber (1994) 282-283 note 9: Lipodamia: a hitherto unknown word, related to cases of
voluntary exile and leaving the city for political reasons.
1026
Thür & Taeuber (1994) 280-282.
1027
Arist. Pol. 1303a15-16. Nielsen (2004) 513-514.
1028
Nielsen (2004) 51-6.
182
decrees which refer to its boule and ekklesia,1029 and officers such as the prostatas boulas
and damiorgoi.1030
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
The grammateus in these poleis is known from a brief agreement between Heraia and an
unknown polis,1031 a Magnesian decree bestowing honours upon Kletor,1032 and two proxeny
decrees from Stymphalos.1033
Further particulars
At Stymphalos, the grammateus could be recorded alongside officers of the boule and
demos: the presiding official(s) prostatas boulas1034 or prostatai,1035 the damiorgoi1036 and the
promnamon (president of the mnamones).1037 However, he is not known from any
epigraphic formulae. He could be referred to either as grammateus,1038 or (possibly) as
grammateus of the demos:1039
προστάται βωλ|ᾶς· Θέων, — σ — κις. γρα[μ(μ)ατεὺς δάμω]· Τιμόξεν|ος,
δαμιορ[γῶ]ν· Δα[μοσθένη]ς.1040
Presiding officers of the boule: Theon; — s — kis. grammateus [of the demos]:
Timoxenos; of the damiourgoi: Damosthenes.
This reconstruction is uncertain. Only the first three letters of grammateus are secure, and
the editor has assumed that grammateus has been written in an abbreviated form (i.e. with
a single mu) in order to make the reconstruction fit the available space.
1029
E.g. IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 193-4. Arnaoutoglou (1998) 133-8.
1030
IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 10-12; IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 1, 6-7. Nielsen (2004) 529-530.
1031
IG V,2 415 (3C BC) 5-6 (IPArk 23).
1032
IG V,2 367 (168-146 BC) 1: γραμ[μ]α[τ]εὺς συνεδρίου; 20: Μ[ει]δ[ίαν τὸν γραμματέα.
1033
IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 11; IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 5-8.
1034
IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 10-11.
1035
IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 7-8.
1036
IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 11-12; IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 5-6.
1037
IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 8; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 90.
1038
IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 6-7: γραμματεύς | Θεοξενίδας.
1039
The designation grammateus of the demos is also known from Aigina (page 123), and from
Athens, where it is an abbreviation of grammateus of the boule and the demos (page 64).
1040
IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 10-12.
183
γροφεύς (gropheus)
The gropheus at Stymphalos is known from a single reference in a document describing
judicial agreements between Stymphalos and Sicyon. 1041 See page 185 for the relevant text.
The gropheus was either the secretary of the members of the court (συνλύται), or the
secretary of the court and the arbitrator (καταλύτας). The role of the gropheus (as described
here) is to accompany the court and the arbitrator when they travel from Stymphalos to
Sicyon, carrying submitted lawsuits. It may be that this gropheus was required to effect any
changes required to these documents, or to assist with their interpretation.
κατακόος (katakoos)
Clerical officers known as katakooi are known from an inscription from Stymphalos
describing judicial agreements between Stymphalos and Sicyon. 1042 The precise nature of
this office is unknown. Arnaoutoglou translates the term as ‘secretary’, 1043 while Thür and
Taeuber simply note ‘wir deuten sie als “Schreiber” (mit dem Gropheus… identisch)’. 1044
Dosuna, using the derivation of the word κατακόος = κατήκοος, from κατακούω, hearing,
prefers the term ‘official witness’, i.e. one who hears testimony. 1045
Activities
The katakooi appear in the section of the text describing actions to be taken if false testimony
is given in court, suggesting that these officers were clerks of the court.1046 The katakooi
brought suits before the court, and transferred funds from the plaintiff to the defendant:
εἰ δὲ ὁ ἄγων τὰ[ν] | δίκαν τὸν ψευδομάρτυρα μὴ λάβοι τὸ τρίτον μέρος τῶν ψάφων,
ὀφλέτω τὸ τρίτον μέρος [τ]|ᾶς γεγραμμένας δίκας τῶι ἀγομένωι τὰν δίκαν καὶ τὼ
κατακόω εἰσδόντω τὰν ζα[μ]||ίαν τοῖς ἄρχουσιν κατάπερ τὰς ἄλλας καταδίκας.
…
τοὺς δὲ ἄρχοντας πορεῦσαι δίκαν [δικ]αί[α]ν κα[ὶ τ]ὼ κατακόω ποτάγειν τὰς δίκας
πασας [ἐπιγ]|ραφ[ε]ίσας πὸτ τοὺς συνλύτας ἰσχερὼ καθά[περ] κα [γρ]άψωντι.1047
1041
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 2-26 (IG V,2 357). katakoos also occurs in SEG 35:389, where the function of
the officer is unclear, and in IvO 44 (4C BC) 10, a proxeny decree from Olympia, where it has been
interpreted as a name.
1042
Arnaoutoglou (1998) 133; Nielsen (1997) 149.
1043
Arnaoutoglou (1998) 134.
1044
Thür & Taeuber (1994) 176 n.6. See also page 185 and n.1051.
1045
Dosuna (2007) 456-7; Minon (2007) 506-7.
1046
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 2-26. The katakooi administered lawsuits written by archons.
1047
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 7-10, 22-23.
184
But if the one bringing the case fails to take one-third of the votes from the false
witness, he shall owe one-third of the sum written in the indictment to the defendant
and the two katakooi shall give the money to the magistrates as in other cases.
…
And the magistrates shall carry out the case justly and the two katakooi shall bring
all the registered suits before the members of the court (synlytai) in whichever order
they recorded them.1048
Additionally, in cases where a suit was registered for a foreigner, and that person did not
wish to (or could not) wait for a verdict, the katakooi were themselves allowed to decide the
verdict:
— ὅ κα δὲ ἀφίκηται πὸτ τὰν ἐχ[θόσδικ]|ον δίκαν ἐπιγεγ<ρ>αμμέναν, εἰ μὴ αὐτ[ό]θι
κατ[α]λύσο[υ]σαν ἀναμένοι τὰν μαρτυρίαν, [ἐξ]|έστω τοῖς κατακόοις καθάπερ τὰν
δίκαν δ[η ἐπι]γρα[φ]έντα πὸτ τὸ εὐθύδικον δικά[σαι τὰν] | [ἀσ]τίαν δίκαν·1049
And if anyone has registered a suit to the court for foreigners, if he does not wish to
wait there for the testimony to resolve the dispute, the katakooi shall be allowed to
decide the case employing the procedure for civil litigation, as if it was registered to
be decided by a regular court.1050
The identification of the katakoos with the gropheus has been made through the following
lines in the same text:
τὰς δὲ πό[λις] || ἀποστέλλειν τούς τε συνλύτας καὶ τὸν κατα[λύταν] καὶ τὸν γροφῆ
τὰς γραφθείσας [δίκας] | φέρ[ο]ντας·1051
And the poleis shall send both the members of the court (synlytai) and the arbitrator
and their gropheus taking the submitted [suits] with them.
However, this does not account for the fact that gropheus is given in the singular, while
katakoos is always given in the plural, or dual. Additionally, the katakooi are found only in a
court setting, while the gropheus is associated with the distribution of court documents.
The various functions of the katakoos suggest that the designation should perhaps instead
be translated as ‘administrator’, or ‘clerk of the court’, albeit one with special powers in
cases of suits registered for foreigners.
1048
Translation: Arnaoutoglou (1998) 134.
1049
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 23-26.
1050
Translation: Arnaoutoglou (1998) 134.
1051
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 19-21. Thür & Taeuber (1994) 177, n.15 treat the term as synonymous with
katakoos, perhaps thinking that it would be unusual for a court to have both clerks and a secretary.
185
Arcadia: Lykaia
Lykaia was not a polis. It comprised a mountain and temple of Zeus Lykaios, administered
by a Panarcadian Amphictyony.1052 It was also the location for games, whose origins were
linked with the mythological founding of Arcadia, 1053 and which attracted competitors from
many locations.1054
γροφεὺς δαμιοργῶν (gropheus of the damiorgoi)
A fourth-century BC list of victors of chariot- and horse-races from Lykaia also includes the
designation gropheus.1055 The top portion of the stele comprises three columns, containing
the names of victors, and ending with the gropheus:
[———]
[Εὐ]ρύλοχος
Ἀλέξανδρος
[———]
Eurulochos
Alexandros
[———]
——λης
Ἵππαρχος
[———]
——les
Hipparchos
[———]
Ἀντιφάης
Κερκιδᾶς
[———]
Antiphanes
Kerkidas
[———]
Ἀναξικράτης
γροφεὺς
[ — — —]
Anaxikrates
gropheus
[———]
Ἁγησίας
δαμιοργῶν
[———]
Hagesias
of the damiorgoi
[— —]ας
Ὀνάσιλος
Ἐστάτας.
[ — — ]as
Onasilos
Estatas.1056
The remainder of the stele comprises a single column, containing the names of victors and
the events in which they were competing.
Further particulars
The title gropheus of the damiorgoi suggests that the gropheus worked for these magistrates;
however, only a single damiorgos is attested at Lykaia.1057 An alternative explanation is that
the gropheus of the damiorgoi was not a local man.1058 It is possible that both the damiorgoi
and gropheus were from Megalopolis, since Megalopolis managed the games.1059
1052
Nielsen (2002) 85.
1053
Nielsen (2002) 67.
1054
IG V,2 549 (320 BC?) & IG V,2 550 (4C BC); Nielsen (2002) 529-530.
1055
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 90: p.xxxvi (Buck 22).
1056
IG V,2 550 (4C BC) 1-6; Charneux (1991) 311; Robert (1926) 495. Column three can be read in two
ways: either as above, or as ‘Alexandros: hipparch, Kerkidas, gropheus of the damiorgoi: Estatas’. The
most likely interpretation is that column three contains a list of single personal names, as in column
two, plus the gropheus.
1057
IG V,2 548 (4C BC) 2.
1058
LGPN IIIA 156: The name of the gropheus, Ἐστάτας, is attested here only, and so provides no
additional information about his origins.
1059
Nielsen (1996a) 55. Nielsen (2002) 219. Damiorgoi are well known from other locations, including
Megalopolis (IG V,2 431 (4C BC) 2). See also Sherk (1990a) 263.
186
The designation gropheus of the damiorgoi is not known from elsewhere; however, a
grammateus is known to have worked alongside damiorgoi in several locations, including the
Arcadian polis of Stymphalos.1060
Names
Lykaian victor lists1061 are interesting for the way in which they name victors. Victors come
from many locations, including Rhodes, Syracuse and Athens. Victors from outside Arcadia
are given their ethnic in the usual way. Victors from within Arcadia are all given the ethnic
‘Ἀρκάς’, referring collectively to all Arcadians, rather than a polis-ethnic:
συνωρίδι τελέαι Ῥόδιος Νικαγόρας, | τεθρίππωι πωλικῶι Θεαρίδας Ἀρκάς, | κέλητι
τελέωι Βούβαλος ἐκ Κασσανδρείας1062
For the pair of full-grown horses (chariot-race), the Rhodian Nikagoras; for the team
of four colts (chariot-race), Thearidas of Arcadia; for the full-grown race-horse
(race), Boubalos from Kassandreia.
This collective ethnic is known only from this location. 1063
Arcadia: Mantinea
By the fourth century BC, Mantinea was a democracy, with a council, 1064 and political
decisions made by the demos in an assembly.1065 However, this information is not preserved
in epigraphic evidence, and it may be that the Mantineans primarily recorded their decisions
on temporary media.1066
Only four inscriptions refer to officers performing the duties of secretaries, and a gap of
three hundred years exists in the surviving sources. In the fourth century BC, one inscription
records an instance where stalographoi (σταλογράφοι) were called to Mantinea from another
location, to assist local epimeletai.1067 In the first century BC, priests appointed men (whose
designations are not known) to write an honorific decree on behalf of local celebrants, 1068
1060
See IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 5-6 on page 183.
1061
IG V,2 550 (4C BC); IG V,2 549 (320 BC?).
1062
IG V,2 550 (4C BC) 27-29.
1063
Nielsen (2002) 61-62, 529-530 examines the possible use of this ethnic to indicate a collective,
Arcadian identity.
1064
Th. 5.47.9.
1065
Arist. Pol. 1318b27; Th. 5.29.1, 5.47.9; X. Hell. 6.5.4; Nielsen (2002) 337-338; Nielsen (2004) 519.
1066
Nielsen (2002) 337-338 notes that there appears to have been a Mantinean body of laws, οἱ νόμοι
τῶν Μαντινέων (SEG 37:340.11-12) which have not survived. See also Th. 5.47.11.
1067
IPArk 9 (350-340 BC) 16-21.
1068
IG V,2 265 (64-61 BC) 41-45.
187
and in the second century AD, the designation grammateus was held by officers of the
Roman administration.1069
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Evidence for the grammateus in Mantinea is limited to two second-century AD honorific
inscriptions. In the first, a grammateus dedicates a statue to the emperor Hadrian:
[Αὐτοκράτορα Καίσαρα θεοῦ] | [Τρα]ϊανοῦ Παρθικο[ῦ υἱ]|όν, θεοῦ Νέρβα υἱωνόν,
Τρα|ϊανὸν Ἁδριανὸν Σεβαστὸν | Α(ἴλιος) Μαίκιος Φαῖδρος ὑπὲρ γραμ|ματείας1070 σὺν
τῷ ναῷ ἐν τῷ | ἰδίῳ ἐνιαυτῷ ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων | ἀνιέρωσε.1071
[Emperor Caesar, son of the god] Trajan Parthikos, grandson of the god Nerva,
Trajan Hadrian Augustus; Aelios Maikios Phaidros in return for the secretaryship,
dedicated (this statue) together with the shrine in the course of his own year (in
office), from his own money.
The second text honours Lucius Antistius, who served as a judge at games, and was also
grammateus of the synedrion at some point in his career.1072 This designation is otherwise
unattested in Mantinea, and mostly restored. If it is secure, the synedrion referred to could
be that of another polis (not named here), or of the Achaian League (see page 222).
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes)
Activities
In the fourth century BC, the epimeletai registered citizens for the poleis of Mantinea and
Helisson.1073 All Heliswasians were registered with the epimeletai as follows:
... τὸς Ἑλισϝασίος πάντας ἀπυγράψασ|θαι ἰν τὸς ἐπιμελητὰς πατριᾶφι κὰτ [ἀ]λικίαν ἰν
δέκ’ ἀμέραις ἅμα|ν οἱ σταλογράφοι μόλωνσι.1074
All the Heliswasians are to register themselves with the epimeletai by father1075 in
accordance with their age, within ten days from when the stalographoi (stele-writers)
come.
1069
IG V,2 302 (125-128 AD) 1-8; IG V,2 313 (2C AD) 1-2.
1070
This is the only known instance of the word ‘secretaryship’ in the Peloponnese.
1071
IG V,2 302 (125-128 AD) 1-8.
1072
IG V,2 313 (2C AD) 1-2: [τὸν γραμματέα]|[τοῦ σ]υνεδρίου Λ(ούκιον) Ἀντίστιον [ἀγωνοθετήσαντα…
1073
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18. Thür & Taeuber (1994) 101, 106-109. This is perhaps the earliest
surviving document that sets out rights of joint citizenship (synoikismos) between two poleis (Mantinea
and Helisson). The agreement states that Helisson is to become a kome of Mantinea, and that the
Heliswasians are to be treated as equal to the Mantineans. For another example of epimeletai writing
public documents, see page 198.
1074
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18.
188
Time limits were imposed upon the epimeletai, who were to carry out their duties within ten
days of the arrival of the stalographoi (see following section). After registration, the
epimeletai took a report of those registered to Mantinea. In Mantinea, the Heliswasians were
registered a second time, by the thesmotoaroi (guardians of the laws), who publicly
displayed the list of those registered on whitened boards in front of the council building.1076
σταλογράφος (stalographos)
Stalographoi or ‘stele-writers’ are known from a single fourth-century BC decree, where they
are called in from an unknown location to perform the task of stone-cutting. (See previous
section for the text.)1077
Activities
The duties of the stalographoi are not described. The context suggests that these officers
created the stele bearing the names of the citizens registered by the epimeletai.
The epimeletai were directed to register the Heliswasians within ten days of the arrival of
the stalographoi.1078 This suggests that both the registration process and engraving of names
was not expected to take more than ten days in total.
Other attributes
The context suggests that the stalographoi were not resident in Helisson, and that they were
brought in for this task, presumably because Helisson had no resident stonecutters. It is
possible that these stalographoi came from Mantinea, though this too is uncertain, since few
decrees were enacted on behalf of the Mantineans. 1079
No stalographoi are mentioned by name, and we learn nothing else about the office or the
number of stalographoi involved, save that there was more than one of them.
1075
Possibly ‘giving their father’s name and age’.
1076
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 18-21: τὸς δὲ ἀπυγραφέντας ἀπονιγ[κ]ῆν τὸς | ἐπιμελητὰς ἰμ Μαντινέαν καὶ
ἀπυγράψαι τοῖς θεσμοτοάροις ἐπ||ὶ Νικῆι δαμιοργοῖ, τὸς δὲ θεσμοτοάρος γράψαντας ἰν λευκώματ[α] |
δεϝαλῶσαι πὸς τὸ βωλήιον· And the epimeletai are to bring the list of those registered to Mantinea,
and register them with the thesmotoaroi during the office of Nike the damiorgos, and the thesmotoaroi
are to write them on whitened boards and make them visible in front of the council building.
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 67: Thesmotoaroi are equivalent to thesmophylakes elsewhere.
1077
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18; SEG 37:340. Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 62-67.
1078
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18, page 188.
1079
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 3. The formula ἔδοξε τοῖς Μαντινεῦσιν·occurs only in this inscription.
189
Arcadia: Megalopolis
Megalopolis was formed in 368 BC by the Arcadian Confederacy,1080 who relocated the
inhabitants of twenty komai, with the intention that this would provide protection against
Sparta. Since the Arcadian Confederacy was democratic (to an unknown degree), 1081
Megalopolis was probably a democracy from the outset.1082
The earliest public enactments of Megalopolis refer to a council, with a prostatas boulas as
presiding officer. Other officials included boards of damiorgoi.1083 In the early second century
BC, Megalopolis had a board of nomographoi (page 191), but there is no evidence for these
officials after the middle of the second century BC, from which point we have evidence for
the grammateus for the synedroi (page 190). There is no evidence for any secretaries in
Megalopolis after the end of the second century BC.
γραμματεὺς τοῖς συνέδροις (grammateus for the synedroi)
Evidence for the grammateus for the synedroi at Megalopolis is limited to decrees dated
from the middle- and late-second century BC. In each instance, the grammateus is included
in the dating formula, suggesting that he was the most prominent official involved in the
creation of these texts, as follows:
[ἐπὶ] γραμματέος τοῖς σ[υνέδροις τοῦ δεῖνος…1084
[In the period of office as] grammateus for the synedroi < of such and such>…
The grammateus occupies the position of eponymous official in these texts only, and does
not appear to play a part in the processes described.
The grammateus for the synedroi is associated with two types of text: measurements of
state territory taken into private possession, 1085 and lists of benefactors to the city.1086
Several lists of benefactors were set up between 145 and 130 BC, to record monetary
contributions made towards repairs to the city walls.
1080
See n.962 for a definition of the Arcadian Confederacy.
1081
Larsen (1968) 180-181.
1082
Nielsen (2004) 520-522.
1083
IG V,2 431 (4C BC) 2-3.
1084
IG V,2 443 (mid 2/end 1C BC) 1 (IPArk 32).
1085
 IG V,2 443 1 & IG V,2 444 1 (mid. 2/early 1C BC) ( IPArk 32). These texts also contain information on
property disputes, and punishments imposed in these disputes.
1086
IG V,2 439 (145 BC) 1; IG V,2 440 (131 BC) 1; IG V,2 441 (130 BC) 1-2; Migeotte (1992) 59-63 (no.23)
& 65-68 (no.25).
190
Nothing is known of the terms of office for secretaries in Megalopolis; however, two texts
dated to 131 and 130 BC appear to contain the same grammateus, Nikeratos.1087 In the later
of these texts, Nikeratos appears to be γραμματεὺς τοῖς συνέδροις τὸ β’, where τὸ β’ (here
restored) means ‘for a second time’, suggesting that this particular grammateus served for a
second year.
νομογράφος (nomographos)
Activities
In the third century BC, Megalopolis possessed a board of nomographoi, who were
collectively involved in writing a document pertaining to sacred ambassadors sent to the
festival of Artemis Lykophrena:1088
οἱ νομογράφοι οἱ ἰν τᾶι ἐπὶ Λυκίν[ωι]1089 ἐτείαι γράψαν|τες ἐπιδειξάντων τᾶι πόλει, ὡς
οἱ πολῖται βωλεύ|σ[α]νται περὶ τοινί· χωρασάντων δὲ οἱ νομογράφοι | ἰν τὸις νόμος
καὶ ταννὺν τὰ[ν ἐ]κεχειρίαν...1090
Let the nomographoi writing in the term of the board (in office) in the magistracy of
Lykinos declare (them) to the city, so that the citizens may deliberate concerning
these things; and let the nomographoi also set up this truce among the laws.
The text appears be deliberated by the citizens before the writing and display of the text.
In the second century BC, there may have been fewer nomographoi at Megalopolis, with less
editorial control over public documents. In the following example, a single nomographos is
associated with the drafting or editing of laws, but the synedroi are ultimately responsible
for their content:
[εἰ δέ τι δόξε]ι ἐνλείπειν ἐν τοῖς νόμοι[ς τοῖς προ]|[γεγραμμέ]νοις, κύριον ἔστω τὸ
ἐφέτο[ς —c.7—]|[… ὅσσα κα]ὶ δόξει τῶι συνεδρίωι ἀδιοίκει[τα προσθεῖ]|[ναι. μηδέ]
τις μήτε νομογράφος μήτε γ[ραμμα]||[τοφύλαξ] ἀλλοτριωθῆναι τὰ βυβλία
[ἐπιτρεπέ]|[τω.1091
[And if anything seems] to be missing from the laws [that have been previously
written], let it be binding for this year [—c.7—] … are to [add] without alteration
1087
IG V,2 440 (131 BC) 1: [ἐπὶ γραμματέος τοῖς συνέδροις Νικ]ηράτου; IG V,2 441 (130 BC) 1-2: ἐπὶ
γραμματ[έος τοῖς συνέδροις τὸ β’ Νι|κ]ηράτου.
1088
I. Magn 38 (c.208/7 BC) 38-53 (SIG3 559); Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 88.
1089
Dubois (1988) 207 No.123. In the Arcadian dialect, the dative (e.g. ἐπὶ+dative) is used for many of
the functions of the genitive in other dialects.
1090
I. Magn 38 (c.208/7 BC) 45-48.
1091
IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 6-11 (IPArk 30).
191
[whatever] is decided by the synedrion. And let no one, neither the nomographos
nor the [grammatophylax], allow the papyri1092 [to be taken away].
The text implies that only the synedrion have the power to change the law. The lines
describing the previous laws are missing.
Further particulars
The existence of a grammatophylakion1093 (archive) and grammatophylakes1094 (guardians of
the laws) at Megalopolis suggests that laws and decisions were stored in a central location
on temporary media, presumably to be consulted from time to time. There also appears to
have been a close working relationship between the synedroi, the nomographos and the
grammatophylax.
Arcadia: Orchomenos
There is evidence for the enactment of decrees by the polis, 1095 or boule and polis1096 at
Orchomenos from the third century BC onwards.1097 Its council could be referred to as either
the aliaia or boule,1098 and was presided over by a prostatas.1099 Other officers were
damiorgoi,1100 and boards of five thearoi and five polemarchs.1101 There was also a
cheiroskopos, who was responsible for counting the number of voters.1102
In the third century BC, the council had its own grammateus (see below), as did the thearoi
(see page 193). In the first century BC, there is also evidence for a grammateus of the
synedroi (see page 194).
1092
βυβλία could also be translated as ‘books’, but papyri seems more likely.
1093
While nomographoi are not attested after the middle of the second century BC, the archive is
attested until the first century AD: IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 4, above; IG V,2 516 (42 AD) 31.
1094
Grammatophylakes are also known from Sparta: e.g. IG V,1 71 (mid 2C AD) II.17, III.15, 34, 52.
1095
ISE 53 (265-4 BC) 1: [ἔδ]οξε τᾶι πόλι·
1096
SEG 33:319 (3C BC) 3-6: Ἔδοξε | ταῖ βωλαῖ καὶ ταῖ | πόλι τῶν Ὀρχομε|νίων.
1097
Nielsen (2004) 524.
1098
For the ἁλιαία, see e.g. BCH 38 No.5.6. For βουλᾶς, see e.g. BCH 38 No.9.9.
1099
E.g. BCH 38 No.5.5-6. Plassart & Blum (1914) 472.
1100
E.g. BCH 38 No.9.8.
1101
E.g. IPArk 14 (369-361 BC) 29-33. Thearoi are known from various locations in the Peloponnese,
including Mantinea (Th. 5.47.9). See also grammateus of the thearoi on page 193.
1102
E.g. BCH 38 No.5.7. Gauthier (2000) 421-427.
192
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Further particulars
The grammateus of the council at Orchomenos is known from four third-century BC proxeny
decrees.1103 In each instance, he is referred to solely as grammateus, and is identified as the
grammateus of the council only by his presence in decrees enacted by the polis, or boule and
polis, and by the inclusion in these texts of other officers of the council. The name and
designation of the grammateus appear at the end of the text, with no indication of his duties,
as in the following inscription, where Orchomenos honours three Athenian Ambassadors:
[ἔδ]οξε τᾶι πόλι· προξένος ἦ[ναι καὶ εὐ|εργέτας τ]ῶν Ἐρχομενίων τὸς π[ρεσβευτὰς |
τῶν Ἀθην]α[ίω]ν Κάλλιππομ Μοιροκλ[έους Ἐλευ|σίνιον, Ἀ]ρι[σ]τείδημ Μνησιθέου
Λ[αμπτρέα, | Γλαύκ]ωνα Ἐτεοκλέους Αἰθαλίδη[ν…
…
ἐπὶ Σίμμο[ι] σὺν θεαροῖς· προ[στάτας — | — τᾶς] ἁλιαίας Νικασίλαος· γρα[μματεὺς
— | —]τος.1104
It was decreed by the polis: the [Athenian ambassadors] Kallippos son of Moirokles
[of Eleusis], Aristeides son of Mnesitheos [of Lamptrai and Glaukon] son of Eteokles
of Aithalidai are (to be) proxenoi [and benefactors] of the Orchomenians...
…
Under Simmos and the thearoi; presiding … [of the] aliaia, Nikasilaos. Secretary —tos.
γραμματεὺς τῶν θεαρῶν (grammateus of the thearoi)
The grammateus of the thearoi is known from a single, third-century BC proxeny decree
enacted by ‘the Orchomenians’ instead of the boule or polis:
Ἔδοξε Ἐρχομενί[οις] | Νεοκλέα Θορουλ[ό]|χου Πελλανέα | πρόξενον καὶ εὐεργέ|ταν
ναι Ὀρχομενίων | αὐτὸν καὶ γένος. | Θεαροὶ οἱ περὶ Ἀγχ[ι]|— …
… γραμμ[ατεὺς τῶν] θεαρῶν Κάλλι[ππος], | Ἀρτέμιδος ἱερεὺς | Αἰγυπιός·1105
It was decreed by the Orchomenians: Neokles son of Thoroulochos of Pellane and
his descendants are to be proxenos and benefactors of the Orchomenians. Thearoi
1103
ISE 53 (265-4 BC) 10-11; BCH 38 No.5 (3C BC) 7-8; BCH 38 No.6 (3C BC) 12; SEG 33:319 (3C BC) 17-19.
1104
ISE 53 (265-4 BC) 2-5, 9-11 (BCH 38 No.1; SEG 25:443); Moretti (1967) 134-136; Rhodes with Lewis
(1997) 89. Kallippos was a general who led the Athenians in defending Thermopolyai in 279 BC,
Aristeides was a general and archon, and Glaukon held several magistracies in Athens.
1105
 BCH 38 No.8 (3C BC) 2-8, 10-13 = Plassart & Blum (1914) 464-465.
193
serving with Agchi—…1106
grammateus of the thearoi, Kallippos; priest of Artemis, ‘Aigypios’.1107
The thearoi could be eponymous officials at Orchomenos (as in this decree), 1108 and both
thearoi and prostatai1109 could preside over meetings of the aliaia.
The duties of the grammateus of the thearoi are unknown, but based on a comparison with
the duties of other secretaries in Arcadia, are likely to have included the creation of registers
of officers, and the recording of honours in addition to proxeny decrees. It is unclear
whether grammateus of the thearoi could be abbreviated to grammateus (page 193).
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi)
Activities
The grammateus of the synedroi is known from three manumission decrees inscribed on a
single stele.1110 The first of these decrees records that the money required for the
manumission be deposited with the grammateus of the synedroi:
[ἐπειδὴ — c.8 —]έος Ὀρχομενῶι κατοικῶν εἰς τὸν γραμματῆ1111 τῶν συνέ|[δρων
κατέβαλε ἐ]κ τᾶς ἀπελευθερώσιος ἀργυρίου ἡμίμναιον κατὰ τὸν νόμον… 1112
[Since] –eos, dwelling in Orchomenos, [has deposited] half a mina of the
manumission money with the grammateus of the synedroi according to the law…
The manumission was decreed by the archons and synedroi, and written on the altar.1113 No
officers were directly assigned the duty of writing either the manumissions or the decree(s).1114
1106
Dubois (1988) 171-2: this appears to be a personal name from an otherwise unproductive family.
1107
See Dubois (1988) 113-4 for the name Artemis in Arcadian inscriptions. Αἰγυπιός: ‘vulture’. Dubois
(1988) 172 considers this to be a nickname.
1108
Sherk (1990a) 264: dating by thearoi and their president in this decree identifies them as the
eponymous officials of this year. See Sherk for additional examples of eponymous thearoi; see also
ISE 53 (265-4 BC) 2-5, 9-11 on page 193.
1109
See e.g. ISE 53 (265-4 BC) 9-11 on page 193.
1110
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-25, esp. 1-2, 10-11, 13-14. Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99.
1111
The Arcadian accusative singular form of a noun in -eus.
1112
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-2.
1113
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 3-5.
1114
The decrees are also unusual in that they include both the noun and verbal form of grammateus,
although both are restored: IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) ( I) 10-11; (II) 13.
194
The manumission was witnessed by several officers, including the grammateus:
μάρτυρες· δαμιοργῶν || [ — c.8 —]έος, γερουσίας Σωτέλης Λεπτίνα, γραμμα|[τεὺς
συνέδρων —c.3—]ομενείδας Εὐκρίτου, ἰδιωτᾶν Ἀπολλόδω|[ρος
—c.10— Π]όλλις Διονυσίου Ὀρχομένιοι.1115
Witnesses: of the damiorgoi: —es, of the senate: Soteles son of Leptinas, grammateus
[of the synedroi] —omenidas son of Eukritos, of the private citizens: Apollodoros <son
of ?>, Pollis son of Dionysios, both Orchomenians.
The inclusion of the grammateus as witness suggests that this was a position of some
importance. Rhodes suggests the synedrion referred to here is the Achaian League, making
this grammateus the grammateus of the Achaians.1116 If this is so, it is unclear why Achaian
League officials would have witnessed local political decisions, or acted as recipients of
manumission funds.
Other attributes
The stipulation that money is to be deposited with the grammateus of the synedroi1117 or,
elsewhere in the decree, ‘in the synedrion’ (ἐν τῶι συνεδρίωι),1118 both connects the
grammateus with the handling of money, while distancing individual synedroi from this duty.
Arcadia: Tegea
An assembly is attested in Tegea from the end of the fourth century BC.1119 It was presided
over by three prostatai, and also included stratagoi and a hipparch (see following example).
Evidence for secretaries, or officials performing secretarial duties, dates from the end of the
third century BC, with more than half of the surviving evidence dating from 230-200 BC.
Terms found are grammateus,1120 graphes1121 and nomographos.1122 One decree was also
written up by stratagoi.1123
1115
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 9-12.
1116
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99. See page 222.
1117
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-2.
1118
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 14-15.
1119
SEG 11:1051 (end 4C BC) 1-2: Ἔδοξε τᾶι πόλει των Τεγε[α]|τᾶν….
1120
IG V,2 43 (2C BC) 1; IG V,2 50 (165-166 AD) 78; IG V,2 11 (before 228 BC) 19.
1121
IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 7; IG V,2 12 (240-228 BC) 5; IG V,2 13 (before 228 BC) 9.
1122
IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 4-5.
1123
IG V,2 16 (218 BC) 7-8.
195
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
The grammateus of the Tegean assembly is known from the following inscription only:
προ|στάτα<ι> τοῦ δάμου· <three personal names>, στραταγο|ί· <eleven personal
names>, ἵππαρχος· Τεί|σανδρος, γραμματεύς· Ἁγέας, || ἱερεὺς τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς·
Εὐαίνετος.1124
Prostatai of the demos: <three personal names>, stratagoi: <eleven personal
names>, hipparch: Teisandros, grammateus: Hageas, priest of Athena: Euainetos.
In the second centuries BC and AD (and possibly also in the intervening period), a grammateus
also worked with or for the ephebes. In the earlier of these two texts, the grammateus is listed
at the start of the inscription with the priest and gymnasiarch.1125 In the later text, while the
priest and gymnasiarch appear in the first three lines, the grammateus appears in the final five
lines, after the list of ephebes, and with officers such as a doctor and the elaiothetes
(ἐλαιοθέτης), the man who provided olive oil at the baths.1126 If the order in which these
officers are listed can be taken as an indicator of status (which is by no means certain), the
grammateus appears to have had a lower status in the second century AD.
γραφής (graphes)
γραφής, the Arcadian form of γραφεύς,1127 is a term that can refer to either a secretary, or a
painter. The designation is found in Tegea in the third century BC, at the same time as the
designation grammateus.1128 The context in which this designation occurs, in proxeny
decrees and registers of officers, suggests that graphes and grammateus were synonymous.
For example, the graphes in the following text is listed after stratagoi and a hipparch, in the
same way that the grammateus is listed after stratagoi and a hipparch in IG V,2 11, above:
στρα[τ]αγοὶ ἀνέθεν·| <seven personal names>, | ἵππαρχος· Γόργ[ω]ν Γοργίππω, |
γραφής· Εὐάρε[το]ς Σακλέος.1129
(The) stratagoi dedicated (this offering): <seven personal names>, hipparch:
Gorgon son of Gorgippos, graphes: Euaretos son of Sakles.
In proxeny decrees, the graphes (like the grammateus) appears alongside other officers of
the Tegean assembly, such as the prostatas and stratagoi.1130 However, both surviving
1124
IG V,2 11 (before 228 BC) 12-20.
1125
IG V,2 43 (2C BC) 1-2.
1126
IG V,2 50 (165-166 AD) 2-3 & 77-79.
1127
Buck (1955) 91-2 §111 note 4.
1128
IG V,2 12 (240-228 BC) 5; IG V,2 13 (bef. 228 BC) 9; IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 7.
1129
IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 1-7.
196
examples are fragmentary, and it is possible that grammateus would fit equally well in the
available space.1131 For example:
… καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις] | προξένοις. στρατα[γοί· —c.14? — ] | Δυαῖος, προστάτας [τῶ
δάμω· —c.6— γραφής·] || Ἁγέας,1132 ἱαρής· Δαμ[— —]. | vacat1133
…[and for the other] proxenoi. Stratagoi: <two or three personal names> Duaios,
prostatas [of the damos: <personal name>, graphes]: Hageas, priest: Dam—.
νομογράφος (nomographos)
The nomographoi at Tegea are known from a single fragmentary inscription from the first
century BC. The full text is given below:
…ετωΙ — — 19 — — | στεφανούτω δὲ α[ὐτοὺς ὁ ἐπιμε]|λητὰς διὰ τοῦ κάρυκος ἐν
τοῖς δε[ί]|πνοις, γραψάτωσαν δὲ καὶ οἱ νομο|γράφοι νόμον περὶ τούτων.1134
Let the overseer crown [them] through the herald at the meals, and let the
nomographoi write a law about these things.
It is unclear from this fragment whether the nomographoi described are Tegean
nomographoi, or nomographoi of the Achaian League (see page 226).1135
στραταγός (stratagos)
Activities
The stratagoi (generals) were officers who formed part of the Tegean assembly.1136 One
inscription also directs unnamed stratagoi to write up an honorific decree:
ὁπότε Θεόκριτος καὶ Ἀμφάλκης τῶν πολεμίων | ἐπι<β>άντων ἐπὶ τὰ τείχεα ἄνδρες
ἀγαθοὶ | ἐγένοντο μαχόμενοι ὑπὲρ τᾶι τᾶς πόλιο[ς] | ἐλευθερίαι, καὶ ἀπεδείξαντο τὰν
εὔνοιαν | ἀξίως τῶ προκειμένω κινδύνω, δεδόχθαι | τᾶι πόλι ἀνκαρῦξαι αὐτὸς 1137
ἀνδραγαθίαυ | κατὸν νόμον, καὶ ἀνγράψαντας τὸ ψάφισμα | τόδε τὸς στραταγὸς τὸς
περὶ Στρατέαν | εἰς στάλαν ἀνθῆναι ἰν τὰν ἀγοράν, ὅπως κ<αὶ> || οἱ λοιποὶ
1130
IG V,2 12 (240-228 BC) 2-3, 5; IG V,2 13 (bef. 228 BC) 8-9.
1131
The editor appears to have restored graphes based on the secure parallel IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 7
(page 196).
1132
Compare this graphes, Hageas, with the grammateus Hageas on in IG V,2 11 on page 196. Both
inscriptions are dated to 'before 228 BC'.
1133
IG V,2 13 (bef. 228 BC) 7-11.
1134
IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 1-5. Larsen (1968) xxiv & notes 1 & 2.
1135
See Appendix B page 281 for nomographoi in other locations in the Peloponnese.
1136
See examples on pages 196 and 197.
1137
Arcadian accusative plural.
197
λεύσοντες τὰν τᾶς πόλιος ε[ὐ]|χαριστίαν ἄνδρες ἀγαθοὶ γίνωνται· γρά|ψαι1138 δὲ ἰν
τὰν στάλαν τὰν αὐτάν ὅθι καὶ οἱ | [π]ερὶ Θεόκριτον, Σιμίδαν v Νικίαν v Ξένιππον |
Ἀρχέαν Ἐπιτέλην.1139
Whereas Theokritos and Amphalkes, when the enemy attacked the walls, were
brave men fighting on behalf of the freedom of the city, and have demonstrated
goodwill equal to the danger before them, it has been decreed by the polis to
proclaim them publicly for bravery according to the law, and that the stratagoi who
served with Strateas are to write up this decree on a stele and set it up in the agora,
in order that the others too, seeing the gratitude of the polis, may be brave men.
And (it was decreed) to write on the same stele where the associates of Theokritos
(are) (the names of) Simidas, Nikias, Xenippos, Archeas (and) Epiteles.
The decree honours men for the way in which they have defended the city. No honorands
are named in full.
While it is otherwise unknown for stratagoi to write such a text, this instance can be
compared with a (similarly unprecedented) direction for an archon in Athens, 1140 or
instructions directed at ephors in various locations in Laconia. 1141
Arcadia: Thisoa
As with Alipheira, Thisoa may have been a member of the Arcadian Confederacy, and one of
the cities the Confederacy voted to incorporate into Megalopolis. 1142 Again, it does not
appear that this resolution was carried out. 1143
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes)
Thisoa seems to have produced very few inscriptions. Those that survive refer to epimeletai
(a generic term for magistrates1144) and no other type of official, suggesting that Thisoa had
few magistrates, and that (some of) those that it had were known by this designation as
they were required to perform a variety of functions.
1138
γράφω is also used in Athenian inscriptions for additions to an existing text: IG II2 17 (394/3 BC) 811, 25-26; IG II2 19 (394/3 BC) A7-9, B7-10.
1139
IG V,2 16 (218 BC) 1-14; SEG 37:348. Dubois (1988) 84-86.
1140
IG I3 1453,B/G (425/4 BC?) 8.1-2.
1141
E.g. IG V,1 962 (undated) 31-33 (Kortyrta). While it is possible that a Tegean grammateus or
graphes was involved in this process, there is no reason to omit him from the text.
1142
Paus. 8.27.4-7.
1143
Nielsen (2004) 534.
1144
Minon (2007) 504.
198
Attributes
The epimeletai could be directed to write up proxeny decrees, which were set up in the
temple of the Great God (Zeus):
γράψαι δὲ καὶ τὸς ἐπιμελητὰς τὸ ψάφισμα | ἐγ χάλκωμα καὶ ἀναθῆναι ἐν τὸ ἱερὸν τῶ
Μεγά|λω Θεῶ.1145
And the epimeletai are also to write the decree on a bronze tablet and set it up in
the sanctuary of the Great God.
Epimeletai also wrote official texts in other poleis which rarely set up public documents and/or
did not employ their own secretaries; for example, epimeletai registered citizens for the poleis
of Mantinea and Helisson (see page 188).
Arcadia: concluding remarks
The earliest known secretaries in Arcadia were the fourth-century BC gropheus and katakooi
at Stymphalos, who appear to have functioned as secretaries or administrators in a court
setting,1146 and the gropheus at Lykaia, known only from a list of victors set up in this
remote sanctuary.1147 Also known from the fourth century only, the otherwise-unattested
stalographoi were quite possibly itinerant, and were only present at Mantinea for ten days,
to assist local epimeletai with the creation of a stele.1148
Most evidence for secretaries in Arcadia dates from the third and second centuries BC, and
relates to secretaries of polis institutions. These secretaries are usually known by the simple
designation grammateus, gropheus, or graphes,1149 but also occasionally grammateus of the
synedroi.1150 There is very little evidence for Arcadian secretaries of any kind from the first
century BC onwards (see Table 7 on page 181).
Several poleis had few officials and/or set up a few inscriptions only, and it could be either a
grammateus or another officer such as a damiorgos or epimeletes who was responsible for
engraving and setting up stelai.1151 Other Arcadian poleis had more than one type of officer
1145
IG V,2 511 (undated) 10-12. See also IG V,2 510 (3/e.2C BC) 7-9.
1146
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 2-26, page 184.
1147
IG V,2 550 (4C BC) 1-6, page 186.
1148
See IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18, page 189.
1149
See e.g. IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 1-7 on page 196.
1150
See IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-2 on page 194.
1151
See, e.g. the damiorgos at Alipheira, page 182, and the epimeletes at Mantinea, page 188.
199
acting as secretary in the same period. For example, the grammateus and nomographoi at
Megalopolis,1152 and the grammateus, graphes and stratagoi at Tegea.1153
Collegial environment varied from location to location, and was small. For instance, at
Orchomenos, there was a presiding officer, five thearoi and polemarchs, two or more
damiorgoi, and a grammateus,1154 while at Stymphalos, there could be two presiding officers,
four damiorgoi and a grammateus.1155 In the second century BC, the grammateus for the
synedroi could also be the eponymous official at Megalopolis;1156 a period in which
Megalopolis also possessed archons and a treasurer.1157
Arcadia produced a wide range of administrative documents: laws written by nomographoi at
Megalopolis1158 and Tegea,1159 manumission decrees witnessed by the grammateus of the
synedroi (or possibly grammateus of the Achaians) at Orchomenos,1160 and the victors list
written by the gropheus at Lykaia.1161 Also attested are proxeny and honorific decrees (the
documents most often found elsewhere). With the exception of the nomographoi, no one type
of official was associated with a particular type of text. Other duties for secretaries are rarely
attested. Only the grammateus of the synedroi at Mantinea1162 and the damiorgos at
Alipheira (while acting as secretary)1163 appear to have had financial responsibilities.
1152
See pages 190 and 191.
1153
See pages 196-197.
1154
See, e.g. ISE 53 (265-4 BC) 2-5, 9-11 on page 193.
1155
See, e.g. IG V,2 356 (c.240 BC) 5-8 on page 183.
1156
See page 190.
1157
IG V,2 436 (2C BC) 11-12.
1158
IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 6-11, page 191.
1159
IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 1-5, page 196.
1160
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-25, page 194.
1161
IG V,2 550 (4C BC) 1-6, page 186.
1162
See, e.g. IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-2, page 194.
1163
IPArk 24 (273 BC) 8-11, 14-18, page 182.
200
Elis: Introduction
Elis is said to have contained sixteen cities.1164 Only the poleis of Elis and Olympia provide
evidence relevant to this thesis.
In the sixth century BC, Elis had an oligarchic constitution, with its council and law courts
dominated by a few families.1165 From this period onwards, Elis controlled Olympia, and both
locations served as political centres. The same officials presided in both locations; the
administration of Elean business overlapping with that of Olympia. 1166
Evidence that the Eleans inscribed and set up public documents dates from the end of the
sixth century BC onwards, i.e. starting at approximately the same time as, or perhaps earlier
than in Athens. Nearly all inscriptions for both poleis were set up in the sanctuary of Zeus at
Olympia, which attracted visitors from many locations. 1167 The style of these texts differs
from those produced in Athens, and suggests that Elis had its own constitutional procedures
from a very early date.1168 The earliest evidence for a secretary, the gropheus, also dates
from the end of the sixth to the middle of the fifth century BC (see page 207).1169
The situation and date for the start of democracy at Elis is not known, but may have been
during the synoecism of 471 BC.1170 Elis then experienced several short oligarchic coups in
the fourth century BC.1171 The only secretary attested during the earliest period of democracy
at Elis is the bolographor (βωλογράφορ), known from a single surviving text from the third
century BC (see page 202).1172
There is no evidence for an assembly from the fourth century BC to the second century
AD.1173 From the mid-third to the first century BC, there is also a gap in the evidence for
secretaries. The grammateus is known from the second half of the first century BC onwards,
but his duties appear to be limited (see page 204). One inscription from the second or third
1164
Paus. 5.16.5.
1165
Arist. Pol. 1306a13-19.
1166
For these reasons, references to Elis (the state) should be taken to refer collectively to both Elis
(the polis), and Olympia.
1167
Roy (2004) 489, 495-7. All evidence for secretaries in Elis is from Olympia.
1168
Jones (1987) 142-145; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 95.
1169
IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 8: Πατρίας ὀ γροφεὺς; SEG 31:358 (480-450 BC) 1-7. The earliest surviving
examples of this designation.
1170
Roy (2004) 497-498, D.S. 11.54.1; Str. 8.3.2.
1171
X. Hell. 7.4.15-16; D. 19.260, 294; Paus. 4.28.4; 5.4.9.
1172
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 37.
1173
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 95-96. In this period, surviving decrees are enacted in the name of the
polis or council (boule).
201
century AD also records the designation grammatistas; however, this is likely to be a false
archaism, rather than a true reflection of the office held (see page 207).
bolographor
grammateus
gr. of the polis
grammatistas
gropheus
Total:
Grand total: 31
6-5C BC
0
0
0
0
2
4C BC
0
0
0
0
0
3C BC
1
0
0
0
0
2C BC
0
0
0
0
0
1C BC
0
4
0
0
0
1C AD
0
9
0
0
0
2C AD
0
9
1
1
0
3C AD
0
4
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
4
9
11
4
Table 8 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Elis. 1174
Elis: Olympia
βωλογράφορ (bolographor)
The designation βωλογράφορ, i.e. bolographos with rhotacism of the final –ς, ‘secretary of
the council,’ survives in a single proxeny decree, dated to 300-250 BC.1175
Activities
The bolographor worked with the Elean boule to create a proxeny decree for the Olympic
victor Damokrates of Tenedos (an island off the west coast of Asia Minor).1176 The decree
was written (γραφέν) on bronze, and a copy of it was sent away to Tenedos by Nikodromos
the bolographor, to be given to the envoys in Miletos and the assembly of the Didymeians:
… τὸ δὲ ψάφισμα | τὸ γεγονὸρ ἀπὸ τᾶρ βωλᾶρ γραφὲν ἐγ χάλκω|μα ἀνατεθᾶι ἐν τὸ
ἰαρὸν τῶ Διὸρ τῶ Ὀλυμπίω· | τὰν δὲ ἐπιμέλειαν τᾶρ ἀναθέσιορ ποήασσαι | Αἰσχίναν
τὸν ἐπιμελητὰν τᾶν ἴππων. | περὶ δὲ τῶ ἀποσταλᾶμεν τοῖρ Τενεδίοιρ | τὸ γεγονὸρ
ψάφισμα ἐπιμέλειαν ποιήαται | Νικόδρομορ ὀ βωλογράφορ ὄπωρ δοθᾶι τοῖρ |
θεαροῖρ τοῖρ ἐμ Μίλητον ἀποστελλομέ|νοιρ ποτὶ τὰν θυσίαν καὶ τὸν ἀγῶνα || τῶν
Διδυμείων.1177
… and the decree, the one originating from the boule, having been written on
bronze, let it be set up in the sanctuary of Zeus the Olympian. And Aischines, the
commissioner of the mares, is to take care of the setting up. And concerning the
1174
Siewert (1991) 105-7 notes that there is still no comprehensive publication of inscriptions from
Elea, and that at least fifty inscriptions, including several laws and public documents remain
unpublished. These texts may affect the figures in this table quite considerably.
1175
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 37 (Buck 66); Minon (2007) 220-229; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 94.
1176
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 4-5, 37. Paus. 6.17.1. Damokrates won the wrestling, and the statue
accompanying this decree is referred to by Pausanias.
1177
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 30-40.
202
sending off to the Tenedians of the decree that has been made, let Nikodromos the
bolographor see to it that it be given to the thearoi, who are being sent to Miletos
for the sacrifice and the assembly of the Didymeians.
We are given no further information about the relationship between the bolographor and the
council. From the context, we assume that Nikodromos was responsible for having the Elean
copy of the decree made. It is unlikely that he made the decree himself. It may be that
some less ornate bronze decrees (such as the small bronze plates used for some proxeny
decrees at Orchomenos1178) were inscribed by the secretary himself, though there is no
direct evidence for this. However, this particular text (see Figure six, below) is large and
ornate, and is more likely to have been created by one or more skilled metalworkers.
Figure 6 – Proxeny decree for Damokrates of Tenedos.1179
1178
See Plassart & Blum (1914) 449-478.
1179
IvO 39 (300-250 BC): 0.55 high, 0.24 wide.
203
The statement that the decree is to be both written on bronze and sent away to Tenedos
once the decree has been inscribed suggests that both (permanent) decrees are to be
created from the same (temporary media) text.
Further particulars
The Elean copy of the decree was placed in the sanctuary of Zeus the Olympian, with part of
the responsibility for the finished text falling to Aischines, the commissioner of the mares. 1180
It is unclear why this officer was involved in the process: it may be that Elis had few officers
at this time.
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Activities
The designation grammateus is by far the most frequently-occurring of the designations for
secretary found in Elis.1181 The Elean grammateus was one of many officials at the temple of
Zeus, and the majority of inscriptions containing this designation are lists of temple officials
and persons making drink-offerings. From this, we assume that the Elean grammateus was
the officer who recorded sacrifices and drink-offerings. The nature of this office is unclear,
as texts containing this designation lack verbs of writing and other details such as
instructions for the display of the text (see following example).
Several inscriptions from Elis also honour grammateis; however, it is not clear whether these
texts refer to the same office, or another office altogether (see page 206).
Further particulars
These documents show the grammateus working with (or at least in conjunction with) a
variety of cult officials over a period of three hundred years. No inscription includes more
than one grammateus, and while the same designations are not included in every
inscription, the majority record three priests, two or more soothsayers, one or more fluteplayers, and an exegetes (ἐξηγητής) or ‘interpreter’. Less frequently-occurring offices include
curator or financial officer (ἐπιμελητής), butcher or cook (μάγειρος), and periegetes
(περιηγητής), someone who guided strangers around and showed them things of interest.1182
1180
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 33-34.
1181
See Appendix B page 310 for a list of texts.
1182
E.g. IvO 110 (209-213 AD) 17-19. The office appears to be similar to that of ‘tour guide’.
204
[Those offering libations:]
[σπονδοφόροι]
Ἀρχιάδα[ς — — — —] Δ.
Archiadas — D.
Κλέϊππος Ἀ[ριστοδή]μου Κ.
Kleippos son of Aristodemos K.
Ἡρακλείδης Ͻ Ν. μάντεις·
Herakleides S. N. Soothsayers:
Μικκίας Τίμωνος Κλυτιάδης
1183
Ἀρίσταρχος Κύρου Ἰαμίδης Χ.
γραμματεύς
1184
Mikkias son of Timon of the Klutiadai
Aristarchos son of Kyros of the Iamidai Ch.
grammateus:
Δαμάριστος Ἀντιόχου Δ.
Damaristos son of Antiochos D.
αὐλητὴς· Ζωΐλος Ͻ Γ.
Flute player: Zoilos S. G.
κλ<ε>ιδοῦχοι· Ἱππίας Χάροπος1185 Φ.
Caretakers: Hippias son of Charops Ph.
Ἄρκεσος Ἁρμοδίου Τ.
Arkesos son of Harmodios T.
καθημεροθύτης Ὀλύμπιχος Ͻ
Priest (offering daily sacrifice): Olympichos S.
ξυλεὺς Σωτίων Ͻ ἰατρός
Wood-provider: Sotion S. Doctor:
Ἀμμώνιος Ͻ Φ. ἀρχιτέκτων
Ammonios S. Ph. Architect:
Πρατακῶν Ͻ Με. ἐξηγητής·
Pratakon S. Me. Interpreter:
Πολυχάρης Ἀριστοκράτο[υ]ς
Polychares son of Aristokrates
ἀρχιμάγ<ε>ιρος Ἀλέξανδρος Ͻ1186
Chief cook / butcher: Alexandros S.
The texts suggest a great deal of activity at the temple of Zeus, with daily sacrifices taking
place during certain periods. The number of officials, and the occasional inclusion of the
periegetes1187 in these texts indicate that cult activities were well-attended and could attract
attendance from non-locals, presumably while attending the games.
Other attributes
An examination of the names of grammateis indicates that this role may have been a
hereditary position or occupation of long duration, rather than an elected one. 1188 The
meaning of the ligatures and single characters by many of the names in the text is unclear.
1183
Hollmann (2005) 124-125: The Klutiadai and Iamidai were famous families of soothsayers at Elis.
1184
In this instance, the grammateus is one of the first officers listed, however, this is often not the case,
and there does not seem to be a pattern to the order in which officers were recorded.
1185
LSJ: ‘An epithet of dubious sense, perhaps “fierce”.’ See e.g. Peek, NI 16 (undated) 25 (Epidauros).
1186
IvO 62 (36-24 BC) 1-17.
1187
E.g. IvO 110 (209-213 AD) 17-19.
1188
IvO 85 (77-81 AD) 15 and IvO 86 (85-93 AD) 11: grammateus Μ(ᾶρκος) Ἀττήδιος Κόγνιτος. ΙνΟ 102
(181-185 AD) 20-21 and IvO 104 (185-189 AD) 23: grammateus Ἀριστόβιος Ἀριστοβίου; IvO 103 (177189 AD) 23, IvO 105 (late 2/3C AD) 11-12 and possibly also IvO 107 (late 2/3C AD) 16-17: grammateus
Ἀριστόβιος. IvO 121 (245-249 AD) 28 and IvO 122 (265 AD) 24: grammateus Ἑρμῆς. IvO 99 (after
165 AD) 19-20: grammateus Τ(ίτος) Φλά(βιος) [Ἀριστόβιος] who could be a relative of the grammateus
of IvO 102/104 and/or IvO 103/105/107 above; alternately, there is space for the name Νάρκισσος
instead of Ἀριστόβιος, which may indicate a relative of IvO 92 (113-117 AD) 16-17 Τ(ίτος) Φλάβιος
Νάρκισσος. It is highly unlikely to be the same man due to the c.50 year gap between inscriptions.
205
They may indicate demes;1189 the reverse lunate sigmas (Ͻ) may also indicate a
homonymous patronymic, i.e. Ἡρακλείδης Ͻ: Herakleides son of Herakleides. This would
explain why some names are followed by two such characters.1190
The grammateus at Olympia is also known from a small number of honorific inscriptions;
however, it is not clear from these texts whether this grammateus is the same office as that
noted above, a separate office or offices, or an honorific title only. For example, the
following text honours a grammateus who has held several offices in his lifetime, including
priest at the temple:
ἡ πόλις Ἠλείων καὶ ἡ Ὀλυμπι|κὴ βουλὴ Τιβ(έριον) Κλαύδιον Τιβ(ερίου) Κλαυδίου |
Ἀγία καὶ Γιγανίας Πώλλης υἱὸν Λύ|σωνα Κοσμόπολιν,1191 ἱερέα γ Διὸς Ὀλ|{λ}υμπίου
καὶ ἀγορανόμον καὶ γυμνασίαρ|χον καὶ ἀλλυτάρχην καὶ γραμματέα…1192
The polis of the Eleans and the Olympian boule (honour) Tiberius Claudius Lyson
son of Tiberius Claudius Agias and Gigania Polla, kosmopolis, priest of Zeus
Olympios for the third time and agoranomos and gymnasiarch and chief of police 1193
and secretary…
Zoumbaki believes the ‘grammateus of cult personnel’ to be a separate, yet indistinguishable,
office from that of (political) grammateus, whose office may be designated either
grammateus of the polis, grammateus of the boule, or grammateus of the synedrion.1194
Zoumbaki’s belief in a separate office appears to be based solely upon the following
honorific inscriptions.
Two further texts from Elis honour officers who had at one time been grammateus, and who
had also been officers of the Achaian League. It is not possible to tell whether they were
grammateis at Elis or Olympia, or grammateis of the Achaian League, of which Olympia was
a member.1195 In the first text, the honorand had been priest of Zeus Olympios, grammateus
of the polis and president of the Achaian League ([ἱερέα τοῦ Δ]ιὸς τοῦ Ὀ[λυ]μπίου,
1189
Jones (1987) 145.
1190
For similar use of the reverse lunate sigma, see IG II2 1774 (167/8 AD)  on page 97.
1191
ho kosmopolis was a magistrate at Locris (Plb. 12.16.6) and Thasos (IG XII,8 386.3). kosmopolis
could also be used in the sense of ‘as an adornment for his city’. In this instance, it appears to be
neither, and is part of Tiberius’ name: see e.g. IvO 431 (c.95-105 AD) 1-4: Τιβ(έριος) Κλαύδιος Λύ|σων
Κοσμόπολις | Κλαύδιον Λουκηνὸν | Σαίκλαρον… and IvO 432 (c.95-105 AD) 1-3. Zoumbaki (2001)
197 no.17; 253 no.8; 304 no.65; 321 no.37.
1192
IvO 433 (after c.95 AD) 1-6. Tiberius is also honoured in IvO 431 (see n.1191 above) and IvO 432
(c.95-105 AD) 1-3.
1193
Chief of police for the Olympic Games. See also IvO 468 on page 207.
1194
Zoumbaki (2001) 95-96, 125-126 treats all three designations as synonymous, and uses the
designation grammateus of the synedron (sic.) rather than grammateus of the synedroi.
1195
I have therefore included these texts in the ‘count’ for Elis, rather than the Achaian League.
206
γραμ[ματεύσαντα] | [τῆς πόλεω]ς καὶ ἑλλ[αδάρχ]ην).1196 The designation grammateus of the
polis is otherwise unattested in Elis, and is also not a known designation for the grammateus
of the Achaians. In the second text, the honorand had been strategos of the Achaian koinon
and grammateus for the second time (τὸν στρατηγὸν τῶν | Ἀχαιῶν καὶ γραμματέα τὸ β).1197
While it may have been possible for the grammateus at the temple of Zeus to serve for a
second time,1198 it is not known whether the grammateus of the Achaians could also serve
two or more times.
See page 222 for the grammateus of the Achaians, and also see grammatistas, below.
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas)
The designation grammatistas is known from a single second- or third-century AD honorific
inscription from Elis. Otherwise known in the Peloponnese in the fourth and third centuries
BC only,1199 it is perhaps more accurate to consider this example a revival of an archaic term
for honorific purposes, with the officer more accurately known by the designation
grammateus (see previous section).1200
Other attributes
The grammatistas at Olympia is honoured, having held this and several other offices:
[— — — —σ]αντ[α — — — —], | [ἐ]πιμελητεύσαντα τοῦ Δι[ός, θε]|ηκολήσαντα,
ἀγορανομήσα[ντα], | ἀλυταρχήσαντα, δημιουργήσα[ντα], | γραμματίσαντα…1201
[— having held the office of (?) —], epimeletes of Zeus, priest, agoranomos, chief of
police, magistrate, grammatistas...
γροφεύς (gropheus)
The office of gropheus is known from Olympia from the early sixth, to early fifth centuries
BC.1202 These examples provide the earliest instances of secretaries of any kind in the
Peloponnese; the earlier of the two is possibly the earliest surviving evidence for secretaries
1196
IvO 460 (Roman) 3-4.
1197
IvO 430 (Not before beg. 2C AD) 6-7. For the significance of the general of the Achaian koinon
(stratagos), see page 222.
1198
If we read offices of long duration as offices into which grammateis are re-elected, n.1188.
1199
For the grammatistas in Corinth, see page 126; for Dyme, see pages 212 and 214.
1200
For the formation of grammatistas, see page 21. The use of the participial form of the designation
is found only in honorific inscriptions of the Roman period.
1201
IvO 468 (2/3C AD) 1-5.
1202
IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 1-9; SEG 31:358 (480-450 BC) 1-7. For the formation of gropheus, see page 21.
207
in the Greek world, predating the earliest surviving evidence for the grammateus at Athens
by approximately twenty years.1203
Major disagreements exist regarding the interpretation of IvO 2 (the earliest text), without
any consensus being reached. Of particular relevance is whether πατρίαν (Patrian, line 1)
and πατρίας (Patrias, line 8) is like Delphian πατριά and Doric πάτρα, indicating genos, or
whether Πατρίας is the personal name of the gropheus.1204 Since ‘scribe of the genos’ is
without parallel, and the text contains guarantees of safety, I consider it more likely that
these were bestowed upon a man and his family, rather than upon an entire genos in
perpetuity; I therefore interpret Patrias as a personal name. The full text of the inscription is
given below:
Ἀ ϝράτρα τοῖς Ϝαλείοις Πατρίαν θαρρεν καὶ γενεὰν καὶ ταὐτõ· | αἰ ζέ τις κατιαραύσειε,
ϝάρρεν, ṑρ Ϝαλείō. αἰ ζὲ μἐπιθεῖαν τὰ ζί|καια ὂρ μέγιστον τέλος ἔχοι καὶ τοὶ βασιλάες,
ζέκα μναῖς κα | ἀποτίνοι ϝέκαστος τõν μ ἐπιποεόντōν καθύταις τοῖ Ζὶ Ὀλυν|πίοι, ἐπένποι
ζέ κ’ ἐλλανοζίκας, καὶ τἆλλα ζίκαια ἐπενπ|έτō ἀ ζαμιōργία· αἰ ζὲ μἔνποι, ζίφυιον
ἀποτινέτō ἐν μαστρά|αι. Αἰ ζέ τις τὸν αἰτιαθέντα ζικαιõν ἰμάσκοι, ἐν τᾶι ζεκαμναίαι κ’
ἐ|νέχο[ιτ]ο, αἰ ϝειζṑς ἰμάσκοι. Καὶ Πατρίας ὀ γροφεὺς ταὐτά κα πάσκοι, | [αἴ τ]ιν’
[ἀζ]ικέοι. ὀ [πί]ναξ ἰαρὸς Ὀλυνπίαι. vacat1205
It is the decision of the Eleans that Patrias shall be safe, along with his family and
property. If anyone brings a charge against them, they will be prosecuted as if they
had done this to an Elean. If the chief magistrate and the basileis do not impose these
punishments, each of those who did not impose them will pay a penalty of ten minae,
dedicated to Olympian Zeus. The hellanodikas will enforce this, and the demiourgoi
will enforce the other fines. If they (the hellanodikai) do not enforce this they will pay
double the penalty to the mastraai. If anyone mistreats him (the person accused in a
matter involving fines), he will be fined ten minae, if he does this in full knowledge of
the facts. Patrias the gropheus will also undergo this same punishment [if] he wrongs
anyone. This plaque is dedicated to Olympia.
1203
IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6. The earlier text also predates the Spensithios decree by c.80 years.
See page 210 for more information.
1204
IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 8 (Buck 61, Nomima 23); Minon (2007) 139. Another issue is the
interpretation of τὰ ζίκαια in 2 & 5: either ‘the rights’ or ‘the punishments’. Buck also provides
information on θαρρεν (1), ‘being cheerful,’ which he believes is used as a technical term in Elean,
equivalent to ‘being secure, immune’. See also SEG 41:391, SEG 39:399, SEG 22:359, SEG 37:1782,
SEG 29:402, SEG 29:1800; Minon (2007) 130 & 148; Osborne (1997) 74-82.
1205
IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 1-9.
208
The name Patrias is otherwise unattested in Elis, suggesting that he may have been a
foreigner.1206 He may also have been a former slave. As a former slave, the stipulations and
guarantee of safety in this decree would have protected him against certain forms of
punishment.1207
The designation gropheus also occurs in a fifth-century BC text, recording the verdict of the
Eleans in a dispute between the Boeotians and the Athenians. Menandros and Aristolochos
(two officials with unknown designations) rule in favour of the Athenians, and an additional
phrase provides a caveat on the initial judgement: that there also be a settlement in favour
of the Thespians (also in Boeotia) and their allies. The Thessalians are then also acquitted.
The full text is given below:
Ἄγαλμα Διός· Πύρρο γρ[ο]φέας·1208 | καὶ Χαρίξενος καὶ τοὶ μαστροί | [τ]αὶρ δίκαις,
ταὶρ κὰ(τ) τõν Βοιοτõν Μένανδρος | [κ’]’ Ἀριστόλοχος τοῖρ Ἀθαναίος ἐδικαξάταν, |
[ἐ]πέγνον καὶ τοῖ(ρ) θεσπιέσσιν καὶ τοῖρ σὺν αὐτὸς | [σφ]ὲ δικαίος δικαστᾶμεν κ' ἀπὸ
τõν θεσ(σ)αλõν [ἐ]πεδίκαξαν.1209
Offering to Zeus. Pyrros was secretary. Charixenos and the mastroi examined the
judgements that had been returned against the Boiotians by Menandros and
Aristolochos in favour of Athens, and they judged in the second instance in favour of
the Thespians and their allies, and also judged against the Thessalians.
Πύρρο, here interpreted as Pyrros (Πύρρος), 1210 could alternatively be Pyrron (Πυρρōν1211 or
Πύρρων1212). Πύρρος is the most likely spelling, as it is the only variation attested locally.
The probable situation surrounding this judgement is the destruction caused in 480 BC during
the Persian invasion, and the responsibilities incurred by Greeks allied to the Persians.1213
1206
Minon (2007) 143. The alternative form Πατρέας is found in several locations including Delphi
(FD III 3:7 (c.161 BC) 8), while Πατρεύς is found in several locations including Epidauros (IG IV2,1 73
(after 224 BC) 18-19).
1207
Minon (2007) 142, 144-148. Minon suggests that the stipulation regarding katiarausis (κατιαραύσις)
in line 2 suggests that Patrias had the status of iaros, as with the freed slaves in IvO 12 (500-450 BC) 1-11
(Minon (2007) 119-122).
1208
See Minon (2007) 107, 504 and Nomima 60. The restored vowel in γρ[ο]φέας allows for the alternate
spelling γρ[α]φέας. Context and the prior attestation γροφεύς makes the use of an omicron the more
likely spelling. Either form could mean ‘secretary’ or ‘painter’: not problematic, as (e.g.) a pinax would
have had text either engraved or painted on it. See also graphes on page 196.
1209
SEG 31:358 (480-450 BC) 1-7; SEG 26:475; Nomima 60; Minon (2007) 104-112 & 502-3; Siewert
(1977) 463 n.4; Siewert (1981) 228-248.
1210
Paus. 6.1.4-5: Deinolochos son of Pyrrhos is Elean by birth.
1211
Not attested in Elis, but known from several locations including Attica (e.g. SEG 30:146 (2C BC) 13,
(IG II2 3714)).
1212
Not attested in Elis, but known from several locations including Ephesus (e.g. Ephesos 1119 (AD
160) 2.23).
1213
Richardson (1992) 225.
209
Activities
As with other early texts, neither inscription includes a verb of writing (see page 27). There
is no way of knowing whether the gropheus was attached to the oligarchic council, whether
he was an itinerant secretary, or whether he lived in Elis permanently. (See Other attributes,
below.)
Further particulars
In both texts, the gropheus appears to be working with local magistrates such as the
basileis, hellanodikas, damiourgoi and mastroi in maintaining formalised legal procedures
pertaining to the rights of Eleans and those resident among them. There is also evidence for
formalised accounting procedures, in the enforcing and payment of fines.
In SEG 31:358, the gropheus is named immediately after the dedication to Zeus, suggesting
that the Eleans accorded the office and his role in inter-state arbitration a high degree of
importance.1214
Other attributes
The name of the gropheus in the earliest text, Patrias, is not otherwise attested;1215
therefore it is impossible to tell whether he was a local man or an itinerant worker. Evidence
that foreigners and/or former slaves could hold secretarial positions also occurs in Nomima
22, a Cretan text, dated to c.500 BC. In this text, the rights of the scribe (poinikastas,
ποινικαστάς) Spensithios and his descendants are protected in a similar manner to those of
Patrias and his descendants, which makes it possible that Spensithios was a foreigner.1216 It
is possible that Spensithios was part of a ‘family of secretaries’ who worked, supervised by
the head of the family, and this may also have been the case with Elean grophees.1217
Other evidence for early, travelling secretaries is found in Mantinea, where the Heliswasians
must wait for the stalographoi to arrive (see page 189).
The gropheus is known from several other locations in the Peloponnese, 1218 and is most
often associated with Argos (see page 137).
1214
Neither inscription contains instructions for the display of the text, but since both refer to Olympian
Zeus (and IvO 2 is explicitly dedicated to Zeus), it is highly likely that both texts were displayed in the
temple, as with subsequent inscriptions.
1215
See footnote 1206.
1216
Nomima 22 (c.500 BC) 1-5.
1217
Minon (2007) 143; Nomima 23.
1218
See Appendix A page 276 for a list.
210
Elis: concluding remarks
There is a marked difference between the duties of secretaries in Elis from 580  BC – 250 BC,
and (after a two hundred year gap in the evidence) from 36 BC – 265 AD. Early grophees
(page 207) and the bolographor (page 202) are shown in connection with laws, legal
procedures and honorific inscriptions, and illustrate that Elis’ skills in arbitration were
recognised and valued by other states. In these respects, their duties were similar to those
of secretaries elsewhere in the Peloponnese at this time, and in Athens. In contrast,
grammateis from the first century BC onwards (page 204) are known only from a religious
context: lists of officials and those making offerings at the temple of Zeus Olympios. Their
duties appear limited, and they seem unconnected with local bureaucracy.
Elean secretaries were rarely honoured, and when they were, it was for having held several
magistracies, including that of grammateus.
Early texts provide some evidence for itinerant secretaries: possibly more than is known
from elsewhere in the Peloponnese. However, the nature of their employment is difficult to
assess, due to the form of these texts.
Overall, the unusual relationship between Elis and Olympia, and the prominence of the
temple of Zeus provide evidence for a limited number of designations only. However, our
evidence may be skewed by the absence of secretaries of any kind from Olympic victor lists,
and by the large number of unpublished texts.1219
1219
Siewert (1991) 105-7. At least fifty inscriptions remain unpublished.
211
Achaia: Introduction
There is evidence for two types of secretary in Achaia: local (polis) secretaries, and
secretaries of the Achaian League. Local secretaries can be divided into two groups: those
designated grammatistas, who are known from the third century BC only (pages 212-214),
and those designated grammateus of the synedrion or grammateus of the synedroi, who are
known from the second century BC only (pages 215 and 217). In the third century BC, the
damiorgos could also carry out secretarial duties (page 218).
Since the Achaian League met in locations outside Achaia, the secretaries of the Achaian
League are described separately. See page 219.
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
grammateus of the synedrion
grammatistas
grammatistas of the damosiophylakes
nomographoi
0
2
1
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
grammateus of the synedroi
0
1
0
0
0
damiorgos
2
0
0
0
0
Total:
Grand total: 9
5
4
0
0
0
Dyme
Patrai
Tritaia
Table 9 – Attestations of Achaian secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in Achaia.
Achaia: Dyme
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas)
The secretary at Dyme was known as the grammatistas.1220
Activities
Inscriptions containing a grammatistas are interesting for the information they provide about
local politics: granting citizenship to foreign soldiers,1221 regulating citizenship,1222 and
announcing a decision on the death penalty for the falsification of coins. 1223 However, while
they connect the grammatistas with writing on temporary media (see below), they do not
directly connect this officer with the creation and setting up of stelai. For example, an
1220
See page 21 for the etymology of grammatistas, and Appendix A page 275 for other inscriptions
where this designation occurs.
1221
See SIG3 529 (219BC) 4-5 on page 214.
1222
See SIG3 531 (3C BC) 27 on page 213.
1223
SIG3 530 (end C3 BC?) 2-3. See also Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97; Thür (1991) 115-122.
212
inscription regulating citizenship at Dyme refers to the grammatistas only in his capacity as
one of several officials involved in the enrolment of citizens:
… ἀ|[πογραφέντω δὲ] ποτὶ τὸμ βούλαρχον καὶ [προσ]τάταν δα|[μοσιοφυλάκω]ν καὶ
γραμματιστάν. τοὺς δὲ ἀπογ|[ραφέντες καὶ ὑῶ]ν ὀμοσαμένους τὰν ἡλικίαν καὶ
δόν|[τες τὸ ἁργυριον] καθὼς γέγραπται, διακλαρωσάν||[τω αἱ συναρ]χίαι ὡς ἰσότατα
ἐπὶ τὰς φυλὰς, καὶ λα|[χόντω ἐπὶ τὰν] Στρατίδα, ἐπὶ τὰν Δυμαίαν, ἐπὶ τὰν
Θεσμι|[αίαν·]…1224
[And they are to be registered] with the boularchos, the prostatas of the
damosiophylakes and the grammatistas. And after having been registered, [and]
having sworn (confirmed by oath) the age of their [sons], and having given [the
prescribed sum] according to what is written, the synarchiai are to allocate them as
equally as possible among the existing phylai, and [to allocate them by lot between
the] tribes Stratis, Dymaia and Thesmiaia.1225
The role played by the grammatistas in this process appears to be equivalent to that
performed by the boularchos and prostatas; i.e. they were collectively responsible for the
registering of citizens.
Potential citizens were granted citizenship only if they had fulfilled certain criteria, and had
paid two separate amounts on separate dates to (unidentified) magistrates at Dyme. These
payments therefore required each potential citizen to meet with local magistrates, a
prostatas and the grammatistas two or more times before citizenship could be granted:
[— c.6 — ἐπὶ τ]οῖσδε εἶμεν τὰν πολιτείαν τοῖς ἐποί|[κοις τοῖς ἐν τᾶι π]όλι· τὸν
θέλοντα κοινωνεῖν τᾶς πολι|[τείας ἄνδρ?]α ἐλεύθερον καὶ ἐξ ἐλευθέρων δόντα | [—
c.6 — ἐπὶ γρα]μματέος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς Μενανδρίδα | [τὸ μὲν ἥμισυ ἐν] τᾶι πρώται
ἑξαμήνωι, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν | [ἐν τῶι ..c.4.. μ]ηνί, ὡς οἱ Ἀχαιοὶ ἄγοντι. εἰ δὲ μὴ δοίη | [τὸ
ὅλον ἐν τῶι ἐνι]αυτῶι τῶι ἐπὶ Μανανδριδα, ἀλλὰ | [— c.13 —], μὴ ἔστω αὐτῶι ἁ
πολιτεία. …1226
Citizenship is granted to those who have settled [in the] city (under the following
conditions): that the one who wants to receive citizenship be a free [man?] of free
parents, who has given (the sum X) [in the] secretaryship of Menandridas, the
1224
SIG3 531 (3C BC) 25-32. Decree concerning citizenship, now lost. See also SEG 40:394; Rizakis (1990)
110-123; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97. This decree provides the only evidence for civic subdivisions in
Achaia. The decree can be divided into four sections: 1-8: general conditions for admission to citizenship;
9-17: rules for awarding citizenship to a man; 17-25: rules for awarding citizenship to a widow; 25-34:
compilation of citizenship lists, enrolment into tribes, rights and duties of new citizens. The grammatistas
is referred to in the final section. For the names of the phylai, see Jones (1987) 131-2.
1225
The text suggests that groups of citizens were registered (approved) en masse, and collectively
allocated among the tribes by the synarchiai.
1226
SIG3 531 (3C BC) 1-8.
213
grammateus of the Achaian League, [during] the first six months of the year, and
the remainder [(in the X)] month, as the Achaians reckon it. And if the [entire]
amount is not given during the secretaryship of Menandridas, but … he is not to be
granted citizenship. …
Further particulars
The context and reference to a boularchos suggest that the grammatistas was effectively
the ‘grammatistas of the boule’; however, the precise nature of this office is uncertain.
The grammateus of the Achaian League played no part in the enrolment of citizens, and the
designation is included for dating purposes only. There was no connection between this
officer and any of the other officers mentioned.
γραμματιστάς δαμοσιοφυλάκων (grammatistas of the
damosiophylakes)
A single inscription from Dyme records the existence of a grammatistas of the
damosiophylakes (guardians of the demos).
ἐπὶ θεοκόλου Ἀριστολαΐδα, | βουλάρχου Τιμοκράτεος, | προστάτα Κύλωνος, |
γραμματιστᾶ δαμοσι|οφυλάκων Μενάνδρου | τούσδε ἁ πόλις πολί|τας ἐποιήσατο
συμπολε|μήσαντες τὸμ πόλεμον καὶ τὰμ πόλιν συνδιασώισαντες…1227
During the office of the theokolos Aristolaidas, the boularchos Timokrates, the
prostatas Kylon, the grammatistas of the damosiophylakes Menandros, the following
(men) the polis has made citizens with equal citizen status, having assisted in the
defence and salvation of the polis.1228
Other attributes
The inscription contains no information about the duties carried out by the grammatistas. As
on page 213, the grammatistas is noted alongside the boularchos and prostatas. Because of
this, it is unclear whether the office of grammatistas of the damosiophylakes is identical to
that of grammatistas, above.
The grammatistas of the damosiophylakes is one of several officers who are part of the
dating formula. This is unusual. While it is relatively common in the Peloponnese for the
secretary to be the only officer in the dating formula (see Appendix B), it is rare for a group
of officers (including the secretary) to be used for dating purposes.1229 This suggests that the
1227
SIG3 529 (219 BC) 1-11. See also Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97.
1228
Rizakis (1990) 124-5.
1229
A group of officers can be used for dating purposes at Athens. See e.g. page 52.
214
grammatistas was of equal status to the theokolos, boularchos and prostatas; an inference
supported by the responsibility shared by the boularchos, prostatas and grammatistas in the
enrolment of citizens (page 213).
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedrion)
The grammateus of the synedrion is known from a single inscription, from a period in which
Achaia was under the supervision of the Macedonian governor. The document is a letter
from Dyme, to its governor in Patrai.1230
Other attributes
The document reveals that Dyme was allowed to keep a degree of autonomy, as it
continued to have its own type of magistrate, the theokolos.1231 Both the theokolos and the
grammateus of the synedrion are named in the prescript, and are the means by which the
letter is dated:
ἐπὶ θεοκόλου Λέωνος, γραμματέ|ος τοῦ συνεδρίου Στρατοκλέος.1232
During the office of the theokolos Leon, and that of the grammateus of the
synedrion, Stratokles.
No additional information is given about the role played by the grammateus in these
proceedings.
The grammateus of the synedrion could be the grammateus at Dyme, but could also be
either the grammateus at Patrai (which was known to have had its own grammateus of the
synedrion),1233 or the grammateus of the Achaians, since the Achaian League could be
referred to as the Panachaian synedrion from 147/6 BC onwards (see page 222). If this
grammateus was the grammateus of the Achaians, we would expect this prominent officer
to be named before the local theokolos.
This letter provides evidence for a revolutionary movement in Dyme, led by men who had
been nomographoi. See the next section.
1230
SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 1-2; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97; Sherk (1969) 246-248.
1231
See SIG3 529 (3C BC) on page 214.
1232
SIG3 684 (144 BC) 1-2.
1233
Patrai was where the case mentioned in this letter was deliberated. See page 217.
215
νομογράφος (nomographos)
The nomographoi at Dyme are known from a letter from Dyme to its governor in Patrai. 1234
Other attributes
This letter provides evidence for a revolutionary movement in Dyme. The nomographos
Sosos is accused of setting fire to and destroying the building that contained the public
records (line 7). Sosos and another nomographos, Timotheos, and the damiorgos —miskos
are also charged with having enacted laws contrary to the type of government granted to
the Achaians by the Romans (lines 9-10):1235
…λέγω δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐμπρήσε|ως καὶ φθορᾶς τῶν ἀρχ<εί>ων καὶ τῶν δημοσίων
γραμμάτων, ὧν ἐγε|γόνει ἀρχηγὸς της ὅλης συγχύσεως Σῶσος Ταυρομένος ὁ | καὶ
τοὺς νόμους γράψας ὑπεναντίους τῆι ἀποδοθείσηι τοῖς | [Ἀ]χαιοῖς ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων
πολιτ[εία]ι, περὶ ὧν τὰ κατὰ μέρος διή[λ]θο|[μεν ἐν Πά]τραις μετὰ τοῦ παρόν[το]ς
συμβουλίου·
…
ἐγ[ὼ πα]|ρασχομένων τῶν κατηγόρων ἀληθινὰς ἀποδείξεις Σῶ|σον μὲν τὸν γεγονότα
ἀρχηγὸν [τ]ῶν πραχθέντων καὶ νο|μογραφήσαντα ἐπὶ καταλυσει τῆς ἀποδοθείσης
πολιτεί|[α]ς, κρίνας ἔνοχον εἶναι θανάτωι, πα[ρ]εχώρισα, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ | —μίσκον
Ἐχεσθένεος τῶν δαμιοργῶν τὸν συμπράξαντα | [τοῖ]ς ἐμπρήσασι τὰ ἀρχεῖα καὶ τὰ
δημόσια γράμματα, ἐπεὶ καὶ | [αὐτὸ]ς ὡμολόγησεν· Τιμόθεον δὲ Νικέα τὸμ μετὰ τοῦ
Σώσου |[γεγονό]τα νομογράφον, ἐπεὶ ἔλασσον ἐφαίνετο ἠδικηκώς, ἐ|[— —]
προάγειν εἰς Ῥώμην ὁρκίσας, ἐφ' ὧι τῆι νουμηνίαι τοῦ ἐν|[άτου μηνὸ]ς ἔστα[ι] ἐκεῖ
καὶ ἐμφανίσας τῶ[ι ἐ]πὶ τῶν ξένων στρατη|[γῶι...] 1236
…I speak of the burning and destruction of the archives and the building containing
the public records, in which the leader of the entire disturbance was Sosos son of
Tauromenes, who also drafted the laws contrary to the politeia set down for the
Achaians by the Romans, concerning which I held a detailed discussion in Patrai
with my advisory council present.1237
…
As the accusers provided genuine proofs, I have judged to be guilty and condemned
to death Sosos, who was the instigator of the deeds and who drafted laws aiming at
1234
SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 15-27; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97; Kallet-Marx (1995) 137, 146-149;
Sherk (1969) 246-248.
1235
Walbank (1979) 734-5. We are given no information as to what these laws were. The politeia referred
to is likely to have been the constitution of Dyme, rather than (e.g.) any laws of the Achaian League.
1236
SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 16-27. This version of the text is from Kallet-Marx (1995) 131.
1237
Kallet-Marx (1995) 133 notes that the ‘council’ was probably the personal advisory council used by
Roman commanders in the field.
216
the overthrow of the constitution given, and likewise —miskos son of Echesthenes of
the damiorgoi, who acted together with those who set fire to the archives and the
building containing the public records, since he himself has confessed. Timotheos
son of Nikeas, who was nomographos with Sosos, since he seems to have done less
wrong, I ordered to proceed to Rome, having exacted an oath that he will be there
for the new moon of the ninth month, and having informed the strategos in charge
of foreigners (praetor peregrinus) (of the decision) that he is not to return home
before (then), unless — —1238
Sosos’ prominence in the letter and the detail supplied shows that he was deemed the most
culpable. Since both Sosos and —miskos were condemned to death for burning the public
archives, and Timotheos is not mentioned in conjunction with this and receives a lesser
penalty, it can be assumed that Timotheos was guilty of only (!) ‘writing laws contrary to the
politeia set down for the Achaians by the Romans’, and that this was considered a lesser
crime than burning down the archives.1239
The number of nomographoi at any one time in Dyme is unknown, but there appear to have
been at least two of them.1240 Without more information, we are unable to say whether this
rebellion was by all nomographoi serving in a particular year, or a subset of them. That they
were in office when the rebellion occurred can be ascertained by the information that they
had ‘written laws contrary to the politeia…’. Logically, they would only have been able to
write laws while in office.1241 This case also suggests a strong working relationship between
the nomographoi and (at least one) damiorgos.
Achaia: Patrai
γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi)
In the second century BC, Patrai was chosen as the location for arbitration between Thouria
(in Messenia), and Megalopolis.1242 The grammateus of the synedroi at Patrai is known from
the Thourian copy of the decree, which states that he was to write up the names of all who
had attended, and if the arbitration was decided in favour of the Thourians, was to record
this information on a stele in the temple of the Syrian goddess.
1238
Translation: Bagnall & Derow (1981) 85 no.46, with edits for consistency with the rest of this thesis.
1239
Kallet-Marx (1995) 148.
1240
That Sosos and Timotheos served together as nomographoi can be ascertained by the use of μετὰ
(line 23). The date of this letter (144 BC) suggests that Sosos and Timotheos were nomographoi at the
start of Roman intervention in this region.
1241
Kallet-Marx (1995) 148-9. It is most likely that Sosos and Timotheos were nomographoi at Dyme,
rather than nomographoi of any League.
1242
ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 1-2. Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 85.
217
τοὺς δὲ ἐλθόντας ἀναγραψάσθω ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων ἐμ Πάτραις, καὶ ἄν
νικάσωμες, ἀναγραψάτω ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι τᾶς Συρίας εἰς στάλαν λιθίναν τούς τε
συνδίκους πάντας πατριστί, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἐλθόντας ὑπογράψας τὸν ἱερῆ τᾶς
Ἀθάνας καὶ τὸ ψάφισμα.1243
And the grammateus of the synedroi at Patras is to see to the writing up of those
attending, and if we win, he (presumably the same man) is to write up in the
sanctuary of the Syrian goddess on a stone stele both all the syndikoi with their
fathers’ names, and in a similar way (i.e. also giving their father’s name) all those
attending, and below to write the priest of Athena1244 and the (text of the) decree.
Further particulars
The grammateus of the synedrion at Patrai may also be known from the dating formula of a
letter sent from Dyme to its governor in Patrai (see page 215). While the grammateus of the
Achaians could also be known as the grammateus of the synedrion, this is not the case in
the above text, which predates the time from which the Achaian League could be known as
the Panachaian synedrion.
Achaia: Tritaia
δαμιοργός (damiorgos)
The damiorgoi were involved in the process of admitting newcomers to the citizen body at
Tritaia.1245 Newcomers were required to provide a sum of money to the damiorgoi, which
they were also allowed to borrow from the damiorgoi and tamiai, on the proviso that they
paid this money back, plus an additional share.1246 If newcomers failed to pay this money
back, the damiorgoi recorded this information for the polemarchs:
εἰ δέ τίς κα μ[ὴ ἀποδῶι τὸ ἀργύριον
τὸ μέρος τὸ | ἐ]πιβάλλον κατ' ἐ[νια]υτό[ν, οἱ
δαμιοργοὶ ἀπογραψάντων αὐ]|τὸν τοῖς πολεμ[άρχοις ὀφείλοντα τᾶι πόλι·1247
And if anyone does not [provide the money or the (additional) share] falling upon
them within a year, [the damiorgoi are to write] him [up] for the polemarchs [with
the amount owed to the city.]
1243
ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 10-14.
1244
The priest may be included for dating purposes.
1245
SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 11-19; Rizakis (1990) 130; Sherk, (1990a) 258-259; Wilhelm (1974) 37.
1246
SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 11-17. It is wrong to think of this additional share as ‘interest’ in the modern
sense as there is no indication that (e.g.) τὸ μέρος increased the longer the sum went unpaid.
1247
SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 17-19.
218
The decree is highly fragmentary, and broken on all four sides. Both the designation damiorgoi
and the duties described in the above extract have been entirely restored. Pittakis and
subsequent editors supply damiorgoi (rather than grammatistas, for example) based on the
available number of letters and the officials noted elsewhere in this text: the boularchos (line
5), board of damiorgoi (e.g. lines 11-12), tamias (lines 12-13) and polemarchs (line 19).
Achaian League
302 BC-229 BC
The precise date of the founding of the Achaian League is unknown, although it is known to
have existed in 302 BC, when Achaia was a member of the Hellenic League. 1248 Originally a
league of the twelve Achaian poleis, the Achaian League was dissolved after the Wars of the
Successors (323-281 BC),1249 and formed again soon after (281-280 BC).1250 In 281-280 BC,
the member poleis were Dyme, Patrai, Tritaia and Pherai. Approximately five years later,
Aigion (also in Achaia) joined,1251 followed by several other poleis, including Sicyon (in 251250) and Argos (in 229), taking the membership of the League to poleis outside Achaia. 1252
By 228 BC, the Achaian League also included Corinth, Megara, Aigina, Argos and
Megalopolis.1253
From 280/79 to 256/5 BC, the officials of the League included one grammateus and two
strategoi, selected by rotation from among the Achaian poleis (see page 221). From
255/4 BC, the League had one strategos, elected annually.1254
From 275 until 188 BC, meetings (synodoi) of the Achaian League were held at the
sanctuary of Zeus Amarios near Aigion, four times a year. An extraordinary meeting
(synkletos) could be held in any place, at any time. 1255
1248
For more information on the Hellenic League, see page 228. Larsen (1968) 216.
1249
Tarn (1952) 73.
1250
Larsen (1968) 215-216; Tarn (1952) 73.
1251
Tarn (1952) 73.
1252
Larsen (1968) 218.
1253
Tarn (1952) 20-21.
1254
Plb. 2.43.1-2 (see page 222). Under the system of one general, other officers were the hipparchos
and nauarch, and (usually) ten demiourgoi, who together formed the synarchai. Polybius believed that
the roles and titles of Achaian officials, councillors and judges were adopted by the rest of the
Peloponnese, uniting it (Plb. 2.37.9-11); however this is not borne out by the epigraphic evidence,
which suggests that the same officials are not found even within all Achaian poleis. Larsen (1968) 217,
220-221; Morgan & Hall (2004) 472-475; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 106-8; Sherk (1990a) 257-8.
1255
Plb. 29.24.6; 2.43.1-2. Larsen (1968) 217, 223-224, 231; Walbank (1979) 399. The meeting
place(s) of the league before Aigion joined is unknown.
219
Since the nature and composition of the Achaian League changed dramatically from its first
incarnation to its last, one cannot assume that the officers of the League in each of its
stages of development were necessarily equivalent. The earliest attested grammateus of the
Achaian League cannot be dated more precisely than to the third century BC, and so it is
difficult to assess to which phase of the League this official rightly belongs. 1256
229-188 BC
In c.229 BC, the threat to Achaia by Sparta caused Achaia to ally with Macedonia, as a result
of which the Achaian League became part of the Hellenic League again.1257 In 198 BC the
Hellenic League was dissolved, and its member poleis allied with Rome.1258 Several types of
secretary of the Achaian League are known from this period. In addition to the eponymous
grammateus for the Achaians,1259 the League also had a large number of nomographoi (page
226), who had their own grammateus (page 225). There is also evidence that the damiorgoi
of the Achaian League wrote decrees (page 225).
From 200 BC onwards, the terms boule and ekklesia were used in connection with the
Achaian League rather than synodoi.1260
188 – 147/6 BC
In 188 BC, a law was passed introducing a system whereby the meeting place of the League
was not fixed, and was held in turn by each member polis,1261 although a strict system of
rotation does not seem to have been enforced. 1262 The location of the administrative centre
of the League at this time is unknown.1263 As far as it is possible to tell from the small
amount of epigraphic evidence from this period, the change in meeting place does not
appear to have had a noticeable impact upon the style of administrative documents, and it
may be that the administrative centre remained at Aigion.1264
1256
See SIG3 531 (3C BC) 1-8 on page 213.
1257
Larsen (1968) 219; Tarn (1952) 20-21, 77.
1258
Larsen (1968) 219. Tarn (1952) 25-26, 30, 77. In 191 BC, Philopoemen forced Sparta to join the
Achaian League, which was then followed by Elis and Messenia, essentially bringing the whole of the
Peloponnese into the League.
1259
See IG IV2,1 60 (191 BC) 1 on page 222.
1260
Larsen (1968) 223. This is not reflected in the designations of league officials.
1261
Livy 38.30.1-6, passed at Argos and proposed by Philopoemen. Larsen (1968) 217, 220.
1262
Tarn (1952) 74. Larsen (1968) 217, 220, 235. Larsen suggests that the change of meeting-place
was for political convenience.
1263
Plu. Cleom. 17.2. Larsen (1968) 239.
1264
Compare IG IV2,1 60 (191 BC) 1, set up at Epidauros prior to this change, with (the fragmentary)
IG IV2,1 61 (150 BC) 2, set up at Epidauros afterwards. Larsen (1968) 239.
220
147/6 BC – 1C AD
In 147/6 BC, Sparta, Corinth, Argos and Orchomenos left the League. The League declared
war, and was defeated by the Romans, at which point, Greece became the Roman province
of Achaia.1265 The League was abolished by Rome c.146 BC, but reformed as the ‘Panachaian
League’ soon afterwards, without any associated political power. This League is referred to
by titles such as the ‘Panachaian synedrion’, ‘the Achaians and the Panhellenes’ or ‘the
Panhellenes’.1266 It had its own secretary, the grammateus of the Achaians (γραμματεὺς τῶν
Ἀχαιῶν, see page 222). There are no other known secretaries of the League from this point
onwards.
grammateus for the Achaians
grammateus of the Achaians
grammateus of the nomographoi
grammateus of the synedroi
damiorgos of the Achaians
nomographos
Total:
Grand total: 40
3C BC
21267
0
11271
0
21274
241275
2C BC
31268
0
0
0
0
0
1C BC
0
0
0
21272
0
0
1C AD
0
31269
0
0
0
0
2C AD
0
21270
0
11273
0
0
29
3
2
3
3
Table 10 – Attestations of secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text for the
Achaian League.
Secretaries of the Achaian League
The title ‘secretary of the Achaian League’ refers to one of two officials:

The grammateus for the Achaians (γραμματεὺς τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς), the secretary of the
League of Peloponnesian poleis from 281/280 BC to 147/6 BC (see following
section).1276
1265
Tarn (1952) 37-39.
1266
Oliver (1978) 185-191.
1267
Aigion: IG VII 188 (242-223 BC) 2-3; Dyme: SIG3 531 (3C BC) 4, 27.
1268
Epidauros: IG IV2,1 60 (191 BC) 1; IG IV2,1 61 (150 BC) 2; IG IV2,1 63 (115/114 BC) 17-18.
1269
Epidauros: IG IV2,1 80 (34/35 AD) 5; IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 10, 17; unknown origin: IG VII 2711
(AD 37) 43-45.
1270
Abia: IG V,1 1352 (119-138 AD) 9-10; Troizen: IG IV 795 (c.103-114 AD) 12.
1271
Epidauros: IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 2-3, 29-30.
1272
Orchomenos: IG V,2 345 (79/8 BC) 1-2, 10-11, 13.
1273
Mantinea: IG V,2 313 (2C AD) 1-2.
1274
Aigion: I.Magn 39 (c.208/7 BC) 33-38, 43-45.
1275
Epidauros: IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) A2-3, 29.
1276
Larsen (1968) 215-216; Tarn (1952) 37-39, 73.
221

The grammateus of the Achaians (γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν), the secretary of the
Panachaian League created by Rome in 147/6 BC, which had no political power
(see page 222).
γραμματεὺς τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς (grammateus for the Achaians)
Further particulars
The grammateus for the Achaians is mentioned by Polybius in his description of the Achaian
League:
Εἴκοσι μὲν οὖν ἔτη τὰ πρῶτα καὶ πέντε συνεπολιτεύσαντο μεθ’ ἑαυτῶν αἱ προειρημέναι
πόλεις, γραμματέα κοινὸν ἐκ περιόδου προχειριζόμεναι καὶ δύο στρατηγούς. μετὰ δὲ
ταῦτα πάλιν ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς ἕνα καθιστάνειν καὶ τοὺτῳ πιστεύειν ὑπὲρ τῶν ὅλων.1277
For twenty-five years, then, these cities enjoyed a common political life, electing in
rotation a grammateus of state and two strategoi. After this, they decided to elect
one strategos and entrust him with the general direction of their affairs.
In mentioning this secretary before the two strategoi, Polybius suggests that this official is of
great importance. This is reflected in epigraphic evidence, as this officer can be the
eponymous official in several poleis that were members of the League: Dyme (see page
213),1278 Epidauros,1279 and Megara.1280
Larsen suggests that this secretary lost much of his importance after 255 BC;1281 however, he
remained an eponymous official until at least 150 BC,1282 forty years after the remnants of
the Achaian League became allied with Rome.
The duties of the grammateus for the Achaians are unknown.
γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν (grammateus of the Achaians)
From 146 BC onwards, the secretary of the Achaian League (reconstituted as the Panachaian
League), could be known as either the grammateus of the Achaians (γραμματεὺς τῶν
Ἀχαιῶν),1283 the grammateus of the synedroi (γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων),1284 or the
1277
Plb. 2.43.1-2, describing the secretaries of 280-255 BC. Walbank (1957) 235.
1278
SIG3 531 (3C BC) 4.
1279
IG IV2,1 60 (191 BC) 1: [ἐπ]ὶ γραμματέος τοῖς Ἀχ[αιοῖς ...]; IG IV2,1 61 (150 BC) 2.
1280
IG VII 188 (242-223 BC) 2-3: [ἐπὶ δὲ] | [γραμμ]ατέος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς Στράτωνος...
1281
Larsen (1968) 221.
1282
IG IV2,1 61 (150 BC) 2.
1283
IG VII 2711 (37 AD) 43-45: [γραμ]ματέως τῶν Ἀ[χαιῶν] (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99); IG IV 795
(103-113 AD) 12: γραμματέα τῶν Ἀχαιῶν.
1284
IG IV2,1 63 (115/4 BC) 1, 17-18: ἔδοξε τοῖς συνέδροις καὶ τῷ δάμῳ… / …[ὁ γραμματε]ύς.
222
grammateus of the Panachaian synedrion (γραμματεὺς τῶν Παναχαϊκων συνέδρου) (see
example at the bottom of this page).
Activities
The grammateus of the Achaians may (on one occasion) have acted both as witness and as
holder of manumission funds at Orchomenos. See page 194.
Further particulars
The office of grammateus of the Achaians was an annual, elected office,1285 although the
selection method is uncertain.
Other attributes
Although the League had no real political power after 146 BC, the grammateus could still be
used as part of the dating formula:
ἡ πόλις τῶν Ἀβεατῶν κα|τὰ τὸ τῶν Ἀχαιῶν δό|γμα ἀνέθηκε[ν] ἐπὶ γραμμα|τέος
Δάμωνος τοῦ | Ἀριστέα1286
The polis of the Abians1287 in accordance with the decision of the Achaians set (this)
up in the secretaryship of Damon son of Aristeas.
After 146 BC, the League still bestowed honours,1288 most notably, on its own officers. In
34/35 AD, the League honoured their secretary, Titus Statilius Timokrates for the way in
which he had carried out his office:
ἐπειδὴ Τίτος Στατείλιος Τιμοκράτης ἀνὴρ ἀξιόλογος | καὶ τοῦ πρώτου τάγματος
ἅπαντι τῶι προβεβιωμένῳ σεμνῶς | καὶ θαυμαστῶς βίωι κάλλιστον πολείτευμα
ἐ[ποιήσατο καὶ αἱρε]θεὶς || γραμματεὺς μετὰ τὸ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἡμεῖν ἀποδοθῆναι
μ[ε]γ[αλοψύχως ἐν] | χρόνοις ἐπιπονωτάτων ἅμα καὶ σφαλερωτάτων καιρῶν
πόνο[υς τε κ]αὶ θερα[πείας ὑπέσ]|τη ἑνὸς μὲν ἀνδρὸς μείζονας, ἑνὸς δ’ ἐνιαυτ[ο]ῦ
πλ[είο]νας, δι’ ὧν πολλά[κις καὶ] κα|λῶς διέθηκεν ἡμᾶς καὶ τὰ τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἔτι
πλανώμενα καταστή[μ]α[τα]· δ[ι]ὰ | πάντα ταῦτα ἔδοξε τῶι Παναχαϊκῶι συνεδρίωι
ἐπαινέσαι τὸν ἄνδρα καὶ ἀναστῆσαι | αὐτοῦ χαλκᾶς εἰκόνας ἔν τε τοῖς
πανηγυριστηρίοις τῶν Πα[ναχαιῶν ἔν τε τῶι — —] | [τεμ]ένει καὶ ἐν Ἐπιδαύρωι ἐν
τῶι τοῦ Ἀσκληπιοῦ ἱερῶι, ἐπιγρα[φὴν ἐχούσας· "Ἀχαιοὶ καὶ Βοιωτοὶ] | [καὶ Φω]κεῖς
1285
See IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 9 on page 223.
1286
IG V,1 1352 (119-138 AD) 7-11.
1287
Abia in Messenia was a member of the Achaian League from c.182 BC. Rhodes with Lewis (1997)
83; Shipley (2004) 554.
1288
IG IV2,1 63 (115/4 BC) 9-13, 17-18; IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 14-18; IG IV2,1 80 (34/35 AD) 1-6.
223
καὶ Εὐβοεῖς καὶ Λοκροὶ καὶ Δωριεῖς Τίτον Στατείλιον Τειμοκράτη [γραμματέα] |
[αὐτῶν γεν]όμενον ἀρετῆς ἕνεκα".1289
Since Titus Statilius Timokrates, a remarkable man of the first rank who in every
way has lived his life in a manner worthy of respect and admiration and has
administered the government most honourably, and, having been chosen
grammateus after the grant of freedom to us, in times of the most burdensome and
perilous difficulties has [magnanimously] undertaken tasks and services greater than
(should be asked) of one man and too many (tasks) for one year, and since by
these actions he has many times administered our affairs well and placed on a firm
basis our still shaky conditions of freedom, for all these reasons it has been decreed
by the Panachaian synedrion to praise this man and to erect bronze statues of him
at the locations of the Panachaian festivals and in Amarios’ precinct and in Epidauros
in the temple of Asklepios, inscribed [as follows: Achaians and Boiotians and
Phokians] and Euboians and Lokrians and Dorians (dedicated this statue to) Titus
Statilius Timokrates, having been [their grammateus], because of his excellence.1290
Bronze statues were set up in the meeting place of the Achaian League: the sanctuary of
Zeus Amarios in Aigion, and also in the locations of the Panachaian festivals and the
Asklepieion in Epidauros. This inscription and statue base at Epidauros are the only copies
that survive.
Despite the length of this decree, we are given no information about the duties of this
grammateus; only that he carried them out during a difficult period for the League, and that
he did more than could reasonably be expected of him.
The text appears to show a great deal of respect for Titus Statilius Timokrates. Several years
later he apparently still held this respect, as he was consoled by the Athenians and
Lakedaimonians in further inscriptions after the death of his son. 1291
See also page 206 for two further possible instances where grammateis of the Achaians
were honoured at Olympia.
1289
IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 7-18. See also IV2,1 80 (34/35 AD) 1-6, the text from the statue base. See
also SIG3 796 A; SEG 35:304; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99.
1290
I reproduce the translation from Sherk (1988) 113 no.73, with minor changes in official
designations to maintain consistency with the rest of this thesis.
1291
IG IV2,1 82-84 & 85-86; Oliver (1978) 185-191.
224
γραμματεύς [τῶν νομογράφων] (grammateus of the
nomographoi)
The grammateus of the nomographoi of the Achaian League is known from a single, thirdcentury BC sacred law from Epidauros.1292 The grammateus is listed after a number of
nomographoi, who represent various member poleis of the Achaian League (see page 226).
His precise role is uncertain: it is not known whether he was involved in drafting the law, or
whether he was responsible for recording the names of those present. His origin (i.e.
whether he was local to Epidauros or from another member polis) is also unknown.
This inscription is the only surviving instance from the Peloponnese where a grammateus
works with nomographoi.1293
δαμιοργὸς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν (damiorgos of the Achaians)
Ten damiorgoi formed the governing body of the Achaian League in the period before
146 BC, along with the grammateus and strategos or strategoi.1294
At the end of the third century BC, the Achaian League settled a dispute for the Magnesians,
and were honoured for this with a stele. The Magnesians requested that the damiorgoi of
the Achaian League write up this decree on their behalf, thus enabling the engraving to be
carried out in Achaia:1295
… τοὺς δὲ δαμιοργοὺς τῶν [Ἀ]|χαιῶν ἀναγράψαι τὸ ψάφισμα τὸ παρὰ τᾶς π[ό]|λιος
τῶν Μαγνήτων καὶ τὸ δόγμα τῶν Ἀχαιῶν | εἰς στάλαν λιθίναν καὶ ἀναθέμεν εἰς τὸ
ἱερὸν | τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Ἀμαρίου, ὅπως φανερὸν ἦι καὶ τοῖς | λοιποῖς Ἕλλαισιν…1296
…and the damiorgoi of the Achaians are to write up the decree from the city of the
Magnesians and the decision of the Achaians on a stone stele and set it up in the
sanctuary of Zeus Amarios, so that it is clearly visible to the rest of the Greeks as
well…
The honour was displayed in the sanctuary of Zeus Amarios, the meeting place of the
Achaian League, alongside the League’s other inscriptions.1297
1292
IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 2-3, 29-30.
1293
For nomographoi with ephors at Thouria (Messenia), see page 177.
1294
Plb. 2.43.1-2; Larsen (1968) 217; Sherk (1990a) 257-8; SEG 14:375.
1295
I. Magn 39 (c.208-7 BC).
1296
I. Magn 39 (c.208-7 BC) 33-38 [Magnesia 8].
1297
I. Magn 39 (c.208-7 BC) 43-44. For further examples of damiorgoi acting as secretaries, see
Appendix A page 278.
225
νομογράφος (nomographos)
The nomographoi of the Achaian League are primarily known from a sacred law for the
temple of Hygieia at Epidauros.1298 Little of the law itself remains; however, the text is
interesting for the evidence it provides for the number of nomographoi, and the way in
which they were chosen to represent their member poleis. I reproduce the text in full below.
θεός. τύχα ἀγαθά. | νομογράφοι Ἀχαιῶν οἱ τὸν ν|όμον τᾶι Ὑγιείαι θέντες. vv |
Ἐπιδαύριος· Ἀρχέλοχος v Τι|μαΐδα v Ἑρμιονεύς· v Ἀμφαίν|ετος v Μνάμονος. v
Ἀργεῖοι· v | Λύσιππος v Δαμοκρίτου, v Τι|μοκράτης v Τίμωνος, v Φιλό|δαμος v
Φιλάρχου. v Κλεωναῖ||ος· Νικίας Ξενοκλέος. v Σικυ|ώνιοι· Δεξίας Δέξιος, Πυθο|κλῆς
Πυθοδώρου. v Φλειάσιος· | Ἀρχέας Εὐτελείδα. v Φενεά|τας· Πανταίνετος Διοφάνεος.
| Πελλανεύς· Αἰσχύλος Ἀρχιμή|δεος. v Βούριος· Δίφιλος Δαμο|κράτεος. v Αἰγιεῖς·
Τεισίας v | Ἐχεκράτεος, Νεολαΐδας. v Πα|τρεύς· Ἀγανορίδας Τιμανορί||δα. v Δυμαῖοι·
Θυΐων Λύκωνος, v | Σαμοφάνης Θευξένου. v Φαραι|εύς· Ξένων Σατύρου. v
Τριται|εύς· Ἀριστέας Ἀριστέος. v Λου|σιάτας· Ἀκράγας Κλέϊος. v Με|γαλοπολῖται·
Πύρρανθος Ἱε|ρωνύμου, Λυσίμαχος Λυσίπ[ου] | Καλλίδαμος Καλλιμά[χου. vvv] |
Ἀσχεύς· Ἀριστόβου[λος Λεον]|[τ]ίχου. v γραμματε[ύς· —7—] || [.]λευσ[ι] ....ρ[.— —
] | τᾶι Ὑγιεί[αι τοὺς ἱερέας τοῦ] | Ἀσκλαπιοῦ [τᾶι παναγύρι θύ]|ειν βοῦν. v μν …10…
τὰν | βύρσαν κατα[ναλίσκειν v προ]|στατεύειν [τᾶς θυσίας πάσας] | τοὺς τοῦ
Ἀσ[κλαπιοῦ ἱερέας. v]1299
God. Good fortune. The Achaian nomographoi, who have proposed the law for
Hygieia: Of Epidauros: Archelochos son of Timaidas. Of Hermione: Amphainetos son
of Mnamon. Of Argos: Lysippos son of Damokritos, Timokrates son of Timon,
Philodamos son of Philarchos. Of Kleonai: Nikias son of Xenokles. Of Sicyon: Dexias
son of Dexis, Pythokles son of Pythodoros. Of Phleious: Archeas son of Euteleidas.
Of Pheneos: Pantainetos son of Diophanes. Of Pellana: Aischylos son of Archimedes.
Of Boura: Diphilos son of Damocrates. Of Aigai: Teisias son of Echekrates,
Neolaidas. Of Patrai: Aganoridas son of Timanoridas. Of Dyme: Thyion son of Lykon,
Samophanes son of Theuxenos. Of Pharai: Xenon son of Satyros. Of Tritaia: Aristeas
son of Aristes. Of Lousoi: Akragas son of Kleis. Of Megalopolis: Pyrranthos son of
Hieronymos, Lysimachos son of Lysipos, Kallidamos son of Kallimachos. Of Ascheion:
Aristoboulos son of Leontichos. Secretary: —leus[i] —r. To Hygieia, [the priests of]
Asklepios [are to sacrifice] an ox [at the public festival] … the hide spend lavishly.
[At all the sacrifices] the [priests] of Asklepios are to preside.
1298
IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC); SEG 25:382; SEG 33:300; SEG 35:303; SEG 49:374 bis. Sokolowski (1962)
57-59 no.23; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 98, 108. Rizakis (2003) 104-107 notes a second, unpublished
list of nomographoi from Aigion, which may contain between 40-45 such officers.
1299
IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 1-36. The ‘v’s are word separators included in the original text.
226
The means by which the nomographoi worked together to produce a single law – on which
all parties agreed – is unknown.
Further particulars
The inscription lists 24 nomographoi from 17 poleis, plus one grammateus.1300 Not all of the
poleis of the Achaian League are represented. This could be because smaller poleis did not
write laws to the extent that they warranted their own nomographoi. There is no reason to
assume that some nomographoi have been omitted from the list. Most poleis have one
representative, although some have two or three. This may be linked to the size of the polis,
and if so, could suggest that nomographoi numbers were determined by some form of
proportional representation.1301 The members from Argolis are listed first, followed by the
Corinthian members, Arcadian members and Achaian members. Pheneos, which should be
with the Arcadian members, is listed with the Corinthian members probably due to scribal
error.1302
Other attributes
It is not clear why the law for Hygieia warranted the participation of so many nomographoi.
Possibly all nomographoi were included in an attempt to make the law authoritative among a
large number of cities,1303 or so that no states with an interest in the sanctuary were omitted
(and the perceived offence that this implied), rather than that they were each needed to
play a particular role.
Achaia: concluding remarks
Evidence for the secretaries of Achaia and the Achaian League is scarce, and in those texts
that survive, their functions appear limited. In the third century BC, the Achaian
grammatistas acted as a witness and participant in the registration of citizens at Dyme; 1304 a
duty that could also be carried out by damiorgoi at Tritaia.1305 In the second century BC, a
1300
See page 225.
1301
Rizakis (2003) 104-107 notes a similar, unpublished list of nomographoi supporting this hypothesis,
without adding additional information on the selection process. Aymard (1938) 383-5 presents the
counter-argument, stating that it is impossible to identify a time when proportional representation
would have produced the distribution of nomographoi found here. See also Swoboda (1922).
For further evidence for proportional representation, see Roy (2000a) 312-3 on the damiorgoi of the
Arcadian Confederacy, and Larsen (1968) 225-6, 231 who states (without citing his sources) that
records of the Achaian federal treasury show evidence for payments from member poleis proportional
to the number of representatives in the federal council. Larsen also notes the existence of proportional
representation in the Aetolian, Boeotian, Lycian and Thessalian Leagues.
1302
Nielsen (2004) 527. Pheneos was never attached to Corinthia.
1303
I would like to thank Peter Liddel for this suggestion.
1304
See SIG3  531 (3C BC) 1-8, 25-32 on page 212.
1305
See SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 11-19 on page 218.
227
single text provides evidence for the grammateus of the synedrion participating in arbitration
between two poleis.1306
Little is known either of the grammateus of the Achaian League or the grammateus of the
Achaians, other than that these secretaries could be eponymous,1307 a function also served
by the Achaian grammatistas.1308 The grammateus of the Achaians may have acted as a
witness to a manumission at Orchomenos, with responsibility for manumission funds, but it
is unclear why he would have done so.1309
Other officers of the Achaian League such as the nomographoi and damiorgoi appear to
have taken active roles in arbitration,1310 or drafting laws,1311 but again these offices are
poorly understood; for instance, it is not known how or if these officers were chosen by a
system of proportional representation, or how officers from member poleis worked together.
Secretaries of the Hellenic League
A fragmentary inscription of the Hellenic League contains the earliest known references to
grammateis in the Peloponnese.1312 This incarnation of the Hellenic League (sometimes
called the League of Corinth), was founded in 302 BC as an association of Greeks under
Antigonus and Demetrius I Poliorcetes, based at Corinth. It was rendered obsolete the
following year.1313
The decree declares an alliance between Antigonos and Demetrios I Poliorcetes (line 9), and
those who were ‘partners in the synedrion’ or League (lines 12-13). The remainder of the
text sets out the League’s constitution, the regulations for its member states, and the
penalties for contravening these regulations.1314 The part of the regulations relating to
grammateis is therefore directed at any potential secretaries of the League’s member poleis
and not at specific individuals.
— — — τοὺς [δὲ προέδρους συ]|νάγειν τε τοὺς συνέδρους κ[αὶ τοὺς] γραμματεῖς
ἀπὸ τοῦ κοιν[οῦ δόγματος(?) καὶ τοὺς] || ὑπηρέτας καὶ προτιθέναι περὶ ὧ[ν δεῖ
βου]λεύεσθαι κ[αὶ τὰ] δόξαν[τα μεταδιδόναι] | τοῖς γραμματεῦσι, καὶ αὐτοὺς
1306
See ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 1-2 on page 217.
1307
See pages 222 and 223.
1308
See page 214.
1309
See IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 1-2 on page 194.
1310
E.g. the damiorgoi in I. Magn 39 (c.208-7 BC) 33-38, page 225.
1311
E.g. the nomographoi in IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 1-36, page 226.
1312
IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 78-83.
1313
Griffith (1979) 634-8.
1314
Ager (1996) 65-67.
228
ε[ὔσημα ἀν]τίγροφα [ἔχοντ]ας κ[αὶ τὰς γνώμας πά]|σας εἰσάγειν καὶ ἐπιμελεῖσθαι
τ[οῦ πάντ]η χρ[ηματί]ζειν ε[ὐκόσμως, κυρίους] | ὄντας τὸν ἀτακτοῦντα ζημιοῦν.1315
[And] the [proedroi (presidents)] are both to convene the synedroi and [the]
grammateis in accordance with the common [decision(?) and their] subordinates,
and to set forth (the matters) about which [it is necessary] to take counsel, and
they are to [communicate] the resolutions to the grammateis, [keeping] also
themselves [legible] copies, and they are to introduce [all the decisions] and
supervise the transaction of business in every way [in an orderly fashion, full
authority] belonging to them for penalizing the disorderly.1316
There is no evidence that secretaries in the Peloponnese had their own subordinates (or
slaves), this phrasing instead more accurately reflecting the working environment in Athens.
The form of this text, and the absence of grammateis in some member-poleis at this time,
means that it is unlikely that these regulations could have been carried out.
Other attributes
The above text may date from the period in which Achaia was part of the Hellenic
League.1317 Since the earliest Peloponnesian grammateis for which we have secure evidence
are the (Achaian) grammateis for the Achaian League, 1318 it is tempting to speculate that
membership of the Hellenic League influenced Achaia’s use of the designation grammateus
rather than grammatistas or gropheus; however, this cannot be proven.1319
Conclusions
The evidence for utilisation of secretaries in the Peloponnese starts at approximately the
same time as in Athens; possibly slightly earlier (see Table 13 on pages 290-296). There is
no one single statement that applies to all secretaries, or officials who perform the duties of
secretaries in the Peloponnese. However, when examining the evidence from the
Peloponnese as a whole, the following patterns can be discerned.
While forms of bureaucracy, the number and types of officials present in each polis, and the
style of bureaucratic texts differ from those found in Athens, the Peloponnese shares with
Athens an early use of both temporary and permanent media, the requirement for secure
1315
IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 78-83.
1316
See Harding (1985) 172-173 for an alternative translation of this text.
1317
Before 302 BC–281 BC. Larsen (1968) 216; Tarn (1952) 73.
1318
SIG3 531 (3C BC) 4 (page 213) cannot be dated any more securely than to the third century BC.
1319
Plb. 2.43.1-2. Polybius, writing in the 2C BC, uses the term grammateus rather than (e.g.)
gropheus or grammatistas in his description of the earliest secretary of the Achaian League (see page
221). By Polybius’ time of writing, both gropheus and grammatistas had fallen out of usage.
229
locations in which to store official documents, 1320 and an early need to record financial
information.1321 However, before the third century BC, inscriptions lack publication clauses
which would help in the analysis of the duties carried out by secretaries and associated
officials.1322
The sixth to fourth centuries BC
The earliest known official in the Peloponnese who functioned solely as a secretary was the
gropheus; a designation known only from the Peloponnese and poleis which asked
Peloponnesian poleis to arbitrate on their behalf.1323 The gropheus is first known from
Olympia in the sixth and fifth centuries BC,1324 and from the fourth to the second century BC
is found in several locations across the north of the Peloponnese, with one recorded instance
in Messenia.1325 Early grophees may not have been members of the body for whom they
worked; later grophees could work for the governing body of a polis, for a temple, or be
employed at specific events, such as the games at Lykaia.1326 By the fourth century BC (see
Figure 9 on page 314), the gropheus had been joined by secretaries of various designations
in half a dozen locations in the north of the Peloponnese, from Corinth in the east to Lykaia
in the west.
While the designations gropheus (γροφεύς) and grammateus (γραμματεύς) are linguistically
related, it should be noted that gropheus of a boule or synedrion in the Peloponnese was
not an equivalent office to that of grammateus of the boule at Athens. These officers
differed in several respects. Small poleis typically required a limited range of bureaucratic
documents, therefore the duties of grophees were also more likely to be limited. Only a few
of these documents – mostly honorific and proxeny decrees – were published on stone. In
this respect, the duties of grophees were similar to those of grammateis of Attic demes.1327
Grophees are never known to have read documents to the assembly. Additionally, a
gropheus was usually the secretary of an administrative body with few members, 1328 and
some of these bodies were more oligarchic than any at Athens. The public profile of the
1320
E.g. the records on temporary media stored in a secure location by treasurers in IG IV 554 (480470 BC) 1-7, page 132.
1321
See e.g. the earliest recorded accounting with secretary, IG IV2,1 108 (4/3C BC) 159-161, page 145.
1322
While early texts are inscribed on stone, the earliest formula stating this is in IG IV2,1 68, the Hellenic
League text of 302 BC (page 228).
1323
E.g. the gropheus at Elis, pages 208-210, and the Argive gropheus known from Cimolos, page 138.
1324
See Appendix B page 310 for a list of texts.
1325
See Figures 9 to 11, pages 314-316.
1326
See IG V,2 550 (4C BC) on page 186.
1327
Osborne (1985) 79, 206.
1328
Such as the grammateus of the Tegean assembly, page 196.
230
gropheus was also lower than that of the grammateus, and grophees are not known to have
been honoured.1329
The designation grammateus first occurs in the Peloponnese at the end of the fourth century
BC, as an officer of the short-lived Hellenic League.1330 Shortly afterwards, grammateus is used
for secretaries of the Achaian League,1331 and thereafter is used to indicate ‘secretary’
generally. Grophees and grammateis could be present in a polis at the same time,1332 and the
designation gropheus only fell out of use during the Roman occupation of the Peloponnese.1333
Several boards within the administration of a single polis could each have their own
secretary, and a single body could also have more than one type of secretary. For example
at Argos, the aliaia, the Eighty, the polemarchs and the stratagoi each had their own
grophees (pages 135-140), while at Stymphalos, the katakooi co-existed alongside the
gropheus (page 184), and at Corinth, the grammatistas co-existed alongside grammateis
(see page 126). Texts produced typically consist of honours,1334 proxeny decrees,1335 and
registers of officers.1336 Less frequently-occurring types of document are laws,1337 records of
arbitration between other poleis,1338 temple accounts,1339 and letters.1340
From the fifth century BC to the first century AD, other officers such as the epimeletes and
katalogos boulas could perform some of the duties of secretaries in addition to their other
functions.1341 This suggests that small poleis had few officials, and that those present were
required to carry out a wide range of duties. From the fourth century BC, secretaries could
also occasionally be asked to participate in duties more typically associated with other
officers, such as the enrolling of citizens. 1342
1329
The exception is perhaps a false archaism, where a Roman officer is called gropheus rather than
grammateus. See page 136.
1330
See IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 78-83 on page 228.
1331
See page 221.
1332
See Figures 10 and 11 on pages 315 and 316.
1333
The designation grammateus is used almost without exception for secretaries in the Roman period.
See Figures 12-14 on pages 317-319.
1334
E.g. honours written by the grammateis of a theatrical guild at Argos, page 133.
1335
E.g. proxeny decrees written by ephors in several small poleis in Laconia, page 158.
1336
E.g. registers of officers and those making libations at the temple of Zeus at Olympia, page 204.
1337
E.g. laws written by nomographoi at Hermione, page 150.
1338
E.g. arbitration written by an Argive gropheus at Cimolos, page 138.
1339
E.g. temple accounts at Epidauros, page 145.
1340
E.g. letters are used at Sparta, pages 165 and 177, and Dyme, page 215.
1341
See artunas, damiorgos, epimeletes, stratagos, tamias and ephor in Figures 8-13, pages 313-318.
1342
E.g. the katalogos boulas at Epidauros, page 147, and the grammatistas at Dyme, page 213.
231
The third century BC
In the third century BC, secretaries are attested throughout the northern Peloponnese, and
were also occasionally found in Laconia and Messenia (see Figure 10 on page 315). As in the
fourth century, secretaries worked both within polis administration, and with temple officials,
with higher numbers and a greater variety of secretaries recorded per polis than in any other
century. We also see the first evidence of specialisation in the nomographoi, ‘law-writers’
who worked either as boards or individual officers for specific poleis, or as boards for the
Achaian League.1343 Unfortunately, the small number of sources for nomographoi of the
Achaian League, coupled with the fragmentary nature of many of the sources for
nomographoi of individual poleis, means that it is difficult to discern any difference between
the duties of nomographoi of poleis, and nomographoi of Leagues. Additionally, some of our
sources are so fragmentary that it is currently impossible to categorically state whether
some officers were part of polis or League administration.
The second century BC
Without Roman intervention, it is possible that the employment of secretaries in many of the
poleis of the Peloponnese would have continued to follow the trends started in the fourth
and third centuries, with a similar range of duties, and a continued increase in numbers.
Instead, numbers of secretaries were slightly lower in the second century BC (see Figure 11
on page 316), but with the (apparently) sudden rise of the ephor as the officer who wrote
official documents and otherwise acted as secretary in various poleis in Laconia. 1344
Additionally, grammateis appear to perform a more limited range of duties: for example, in
Laconia, predominantly compiling registers of officials, which contain no additional
information.1345 One new duty is attested for the first time, however: that of storing
documents in (and possibly also retrieving documents from) archives.1346
The first century BC to the second century AD
The first century BC shows a marked change from the previous three centuries, in terms of
the locations which employed secretaries, the designations found, and the numbers of
secretaries attested (see Figure 12 on page 317). Few officers are recorded in the north of
the Peloponnese, and instead Laconia and Messenia are the most productive. This change
1343
E.g. the nomographoi of the Achaian League at Epidauros, page 226.
1344
For ephors as secretaries, see pages 154, 158 and 177. Shipley (2005) 325: “The overall numbers
(of inscriptions) are more or less the same in the fourth, third and second centuries, but increase sharply
in third-century Arcadia and Messenia. … In the second century, there are sharp falls in the Argolid, but
steep increases in Messenia, Laconia and Achaia. The downturn in the Argolid was perhaps a result of the
Roman conquest.”
1345
E.g. IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 1-25 on page 160.
1346
E.g. the grammatophylakion at Sparta, page 162.
232
may be attributable to Roman intervention in the Peloponnese. From the same period, we
also find inscriptions honouring Roman officials who held several magistracies including that
of grammateus.1347
By the first century BC, the Peloponnesian designations gropheus and katalogos boulas
appear to have fallen out of use altogether, and the most common designation for
secretaries is grammateus. From the first century BC, Sparta also provides evidence for
hypogrammateis,1348 ‘under-secretaries’ also known from Athens and Delos from the fifth
and fourth centuries BC onwards.1349 The picture is much the same in the first century AD
(see Figure 13 on page 318).
By the second century AD, the dispersal pattern of the first century AD appears to have
become more firmly established, with a rise in the numbers of secretaries found in these
poleis (see Figure 14 on page 319).
Geographical mobility
Our earliest evidence from the Peloponnese suggests that, in the sixth and fifth centuries BC,
secretaries could be itinerant. This statement is based on a single inscription in which the
rights of one gropheus and his descendants were protected, suggesting that he did not have
rights otherwise accorded to citizens. This, in conjunction with his name (which is otherwise
unattested in that region) suggests that he was a slave and/or not local.1350 This extremely
early text has been compared with the Spensithios decree from Crete, and used as evidence
that this gropheus had specialist skills not otherwise available in this polis.1351
Evidence for secretaryship as a specialist activity practised by itinerant workers is not found
after the end of the fifth century BC. From the fourth century BC, most secretaries appear to
have worked in the polis in which they were born. One exception appears to be a fourth- or
third-century BC gropheus at Epidauros, who wrote a decree in an Argive style and had a
demotic otherwise unattested locally, but attested in Argos. 1352
Some secretaries appear to have written and set up stelai in remote locations, where we
would not expect permanent administrative bodies, such as a list of names and designations
set up on the island of Kalaureia.1353 Other secretaries declare themselves to be secretaries
1347
See Appendix C page 321 for a list of these texts.
1348
See page 165.
1349
See Appendix A pages 284-289.
1350
Patrias the gropheus (IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 1-9), pages 208-210.
1351
Nomima 22 (c.500 BC) 1-5, page 210.
1352
Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 1-8, page 144. Any texts written by Athenians at Delos also fall into the
category of secretaries working in a polis other than the one in which they were born.
1353
IG IV 824 (3C BC) 1-9, page 151.
233
of magistrates or bodies otherwise unattested in a particular location, such as the gropheus
of the damiourgoi known from a list of victors at games in Lykaia, which was managed by
Megalopolis,1354 and the grammateus of the synedrion at Andania in Messenia, which was
under the control of Messene.1355
The overall picture
The overall picture is one of great variety in terms of numbers of secretaries per polis,
designations found, and types of document produced. It is possible to see trends both in
individual poleis and across certain regions at certain times.
Between 400 and 100 BC, Argos and Epidauros attest the greatest number of secretaries and
most variety in designations, and these officers carry out the widest range of duties found in
the Peloponnese. In the first and second centuries AD, the most productive poleis in terms of
number of officers were Sparta and Olympia, with Sparta attesting the greatest number of
officers overall. However, there is little variety in the designations found, 1356 and the duties
of these officers appear limited.1357 Indeed, the most interesting documents from this period
are not from Sparta, but are the proxeny decrees produced by ephors in various small
Laconian poleis.1358
With the exception of its two early texts, Elis provides the least variety of all Peloponnesian
states in terms of both designations and subject matter, with all secretaries connected in
some capacity with the temple at Olympia. All areas produce evidence for secretaries by the
third century BC, with Troizen/Hermionis showing the shortest period of activity: the third
century BC only. Only Laconia and Messenia provide evidence for standardisation or ‘unity’
among their officers and documents. This is achieved through the use of a limited number of
magistracies across all poleis, and an apparently reduced range of duties and texts.
For further analysis of specific duties and attributes of these offices, see Chapter 4.
1354
IG V,2 550 (4C BC) 1-6, page 186.
1355
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 132-137, page 170.
1356
See Appendix B page 306 for a list of these texts.
1357
See e.g. page 160 for the duties of grammateis at Sparta.
1358
See pages 154, 158 and 177 for the ephors in Laconia and Messenia.
234
Chapter 4 – Conclusions
Secretaries carried out a range of activities for a body or magistrate. These primarily took
the form of any writing required, but might also include reading, accounting or other
administrative duties. In terms of further particulars of the office, the majority of secretaries
were elected by lot, with no prior qualifications, for a set period of either one year or one
prytany only. During this time, a secretary could work alongside or with a wide range of
officers. Other attributes suggest that secretaries were rarely prominent individuals, and that
while some served in an administrative capacity for leagues, or worked in poleis other than
the one in which they were born, the majority were concerned with the records of their
home polis only.
Activities
Writing on temporary media
Much of the daily administrative business carried out by most secretaries consisted of writing
on wooden tablets or papyrus. Wooden tablets could be used for the drafting of texts to be
inscribed, for recording information not intended for public display, and for the recording of
information with a limited useful lifespan, such as accounts.
In Athens, the anagrapheus of the laws (page 40) is likely to have made extensive use of
temporary media in drafting new laws. Similarly, the syngrapheis (page 75) were
commissioners for drafting the laws (by which we might assume that most of their work
involved drafting documents on temporary media), and the grammateus of the hellenotamiai
(pages 86-87) used whitened boards to record the names of cities in default of tribute. We
may also assume that in recording ‘everything else’, 1359 the grammateus of the boule used
temporary media to record the laws and decrees of the boule and demos.
Many Athenian secretaries may have carried out all of their daily duties by writing on
temporary media, such as the antigrapheus (page 49), who was responsible for boule
accounts, the katalogeus (page 102), who enrolled the 5,000 (or more), and the
grammateus for the assessors (page 98), who received accounts submitted by officials at
the end of their year in office.
Most of the daily duties of secretaries in the Peloponnese are also likely to have been carried
out on temporary media. Throughout the Peloponnese, nomographoi made extensive use of
temporary media in drafting laws,1360 making modifications to laws recorded on papyri, 1361
1359
Ath. Pol. 54.3, page 58.
1360
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10, page 164, and SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 16-27, page 216.
235
writing texts to be stored in an archive,1362 and writing letters.1363 Other officers used
wooden tablets or papyri for the registration of citizens,1364 creating lists of victors,1365 writing
messages or letters,1366 and making copies of decrees to be set up elsewhere.1367
From the fifth century BC (if not earlier) in Athens,1368 and the second century BC in the
Peloponnese,1369 secretaries made use of archives.1370 These could either take the form of
document storage within a building which also served another purpose (such as a
sanctuary),1371 or be dedicated archive buildings.1372
Writing for publication on stelai
Many documents were also published on stelai. The secretary who published the most texts
on this medium, over the longest period, was the Athenian grammateus of the boule.
Consequently, this officer is also the secretary whose duties are best understood.
The Athenian grammateus of the boule wrote any laws, decrees, decisions, honours,
registers and/or financial accounts asked of him,1373 and the duties of all other secretaries
appear limited by comparison. There is no comparable, prevalent office in the Peloponnese,
and the most significant secretary of one polis may have a different designation from, and
(apparently) different duties from the most significant secretary in another polis. For
example, the grammateus of the boule at Sparta is known primarily from registers of
magistrates, while the Aiginetan grammateus of the demos is known from two honorific
decrees only.1374
1361
IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 6-11, page 191.
1362
IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 23-31, page 149, and IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 6-11, page 192.
1363
SEG 52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7, page 165, SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-36, pages 177-178, and
SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 16-27, page 216.
1364
The grammatistas, boularchos and prostatas of the damosiophylakes at Dyme: SIG3 
531 (3C BC) 25-32, page 213.
1365
IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4, page 162.
1366
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10, page 164.
1367
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 30-40, pages 202-204.
1368
Sickinger (1999) 73-83, 110-111.
1369
E.g. the grammatophylakion and damosios at Sparta: IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4, page 162 and
SEG 52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7, page 165.
1370
See Sickinger (1999) esp. 62-72.
1371
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 112-114, page 170.
1372
E.g. the demosios at Dyme: SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 16-27, page 216, and the grammatophylakion
at Megalopolis: IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 6-11, page 192.
1373
See, e.g. IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19 on page 54.
1374
See, e.g. IG IV2 749 (159-144 BC) 45-46 on page 124.
236
Other secretaries also well-known for publishing on stelai are the Athenian grammateus of
the boule and the demos, who, in addition to reading out decrees, published approximately
a quarter of the decrees of the boule and demos during the period in which this office was in
existence.1375 Of equal (if short-lived) prominence were the anagrapheis of the laws, who
revised some of the most significant Athenian documents,1376 and the later (oligarchic)
anagrapheus, who published the greatest number of decrees per year, in the years 321/0 to
319/18 BC.1377
Many other offices are imperfectly understood, due to their presence in a few stelai
(covering a narrow range of subjects) only: typically honours or proxeny decrees,1378 or
registers of magistrates.1379 When an office is known from a few texts, or even a single text
only, one cannot say that this officer’s duties were confined to writing on a narrow range of
subjects. It is more likely that these officers wrote a range of documents, but published few
of them on stone.
Making copies
Copying texts was also part of the duties of many secretaries.1380 For example, the Athenian
grammateus of the boule, other secretaries in charge of state documents and demosios each
made their own copy of the contents of the Chalkotheke,1381 and copies of decrees were also
made by officers such as Argive grophees1382 and Spartan nomographoi.1383 All secretaries for
whom we have evidence of copying also appear to have had other duties, and no secretary
is known to have made copies only.
Financial and/or accounting duties
In both Athens and the Peloponnese, financial and accounting duties were typically carried
out by treasurers or accountants,1384 but could also be carried out by secretaries.
In Athens, some minor secretaries created boule accounts,1385 assisted with the management
of accounts submitted by magistrates at the end of their year in office, 1386 and catalogued
1375
See IG II2 496 (303/2 BC) 36-39 on page 65 and Table 14 on page 297.
1376
Such as the homicide law (IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 4-6) pages 38-40, and the Athenian sacrificial
calendar, pages 40-41.
1377
See pages 46-47 and 60.
1378
E.g. the Grammateus of the phyle at Athens, page 108, and the dogmatographoi at Amyklai, page 157.
1379
E.g. the grammateus for life at Athens, page 111, and the grammateus at Elis, page 204.
1380
The verbs anagrapho ((ID 88 (368-362 BC) 22-24), antigrapho (IG II2 120 (358/7–354/3 BC) 15-17) and
grapho + antigraphon (IG V,1 1336 (undated) 19) can all be used for ‘create a copy’.
1381
IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19, pages 55 and 83.
1382
ISE 40 (c.300 BC) 2-4, 27-33, page 139.
1383
SEG 52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7, page 165.
1384
See e.g. IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 26-30 in n.979, page 175.
237
treasury items (a duty also attested for secretaries in the Peloponnese and Delos). 1387 In the
Peloponnese, where financial and accounting duties are attested, they could (presumably
from necessity) be carried out by a polis’ only secretary. 1388
Reading aloud
The reading of documents aloud by secretaries is attested only in Athens, and only by the
grammateus of the boule and the demos1389 and the grammateus who was clerk of the
court1390 (although the grammateus of the boule may also have done so).1391 The activity is
not attested in the Peloponnese.
Restrictions on activities
Few sources mention restrictions placed upon the work of secretaries. Those that exist fall
into three categories: time restrictions, use of specific media, and the requirement that the
document be written as directed by another officer.
At Athens, from the middle to the last quarter of the fourth century BC, a time limit of ten
days could be placed on the grammateus of the boule, in which he was to complete and set
up a stele containing a proxeny decree.1392 There is no evidence to suggest that this time
limit was enforced.1393 At approximately the same time, in the Peloponnese, one document
also places a time limit of ten days upon Mantinean epimeletai, within which they are to
register the Heliswasians.1394
Conditions related to the type of media used are known only from the Peloponnese, where
one document records that the results of an arbitration are to be written up on a stele only if
1385
See antigrapheus, page 49, and antigrammateus, page 110.
1386
See the secretary of the logistai and synegoroi (assessors), pages 98 and 104.
1387
In Athens, see the recording of objects in the Chalkotheke, page 81, and the grammateus of the
treasurers of Athena, pages 86 and 88. In the Peloponnese, the gropheus of the hiaromnamones may
have written temple accounts, page 145. For Delos, see the grammateus of the hieropoioi, page 330.
1388
The gropheus of the bola at Sicyon handled travelling expenses on at least one occasion, page
129, and the dogmatographoi at Amyklai submitted an account of expenses incurred, page 157.
1389
See page 65.
1390
See pages 67 and 93.
1391
See page 57.
1392
See page 59, esp. n.241.
1393
It is impossible to pin time limits specified by Lysias to any official requirements of the office of
anagrapheus of the laws (see page 44).
1394
See IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18, page 188.
238
favourable.1395 Another decree notes that a document is to be written in the way specified by
the synedroi.1396
No activity specified or attested
In both Athens and the Peloponnese, there are many secretaries for whom we have no
evidence of any activity. For example, the grammateus of the eisagogeis and the
grammateus of the thesmothetai are known from information about their means of selection
only,1397 and while the hypogrammateus is known from a range of contexts, he is not known
from his duties.1398 Other secretaries are known from honours only,1399 from registers of
magistrates only,1400 or from the eponymous nature of their office only. 1401
Other duties not directly related to secretaryship
In the Peloponnese but not in Athens, secretaries could perform functions unrelated to
secretaryship, but related to being one of a small group of magistrates for a specific polis.
For example, in Orchomenos, the grammateus of the synedrion could witness
manumission,1402 while at Dyme, citizens were registered with several officers including the
grammatistas.1403 At Argos, grophees are associated with improvements to the temple of
Pythian Apollo.1404 The duty most unlike ‘secretaryship’ is attested at Thouria, where the
grammateus of the synedrion helped distribute grain: something he is unlikely to have done
if Thouria had had a greater number of magistrates.1405 This wider range of activities
appears to have been necessary in smaller administrations, which employed fewer officers.
While secretaries are known from legal contexts, 1406 the only secretaries who may have had
legal duties were the Athenian grammateus and syngrammateus of the eisagogeis, who
were chosen from among the eisagogeis.1407
1395
ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 10-14, Patrai, page 218.
1396
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23, Thouria, page 176.
1397
See pages 68 and 91.
1398
See pages 78 and 165.
1399
E.g. the grammateus of the bouleutai, page 97, and the secretary in charge of decrees, page 73.
1400
E.g. the grammateus for life, page 111, and the grammateus at Olympia, page 204.
1401
See n.1498.
1402
IG V,2 345 (79-78 BC) 9-12, page 195.
1403
SIG3  531 (3C BC) 25-32, pages 212-213. See also the Delian grammateus of the hieropoioi,
grammateus of the polis and grammateus of the demos acting as witnesses: pages 328 and 334.
1404
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-6, page 135. See also the naopoioi at Delos, page 338.
1405
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23, page 176.
1406
See the grammateus of the Eleven (page 90), thesmothetai (page 91), and ‘the court’ generally
(page 93).
1407
See page 68.
239
Secretarial duties carried out by officers who were not secretaries
While secretaries are the officers most frequently attested writing official documents, they
are not the only officers. For example, damiourgoi,1408 ephors,1409 epimeletai,1410 stratagoi1411
and tamiai1412 in various locations could write decrees or honours. Officers other than
secretaries could also make copies of decrees,1413 write proposals or regulations,1414 record
names1415 or the results of arbitration,1416 assist with the registration of citizens,1417 and
transport and set up stelai.1418 Some other officers were also involved in the creation of
financial or accounting records, such as the thesmothetes, who wrote up ordinances and
received statements of irregularities in these accounts,1419 and the tamiai, who were
treasurers.1420 Additionally, the Athenian demarch appears to have had as wide a range of
secretarial duties – if not wider – than many Athenian secretaries, and is known from
honours, contracts and registration documents.1421
Stonecutting
The ‘manufacturing’ of stelai is rarely mentioned, and only two inscriptions from the
Peloponnese provide evidence that a secretary could also be a stonecutter. 1422 Evidence for
connections between secretaries and stonecutters is limited to the few texts where they are
both mentioned in conjunction with a sum of money to be shared between them on
1408
Pages 149 and 182.
1409
Pages 154, 158 and 177-177.
1410
Pages 109, 188 and 199.
1411
Page 197.
1412
Pages 106, 114, 152, 166. (See also the Delian archithiasites, page 340.)
1413
See the kerux in IG IV2,1 83 (40-42 AD) 15-19, page 103.
1414
See the Argive artunas, IG IV 554 (480-470 BC) 1-7, pages 131-132, and nomodeiktai in Andania,
IG V,1 1390 (92-91 BC) 112-114, page 170.
1415
E.g. the Athenian hellenotamiai, IG I3 68 (426/5 BC) 18-21, pages 86-87.
1416
I. Magn 39 (c.208-7 BC) 33-38, page 225.
1417
E.g. the Athenian phratriarch was involved in the introduction of new phratry members, pages
106-107, and Arcadian epimeletai registered Heliswasians, IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18 (page 188).
1418
E.g. the damiourgoi at Hermione, IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 23-31, page 149.
1419
See page 103.
1420
See page 106.
1421
See page 105.
1422
The stalographos in Arcadia, IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18, page 189, and one grammateus who
may have made (ἐπόησε) a memorial at Epidauros, IG IV2,1 306 (c.206 BC) A1-C5, page 143.
240
completion of some work,1423 and rare occasions where the stonecutter is included at the
end of a text that he engraved.1424
Further Particulars
Qualifications, experience, and means of appointment
If we understand the statement in the Athenaion Politeia that the grammateus of the boule
was chosen from ‘the most distinguished and trustworthy men’1425 to mean that these
grammateis were initially chosen from the pentakosiomedimnoi, there may have been a
financial or property qualification for the earliest Athenian secretaries. With some other, early
secretaryships such as the gropheus in Elis, it may not have even been necessary to be a
citizen.1426 Wages of secretaries – where they existed1427 – tended to be small, and so many
officers would have needed to be independently wealthy in order to support themselves for
the duration of their office.1428 This would have prevented many men from standing for office.
There is little evidence to suggest that previous experience was necessary in order to
become a secretary, and some evidence (in the case of Nikomachos, fifth-century
anagrapheus of the laws) that expertise was mistrusted, as it could (theoretically) be used
for personal gain.1429 Offices of a years’ duration made the acquisition of ‘expertise’ difficult,
and arguably the only officers able to be ‘experts’ from the fourth century BC onwards were
the hypogrammateis who served for two or more years under different magistrates,1430 and
the secretaries for life of the ephebes. 1431
At a very basic level, we could argue that the ability to read and/or write fluently would be
compulsory, but there is no evidence that these skills were a requirement. In theory, in
Athens before c.367/6 BC (when selection of officers was by show of hands), fluent literacy
could make a man more likely to be elected; however, from this point onwards, selection of
1423
E.g. the stonecutter working with grammateis at Delos, pages 331, 347-348.
1424
E.g. stonecutters working with grammateis at Thalamai, page 166.
1425
Ath. Pol. 54.3, page 57.
1426
Patrias the gropheus, IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 1-9, page 208.
1427
See page 118.
1428
As appears to have been the case with one grammateus honoured for his euergetism,
SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2, 15-29, page 172. See also page 349.
1429
See page 41 for more on Nikomachos’ expertise.
1430
Hansen (1999) 244-5. See also Table 12 on page 288.
1431
See page 111.
241
magistrates was by lot, which made any previous relevant skills irrelevant, and selection on
this basis impossible.1432
Athenian secretaryships abolished before the mid-fourth century BC are known only to have
elected by show of hands.1433 With only the exception of the minor office of grammateus
elected by hairesis (page 94), offices known from the mid-fourth century BC onwards were
elected by lot.1434 We lack evidence for means of selection in the Peloponnese.
Duration of office
From the mid-fourth century BC onwards, the majority of secretaryships in Athens were
annual – the same duration as other offices, such as those held by archons.1435 The duration
of some minor secretarial offices is unknown;1436 however, where archons (for example) are
known to have served for a year, we may assume that their secretaries served for the same
period. One inscription1437 notes the election of secretaries of several minor groups at the
same time as secretaries of archons, which may suggest that these officers also held office
for a year.
There are two periods in which Athenian offices could be held for more, or less than a year:
from the late sixth to mid-fourth centuries BC (under, or shortly after more oligarchic forms
of government), and in the Roman period. The early grammateus of the boule held office for
a prytany from the late sixth to the mid-fourth century BC,1438 while in the fifth century, the
syngrammateus may have served for two years,1439 and the anagrapheus of the laws had an
office with no fixed term.1440 In the Roman period, the minor offices of hypogrammateus of
the boule1441 and grammateus (of the ephebes) for life1442 may have been held for several
years, or for life.
1432
For the change in selection methods, see page 43. For the selection of specific magistracies, see
under Election in the index.
1433
E.g. the syngrapheis, page 76.
1434
See page 98.
1435
See e.g. the grammateus of the boule, pages 53, 60 and 109; the grammateus of the boule and
the demos, page 66 and the antigrapheus, page 51.
1436
E.g. the Athenian grammateus of the thesmothetai, page 91, and the grammateus of the
hipparchs, page 92.
1437
Hesp. 6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 4-20, page 98.
1438
See pages 52, 59 and 109.
1439
See page 74.
1440
See page 42. See also the Delian grammateus of the amphictyons, page 327, which was initially held
for five years and later became annual.
1441
See Table 12, page 288.
1442
See page 111.
242
In the Peloponnese, the duration of offices is uncertain, but most may also have been for a
year, as was the case with the ephors at Sparta. 1443 Offices with a duration of more than a
year are attested in three contexts, all from the Roman period. The office of grammateus at
the temple of Zeus in Olympia may have been hereditary, and held for many years; 1444 one
grammateus for the synedroi at Megalopolis appears to have been grammateus twice;1445
and one Roman magistrate at Olympia appears to have been grammateus for a second time
(for an unknown body or bodies), in addition to holding other magistracies during the course
of his lifetime.1446
In the Peloponnese, offices of less than a years’ duration are limited to cases where officers
acted as secretary only when required, as with the grophees and katalogoi boulas at
Epidauros,1447 and one or two cases where early secretaries were itinerant workers;1448 a
feature of secretaryship not found in Athens.
Membership (and designations)
Unless specified in ancient sources, it is impossible to tell whether secretaries were chosen
from among the members of the body for which they worked: official designations provide
no clues in this respect. The Athenian grammateus of the boule was probably a member of
the boule in the period before 367/6 BC;1449 however, this secretary could have either the
same designation, or a different designation (grammateus kata prytaneian1450 or peri to
bema1451) when he was no longer a member of the boule.
The use of the genitive (i.e. ‘of the’) and dative (‘for the’) in designations cannot be used as
an indicator of membership. For instance, while the genitive ‘of the’ might suggest that the
secretary was drawn from the members of a body, and the dative ‘for the’ might suggest
that a secretary worked for a body, but was not a member of it, the designation
grammateus for the Achaians (in the dative) was used only when the grammateus was from
one of the member poleis of the Achaian League, and the designation grammateus of the
Achaians (in the genitive) was used only when ‘Achaia’ referred to Greece as a Roman
province. Additionally, other secretaries of the Achaian League – the nomographoi – do not
1443
See page 160.
1444
See page 205.
1445
See page 191.
1446
See page 207. Proxenos of Acherdos may also have been grammateus of the boule twice at
Athens: see page 61.
1447
See pages 146-148.
1448
See page 233.
1449
See page 59.
1450
See pages 53 and 57.
1451
See page 56.
243
have an ‘X of the body Y’ form of designation at all. Finally, while the designation
grammateus for life implies permanent holding of an office, it does not provide evidence for
permanent membership of any group.1452 The only persons we can categorically say were not
members of the body for which they worked were ‘itinerant’ secretaries,1453 and slaves.1454
Contexts
Secretaries are known from a wide range of contexts. Both the Hellenic League and Achaian
League had their own grammateis,1455 and boards of secretaries are attested both for
leagues,1456 and for individual poleis.1457
The majority of secretaries are known from bodies at polis level: typically a boule1458 or
synedrion.1459 Just as the Athenian grammateus of the boule was the most prominent
secretary involved in Athenian administration, the grammateus of the boule, grammateus of
the synedrion or gropheus bolas was the most prominent secretary involved in the
administration of his home polis. Most Peloponnesian poleis employed one or two secretaries
only. Therefore the designations grammateus, gropheus (or graphes) and grammatistas also
typically refer to the most prominent (or only) secretary of a polis.1460
Occasionally, secretaries are also found at sub-polis level in both Athens and the
Peloponnese, for example secretaries for the ephebes,1461 or for theatrical guilds.1462
Specialism
Evidence for specialism – where an official works on a subset of the available administrative
duties of a polis – is scarce, but may possibly be found in instances where a secretary is the
subject of a verb with the same prefix as his designation, and/or specialism is implied by the
context. For instance, the Athenian syngrapheis (commissioners) commissioned (hοι
1452
For the grammateus for life, see page 111.
1453
E.g. the stalographos, page 189. See also Geographical Mobility, page 233.
1454
The hyperetes, page 83.
1455
See pages 228 and pages 225-226 respectively.
1456
The nomographoi of the Achaian League, page 226.
1457
Boards of nomographoi are attested at Dyme, page 216, Hermione, page 150, Megalopolis, page
191, Tegea, page 197, Thouria, page 178 and Sparta, page 164. For dogmatographoi at Sparta, see
page 156.
1458
See, e.g. the grammateus of the boule at Athens, pages 51-52 and the gropheus of the bola at
Argos, pages 137-138.
1459
E.g. the grammateus of the synedroi at Messene, page 173, and the grammateus for the synedroi
at Megalopolis, page 190.
1460
See, e.g. the grammateus at Corinth, page 127; grammatistas at Dyme: pages 196 and 212;
graphes at Tegea, pages 196-197, and gropheus at Argos, pages 135-136.
1461
The grammateus for life of the ephebes at Athens, pages 94 and 111.
1462
E.g. the grammateis of a theatrical guild at Argos, page 133.
244
χσυνγγραφες χσυνέγραφσαν),1463 the antigrapheus transcribed (ἀντιγραφεύς…
ἀντιγράφεσθαι),1464 and the katalogeus catalogued (καταλογεὺς… κατέλεξεν).1465
Nomographoi are also typically shown in the action of graphein + nomoi,1466 but are also found
in conjunction with ordinances (dogmata) which become laws, or that are incorporated into
existing laws.1467 Both duties could be seen as specialism. Similarly, in our one surviving
instance of Laconian dogmatographoi, the dogmatographoi write up a dogma.1468 Trying to
assign meaning to prefixes of designations can be misleading, however. While the
anagrapheus is frequently the subject of the verb anagrapho, so are most (if not all)
secretaries where a verb is specified, and anagrapho is also used to describe writing carried
out by officers such as the epimeletes or tamias. (Conversely, a grammateus is rarely the
subject of the verb grapho.)
While it is likely that secretaries could learn or improve upon various skills while in office,
even ‘specialists’ are unlikely to have been considered ‘professionals’ or ‘experts’ in an office
of a year’s duration (or less).
Some secretaries are never the subject of a verb, and so it is difficult to prove either status
or specialism, despite this being implied by a designation or prefix. For example, it is unclear
whether the hypogrammateus ever acted as ‘under-secretary’ in any real sense.1469 Likewise,
specialism is inferred (but cannot be proven) from designations such as secretary in charge
of decrees ([ὁ] ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα) and secretary for the laws ([ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους).1470
Collaboration and collegiality
Secretaries could collaborate with other secretaries, and with other officers. Collaboration is
signified in epigraphic evidence when two or more persons are subjects of the same verb,
i.e. they are part of the same action. For example, the Athenian anagrapheis of the laws
take (παραλαβόντες) the homicide law passed to them by the basileus,1471 and grophees at
Argos make and put in place (κατεσκεύασσαν καὶ ἥσσαντο) building work including a
1463
IG I3 21 (450/49 BC) 3, page 74.
1464
Harp. Words Used by the Ten Orators 35.4, page 49.
1465
Lys. 20.13, page 102. Usher (1976) 31-32 offers a counter-argument to verbs as evidence for
specialisation.
1466
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-2: γ[ραψ]άν[τ]ω… νόμον, page 164; IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 5: γραψάτωσαν…
νόμον, page 197; SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 9: νόμους γράψας, page 216.
1467
IG IV 679 (late 3-2C BC) 23-25: τοὺς δὲ νομογράφους… κατα[χ]ω|ρίσαι τοῦτο <τὸ> δόγμα εἰς τοὺς
[νόμους], page 149. There is no surviving evidence for nomographoi writing psephismata.
1468
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 14: ἀναγραφήσεται τὸ δόγμα, page 156.
1469
See the activities of hypogrammateis, page 78.
1470
See pages 72-73.
1471
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 4-6, page 39.
245
colonnade and enclosing wall.1472 Evidence for collaboration is also found in instances where
all parties are part of the same epigraphic formula. For example, secretaries collaborated
with other officers in the registration of citizens1473 or management of treasuries;1474 there
may also have been a degree of collaboration between whoever wrote the text for a stele
and the tamias who provided the funds;1475 where a text was written by one officer and set
up by another;1476 or where a copy of a decree was sent away to another polis, and set up
there.1477
Designations which imply a secretary had co-workers may also suggest that these officers
were expected to collaborate; for example the antigrammateus (checking- or copying-clerk)
by definition checked or copied something we assume was written by someone else,1478 and
the syngrammateis1479 and syngrapheis1480 by definition worked with another secretary.
There is stronger evidence for collegiality (officers working alongside each other, rather than
with each other) than collaboration. This can be inferred when secretaries and other officers
are collectively honoured;1481 when the same two officers frequently occur in the same text
(such as the grammateus of the boule and grammateus of the boule and the demos);1482
when two secretaries are chosen from the same board of magistrates; 1483 when two
secretaries only ever appear together (such as the grammateus elected by hairesis, and the
grammateus appointed by lot);1484 or when groups of officers (such as the grammateus and
hypogrammateus of the ephebes) serve ‘for life’.1485
Evidence for collegiality rather than collaboration is also found in sources where one officer
follows orders given by another, such as when the grammateus of the Eleven removes
1472
Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-6, page 135.
1473
In IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-18, stalographoi and epimeletai ensure that Heliswasians are
registered within ten days, page 188.
1474
E.g. the grammateus of the boule, ‘other secretaries in charge of state documents’ and demosios
in IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19, page 54.
1475
See e.g. IG II2120 (353/2 BC) 13-19, page 54.
1476
Such as IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 30-40, written by the bolographor and set up by the commissioner for
mares, page 202.
1477
E.g. decrees written by the Athenian grammateus of the boule and set up by the grammateus of
the amphictyons at Delos, page 325.
1478
See page 110.
1479
See page 74.
1480
See page 75.
1481
See e.g. Ag.15:406 (182/3 AD) 54-63 on page 80.
1482
E.g. IG II2 1774 (167/8 AD) 7-9, 58-59, 62, 68-77, page 96.
1483
E.g. the grammateus and syngrammateus of the eisagogeis, page 68.
1484
See page 94.
1485
See page 111.
246
information as directed by a tamias,1486 or when the grammateus of the court reads out
decrees.1487 In receiving work from the boule, the Athenian grammateus of the boule is
collegial with the boule rather than collaborates with them.
A lack of verbs in early texts means that there is little evidence for collaboration between early
offices such as the grammateus of the hellenotamiai and grammateus of the boule, despite
their presence together in some texts.1488
Peloponnesian poleis had proportionally smaller administrative bodies than Athens; therefore
each Peloponnesian office may have encompassed a wider range of duties than the
corresponding office in Athens.1489 Both factors help explain why there is less evidence for
collaboration or collegiality in the Peloponnese.
Other Attributes of the secretary and his office
Career path
With very few exceptions, secretaries are known from one term of office only.1490 Athenian
officers who worked for a single magistrate or small group could occasionally hold more than
one office simultaneously, presumably because they were required to perform a wide range
of duties (much as some secretaries in Peloponnesian poleis appear to have done). For
example, the grammateus and syngrammateus of the eisagogeis may have been eisagogeis
as well as secretaries;1491 and some grammateis for life were also priests.1492 Other officers
served as secretaries in an unofficial capacity as and when required, usually while holding
other offices, such as the Peloponnesian katalogos boulas1493 and the ‘one who writes for’
the hiaromnamones,1494 or other officers such as the tamias, epimeletes or damiorgos.
This increased responsibility was not connected with ‘career advancement’ in the modern
sense, and the holding of one office did not lead to the holding of any other. In only one
(highly restored) instance,1495 an Athenian hypogrammateus may have become grammateus
1486
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 377-380, page 90.
1487
E.g. Aeschin. 2.46, page 93.
1488
E.g. IG I3 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 114-125, page 88.
1489
E.g. the grammateus who also distributes grain, page 176.
1490
See ‘Duration of office’ on page 242.
1491
See page 68.
1492
See page 112.
1493
See page 147.
1494
See page 145.
1495
Ag.15:170 (c.190/89 BC) 9-12, page 79.
247
of the boule and the demos: however, both these offices were held for a year only, and
nothing is known of this man either before or after this date.
In the Peloponnese, some Roman magistrates are known to have served as grammateus
either before or after holding other magistracies (see Appendix C page 321). These offices
appear unrelated, and could be held in different poleis. There is no concrete evidence that
time spent as grammateus provided any benefits for a future career. 1496
Public profile
In Athens and various locations throughout the Peloponnese, secretaryships could be annual
eponymous offices; i.e. their name played a role in the identification of a year. At Athens,
either the grammateus of the boule or the anagrapheus could be eponymous, depending on
the form of government.1497 While eponymous, this secretary was the most important
secretary in the polis, with the widest range of duties; however, the duties of the oligarchic
anagrapheus appear more limited than those of the democratic grammateus of the boule.
In the Peloponnese, from the fourth century BC, a few secretaries are known from the
eponymous nature of their office only.1498 In these cases, it is difficult to ascertain whether
eponymous equates with ‘prominent’. For example, the eponymous grammateus of the
synedrion at Messene was the only secretary of the Messenian synedrion, in a polis with few
other Magistrates.1499 It is perhaps more accurate to consider this secretary prominent because
he was one of only a small number of officials, rather than because he was eponymous.
Other offices are also used for dating purposes, but are simply named in the first line of the
decree, rather than introduced in an epi + dating clause, as with the dogmatographoi in
Laconia.1500 This raises questions about the extent to which secretaries could be ‘eponymous’
simply by having their name displayed prominently. Similarly, the katalogos boulas at
Epidauros may be prominent because his name and designation are included at the end of
decrees.1501
There is no firm evidence for hierarchy among secretaries, or that status could be shown
through the order in which officials were listed. The only officer who nearly always appears
in the same position in lists is the Athenian hypogrammateus of the boule and demos, who
1496
See, in particular, the career of Aeschines on page 66.
1497
Compare the eponymous grammateus of the boule, page 62, with the eponymous anagrapheus,
page 48.
1498
E.g. the grammateus of the Achaian League (pages 213 and 222-223), the grammatistas at Corinth
(page 126) and Dyme (page 214), and the grammateus for the synedroi at Megalopolis (page 190).
1499
See page 175.
1500
See page 156.
1501
See e.g. IG IV2,1 49 (4/3C BC) 1-15 on page 147.
248
is nearly always the last of any secretaries. However, he is not always the last officer, and
there is a great deal of variation in the order in which officials occur. 1502 There is unlikely to
have been any hierarchy among secretaries of Peloponnesian poleis, due to the small
number of officers present in each polis.
It is rare for individual secretaries to be known from both epigraphic and non-epigraphic
sources. For example, no secretary is remembered in a legal speech for his particularly fine
phrasing of a decree, and the closest we come to individual recognition is Lysias’ reference to
the katalogeus.1503 Secretaries are more likely to be remembered if they subverted their office
in some way – i.e. if they were notorious (see ‘Subversion of official attributes’ on page 250).
In Athens (and not in the Peloponnese), there are a few instances where the names of
individual secretaries were displayed more prominently than those of other officers, in large
letters and/or separated from the body of the text. 1504 This prominence is likely to have
reflected an individual’s social standing rather than any status inherent in the office itself,
and (with the exception of a single, tribal decree) is confined to the period before
c.367/6 BC, when the selection of officers became by lot, and a brief period of oligarchic
government (321/20 to 319/18 BC). It is unlikely that any secretary could be seen as
important from the inclusion of his name in an inscription formula.
Few if any secretaries are known from art or sculpture. The only potential representations
are in one panel of the Parthenon frieze, and three statues in the Acropolis museum. These
identifications are tenuous, and cannot be linked with any specific offices or individuals.1505
Honours received
At Athens, all secretaries of the boule and demos were frequently honoured collectively,
along with other officers of the boule and demos. The terms used to describe these honours
were the same terms used for other officers; i.e. all are simply praised and crowned for
unspecified reasons.1506 With the exception of the anagrapheus and grammateus of the
prytaneis, secretaries could also be included (as an honour) among the aeisitoi, maintained
at public expense during meals in the Prytaneum. 1507 There was no tradition of collectively
honouring secretaries and/or other officials in the Peloponnese. Collective honours were
1502
See Table 17 on page 344 for all honours which include lists of hypogrammateis and other officers.
1503
Lys. 20.13, page 102.
1504
See Table 15 on page 300.
1505
See page 63.
1506
See Ag.15:259 (97/6 BC) 85-96, page 72, Ag.15:406 (182/3 AD) 54-63, page 80, and IG II2 1774
(167/8 AD) 7-9, 58-59, 62, 68-77, page 96.
1507
See, e.g. Ag.15:406 (182/3 AD) 54-63 on page 80.
249
awarded only to ephors and their grammateus in Amyklai (Laconia),1508 and to judges and
their grammateus in Messene (Messenia).1509
At Athens, only two secretaries are known to have been singled out for honours, and both are
honoured during times of administrative disruption and political upheaval. Of these two, only
one appears to have been honoured for his work.1510 Secretaries in the Peloponnese were far
more likely to receive an individual honour than secretaries in Athens, however, comparing
both groups is problematic. The two Athenian secretaries were each honoured after holding a
single office, while two thirds of Peloponnesian secretaries honoured individually were Roman
officials who happened to hold the office of grammateus in addition to several other
magistracies during the course of their lifetime.1511 In these cases, the reason for the honour
almost always seems to be simply having held these magistracies.1512
Subversion of duties and official attributes
It is often impossible to assess the extent to which a secretary’s attested actions depart from
his reported duties, due to the wide range of duties that a secretary could perform. Possibly
because of this, secretaries are rarely described as exceeding the terms of their office.
Nikomachos, the anagrapheus of the laws, may have done this,1513 and nomographoi at
Dyme also appear to have done this, in drafting laws contrary to the politeia.1514 A secretary
could also cause significant damage once his term in office was over; as was the case at
Dyme, when these same nomographoi rebelled, and burnt down the building containing the
public records.1515
In Summary
The office of secretary was not a specialist occupation or profession. It was instead typically an
office held for a short period only, by an officer with little or no prior training, who was not in
office long enough to acquire expertise.
Overall, secretaries appear to have had a relatively low profile in terms of political significance.
There were no core duties or responsibilities shared by all secretaries. The most widely-
1508
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18, pages 156.
1509
IG V,1 1428 (late 2-1C BC) 3-5, page 173.
1510
See Schwenk 9 (335/4 BC) 1-21 on page 62, and IG II² 415 (330/29 BC) 12-16 on page 46.
1511
See Appendix C page 321 for a list of texts.
1512
Of the remaining grammateis, one was honoured for his euergetism (and therefore not for being a
secretary SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2, 15-29, page 172), the other for his diligence and precision in recording
the daily administrative business of the polis (IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 14-25, page 173).
1513
See page 44.
1514
The nomographoi at Dyme appear to have done this. See SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 16-27 on page 216.
1515
See SIG3 684 (c.144 BC) 6-11, 16-27 on page 216.
250
attested duties were, in Athens, the creation of honorific decrees and registers of officials, and
in the Peloponnese, the creation of registers and proxeny decrees.
The number of secretaries and types of office did not increase gradually over time, and were
detrimentally influenced by the Roman occupation. Neither was there a spread of diverse
offices from Athens to the Peloponnese.1516 The only Athenian secretarial office found in the
Peloponnese was the grammateus, which in many respects was similar to that of the preexisting gropheus. Nevertheless, the creation of dedicated secretarial offices suggests a
growing need for officers whose duties would primarily focus on the writing and creation of
administrative documents – whatever form these documents might take, and these officers
played an important role in polis administration across the Greek world.
1516
This lack of spread of offices from one region to another is also found on Delos, which employs
secretaries with duties unlike those known from Athens, even while administered by Athens. See pages
322- 343.
251
Appendix A – List of Inscriptions by Office
Offices and informal expressions
ἀγγραφᾶς or ἐγγροφᾶς (for engraving)
page 254
ἀναγραφεύς (anagrapheus)
page 254
ἀντιγραμματεύς (antigrammateus)
page 256
ἀντιγραφεύς (antigrapheus)
page 256
ἀρχιγραμματεύς (archigrammateus)
page 256
ἀρχιθιασίτης (archithiasites)
page 256
αρτύνας (artunas)
page 256
βωλογράφορ (bolographor)
page 256
γραμματεὺς (grammateus) and γραμματέα τῶν δημοτῶν (grammateus of the demesmen)
page 256
γραμματεύς (grammateus of the Treasurers of Athena)
page 260
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός (grammateus hairetos)
page 260
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν (grammateus of the bouleutai)
page 260
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου (grammateus for life)
page 261
γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν (grammateus kata prytaneian)
page 262
γραμματεὺς κληρωτός (grammateus klerotos)
page 263
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule)
Also the forms γραμματεὺς τες βολες and γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς
page 263
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the boule and
the demos) Also the forms γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the
demos) and γραμματεὺς τῶι δήμωι (grammateus for the demos)
page 268
γραμματέως τῆς πόλεως (grammateus of the polis)
page 268
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς (grammateus of the phyle)
page 270
γραμματέος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς (grammateus for the Achaians) and
γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν (grammateus of the Achaians)
page 270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the demos)
page 270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητής (grammateus of the epimeletes)
page 270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου (grammateus of the Polemarch)
page 271
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedroi)
Also the forms γραμματεὺς συνέδρων and γραμματεὺς τοῖς συνέδροις
(grammateus for the synedroi)
page 271
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (grammateus of the amphictyons)
page 271
γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς <phyle name> φυλῆς (grammateus of
the bouleutai of the <phyle name> phyle)
page 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (grammateus of the eisagogeis)
page 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (grammateus of the epistatai)
page 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα (grammateus of the Eleven)
page 273
γραμματέως τῶν ἱεροποιῶν (grammateus of the hieropoioi)
page 273
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων (grammateus of the Hipparchs)
page 275
γραμματέως τῶν ναοποιῶν (grammateus of the naopoioi)
page 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν νεωριων ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the naval dockyards)
page 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων (grammateus of the prytaneis)
page 275
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν (grammateus of the strategoi)
page 275
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas)
page 275
252
γραμματιστάς δαμοσιοφυλάκων (grammatistas of the damosiophylakes)
page 275
[ὁ] γράψας (the one who wrote [this])
page 276
γροφεύς (gropheus), γραφής (graphes)
page 276
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς (gropheus bolas)
page 277
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχῶν (gropheus of the polemarchs)
page 277
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς (gropheus for the stratagoi)
page 277
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι (gropheus for the Eighty)
page 277
δαμιοργός (damiorgos)
page 278
δήμαρχος (demarch)
page 278
δημόσιος (demosios)
page 278
δογματογράφος (dogmatographos)
page 278
ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε (wrote and engraved)
page 278
ἑλληνοταμίας (hellenotamiais)
page 279
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes)
page 279
[ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα (secretary in charge of decrees)
page 279
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον (secretary for that which cannot be mentioned)
page 280
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους (secretary for the laws)
page 280
ἔφορος (ephor)
page 280
ἱερεύς (priest)
page 280
κατακόος (katakoos)
page 280
κατάλογος βουλᾶς (katalogos boulas)
page 281
κήρυξ (herald)
page 281
νομογράφος (nomographos)
page 281
[ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα ([ho] peri to bema, secretary ‘in attendance’ or ‘at the platform’)
page 281
σταλογράφος (stalographos)
page 282
στρατηγός (strategos)
page 282
συνγραμματεύς (syngrammateus)
Also the forms συγγραμματεύς and χσυγγραμματεύς
page 282
συνγραμματεύς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (syngrammateus of the eisagogeis)
page 282
συνγραμματεύς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (syngrammateus of the epistatai)
page 282
συνγραφευς (syngrapheus)
Also the forms συγγραφευς and χσυγγραφεύς
page 282
ταμίας (treasurer)
page 283
ὑπηρέτης (hyperetes)
page 283
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus)
page 284
ὑπογραμματεύς διὰ βίου (hypogrammateus for life)
page 289
ὑπογραμματεύς τοῦ δήμου (hypogrammateus of the boule and demos)
page 289
ὑπογραμματεύς τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων (hypogrammateus of the amphictyons)
page 289
ὑπογραμματεύς τῶν ναοποιῶν (under-grammateus of the naopoioi)
page 289
φρατρίαρχος (phratriarch)
page 289
253
ἀγγραφᾶς or ἐγγροφᾶς (for engraving)
IG IV²,1 103 (4C BC)  58-60, 96-97, 101, 104-105, 
110-111, 117-118, 136-137, 140-1
ἐγγροφᾶς εἰς τὰν στάλαν Σαννίωνι ·Ι
IG IV²,1 105 (4/early 3C BC) 17-18, 21-22
[ἀνγροφᾶς εἰς τὰν] στάλαν…
IG IV²,1 108 (4/3C BC) 144-5, 151, 157, 164-6, 168-9 Στασιμένει γραμμάτων δισ|χιλίων ὀκτακο[σίω]ν εἰς τὰν στάλαν
ἀγγραφᾶ[ς…
IG IV²,1 111 (4/early 3C BC) 8
ἀνγροφᾶ[ς] εἰς τὰν στάλαν Στασιμένει γραμμάτων χιλίων
πεντακοσίων…
Peek, Asklepieion 42 (late 4/e.3C BC) XIV 65
ἀγγράψαι δὲ τοὺς ἀγγροφεῖς εἰς στάλαν ἐν τῶι ἱαρῶι τοῦ
Ἀπόλλωνος καὶ [τοῦ Ἀσκλ]απιοῦ.
ἀναγραφεύς (anagrapheus)
The anagrapheus Archedikos (underlined) is known from eleven surviving decrees from the
year 320/19 BC.
Ag. 15:43 (335/4 BC) col V-VI.227-234
ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀριστοφάνης Ἱερωνύμου, with other secretaries
Ag. 15:53 (324/2 BC) I.13-21
[ἀν]αγραφεὺς [— c.5 —]ίδης Κιχωνίδο|[Παια]νιεύς with other
Ag. 15:58 (305/4 BC) 32-37, 77-86
ἀ[ναγρα]φεύς | [Α[ἰσχέας?] Πραξιτέλου Κυδαν honoured with
Ag. 15:62 (303/2 BC) 231-6
ἀναγραφεὺς Πάνδιος | Πυθοδήλου ἐξ Οἴου with other secretaries
Ag. 15:243 (135/4 BC) 36h-v
ἀναγραφέα Λυσανίαν Ἀνα[και]|[έα] honoured with other
Ag. 15:244 (135/4 BC) 4
ἀνα]γραφέα Λυσανίαν Ἀν[ακαιέα with other secretaries
Ag. 15:246 (131/0 BC) fr.c22, 34
ἀναγραφέα and other secretaries honoured by prytaneis and
Ag. 15:260 (start 1C BC) 2, 26
ἀναγραφέα and other secretaries honoured by prytaneis and
Ag. 15:261 (95/4 BC) 45, 58
ἀναγραφέα and other secretaries honoured by prytaneis and
Ag. 16:97[1] (321/20 BC) 2-3
[ἀναγραφεὺς Θρασ]υκλῆς Ναυσικράτου[ς] Θ[ρ]|[ιάσιος·before
ἐπὶ+ clause, grammateus
Ag. 16:100[1] (320/19 BC) 2-3
[ἐπὶ Νεαίχμου ἄρχοντος] ἀναγραφέω[ς Ἀρχεδί][κου τοῦ
Ναυκρίτου Λαμπ]τρέως / grammateus.
(Anagrapheus in 11 decrees from 320/19 BC, underlined.)
Ag. 16:100[2] (320/19 BC) 1-2
[ἐπὶ Νεαίχμου ἄρχοντος, ἐπ’] ἀναγραφέω[ς Ἀρχε]|[δίκου τοῦ
Ναυκρίτου Λαμπ]τρέως / grammateus.
Ag. 16:100[3] (320/19 BC) fr. a2-3
[ἐπὶ Νεαίχμου ἄρχοντος], ἀναγραφέω[ς Ἀρχεδί]|[κου τοῦ
Ναυκρίτου Λαμπ]τρέως / grammateus.
Ag. 16:100[4] (320/19 BC) fr. a2-3
[ἐπὶ Νεαίχμου ἄρχοντος, ἐπ’] ἀναγραφέω[ς Ἀρχε|[δίκου τοῦ
Ναυκρίτου Λαμπ]τρέως / grammateus.
Ag. 16:101 (319/8 BC) 2-3
ἀναγραφεὺς Εὔκαδμος Ἀνακαιεύς before ἐπὶ+ clause
Ag. 16:102[1] (319/8 BC) fr. b3-4
ἐπὶ + ἀναγραφέ]ως Εὐκάδμου Ἀ[ν]|[ακαι]έως·
Ag. 16:103 (319/8 BC) 1-2
ἐπὶ + [ἀναγραφέω]|[ς Εὐκάδμ]ου Ἀν[ακ]αέω[ς
Ag. 16:167 (293/2 BC) 1-3
ἐπὶ + [ἀναγ]|[ρα]φέως Ἐπι[κούρου τοῦ Ἐπιτέλο]|[υς] Ῥαμνουσί[ου
Dinsmoor 7 (293/2 BC) 1-2, 48-51
[ἐπ]ὶ + ἀναγραφέως Ἐπ[ικ]|[ού]ρο[υ το]ῦ Ἐπιτέλου[ς]
Ῥ[αμν]ουσίου / ἀναγράψαι / ἀναγραφ[έ]|[α ἐν στήλαις λιθίναις
κα]ὶ στῆσαι τὴν μὲν ἐν ἀκρ[ο]|[πόλει, τὴν δὲ παρὰ τὴν εἰκ]όνα·
εἶναι δὲ Φιλιππί[δη]|[ι ἐν ταῖς στήλαις προσαν]αγρ[ά]ψασθαι...
Hesp. 7:97,17 (293/2 BC) 1-3
[ἐπ]ὶ + [ἀναγ]|[ρα]φέως Ἐπι[κούρου τοῦ Ἐπιτέλο]|[υς]
Ῥαμνουσί[ου
254
secretaries
other secretaries
secretaries
aeisitoi
aeisitoi
aeisitoi
Hesp. 40:174,25 (320/19 BC) 1-2
[ἀναγραφεὺ]ς Ἀρχέδικ[ος Ν]|[αυκρίτου Λ]αμπτρεὺ[ς /
grammateus.
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 3-10
[Δ]ιό[γ]|νετος Φρεάρριος ἐγραμμάτευε / ἀναγρα[φ]σά[ν]τον οἱ
ἀναγραφε|ς τõν νόμον / γραμμ]ατέο|ς τες βουλες ἐστέλει λιθίνει
IG I3 258bis (c.420 BC?) 6-7
ἀναγ[ράψ]|[αι / ἀναγρα]φέας
2
IG II 244 (337/6 BC) 54-5
ἀναγραφέ|ας
IG II² 378 (321/0 BC) 1-2
[ἐπὶ Ἀρχίππου ἄρχοντος καὶ ἀ]ναγραφέως Θρασ|[υκλέους τοῦ
Ναυσικράτους Θρι]ασίου·
IG II² 380 (321/0-319 BC) 1-4
ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀρχέδ[ι]κος Ναυκρίτου Λαμπτ[ρεύ]ς. /
Θηρα[μ]έν|ης Κηφισιεὺς ἐγρα[μμ]άτευε
IG II² 381 (320/19 BC) 1-10
ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀ[ρχέδικος Ν]αυκρ[ίτ]|[ο]υ Λαμπτ[ρεύ]ς. /
Ν]ικόδημος Ἀναφ|λύ[σ]τιος ἐγρα[μμάτ]ευε[ν]·
IG II² 382 (320/19 BC) 2-5
[ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀρχέδ]ικος Ναυκρίτο[υ Λαμ|[πτρεύς·/
Ν]|[ικόδημος Ἀναφλύστι]ος ἐγρ[αμ]μάτε[υεν]·
IG II² 383 (320/19 BC) 1-2 (SEG 21:305)
[ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀρχ]έδικος Ν[αυκρ]|[ίτου Λαμπτ
IG II² 383b (320/19 BC) 1-2, 5-6
[ἀναγ]ραφεὺ[ς Ἀρχέδικος Ναυκρίτου Λαμπτρεύς]. /
Στρατ[ωνίδης Παινανιεὺς] | ἐγραμμάτευ[εν
IG II² 384 (320/19 BC) fr.1-2
[ἀ]ναγρ[αφεὺς Ἀρχέδικος Ναυκρίτο]|[υ] Λαμπ[τρεύς.
IG II² 385 (319/18 BC) 2-3
[ἐπὶ] / ἀν]αγραφέως δὲ [Εὐκ]|[άδμου καὶ γραμματέως...
IG II² 387 (319/18 BC) 3-5
γραμματεὺ]ς Ἀφόβητο[ς Κο]|[θωκίδης· ἀναγρ]αφεὺς
Εὔκα[δμ]|[ος Κολλυτεὺς·
IG II² 388 (319/18 BC) 1-5 (SEG 32:97)
[ἐ]πὶ / καὶ ἀναγ]|[ρ]α[φέ]ως Εὐκάδμου [Κολλυτέως /
Φ]|[ιλ]οκτήμων Κηφισι[εὺς ἐγραμμάτευε]|[ν]·
IG II² 389 (319/18 BC) 1-3 (SEG 21:354)
[ἐπὶ / ἀναγρα]φέως δὲ Ἐπικούρου τοῦ Π[άχη]|[τος Θρια]σίου
IG II² 390 (319/18 BC) 2 (SEG 21:315)
ἐπὶ ἀναγρα[φέως Ἐπικούρου τοῦ Πάχητος Θριασίου]
IG II² 391 (321/0-319/8 BC) 13-17
[γράψαι / στήληι λι]|[θίν]ηι / ἀναγρ[αφέα]
IG II² 392 (321/0–319/8 BC) 10-15 (SEG 26:83)
ἀναγράψαι / ἀναγραφέα
IG II² 393 (321/0–319/8 BC) 8-15
ἀναγράψαι / ἀναγραφέα / στ||ήλει λιθίνει
IG II² 394 (321/0–319/8 BC) 16-20
ἀναγρά]|[ψα]ι / [στήληι λιθίνηι / ἀν|αγρ]αφέα
IG II² 395 (321/0–319/8 BC) 8-10
ἀνα]|[γρά]ψαι / ἀνα]γρα[φέα
IG II² 396 (321/0–319/8 BC) 4-10
ἀναγράψ]αι / στήλει λιθ]ίνει / τὸν ἀ[ναγραφέα
IG II² 397 (321/0–319/8 BC) 1-8
— ἀναγρά]|[ψ]αι / [ἀναγρ]|αφέα / [στήληι λιθίνηι]
IG II² 398 (320/19 BC) b6-11
ἀναγρ]άψαι / ἀν]αγραφέα / στήλει | [λιθίνει]
2
IG II  402 (322-319) 1-7
[?Ἀρχέδικος] | [Ναυκ]ρ[ί]του Λαμπτρεὺ[ς εἶπεν·
IG II² 415 (330/29 BC) 0-2, 12-16, 22-27
γ]ραμμα[τέια τὸν κατὰ πρυτα]|[νείαν ἐν στ]ήληι λιθ[ίνηι / ὁ
ἀναγραφεὺς Καλλικρα|[τ]ίδης (honoured)
IG II2 450 (314/3 BC) 9-10
Θρασυκλῆς Ναυσικράτο[υ]|ς Θριάσι εἶπεν·
(Anagrapheus in Ag. 16 97[1] (321/20 BC) 2-3)
IG II² 1700 (335/4 BC) 213-17
ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀριστοφάνης Ἱερωνύμου, with other secretaries
SEG 21:304 (321/0 BC) 1 (IG II2 546 1-6)
[ἀναγραφεὺς Θρασυκλῆς Ναυσικράτους Θριάσιος] before ἐπὶ+
SEG 21:309 (320/19 BC) 2-4
[ἀ]ναγρ[αφεὺς Ἀρχέδικος Ναυκρίτο]|[υ] Λαμπ[τρεύς before
ἐπὶ+ clause, grammateus
SEG 21:311 (319/8 BC) 5 (IG II2 386+)
grammateus, [ἀναγραφεὺς]
SEG 21:313 (319/8 BC) 1-2
[ἐ]πὶ Ἀπολλοδώρου [ἄρχοντος καὶ ἀναγ]|[ρ]α[φέ]ως Εὐκάδμου
[Ἀνακαιέως / grammateus
SEG 21:355 (292/1 BC) 2-3
[ἐπὶ Φιλίππου ἄρχοντος, ἀ]ναγραφέως δὲ Θ...
SEG 21:466 (135/4 BC) 4
ἀνα]γραφέα Λυσανίαν Ἀν[ακαιέα honoured with other secretaries
SEG 32:94 (321–318 BC) 4-9
ἀναγράψαι / ἀναγραφέα
clause, grammateus
255
ἀντιγραμματεύς (antigrammateus)
IG II2 2067 (154/5 AD) 2-6, 203-4, 225-6
γραμματεύς | Κώμαρχος Ͻ Χολα. / ἀντιγραμματεύς | Πατρόβιος
Ἀριστοβούλου Κηφι.
ἀντιγραφεύς (antigrapheus)
Ag. 15:238 (145/4 BC) 2-3
Ἐπιγένης Μοσχίωνος Λαμπτρεὺς ἐγραμμάτευεν· ἀντι|γραφεὺς
Δημοκράτης Δημοκράτου Κυδαθηναιεύς·
Ag. 15:239 fr. (145/4 BC) fr. a-b2-4, c13-14
Ἐπιγένης Μοσχίωνος Λα]μπτρεὺς ἐ|[γραμμάτευεν v ἀντιγραφεὺς
Δημοκράτης Δη]μοκράτου Κυδα|[θηναιεύς / ἀντιγραφέα] |
Δημοκράτη[ν Κυδαθηναιέα and other secretaries honoured by
prytaneis and aeisitoi
2
IG II 967 (after 150 BC) 2-3
2
IG II 1077 (209/10 AD) III.38, 51, 83, 96
(Ag. 15:460)
2
IG II 1740 (388/7 BC) 53-6
2
IG II 1773 (166/7 AD) 54, 63
2
ἀντι|γραφεὺς Δημοκράτης Δημοκράτου Κυδαθηναιεύς
immediately follows grammateus
ἀΐσειτοι includes ἀντιγραφεὺς Φλ. Μαρεῖνος Χ and other
secretaries
[ἀντι]γραφεὺς | [Ἀρισ?]τίων Ἀριστωνύμο | Παλληνεύ[ς]
ἀίσιτοι includes ἀντιγραφεὺς ․․5․․ης
IG II 1774 (167/8 AD) 62, 73-74
ἀίσιτοι includes ἀντιγραφεὺς Δημοσθέ|νης Σουνιεύς
SEG 15:104 (127/6 BC) 103-104, 117-118
ἀντιγραφεὺς Ἡφαι[στ —c.6-] / κατασταθεὶς ἐπὶ τὸ Μητρῶιον]
ἀρχιγραμματεύς (archigrammateus)
IG II2 3169/70 (253/257 AD) 32-37
ἀρχιγραμ|ματέα
ἀρχιθιασίτης (archithiasites)
ID 1520 (153/2 BC) 1-2, 89-91
ἀνα|[γρ]αψάτω δὲ ὁ ἀρχ[ιθιασίτης / στήλην λιθίνην]
ἀρτύνας (artunas)
IG IV 554 (480-470 BC) 1-7
συναρτύοντας / γρασσμάτον
βωλογράφορ (bolographor)
IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 4-5, 30-40
Νικόδρομορ ὀ βωλογράφορ
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
Also γραμματέα τῶν δημοτῶν (grammateus of the demesmen)
ABSA 26 C4 (101-150 AD) 10
Γρα(μματεὺς) Ἥσυχος Νο — —
ABSA 26 20b (101-150 AD) 5-6
Πλώτιος — — — — — | γραμμα[τεὺς]
ABSA 26 20c (101-150 AD) 9-12
[γ]ρα[μμ]ατεὺς — | Μν[ά]ς[ιπ]-π[ο]ς(?) | ὑπηρέτ[η]ς
[γ]ρα(μματέως) | [Σ]τέφανος.
Ag.19 Poletai (4C BC) PA8 5-6
— γρα]μ[μα]τεὺς Κ[— | — γραμ]ματ[εὺ]ς Πυθοκλ[ῆς —
BCH 38 No.5 (3C BC) 6-8
γρα|μματεὺς Σθενόλαος.
BCH 38 No.6 (3C BC) 12
γραμματῖ Πολυκράτ[ηι]
BCH 38 No.8 (3C BC) 2-8, 10-13
γραμμ[ατεὺς τῶν] | θεαρῶν Κάλλι[ππος]
Corinth 8,1 4 (mid 2C BC) 9
γραμματεα
Corinth 8,1 7 (undated) 1-2
γρα[μματεὺς or grammatistas?
Corinth 8,1 8 (undated) 1-2
γρ]αμμα[τέος or grammatistas?
256
Corinth 8,3 46 (44 BC) b2-5
δικασ]|ταῖς καὶ γραμματε[ῖ αὐτῶν
SEG 26:396 (3C AD) 2 (Corinth 8,3 486)
γραμμ[ατέα
Hesp.6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 4-20
[γραμμ]ατεὺς σιτοφύλαξιν εἰς ἄστ[υ] | εἰληχώς [γραμ]ματεὺς
συνηγόροις | [ε]ἰληχώς | [γραμ]ματεὺς ἄρχοντι | [εἰ]ληχώς |
[γραμμ]ατεὺς ἱππάρχοις φυ[λετῶν] | [εἰ]ληχώς | [γραμμ]ατεὺς
φυλεῖ | [ε]ἰληχώς | [γραμμ]ατεὺς ἐπὶ τὸν μ[ισθὸν] | [καὶ ἐπὶ
τ]ὴν ἄλλην οἰκον[ομίαν] | [εἰλ]ηχώς
ID 96 (after 315 BC) 4
ἐ[γραμμάτευε?]
ID 104-3 (c.367 BC) 9-10
τῶι γραμματεῖ τριῶ|[ν καὶ δέκα μήνων? —
ID 104-22 (c.346/5 BC) fr.a.13-14, b.13-15
— ὁ γρ]αμματεὺς ἐπιβα|[λ—
ID 440 (198-180 BC) 31
γραμματεῖ vac. (polis or hieropoioi)
ID 406 (c.190 BC) B54-67
τῶι γραμμα]τεῖ καὶ προδανειστ[αῖς]...
ID 1505 (146/5 or 145/4 BC) 31-37
γραμματέα Διογείτονα Διογνήτου Ῥαμνούσιον honoured
ID 1519 (153/2 BC) 1-3, 47
γραμματεῖ
ID 1432 (153/2 BC) 5, 9, 15
[γραμ]ματεῖ Μενεδήμωι Ἀν-
ID 1832 (mid 2C BC) 3-4
[γ]ραμματεύοντος Πρωτάρχου τοῦ Πρωτο[γένους?] |
[Φ]ρεαρρίου
IG II2 537 (end 4C BC) 4-8
γραμματεύσαντα / ἀναγράψαι / στήληι λιθίνηι
2
IG II 1206 (end 4C BC) 7-19
ἀναγρά]ψαι / ἐστήλη]ι λιθίνηι τὸν γραμ[μ]|[ατέα μετὰ τ]ῶν
δημοτῶν
IG II2 1284 (mid. 3C BC) 22-34
γραμματεὺς αἱρεθεὶς / τῶν ὀργεώνων / δεδόχ|[θαι τ]οῖς
ὀργεῶσιν /ἀναγράψαι / στήλει λιθίνει
IG II2 1330 (c.130 BC) 1, 63-65
[ἔδοξεν τοῖς ...] Διόν[υσ]ον τ[εχνίταις]·/ ἀνα[γράψαι δὲ τὸν
γραμματέα] / εἰς στήλην λιθίνην
IG II2 1335 (102/1 BC) 2-14
ταμίας καὶ | γραμματεὺς | καὶ ἐπιμελητὴς | Δωρόθεος Ὄαθεν
2
αἱρείσθω δὲ γραμμα|τέα...
2
ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΣΑΝΤΑ
2
IG II 1709 (start 2C BC) 3-7
γραμματε[ύς] | Μητρόδω[ρος] | ὑπογραμμ[ατεύς] | Ἀντίγο[νος]
| γραμματ[εύς] | Δ
IG II2 2876 (25/4-18/7 BC) 1
Παλληνεὺς λαχὼν γραμματεὺς
IG IV 558 (114 BC) 29-43
ὁ γραμματεὺς Ἀριστοκλῆς / ὁ ἀεὶ γραμματεὺς / ὁ κατασταθεὶς
γραμματεὺς
IG IV 589 (Roman Imp.) 2-5
[Ἀρ]χένουν Εὐκράτους ἀρχεφηβεύσαντα, γραμ|ματεύσαντα,
ταμιεύσαν|τα, ἀγωνοθετήσαντα
IG IV 606 (Roman Imp.) 1-5
ἀγορανομήσαντα | καὶ γραμματεύσαντα, καὶ ἱεροφαντή|σαντα
καὶ ἀγωνοθετήσαντα
IG IV 824 (3C BC) 1-9
γραμματεῖς Μενεκράτης Φρασισθένεος, Ἀπολλόδωρος Ἀθανάδα.
IG II 1368 (aft. 178 AD) 155-6
IG II 1477 (316/7 or 313/2 BC) 8
2
γραμματεύσας
2
γραψάτω δὲ τὸ | ψάφισμα ἐπὶ τὰν βάσιν [ὁ γραμματε]ύς.
IG IV ,1 25 (117-138 AD) 2
IG IV ,1 63 (115/114 BC) 9-13, 17-18
(Of Achaian League?)
2
τοὺς] γραμματεῖς / τοῖς γραμματεῦσι (Hellenic League)
2
νομογράφοι Ἀχαιῶν οἱ τὸν ν|όμον τᾶι Ὑγιείαι θέντες / γραμματε[ύς]
IG IV ,1 68 (302 BC) 78-83
IG IV ,1 73 (after 224 BC) 1-36
2
(Grammateus of the nomographoi of the Achaian League.)
IG IV ,1 84 (40-42 AD) 22-23
Ἀρχέλαος Λυσιμάχου ΜαραΘώνιος | ἐγραμμάτευεν
(Athenian decree at Epidauros.)
IG IV2,1 306 (c.206 BC) A1-C5
γραμματεὺς / γραμματεὺ[ς] Δαμοκ[—
IG V,1 9 (1C BC) 4-5
γραμματεῖ αὐτῶν (To Sparta from an unknown city. Honours
IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4, B5
ἀναγράψουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ἐν τῶι γυμνασίῳ / γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18
δογματογράφων Λυσινίκου τοῦ Σωτηρίδα / honour ephors and
τὸν γραμματέα αὐτῶν
secretary of Spartan judges.)
257
IG V,1 48 (1C BC) 17-19
γρα(μματεύς) Σωτηρίδας Ἀγαθοκλέος.| (list of officials)
ὑπογρα(μματεῖς)·Ἀριστοκλῆς, Σωκρατίας
IG V,1 74 (138-161 AD) 8
γρ(αμματεύς)· Ἀμείμητος Ὀνασίμου
IG V,1 92 (1C BC) 11-12
γραμματεύς | Νικοκράτης Πεισίππου
IG V,1 97 (late 1C AD) 25
γραμμ]ατε[ῖς Γ(άϊος)] Ἰού(λιος) Πωλλίων Ῥούφο[υ]
IG V,1 115 (mid 2C AD) A4
γ(ρ)α(μματεύς)· Τ(ίτος) Ὀκτάβιος Ἀγαθίας.
ὑπογρα(μματεύς)·Τιβ(έριος) Κλαύδ(ιος) [— ].
IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 1-25
γραμματεῖς·| Δαμιάδας, | Στ<ρ>άτων.| ὑπογραμματεῖς·|
Εὐδαίμων, | Κ[λ]έων, | [Ε]ὐδαιμοκλῆς. / γραμ(ματεὺς) | βο[υλᾶς?]
IG V,1 141 (mid 1C BC) 6
γρα(μματεύς) Νικοκλείδας Θεοδώρου
IG V,1 147 (early 2C AD) 13-15
γρ<α>μματεύς | Γά(ϊος) Ἰούλιος | Ἀρίστων.
IG V,1 152 (2C AD) 9
γρ(αμματεύς)· Γ(άϊος) Ἰούλιος Δαμοκράτης.
IG V,1 168 (c.225-250 AD) 1 or 7
— γρ]αμμ[ατέως —
IG V,1 174 (Roman) 13
[γρ]αμμα(τεὺς)
IG V,1 179 (Roman) 8, 10
γραμματεὺς [— c.5 —] / ἔγραψε Ἀγ[— c.5 —]
IG V,1 208 (1C BC) 7
Εὔτυχος, γραμματεύς
IG V,1 209 (1C BC) (26)
Ζήλωτος ἐκ Παντειμίας γραματεύς
IG V,1 210 (1C BC) 44-46, 58
γραμματε[ὺς]| Ἀριστοκλῆς | Φιλονικίδα / ἐπὶ γραφῶν Σωίνικο[ς].
IG V,1 211 (1C BC) 50, 52
γραμματεὺς Κλήνικος Ͻ. / ἐπὶ γραφῶν Εὐάμερος.
IG V,1 212 (1C BC) 45-46, 59-60
γραμματεὺς | Κλέων ἐξ Ἀγήτας / ἐπὶ γραφῶν | Σωίνικος.
IG V,1 603 (Roman Imp. per.) 7
γραμ]ματέως δὲ[—
IG V,1 643 (undated) 3
[γραμματ]έως δὲ
IG V,1 1314 (117-138 AD) 12
γ<ρ>(αμματεὺς) Σωτήριχος Χ[—
IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 29-30
γρα(μματεὺς) Κλα(ύδιος) Ἀνείκητος Πανκ[— | ἔγρα(ψε) καὶ
ἐχάραξε Δαμονικίδα[ς].
IG V,1 1352 (119-138 AD) 7-11
ἐπὶ γραμματέος Δάμωνος τοῦ Ἀριστέα.
IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23
ὁ γραμματεὺς δόγμα γραψάτω (g is of synedrion)
IG V,1 1402 (late 2C BC) 1
ἐπὶ γραμματέος Εὐμέν[εος]
IG V,1 1412 (193-5 AD) 1-9
λογιστοῦ | καὶ γραμματέος | Αἰλίου Φ[α]ι{α}νίδου
IG V,1 1428 (late 2-1C BC) 3-5
δικαστὰς καὶ τὸν γραμμα[τέα αὐτῶν]
IG V,1 1469 (126 AD) 6
γραμματεὺς Σοφός
IG V,1 1467 (1C AD) 7
[γραμ]ματεὺς Ἐπίγο[νος]
IG V,1 1559 (undated) 2-3
— ἐπὶ γραμ]ματέος
IG V,2 11 (bef. 228 BC) 18-19
Τεί|σανδρος, γραμματεύς
IG V,2 43 (2C BC) 1
[ἱ]ερής·Πάχων, γραμμ[ατεύς — (of ephebes)
IG V,2 50 (165/166 AD) 78
γραμματέα Μ(ᾶρκον) Ἀντώνιον Ὀνήσιμον
IG V,2 302 (125-128 AD) 1-8
ὑπὲρ γραμ|ματείας σὺν τῷ ναῷ
IG V,2 356 (240 BC) 1, 5-8
γραμματεύς | Θεοξενίδας
IG V,2 415 (3C BC) 5-6 (IPArk 23)
γραμματεῖ·
IG XI,2 146 (301 BC) 14
[παρόν]τος γραμμ[ατέως —
IG XI,4 1228 (start 2C BC) 1-27
τὸ κοινὸν | τῶν θιασι|τῶν τὸν | γραμματέα | Ἀπολλώνιον |
μελανηφό|ρον.
IG XI,4 1229 (start 2C BC) 1-4, 20a-27
τὸ κοινὸν | τῶν θιασι|τῶν τὸν | γραμματέα | Ἀπολλώνιον |
μελανηφό|ρον.
ISE 53 (265/4 BC) 1-5, 9-11 (BCH 38 no.1)
γρα[μματεὺς — — | — — —]τος.
IvO 59 (36BC) 14-15
Κάλλιππ[ος -7-] | γρα[μματέυς]
IvO 61 (after 36BC) 4-5
[γρα]μματεύ[ς] | [Διογέ]νης Ἀντ[ιόχου]
258
IvO 62 (36-24BC) 1-17
γραμματεύς | Δαμάριστος Ἀντιόχου Δ.
IvO 64 (28-24 BC) 24-25
γραμματεύς | Ἡρακλείδης Ἡρακλείδου Π.
IvO 69 (5 AD) 17-18
γραμμ[ατεύς] | Διονύσιος Α.[ -7- ]
IvO 74 (bef. 57 AD) 11
γραμματεύς·Π[ -5- ]
IvO 80 (c.57 AD) 9
—]ς γραμ<μ>ατεύς
IvO 82 (c.67 AD) 16
[γραμματεύς]·Λέων Λύσωνος
IvO 83 (c.69-73 AD) 4-5
γραμμ[ατεύς] | Λ(ούκιος) Σαίνιος Ἀχα[ϊκός]
IvO 84 (69-73 AD) 20
[γραμματεύ]ς Ἐπέραστος Φίλλιο[ς]
IvO 85 (77-81 AD) 15
[γραμματεύς Μ(ᾶρκος) Ἀττήδιος] Κόγνιτος
IvO 86 (85-93 AD) 11
[γραμμα]τεύρ Μ(ᾶρκος) Ἀττήδιος Κόγνιτορ
IvO 91 (113-117 AD) 21
[γ]ραμματεύς∙Γ(άϊος) Μελφέννιος Κάλλιστος
IvO 92 (after 113-117 AD) 16-17
γραμματεύς | Τ(ίτος) Φλάβιος Νάρκισσος
IvO 99 (after 165 AD) 19-20
γ[ραμματεύς] | Τ(ίτος) Φλά(βιος) [Ἀριστόβιος(?)]
IvO 102 (181-185 AD) 20-21
[γρα]μματεύς | [Ἀριστό]βιος Ἀριστοβίου
IvO 103 (177-189 AD) 23
γρ(αμματεύς) Ἀριστόβιο[ς]
IvO 104 (185-189 AD) 23
γρ(αμματεύς) Ἀριστόβιο[ς] Ἀριστοβίου
IvO 105 (late 2-3C AD) 11-12
[γραμματεύς] | [Ἀριστόβι]ος
IvO 107 (late 2-3C AD) 16-17
γραμματεύς·| [Ἀριστόβιος.]
IvO 110 (209-213 AD) 17-19, 27
περιηγηταί | Κάσσ(ιος) Βέγετος | Κλαύ(διος) Ὑπ[α]τιανός /
γραμματεύς·Ἀπολλώνιος Διός
IvO 117 (237-241 AD) 22
γρ(αμματεὺς) Φ[λ]άβιος Καικιλι[α]νός
IvO 121 (245-249 AD) 28
γραμματεύς Ἑρμῆς
IvO 122 (265 AD) 24
γραμματεύς·Ἑρμῆς
IvO 430 (not bef. beg. 2C AD) 6-7
τὸν στρατηγὸν τῶν | Ἀχαιῶν καὶ γραμματέα τὸ β,
IvO 433 (after c.95 AD) 1-6
ἱερέα / καὶ ἀγορανόμον καὶ γυμνασίαρ|χον καὶ ἀλλυτάρχην καὶ
γραμματέα
Peek NI 32 (undated) 1-7
[γραμ]ματεὺς | [ -5- ]ς
SEG 2:9 (c.257 BC) 6-12, I.16-25, II.19
δεδόχθαι τῶι κοινῶι / γραμματεύς· Βάτραχος. / γραμματεύς·
Ἀρχέπολις. / γραμμα[τεύς· — — —] / γραμματεύς· Ἀρχέπολις. /
γραμματεύς· Β[άτραχος].
SEG 13:244 (1C BC – 1C AD) 1-11 (all)
Ὁ δῆμος ὁ τῶ[ν] | Ἀργείων | Λ. Κορνήλιον Ἰνγενον |
γυμνασιαρχήσαντα | ἐν τοῖς τρισί γυμνα|σίοις καὶ
ἀγορανομή|σαντα καὶ γραμματεύ|σαντα καὶ ταμιεύσαν|τα δὶς
καὶ λαβόντα τει|μὰς ἀγωνοθετικὰς | ἀρετᾶς ἕνεκα.
SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2, 15-29
[γραμματ]έος Μνασιστράτου
SEG 31:346 (Hellenistic) 1-2 (all)
Γραμματέ[ος — ] | Ἐπινίκ[ου — ]
SEG 33:319 (3C BC) 3-6, 17-19 (BCH 38 No.11)
Γρ|[αμ]ματεὺς Ἀρίσταρ|[χο]ς
SEG 34:308 (225-250 AD) 7
— — γρ]αμματέως δὲ | [— —]
SEG 43:26 (315/4 BC) A22-27, B14-15
ἀναγράψαι / ἐ στήληι | λιθίνει τὸν γραμματέα τῶν δημοτῶν /
ἀναγράψαι / ἐν | στήληι λιθίνει [τὸν δήμαρ]χον
SEG 48.455 (c.25-1 BC) 25-26
γρα(μματεὺς) Ἐπίνικος (Ἐπινίκου), |
[ύ(πο)]γρα(μματεύς)·Νίκανδρος Καλλικέτους
SEG 48:456 (98-117 AD) 9
γ(ραμματεὺς) Εὐδαιμο[κλῆς ?]
SEG 48:468 (98-117 AD) 7-8
γρα(μματεύς) Φιλάκων [—]| Σ [—]
γραμματεύς (grammateus of the hellenotamiai)
IG I3 259 (454/3 BC) 72-73
3
IG I 383 (429/8 BC) 260-262
παρὰ hελλε[νοταμιõν, hοῖς] | Στρόμβιχο[ς ἐγραμμάτευε]
[ἑλλε]νοταμί|[αι οἷς — — — — — — — — — — ἐγ]ραμμά|[τευε]
259
IG I3 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 123-125
[π]αρὰ hελλενοταμ[ιȏν h]οῖς Προτόν[ικος] | [ἐγραμ]μάτευε
Κερ[αμε]ύς
γραμματεύς (grammateus of the Treasurers of Athena)
The grammateus Euthias (underlined) is known from nine surviving inscriptions from the
years 434/3-432/1 BC.
IG I3 292 (434/3 BC) 5-6
Εὐθία[ς Αἴσχρονος | Ἀναφλύστιος]
3
Εὐ[θίας Αἴσχρονος Ἀναφλύσ]τιος
3
IG I 294 (432/1 BC) 27-30
[τάδε hοι ταμί]αι τõν h[ι]ερõν χρεμάτον [τες Ἀθεναίας Εὐρέκτες
Ἀτενεὺς κα]ὶ χσ[υνάρχ]|[οντες, hοῖς Ἀπ]ολλόδορος Κριτίο
Ἀφι[δναῖος ἐγραμμάτευε, παρέδοσαν τ]οῖς τα[μίασι]|[ν, hοῖς
Δίογνι]ς Ἰσάνδρο Περαιεὺς ἐγρ[αμμάτευε, παραδεχσάμενοι
παρ]ὰ τȏν π[ροτέρο]|[ν ταμιȏν, hοῖς] Εὐθ[ίας] Αἴσχρονος
Ἀναφ[λύστιος ἐγραμμάτευε
IG I3 317 (434/3 BC) 2-4
Εὐθ[ί]ας Ἀναφλύστ[ιος] | [ἐγραμμάτευε]
IG I 293 (433/2 BC) 15-16, 24-25
3
Εὐ[θί]ας Αἴσχρ[ο]νος Ἀνα[φλ]ύσ[τι]ος ἐγρα[μμά|τευε]
3
Εὐθίας Αἴσ]χρ[ονος Ἀναφλύστιος ἐ]γραμμάτευε
3
IG I 343 (434/3 BC) 3
[Εὐθίας Αἴσχρονος Ἀναφλύστιος ἐγραμμάτευε]
IG I3 344 (433/2 BC) 17
[Εὐ]θίας Α[ἴσχρονος Ἀναφλύστιος ἐγραμμάτευε]
IG I3 364 (433/2 BC) 17-18
[Εὐθίας Αἴ]σχρονος Ἀναφλύστιος | [ἐγραμμάτευε]
IG I 318 (433/2 BC) 9-10
IG I 319 (432/1 BC) 17
3
IG I 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 121-123
παρὰ ταμιȏν hο[ὶ τὰ τε]ς θεȏ ἐτα[μίευον] | hοῖς Κράτες
ἐγρα[μμά]τε[υ]ε Λαμπ[τρεύς] —
IG II2 1428 (367/6 BC) 1, 4-5
[τ]α[μ]ίαι τῶν τῆς [θεõ ὅ]τε Πολ[ύζηλ]ο[ς] ἦρχε / [οἷς — — —
— — — ἐγρα]|μμάτευεν :∙:
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός (grammateus hairetos)
IG II2 1710 (2C BC) 6-9
2
γραμματεὺες αἱρετός | Δημήτριος Θεοδώρου Φαληρεύς with
grammateus klerotos
IG II 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-19
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός | Τιμογένης Αἰσχρίωνος Ἁφιδναῖος with
SEG 21:587 (beg. 2C BC) 12-19
[γραμματεὺς α]ἱρετὸς | — — ολέμο[υ] with grammateus klerotos
SEG 21:588 (beg. 2C BC) 3-6
[γραμματεὺς αἱρε]τὸς | [— — Ξ]υπεταιών with grammateus
SEG 24:157 (222/1 BC) 1, 7-13
γραμματεὺς αἱρετὸς | Ἡράκλειτος Τιμοθέου Κριωεὺς
grammateus klerotos and hypogrammateus
klerotos
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν (grammateus of the bouleutai)
Ag. 15:366 (before 165 AD) 1-2
[γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν] | [— —]ίωνο[ς — before aiesitoi
Ag. 15:367 (165/6 AD) 11-12
γραμ(ματεὺς) βουλε[υτῶν] | Ζώπυρο[ς Ἀλεξάνδ]ρου
Ἀθ[μονεύς] with other secretaries
Ag. 15:372 (168/9 AD) 6-8
γραμμα[τεὺς βουλευ]|τῶν Σω[— —] with other secretaries
Ag. 15:376 (c.168 AD) 32
γρ(αμματεὺς) β[ουλευτῶν — —]
Ag. 15:385 (after 170/1 AD) 4-7 & 10-11
— ὁ γραμ]|[μ]ατεὺς τ[ῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς] | [Π]ανδειον[ίδος
φυλῆς — / — γραμμα]|[τε]ὺς βου[λευτῶν —
Ag. 15:392 (c.175 AD) 22-23
[γρ βο]υλευτῶν : Μηνο| [...]ς Ͻ Φλυ(εύς)
Ag. 15:406 (182/3 AD) 53
γρ βουλευτῶν Ζώσιμος κχυλίδου Γαρ(γήττιος) before aeisitoi
Ag. 15:421 (before end 2C AD) 17-19
[γρ]αμματεὺς βουλευτῶν | Ἐπίγονος Εὐκάρπου | Τρύφων Ͻ
Ag. 15:445 (c.200 AD) 11-12
γρ(αμματεὺς) βο(υλευτῶν) Κ[— | γρ(αμματεὺς) βο(υλῆς)
δ(ήμου)[— — —] with other secretaries
260
and other secretaries
Ag. 15:470 (after 216 AD) 32-33
γρ βουλευτῶν vacat
Ag. 15:472 (after 216 AD) 57
[γ]ραμματεὺς βουλε[υτῶν]
Ag. 15:478 (after c.217 AD) 23
[γρα]μματεὺς βου[λευτῶν — —]
Ag. 15:491 (c.231/2 AD) 38
γραμματ[εὺς βουλευτῶν —]
Clinton, Sacred Officials 123, App.IV.(6)
(c.200 AD) 11-12, 17
γρ(αμματεὺς) βο(υλῆς) κ[αὶ δήμου] | γρ(αμματεὺς)
βο(υλευτῶν) Δ[— —] / ὑπ[ογραμματεύς]
IG II2 1768 (mid 2C AD) 4-5 (Ag. 15:365)
[γρα]μματεὺς βουλευτῶν | [Φο]ύριος Ἡράκλειτος Γαρ[γήττιος]
2
before aeisitoi
IG II 1769 (mid 2C AD) 1
[γραμματεὺς βουλευ]τῶν Ο before aeisitoi
IG II2 1773 (166/7 AD) 53-65
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν Ἰωνικὸς Ἅβρωνος before aeisitoi and
2
IG II 1774 (167/8 AD) 7-9, 58-59, 62, 68-77
2
other secretaries
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶ[ν] | <Ζ>ήνων Ͻ before aeisitoi and
other secretaries
IG II 1777 (168/9 AD) 4-7, 11
ὁ γραμ]|[μ]ατεὺς τ[ῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς] | [Π]ανδειον[ίδος φυλῆς
— — ] / [γραμματε]ὺς βου[λευτῶν — —]
IG II2 1783 (early 3C AD) 53
[γ]ραμματεὺς βουλε[υτῶν]
2
IG II 1788 (c.174/5 AD) 31-33 (Ag. 15:387)
2
IG II 1794 (c.180 AD) 29 (Ag. 15:402)
γραμματεὺς βου|λευτῶν Στρά|των Ὀλύμπου Μελιτεύς.
before aeisitoi
γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν Ἅγνος Ͻ Ν before aeisitoi and
other secretaries
2
[γραμματεὺς] βουλευτῶ[ν] with aeisitoi and other secretaries
2
γρ(αμματὲυς) βουλευτῶν | Ἕλενος Ͻ vv Ἀζηνιεύς
IG II 1796 (c.180 AD) 31-32 & 40 (Ag. 15:411)
IG II 1808 (end 2C AD) 19-20 (Ag. 15:395)
before aeisitoi and other secretaries
2
Abbreviated to γρ. βουλευτῶν
2
γρ βουλευτῶν vac.
2
IG II 1832 (c.225 AD) 30
γραμματ[εὺς βουλευτῶν — —]
SEG 32:339 (1-2C AD) 1
γρ(αμματεὺς) βουλε[υτῶν]
SEG 28:166 (148/9 AD) 10
[γρ. βουλευτῶν?] Κάλλων Φιλοκράτους Κυδ with other secretaries
SEG 26:157 (c.200 AD) 11
[γραμματεὺς βουλευτῶν(?) — —] with other secretaries
IG II 1824 (c.210 AD) 32
IG II 1827 (c.210 AD) 23
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου (grammateus for life)
The grammateus for life Straton (underlined) is known from twelve inscriptions dated from
179/80-90/1 AD to 212/3 AD. In seven of these texts, he is also described as hiereus, priest.
Straton was succeeded by Syntrophos (whose name is marked with a dashed line). Syntrophos
held the office of grammateus for life (and occasionally, priest) for at least twenty years
(218/9 – 238/9-243/4 AD), assisted by a single hypogrammateus for life, Onesimos.
IG II2 2110 (179/80-190/1 AD) 7-8
γραμματεύοντος δι[ὰ βίου] | Στράτωνος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος
Ἀχαρνέως.
IG II2 2111/12 (182/3–190/1 AD) 7-8
γραμματεύοντος | διὰ βίου Στράτωνος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρνέως.
IG II2 2113 (183/4–191/2 AD) 13-14, 32-33
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου | Στράτων Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρ /
[ὑ]πογραμμ[ατεύς] | [Κιθ]αιρ[ών Ͻ] Ἀχαρ
IG II2 2125 (c.190-200 AD) 8-9
γραμματεύον]|[τ]ος διὰ βίου Στράτωνος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶ[νος
Ἀχαρνέως
IG II2 2126 (190-200 AD) 7-8
γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίο]υ ἱερέως | [Στράτωνος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος
Ἀχαρνέως].
IG II2 2130 (192/3 AD) 7-8, 33-44
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου | ἱερεὺς Στρ[ά]των Ἀχαρ τὸ διʹ /
ὑπογραμματεύς | Πο Αἴλ Ἄνθος [Ἠ]ρεσί
261
IG II2 2193 (c.200 AD) 32-93
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου· ἱερεὺς Στράτων Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρ /
ὑπογραμματεὺς Αἴλ | Εὐχάριστος Σφήττιος
IG II2 2197 (after 200 AD) 7-8
γραμματεύ|[οντος διὰ βίου ἱερέως Σ]τράτωνος τ[οῦ
Κ]ιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρνέως
IG II2 2199 (c.200 AD) II.41-43, 66-7
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου | ἱερεὺς Στράτων Κιθαι|ρῶνος Ἀχαρνευς /
ὑπογραμμα· Αἴλ Εὐχάρι|στος Φαλη
IG II2 2202 (c.200 AD) 2
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου]· ἱερεὺς Στράτων [Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρνεύς
2
IG II 2203 (c.200 AD) 2-3, 27-28
γραμματεύ]|οντος διὰ βίου Στράτων[ος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος
Ἀχαρνέως / ὑπογραμματεύς | Μηνόδωρος Ἀγαθοκλέους
IG II2 2208 (212/3 AD or later) 11, 37-38
γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίου· ἱερ· Στράτωνος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος
Ἀχαρ, / ὑπογραμματεύς | Ἰούλιος Ἀριστείδης Ἀχαρ
IG II2 2223 (218/9 AD or later) 14-15, 34-35
γραμματεὺς δ[ι]ὰ βίο[υ]·| Σύντροφος Εὐκ[αρπίδου ἐκ Κοίλης] /
ὑπογρα[μ]ματεύς | Ὀνήσιμος [Εὐ]καρπίδου ἐκ Κοί
IG II2 2239 (238/9-243/4 AD) 7-8, 21-24
γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίου | ἱερέως Συντρόφο[υ τ]οῦ
Εὐκαρπίδου ἐκ Κοίλης / [ὑπογρα]μμα[τεύς] | [Ὀνήσιμ]ος
Ε[ὐ]|[καρπίδ]ο[υ] | [ἐκ Κοίλ]ης
IG II2 2242 (238/9 or 242/3 AD) 9-10
γραμματ]εύοντος διὰ β[ί]|ου ἱερέως [Συντρόφου τοῦ
Εὐκαρπίδου ἐ]κ Κοίλης ἔτος κβʹ
IG II2 2245 (262/3 or 266/7AD) 29-408
οἱ διὰ βίου / γραμματεὺς Κλ Ἀντίλοχος / ὑπογρα Αὐρ Ἐλευσείνιος Ͻ
SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 48-51
οἱ διὰ βίου / γραμματεὺς Ἀλκιβιάδης / ὑπογραμματεὺς Ἀλκιβιάδης
SEG 39:189 (226/7–234/5 AD) 8-9, 60, 65-66
(IG II2 2235)
γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίου ἱερέως Συντρόφου] τοῦ Εὐκαρπ[ί]δου
ἐκ Κοίλης / οἱ διὰ βίου / ὑπογραμματε]ύς | [Ὀνήσιμος
Εὐκαρπίδ]ου ἐκ Κοίλης
Ephebes from all 12 tribes.
γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν (grammateus kata prytaneian)
See page 263 for grammateus of the boule, and see page 297 for a table comparing the
usage of grammateus kata prytaneian and grammateus of the boule.
Ag. 15:34 (343/2 BC) 14-15
ἀναγράψαι τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν γραμματέα τὸν κατὰ
πρυτανείαν ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι
Ag.15:179 (185/4 BC) 9-13, 15-16, 27, 32-34
[ἡ βουλή | τὸν γραμ|ματέα Φι|λόδη|μον] / Στρατόνικος
[Στρατονίκου Ἁμαξαντεὺς ἐγραμ]|μάτευεν·/ [τὸν γραμματέα
Φι]λόδημ[ον — / ἀναγρά]|[ψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισ]μ[α] τὸν
γραμμα[τέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν] | [ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι
Ag.15:322 (c.120 AD) 25-26
[ἀναγράψαι / τὸν κατὰ πρυτανεί]|αν γραμμα[τέα ἐ]ν στήλῃ λιθίνῃ
ID 1497bis (160/59 BC) 3-4, 28-31
[Σωσιγέ]νης Μενεκράτου Μαραθώνιος ἐγραμ|[μάτευεν] /
ἀναγράψαι / τὸν γραμματέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτα|νείαν ἐν στήλει
λιθίνει
IG II2 124 (357/6 BC) 1-3
[ἀναγράψαι / τὸ]ν γραμ[ματέα τὸν κατ]|[ὰ πρυτανείαν·
2
IG II 120 (353/2 BC) 11-19
2
ἀντιγράφεσθαι δὲ τὸγ γραμματέα τὸγ κατὰ|[πρ]υτανείαν with
other secretaries, Chalkotheke (see page 54)
IG II 223 (343/2 BC) C1-2
[γραμματ]ε[ὺ]ς κατὰ π[ρυτα]νείαν·| Κλεόστρατος Τιμοσθένους
Αἰγιλιεύς
IG II2 330 (315/14 BC) 1-2, 23-27
Πρόξενος Π[υλαγόρου Ἀχερδούσιος ἐγραμμάτευ]|[εν]·/
[ἀναγράψαι δ]|ὲ / τὸν γραμμα[τέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν ἐν
σ]|τήληι λιθίνηι καὶ τὸ τῆς βουλ[ῆς ὃ εἶπε Ἀγασίας καὶ τὸ τοῦ] |
δήμου ὃ εἶπεν Ἱπποχάρης καὶ [στῆσαι ἐν ἀκροπόλει]
IG II2 331 (315/14 BC) 2-3
Πρόξενος Πυ]λαγόρο[υ] | [Ἀχερδούσιος ἐγραμμάτευεν·(see II2
2
330, above)
IG II 374 (aft. 319/8 BC) 19-22
[ἀναγράψαι] / [τὸν γραμματέα τὸν κατὰ π]ρυτανεί| [αν ἐν
στήληι λιθίνηι]
IG II2 483 (304/3 BC) 27-31
ἀναγραψαι /τὸν γραμματέ[α] | τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν
2
IG II 487 (304/3 BC) 17-20
262
ἀνα[γ]|ράψαι / τὸν γρα[μ]|ματέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν
IG II2 788 (235/4 BC) 7, 26-8
ἀναγράψαι / τὸν γραμματέα τὸν | κατὰ πρυτανείαν ἐν στήλει
λιθίνηι
IG II2 1041 (47/6-43/2 BC) 5-6
[ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν γραμματέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν] / εἰς
στήλην λιθίνην
IG II2 1049 (40/39 BC) 17-19
[ἀναγράψαι / τὸν γραμμα]|τέα τὸν κατὰ πρυ[τανείαν εἰς στήλην
λιθίνην
IG II2 1050 (mid-1C BC) 14-16
[ἀνα|γράψαι] / [τὸν γραμματέα τὸν κατὰ πρυτανείαν ἐν στήληι
λι]|[θίνηι
IG II2 1062 (mid-1C BC) 6-8
ἀναγράψαι / [ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι τὸν γραμματέα] | τὸν κατὰ
πρυτανείαν
IG II2 1700 (335/4 BC) 213-220 (Ag. 15:43)
γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν Πρόξενος Πυλαγόρου
Ἀχερδούσιος with other secretaries
IG II2 1789 (c.175 AD) 4-7
[γραμμ]ατεὺς βουλῆς | — — — ξ Ἐλευθέρου | [γραμμ]ατεὺς
κατὰ π[ρυτανείαν] | [Εὔκ]αρπος Θεογ[ένους]
SEG 21:272 (335/4 BC) 4-5
[Αχερ]|[δούσ]ιος ἐγραμμάτευεν·
SEG 26:157 (c.200 AD) 3, 6
[γρ. βουλῆς - -] / [γρ.κατὰ πρυτανείαν] both entirely restored.
With other secretaries.
γραμματεὺς κληρωτός (grammateus klerotos)
Hesp. 6:445 No.2B (239/38 BC) 9-10
[καὶ τὸν κληρωτὸν γραμματ]έα Ἐργοκλῆν Κρ|[ωπίδην]
ID 1500 (c.150 BC) 6-7, 25, 27-28
κα]ὶ ὁ κ[λη]|[ρωτὸς? γραμματεὺς — — — Μενεκλῆς Αἴ]σχρωνος
Ἁλ[α]ιε[ὺς] / ἀγορανομήσαντας / καὶ τ[ὸν γραμ]|ματέα αὐτῶν
Μενεκλῆν Αἴ[σ]χρωνος
ID 1833 (undated) 6-7
ὁ κληρωτὸς γραμματεὺς | Μενεκλῆς Αἴσχρωνος Ἁλαιεύς.
2
IG II 1710 (2C BC) 6-9
2
γραμματε[ὺς κλ]ηρωτός | Σωσιγένης Σωστράτου Δεκελεεύς with
grammateus hairetos
IG II 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-19
γραμματεὺς κληρωτός | Διόδοτος Θεοδώρου Ἁμαξαντεύς with
SEG 21:587 (beg. 2C BC) 12-19
[γραμματεὺς] κληρωτὸ[ς] | — — ιμοκλέου with grammateus
SEG 21:588 (beg. 2C BC) 3-6
[γραμματεὺς κληρ]ωτὸς | — — ς Κοθωκίδης with grammateus
SEG 24:157 (222/1 BC) 1, 7-13
γραμματεὺς κληρωτὸς | Νικίας Φίλωνος Κυδαθηναιεὺς
grammateus hairetos and hypogrammateus
hairetos
hairetos
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule)
Also the forms γραμματεὺς τες βολες and γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς
See page 262 for the grammateus kata prytaneian and page 281 for [ho] peri to bema. See
page 297 for a table comparing the usage of grammateus kata prytaneian and grammateus
of the boule.
Time restrictions of ten days are underlined.
ABSA 26 A5 (101-150 AD) 5-6
γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς | Ἀριστοκράτης καμίλλου
ABSA 26 B4 (101-150 AD) 1-4
Σι’τιμος Πατο|νίκου γρα(μματεὺς) Βου|λᾶς ἐπὶ Εὐ|κλήτου
ABSA 26 B6 (101-150 AD) 1-3
[Γραμ]ματεὺς βουλῆς | [τὸ]ν ἐπὶ Γαΐου Ἰουλίου Λυσικρά|τους
ABSA 26 B8 (101-150 AD) 2, 4
Καλλικράτους τοῦ Ῥούφου; γραμματεὺς Βουλῆς γενόμενος
ABSA 26 C1 (101-150 AD) Col.2 4-7
Γ(ρ)α(μματεὺς) Βουλᾶς | Πολύευκτος Σιμήδους. /
Ὑπογρ(αμματεὺς) Θέλγων (Θέλγοντος.)
ABSA 26 C7 (101-150 AD) 8-9
Γρα(μματεὺς) Βου(λᾶς) Τιβ. Κλα. Νεολαος | Πρατομηλίδα.
ABSA 26 C10 (101-150 AD) 4-5
Γρα. Βουλᾶς Πό. Μέμμιος | Δαμάρης
263
ABSA 27 E30 (c.134 AD) 3-4
Γραμματεὺς Βουλᾶς | Πολύ(ξ)ενος
Ag. 15:410 (185/6 AD) 7, 11
[γραμματεὺς βο]υλῆς Φλ Βάκχιος / [περὶ τὸ βῆμα] Ἑρμόδωρος
Θερμ[— —]
Ag. 15:454 (204/5 AD) 4-7
[γραμμ]ατεὺς βουλῆς | [— c.5-6 —]ξ Ἐλευθέρου |
[γραμ]ματεὺς κατὰ π[ρυτανείαν] | [Εὔκ]αρπος Θεογ[ένους]
Ag.16:95[2] (322/1 BC) 18-21
γραμματέα τ]ῆς βουλῆς / ἀναγράψαι / ἐστήλει λιθίνε]ι δέ[κ]α
ἡμε|[ρῶν
Ag. 16 76[1] (335/4 BC) 3-4
Πρόξ]ενος Π[υλα]γόρου Ἀχερ[δ]|[ούσιος ἐ]γραμμάτ[ευ]εν·
ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 20-37
ἀναγράψαι / στήληι λιθίνηι τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς /
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν γραμματέα | τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων ἐν στήληι
λιθίνηι ἀντίγ|ραφον
ID 502 (297 BC) A25-30
ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ο[ἱ] ἕνδεκα καὶ [οἱ γραμματεῖς]· | <eleven
personal names> γραμματεὺς βουλῆς Διόγ[νη]τος Τι — — |
γραμματεὺς ἱεροποιῶν καὶ ἀγορανόμων Θεόγνωτος
Πατροκλέους·
ID 1522 (98-117 AD) 19-21
τοῦ δὲ ψ[η]φίσματος παραδοθῆναι | τοῦδε τὸ ἀντίγραφον
τῶ<ι> τῆς [β]ου[λ]ῆς γρα[μμα]τεῖ καὶ κατατάξαι εἰς [κι]|βωτόν·
ἀναγράψαι δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ εἰς στήλην…
IG I3 5 (c.500 BC) 1
Παραιβάτες [: ἐγραμμάτευε] vac.
3
IG I 10 (469-450 BC) 3, 5-6, 22-27
[.]νάσιππος ἐγραμμάτευε / [ἀν]αγράψαι·/ ἀναγραψά|[τω ὁ
γραμμ]ατεὺς ὁ τῆς βολῆς | [ἐστήληι λιθί]νηι
IG I3 27 (c.450/49 BC) 8-9
ἀνα]|γράφσαι τὸν [γραμματέα τες β]|ολες / [ἐστέλει]
3
[Θ]εόδορος Πρασιεὺς ἐγραμμάτευε.
3
Κριτιά]δες πρõτος ἐγραμμ|[άτευε / Χ]αρίας ἐγραμμάτευ|[ε
3
IG I 82 (421/0 BC) 2-3, 42-22
[Προκλες] Ἀτάρβο Ε[ὐονυμεὺς] | [ἐγραμμάτ]ευε ἐπὶ Ἀριστ[ίονος
ἄρχοντος]·/ ἀναγράφ[σαι δὲ τὸ φσέφι]|[σμα τόδε ἐστέλει
λιθίνει καὶ καταθεναι ἐ]ν τõι hιερõι· hο δὲ [γραμματεὺς τες] |
[βολες ἐπιμελέσθο τες ἀναγραφες·
IG I3 99 (410/09 BC) 1-6
[Φ]ίλιππος [Φιλ]έο Δ[ειραδιότες] | [ἐ]γραμμάτευεν Οἰ[νείδι
φυλει]·| ἔδοχσεν τει βολε[ι καὶ τõι] | δέμοι· Οἰνεὶς
ἐπ[ρυτάνευ]|ε, Φίλιππος ἐγρα[μμάτευε]|ν
IG I3 101 (410/09 BC) 1-46, 47-64
ἀναγρά[φσας ὁ γραμματεὺς ὁ] | τῆς βουλῆς ἐστήληι λιθίνηι / ἐς
δὲ τὸ φσέφισμα τὸ πρόπανορθõσαι τὸγ γραμματέα τες βολες
IG I 31 (c.450 BC) 1-5
IG I 53 (433/2 BC) 4-8
Two decrees on same stele. The second issues corrections to
the first.
IG I3 103 (410/9 BC) 8-11
ἀνα|[γράψαι] / [ἐν σ]τήληι λιθίν|[ηι] / τὸν γραμματέα] τῆς
βουλῆς·
IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 3-4
[Δ]ιό[γ]|νετος ἐγραμμάτευε.
3
IG I 127 (405/4 BC) 1-4
Κηφισοφῶν Παιανιεὺς | ἐγραμμάτευε. | Σαμίοις ὅσοι μετὰ τõ
δήμο τõ Ἀθηναί|ων ἐγένοντο
IG I3 133 (after 434/3 BC) 1-2, 9-10
ἐγραμμ]άτευε / ἀναγράφσαν]|τες ἐμ π[ιν]ακίοι
IG I3 193 (450-435 BC) 3-4
[ἀναγραφσάτο] hο γραμματεὺ[ς hο τες βολες ἐν στέ]|[λει λιθίνει]
3
IG I 195 (450-435 BC) 2-4
ἀν]αγραφσα[...] / [hο γραμματεὺς hο] τες βολε[ς ἐστ]|[έλει
λιθίνει]
IG I3 261 (452/1 BC) 1
[ἐπ]ὶ τες : τρίτε[ς ἀρχες h]ει Διό[τ]ιμος ἐγραμ[μάτευε] : τοῖς
τριάκοντα·
IG I3 262 (451/0 BC) 1
ἐπὶ τες ἀρχες τες τετά[ρτ]ες h[ει -7-]λες ἐγράμμα[τευε
hα]λιμόσιος·
IG I3 269 (443/2 BC) 1
[ἐπὶ τες ἀρχες τες δο]δεκά[τ]ες hει [Σ]οφίας ἐγρα[μμάτ]ευε
Ἐλευσίνι·
IG I3 316 (407/6 BC) 64-67
Γν]αθίο Λευκονοιεὺς ἐγρα[μμάτευ]|[ε] / [πρõτος?
ἐ]γραμμάτευεν·
IG I3 375 (410/9 BC) 1-2
Κλεγένες hαλαιεὺς πρõτ[ος] | ἐγραμμάτευε·
3
IG I 450 (447/6 – 433/2 BC) 410-416
264
ἐπὶ τες πέμ[π]|τες καὶ δεκάτες βολ|ες hει Κριτιάδες πρõ|τος
ἐγραμμάτευε
IG I3 465 (437/6 – 433/2 BC) 114-121
Διογέ[νες ἐ]γρ[αμμάτευε] | [— 9 —] ἐπὶ τες βολες hει
Μετα[γένες] πρ[õτος ἐγραμ]|[μάτευε· / Ἐπικλες ἐγρα[μμάτευ]ε
Θορίκ[ιος] — Inscription also contains the secretary of the
treasurers of Athena, and secretary of the hellenotamiai.
IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6
ἐ|γρα[μάτευε —]
3
— ἐγ]ραμάτε|υε· Φαιδρί[ο —
3
IG I 1453,B/G (425/4 BC?) 10.1
προσγράψαι δὲ πρὸς τὸν ὅρκον [τ]ὸν τῆς βολῆς τὸν γραμματέα
τῆς [βολῆς Archons in the cities also write the decree (8.1-2).
IG II2 1 (403/2 BC) 1-6, 38-42, 56-57
[ἀναγράψαι / τ]ὸγ γραμμ[ατέα τῆς βο]λῆς μετὰ τῶν |
[στρατηγῶν ἐστήληι λιθίνηι] / Κηφισοφῶν [εἶπεν]·/ Κηφισοφῶν
Πα[ια]νιεὺ[ς] | [ἐγραμμάτευε Cephisophon is proposer of
IG I 509 (c.550 BC?) 2-3
decree; Cephisophon is secretary.
2
IG II 2 (405/4 BC) 1-2, 6-7
[Ἀγύρριος Κο]λλυτεὺς ἐγραμμάτευ[ε] / [Ἀγύρρι]ος
ἐγραμμάτ|[ευε]
IG II2 13 (399/8 BC) 1-2, 6-7, 8-13
[Λυσίμαχος Κ]ολωνῆθεν ἐγραμμάτευε. / Λυσίμαχος |
[ἐγραμμάτε]υε / ἀνα|[γράψαι τὸν] γραμματέα τῆς | [βολῆς ἐν
πό]ληι / [ἀ]|[ναγράψαι δὲ] αὐτο τὸν ὑ[ὸν.]
IG II2 26 (394-387 BC) 1-8
Χαρίδημος Θεοτέλος | Λαμπτρεὺς ἐγραμμά|τευεν. no archon.
2
IG II 33 (c.385 BC) 2-3, 8-9
[ΔΔ δρ]|[α]χμὰς [τ]ῶι γ[ραμματεῖ τ]ῆς βο[λῆς·/ ἀπογρά]ψαι δὲ
[αὐτῶν] | τὰ ὀνόματα
IG II2 37 (after 383 BC) 20-23
ἀναγράψαι] / τὰ ὀ[ν]|[όματα / ἀπογρά[ψα]|[σθαι τὰ ὀνόματα
τῶι γραμ]ματεῖ τῆς βολ[ῆς]
IG II2 44 (378/73 BC) 1-3, 5-6, 15-18
[Ἀρ]ιστοτέλης :∙: Εὐφιλήτο | [Ἀχ]αρνεὺς ἐγραμμάτευε[ν]. /
Ἀριστοτέλης ἐγραμμάτευ|[εν]
IG II2 49 (beg. 4C BC) 1
[Κυ]δήνωρ Κυδήνορος Ἀλωπεκῆθεν ἐγραμμάτευεν. No archon.
2
IG II 53 (after 387/6 BC) 5-9
ἀνα]γράψαι τὸγ γραμματέα τῆς βολ|[ῆ]ς ἐ[σ]τήλ[η]ι [λ]ιθίνηι /
τὴν στήλην δõναι τὸ[ν] ταμίαν ΔΔ δραχμὰς | [τῶ]ι [γ]ρ[αμματεῖ]
τῆς βολῆς·
IG II2 58 (bef. 378/7 BC) 1-6
[Εὐδράμω]ν ἐγραμμάτ[ευεν] | [Ἀχε]ρδόσιος. No archon.
2
Σμί[κυθο]ς Χα[ρ]ίνο Ἀχαρνε[ὺς] ἐγρ[αμμάτευε. No archon.
2
IG II 107 (368/7 BC) 4-7, 18-24
Μόσχος Κυδαθηναιεὺς ἐ|[γραμμά]τευεν / ἀναγράψαι / τὸν
γραμματέα τῆς [βου]λῆ[ς] ἐν στήληι λιθίνη|[ι] / [εἰ]ς δὲ τὴν
ἀναγραφ|[ὴν δοῦναι τῆς στή]λης [τ]ὸν ταμίαν τοῦ δήμου τῶι
γραμματεῖ τ|[ῆς βου]λῆς ΔΔ δραχμάς. Last attestation of
grammateus of the boule for a single prytany.
IG II2 109 (363/2 BC) 1-5, 24-29
Νικόστρατο[ς Φιλοστ]|[ράτο] Παλληνεὺς ἐγρα[μμάτευεν] /
ἀ[ν]αγρά[ψα]ι | τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆ[ς] ἐν [σ]τήλη[ι
λ]ι|θίνηι / εἰς [δὲ] τ|ὴν ἀναγραφὴν τῆς στήλ[ης δ]õναι τὸν
τα[μ]|ίαν τõ δήμο ΔΔ δρα<χ>μὰς Earliest evidence for annual
IG II 77 (375 BC) 1
office of grammateus of the boule.
2
IG II 110 (363/2 BC) 2-6
2
Νικ|[ό]στρατος ἐγραμμάτευεν Same grammateus as IG II2 109,
published in a different prytany.
IG II 111 (363/2 BC) 2-4, 23-7
Νικό|στρατος Παλληνεὺς ἐγραμμάτευε Same grammateus as IG
IG II2 120 (358/7–354/3 BC) 11-19
The Chalkotheke inscription. See page 54.
II2 109, published in a different prytany.
2
[γ]ραμματεὺς Λυσίας Λυσ —. No archon.
2
IG II 130 (355/4 BC) 4-5, 15-19
Πάνδ]ιος Σωκλέους ἐξ Οἴο ἐγρα[μ]|[μάτευεν]· / [γρα]μματ[έα]
τῆς βο[υλῆς] ἀναγρ[ά]|[ψαι ἐν] στήλ[ηι] δέκα [ἡμερῶ]ν
IG II2 133 (355/4 BC) 5-7, 14-20
Πά]|[ν]διος Σωκλ[έ]ους ἐ[ξ Οἴου ἐγραμμάτευε]|[ν]· / [ἀναγράψα]|ι
/ [γραμματέα τῆς β]|ουλῆς ἐν στήληι λ[ιθίνηι] / [δέκα ἡμερῶν]
IG II2 138  (353/2 BC) 3
Δωροθέο Παλλην[εὺς ἐγραμμάτευεν·]
IG II 127 (356/5 BC) 1
2
[Δωρο]|θέο Παλλην[εὺς ἐγραμμάτευε ...]
2
IG II 141 (376/5 BC) 12-15
ἀν|αγραψάτω ὁ γραμματεὺς τῆς βολῆς | ἐστήληι λιθίνηι δέκα
ἡμερῶν
IG II2 149 (after 355 BC) 17-23
ἀ|[ναγράψαι] / [γραμμ]ατέα τῆς βουλῆς ἐν στήληι λ|[ιθίνηι] /
δέκα ἡμερῶν·
IG II 139  (353/2 BC) 3-4
265
IG II2 195 (353/2 BC) 7-12
τὸ δὲ ψ]|[ήφισμα] τὸ πρότερ[ον, ὃ ἦν ἀναγεγραμμέ]|[νον
ἔμπ]ροσθεν τõ [βουλευτηρίο αὐτῶι], | [ἀναγρά]ψαντα τὸ[ν
γραμματέα ἐστήληι] | [λιθίνηι] / προ]|[σαναγράψαι / τὸ ψήφισμα]
IG II2 204 (352/1 BC) 23-24
γρά[ψαι δὲ τὸ]ν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς εἰς δύο κα|[ττ]ιτέρω
ἴσω καὶ [ὁμοίω, εἰς μὲν] τὸν ἕτερον·
IG II2 206 (349/8 BC) 2-3, 28-34
Διεύχης Δημάρχου Φρε[άρρ]|ιος ἐγραμμάτευεν. /ἀναγράψ[αι] /
γραμματ[έα τῆς βουλῆς / καὶ στῆσ[αι δέκα ἡμερῶν
IG II2 207 (349/8 BC) 1
[Διεύχης Δημάρχου Φρεάρριος ἐγραμμάτευε·]
2
IG II 208 (349/8 BC) 3-4
Διεύ|[χη]ς Δη[μ]ά[ρ]χου Φ[ρεάρρι]ος ἐγραμμάτευεν·
IG II2 224 (343/4 BC) 2
Κλεόστρατος Τιμοσθένους Αἰ[γιλιεὺς] ἐγραμμάτευεν
2
[Κλεόστρατος Τιμο]σθένους Ἀιγιλιεὺς ἐ|[γραμμάτευεν]·
2
IG II 228 (341/0 BC) 5-6
Ὀνήσιππο|ς Ἀραφήνιος ἐγραμμάτευεν·
IG II2 229 (341/0 BC) 3-4
[Ὀνήσι]ππος Σμικύ[θο] Ἀ[ραφήν]|[ιος ἐγραμμάτευεν·
grammateus ceases to be member of boule.1518
IG II2 235 (336/5 BC) 26-34
[ἀν]αγ[ρ]άψα[ι δὲ αὐτῶι τὴν π]|[ρ]οξενίαν [τὸν γραμματέα] |
[τ]ὸν κατὰ π[ρυτανείαν]
IG II2 238 (338/7 BC) 14-17
[ἀναγράψ]αι / [γραμ]ματέα τῆς βουλῆς / στήλην λιθί|[νην]
IG II 225 (343/2 BC) 4-5
2
grammateus ceases to be member of boule.1517
IG II 253 (bef. 336/5 BC) 4-10
τὸν δ[ὲ] | [γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς ἀ]ναγράψ|[αι] / [ἐν στή]ληι
λι|[θίνηι] / [δέκα ἡμερῶν]
IG II2 274 (after 336/5 BC) 1-3
[— ἀναγράψαι —] | [— τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλ]ῆς ἐν στήλ|[ηι
λιθίνηι] / δέκα [ἡμερῶν.]
IG II2 278 (336/5 BC) 10-12
[καὶ ἀναγρ]|[άψαι ἐν στή]ληι / [τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς δέκα
ἡμερῶν]
IG II2 287 (336/5 BC) 12-16
ἀνα|γράψαι / ἐν στ|ήληι λιθίνηι τὸγ γραμματέα τῆ|ς βουλῆς /
δέκα [ἡμερῶν —]
IG II2 289 (336/5 BC) 8-11
[τὸν δὲ γραμματέα τ]ῆς βουλῆς | [ἀναγράψαι] / [ἐστήλει
λιθίνε]ι δέ[κ]α ἡμε|[ρῶν]
IG II2 373 (322/1 BC) 9-15
ἀναγράψαι / ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς
IG II² 381 (320/19 BC) 1-6
ἀναγραφεὺς Ἀ[ρχέδικος Ν]αυκρ[ίτ]|[ο]υ Λαμπτ[ρεύ]ς. /
Ν]ικόδημος Ἀναφ|λύ[σ]τιος ἐγρα[μμάτ]ευε[ν]·
IG II2 410 (c.330 BC) 37-39
ἀναγρά|ψαι / τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς ἐν στήλ|ηι λιθίνηι
2
IG II 913 (c.200 BC) 7-11
[ἀναγράψαι] / τὸν γραμματέα τὸ[ν κατὰ πρυτανείαν ἐν στή]|ληι
λιθίνηι
IG II2 914 (c.200 BC) 7-9
[ἀναγράψαι] / τὸν γραμματέα τὸ[ν κατὰ πρυτανείαν ἐν στή]|ληι
λιθίνηι
IG II2 915 (c.200 BC) 7-11
ἀνα[γ]ράψα[ι / τὸν γραμματέα τὸ]|ν κατὰ πρυταν[εί]αν [ἐν
στήληι λιθίνηι]
IG II2 1061 (1C BC) 15-19
[ἀνα]γράψα|[ι / τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς εἰς] στήλη|[ν λιθίνην]
2
Εὔτυχος ἐγραμ[μάτευεν]
2
γραμματε[ύ]|οντος δὲ βουλᾶς Ἄρχωνος τοῦ Καλλικράτε|ος.
2
IG II 1789 (c.175 AD) 4-7
[γραμμ]ατεὺς βουλῆς | — — — ξ Ἐλευθέρου | [γραμμ]ατεὺς
κατὰ π[ρυτανείαν] | [Εὔκ]αρπος Θεογ[ένους]
IG II2 1973 (40/1-53/4 AD) 5
γραμματεύοντος Εὐφροσύνου Ͻ Φαληρέως.
IG II 1078 (c.220 AD) 2
IG II 1136 (106/5 BC) 23-25
2
IG II 2006 (early 1C AD) 6
γραμματεύοντ[ος — —
IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4, B5
ἀναγράψουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ἐν τῶι γυμνασίῳ / γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς
IG V,1 32 (after 125 AD) A15
ἐπὶ Ἀλκάστου γρα(μματεὺς) βουλᾶς
1517
With IG II2 1749 (341/0 BC) 63-5. Ὀνήσιππος Ἀραφήνιος Ἀραφήνιος is the secretary of both IG II2 228
and 229, but does not appear in the list of bouleutai chosen from the Ἀραφήνιοι. Rhodes (1972a) 135.
1518
See n.1517, above.
266
IG V,1 34 (117-138 AD) 3-13
[γρ(αμματεὺς) βου(λᾶς) ἐ]|πὶ Σιπόμπο[υ]
IG V,1 37 (138-161 AD) 1
[γρ]αμματεὺς βουλᾶς
IG V,1 39 (mid 2C AD) 23-25
γρ(αμματεὺς) [β(ουλᾶς)] | ἐπὶ Κασ(σίου) Ἀριστο|τέλους
IG V,1 40 (138-180 AD) 9-11, 13-14
γρ(αμματεὺς) ἐπὶ Πρατονίκου καὶ ἱερεὺς Οὐρανίων /
γ(ραμματεὺς) βο(υλῆς) ἐπὶ Πολυεύκτου
IG V,1 46 (late 2/3C AD) 8-11
γραμμα[τε]ὺς βουλῆς
IG V,1 60 (117-138 AD) 4
γραμματεὺς <β>ου<λ>ᾶς Κλέ<ω>ν <Ͻ> Τυνδάρι κάσε<ν>.
IG V,1 71 (mid 2C AD) III.4
ἐπὶ Σηϊανοῦ γρα(μματεὺς) βου(λᾶς)
(with grammatophylakes at II.17, III.15, 34, 52)
IG V,1 110 (mid 2C AD) 5
γραμματε[ὺς βουλᾶς]·
IG V,1 112 (138-161 AD) 11
Μ(ᾶρκος) Οὔλπιος Ἀφθόνητος γρ(αμματεὺς)βουλᾶς.
IG V,1 116 (161 AD or later) 6-9
γραμματεὺς βουλῆς· Ἀριστο{σ}νικίδας Νικηφόρου
IG V,1 118 (undated) 1
—] γραμ[ματεὺς βουλᾶς]
IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 1-25
γραμματεῖς·| Δαμιάδας, | Στ<ρ>άτων.| ὑπογραμματεῖς·| Εὐδαίμων,
| Κ[λ]έων, | [Ε]ὐδαιμοκλῆς. / γραμ(ματεὺς) | βο[υλᾶς?]
IG V,1 162 (mid 2C AD) B.19
[γραμματεὺς] βουλᾶς·
IG V,1 206 (1C BC) 5
γ(ραμματεὺς) βο[υ(λᾶς)] ΡΛΜΛνης
IG V,1 479 (131/132 AD) 1-14
Σέκ(στον) Πομ(πήϊον) Ἐπικτᾶν, τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς
Meiggs & Lewis (1989) 111-117 No.45
(450-446 BC) 12
προσγράψαι δὲ πρὸς τὸν ὅρκον [τ]ὸν τῆς βουλης τὸν γραμματέα
τὸν τῆς [βουλης εἰς τὸ λοιπὸν τα]δί. The grammateus brings a
Schwenk 9 (335/4 BC) 1-21 (SEG 35:64)
[ἐπειδὴ Χαιρέστρατος ὁ γραμματεὺς ὁ κατ]ὰ πρυταν|[είαν ἐν
παντὶ καιρῶι καλῶς καὶ φιλοτίμω]ς ἄρχει τ|[ὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ
ἡ βουλὴ ἐπηίνεσέ τε καὶ] ἐστεφά|[νωσεν αὐτὸν -15- εὐνοίας
ἕν]εκα / [ἐπαινέσαι Χαιρέστρατον] Ἀμεινί|[ου Ἀχαρνέα
δικαιοσύνης ἕνεκα καὶ στεφαν]ῶσαι αὐ|[τὸν χρυσῶι στεφάνωι
ἐπειδὰν τὰς εὐθύνας] δῶι δόξ|[αντ’
Schwenk 19 (335/4 BC) 3-4
Πρόξ]ενος Π[υλα]γόρου Ἀχερ[δ]|[ούσιος ἐ]γραμμάτ[ευ]εν·
SEG 19:129 (352/1 BC) 13-14
...τοῖς ἐν τῆι στήληι ἀναγεγραμμένοις ἔμπροσ]θεν τῆς
Χαλκοθήκ|[ης, ἣν] Φιλοκήδης ἔστησεν ἐπὶ Θουδήμ[ου ἄρχοντος
SEG 23:53 (335/4 BC) 3-4
[Πρόξενος Πυλ]αγό[ρου Ἀχ]|[ερδούσιος ἐγραμμάτευε·
SEG 26:157 (c.200 AD) 3, 6
[γρ. βουλῆς - -] / [γρ.κατὰ πρυτανείαν] both entirely restored.
SEG 30:410 (mid 2C AD) 26
γρα(μματεὺς) βουλᾶς·[Καλλικράτης]
SEG 31:340 (98-138 AD) 8
[γραμμ]ατεὺς βουλᾶς Πολυκλῆ[ς Μ]εν[ίππου]
SEG 39:75 (352/2 BC) 3-4, 9-13
[Δωρο]|θέο Παλλην[εὺς ἐγραμμάτευε] / [τὸν δὲ γραμματέα τ]ῆς
βουλ<ῆ>ς | [ἀναγράψαι] / [ἐστήλει λιθίνε]ι δέ[κ]α ἡμε|[ρῶν
SEG 45:59 (c.345 BC) 4-7
[ἀναγράψαι] / τ[ὸν γραμματέα τῆς βολ]ῆς ἐν στήλ|[ηι λι]θίνη[ι]
/ δέκα | [ἡμερῶν]
SEG 48:458 (160-165 AD) 27-34
Γραμματεύς Βουλῆς | Γά(ῑος) Ἰούλιος Φειδίας /
[ὑπογρ(αμματεύς) — ]ος Δη[— ]
SEG 48:459 (150-155 AD) 6-9
[τὸ ε’. γραμματε]ὺς βουλᾶς | [Γα(ϊος)Ἰούλ(οις) Λ]υσικράτης |
[Χαριξένου] philokaisar kai philopatris
SEG 48:460 (160-165 AD) 6-7
Γ(ρ)αμμα(τεύς) βο(υ)[λᾶς Γά(ϊος) Ἰούλ(ιος)] | Ὀνασ[ικλείδας].
bouleutic oath up to date.
With other secretaries.
267
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the
boule and the demos)
Also the abbreviated forms γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the demos)
and γραμματεὺς τῶι δήμωι (grammateus for the demos)
Ag.15.37 (343/2 BC) 1-4
[γραμματεὺ]ς τ[ῶ]ι δ[ήμωι] | [καὶ τῆι] βουλῆι Βλ[έπυρος] |
Πε[ιθάν]δρο Παιον[ίδης] | ὑπηρέτης ⋮ Μητρόδ[ωρ?ος]
Ag.15:43 (335/4 BC) 228
γραμματεὺς τῶι δήμωι Ἀντιμένης Ἀριστομένους Τειθράσιος with
Ag.15:89 (254/3 BC) 37
τὸν γραμματέα τοῦ δήμου Δύνατον Κριτοδήμου Πειρ[αιέα]
Ag.15:99 (c.250 BC) 4-5
[τὸν γρ]|[αμματέα τοῦ δήμου — — Κηφι]σιέα
Ag.15:130 (220/19 BC) 51-53, 128-133
τὸν | γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου Κτησικλῆν
Κηφι|σοφῶντος Φαληρέα / τὸν γραμ|ματέα τοῦ | δήμου
Κτ|ησικλῆν Κη|φισ[ι]έα honoured with other secretaries
Ag.15:261 (c.95/4 BC) 53-54
τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς καὶ | [τοῦ δήμου — c.15 —]υ
Παιανιέα honoured with other secretaries
Ag.15:262 (c.95/4 BC) 5-7
[— καὶ τὸν γραμ]|[ματέα τῆς βουλῆς κ]αὶ τ[οῦ δήμου — ]
Ag.15:443 (c.198 AD) 24
γ(ραμματεὺς) βουλῆς δήμου Αἶμος(?) Ἀλεξάνδρου
Ag.15:445 (c.200 AD) 11-12
γρ(αμματεὺς) βο(υλῆς) δ(ήμου) with other secretaries
other secretaries
honoured with other secretaries
with other secretaries
honoured with other secretaries
with other secretaries
2
ἀνα|γράψαι / τὸν γραμ|ματέα τοῦ δήμου ἐν στήλει λιθίνηι
2
[ἀναγράψαι] / τὸν γραμματέα τῆς β[ουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δή]|[μου]
2
ἀναγράψαι / τὸγ γραμματέα τῆς βουλ[ῆς ἐν στήλ]|ηι λιθίνηι
2
ἀναγράψαι / τὸν γραμματ[έα τοῦ δήμ]ου εἰς στήλην λιθίνην
2
ὁ γραμματεὺς] | [τῆς] βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου· In prescript.
2
IG II 1077 (209/10 AD) III.47-49 (Ag. 15:460)
Aeisitoi includes γραμματεὺς βουλῆς καὶ | δήμου Ἀριστόβουλος
| Ἀττικοῦ Ἀναγυράσιος with other secretaries
IG II2 1740 (388/7 BC) 53-6
[γραμ]ματεὺς τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι | ․․․․λείδης ∶ Φιλοθήρο ∶
ἐξ Οἴο. [ἀντι]γραφεὺς | [Ἀρισ?]τίων Ἀριστωνύμο Παλληνεύ[ς]
IG II2 1747 (c.350 BC) 33-4
γρμματεὺς ει βουλει καὶ τῶι δήμωι | [Βλ]έπυρος Πειθάνδρο
Παιονίδης
IG II2 1751 (aft. mid 4C BC) 62
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς [κ]αὶ τοῦ δήμου Δῶρος Σμικύθου Μελιτεύς.
IG II 496 (303/2 BC) 36-41
IG II 652 (c.290/89 BC) 33-36
IG II 660 (aft. mid 4C BC) 19-24
IG II 1011 (106/5 BC) 62-63
IG II 1051 (after 38/7 BC) 4-5
γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως (grammateus of the polis)
ID 290 (246 BC) A143
γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ξένωνος, with grammateus of the
ID 291 (246 BC) fr.a1 2
[πα]ρούσης βουλῆς καὶ γ[ραμματέων]
ID 298 (240 BC) A2-3
γραμματέων τοῦ τ]ῆς πόλε[ως Μένν]ιος τ[ο]ῦ Νικάρχου, with
ID 314 (after 235-234 BC) A2
καὶ γραμματέων τοῦ τ]ῆς πόλεως… (fragmentary)
ID 316 (231 BC) 3-4, 6-7, 9-10
γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως — —]| μ?ένου τοῦ Ἀντιγόνου, with
grammateus of the hieropoioi / γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως
Πυθο?]|κλέους τοῦ Φερεκλείδου, with grammateus of the
hieropoioi
grammateus of the hieropoioi
hieropoioi?
ID 354 (218 BC) 3, 17
268
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Παρμενίωνος τοῦ Πολυβούλου,
with grammateus of the hieropoioi ·ΧΧ// /
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἱερομβρότου τοῦ Ἄμνου
ID 355 (217 BC) 3-4
γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἱερομβρότου τοῦ Ἄμνου, with
ID 362 (209 BC) A7-9, 14
γραμματ]έων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως, [Εὐ]κλ[είδου with grammateus
ID 368 (206 BC) 5-6
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλε[ως — with grammateus of the
ID 370 (203 BC) 36
τῆι πόλει καὶ τοῖς βουλευταῖς καὶ τῶι γ[ραμματεῖ —]
ID 396 (194 BC) B60
γραμματέων τοῦ τε τῆς πόλεως Ἀχαιοῦ with grammateus of the
ID 421 (c.190 BC) 21-22
γραμματέω[ς] τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἀντιγόνου with grammateus of
ID 439 (181 BC) fr. a1-3
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Δημοσ<τ>ράτου τοῦ Διογένου with
grammateus of the hieropoioi / γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως
Ἀντιγόνου τοῦ Τεισικλέο[υς] with grammateus of the hieropoioi
ID 442 (179 BC) A2-3, B1-3
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ποσειδί|κου τοῦ Σωτέλου, with
grammateus of the hieropoioi / γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως
Τηλεμνήστου τοῦ Ἀντιγόνου, with grammateus of the hieropoioi
ID 443 (178 BC) B.104-105
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Τηλεμνήσ]του τοῦ Ἀντιγόνου with
ID 444 (177 BC) B23
γρα]μματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Κλέωνος τοῦ Καίβωνος, with
ID 448 (175 BC) 7
…γραμματέων καὶ πρυτάνεων…
ID 453 (174 BC) A3
τοῦ τῆς πόλεως γραμματέ[ως] with grammateus of the hieropoioi
ID 455 (173 BC) A3, B1-2
grammateus of the polis and grammateus of the hieropoioi,
restored, twice
ID 479 (c.175-166 BC) 3
grammateus of the polis and grammateus of the hieropoioi,
restored
ID 465 (c.170 BC) fr. c17, fr. d2-3
γραμματεῖ Διογένει / [γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλ]εως?
Μ[ε]ι[λ]ιχίδου with grammateus of the hieropoioi
ID 461 (169 BC) A3, B2-3
[γ]ραμματέως τοῦ τῆ[ς πόλεως τοῦ δεῖνα τοῦ δεῖνα] with
IvO 460 (Roman) 3-4
γραμ[ματεύσαντα] | [τῆς πόλεω]ς καὶ ἑλλ[αδάρχ]ην
IG XI,2 135 (314-302 BC) 34-36
γραμματέως τῆς πό|λεως with grammateus of the hieropoioi
IG XI,2 142 (315-300 BC) 23
παρούσης [βουλῆς καὶ τῶ]ν γραμμ[ατέων of the polis and
IG XI,2 144 (c.301 BC) A4-5
γραμματέ[ως] Κ[λε]ος … | … γραμματέως Εὐπαλάμου
IG XI,2 148 (297 BC) 78
παρόντων τῶν γραμματέων Διογνήτου τοῦ [Τι— — —],
Θεογνώτου τοῦ Πατροκλέους
IG XI,2 155 (287 BC) fr. b8
παρούσης βουλῆς καὶ γραμματέων Ἡγησαγόρου τοῦ
Ἀναξιμένους, Δεινομένους τοῦ Φ[— — —]
IG XI,2 158 (282 BC) A3-4
παρόντων βουλευτῶγ καὶ γραμματέων Τελέσωνο[ς] τοῦ
Αὐτοκλέους, Δημο[λύ]|του τοῦ Λύσου
IG XI,2 159 (280 BC) A70-71
παρόντων [βουλευτῶγ καὶ] | [γραμματέων Ἀριστ]είδου τοῦ
Ἀριστέου, Λεωνίδου τοῦ Μνησίκου
IG XI,2 161 (278 BC) A2-3, A124-6; B2-3
γραμμ[α]|τέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Τιμησιδήμου τοῦ Ἀντικράτους,
with grammateus of the hieropoioi / γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως
Ἀντιπάτρου τοῦ Δημητρίου with grammateus of the hieropoioi
IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A1-4
γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἀντιπάτρου τοῦ Δημητρίου with
IG XI,2 163 (276 BC) fr dg.4
[γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως] with grammateus of the
IG XI,2 199 (273 BC) A2, B98
γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Μνησάλκου with grammateus of the
hieropoioi / γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ξένωνος with
grammateus of the hieropoioi
of the hieropoioi
hieropoioi
hieropoioi
the hieropoioi
grammateus of the hieropoioi
grammateus of the hieropoioi
grammateus of the hieropoioi, twice
hieropoioi
grammateus of the hieropoioi
hieropoioi, both restored
grammateus of the hieropoioi
269
IG XI,2 203 (269 BC) A3, 61
γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Φιλαίθου τοῦ Νησιώτου, with
grammateus of the hieropoioi / γραμματεῖ Σωστράτωι :
IG XI,2 224 (258 BC) A2-3
γρα[μματέων] | τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Πολυξένου τοῦ Ἀρησινβρότου,
IG XI,2 269 (314-250 BC) fr. ab2
γραμματέων τοῦ] τῆς πόλεως Δι—
IG XI,2 287 (250 BC) A3-4
γραμματέων Μνησικλέους | τοῦ Μνησικλέους, Θεοπρώτου τοῦ
Ἐπιχάρμου
IG XI,4 1028 (start of 3C BC) fr.bc.1-4
[γρα]φὴν τὴν κειμέ[νην παρὰ τῶι γραμματεῖ] τῆς πόλεως
:
with grammateus of the hieropoioi
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς (grammateus of the phyle)
Ag. 15:86 (256/5 BC) 17-20, 97
ἐπαινέσαι δὲ καὶ τὸν γραμματέα [τῆς φυλῆς] honoured with
Hesp.6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 4-20
various minor secretaries / [γραμμ]ατεὺς φυλεῖ | [ε]ἰληχώς /
various other minor secretaries
Hesp. 9:59,8 (333/2 BC) col.II 3-8
(Reinmuth, EI 9)
[ἀναγράψαι δὲ] τόδε τὸ ψήφισμ[α τῆ]|[ς φυλῆς τὸν
γρ]αμματέα τῆς φυ[λῆς]
IG II2 1158 (after mid 4C BC) 9-12
[στή]λην / [ἀναγρ]άψαντα /[τὸν γραμματ]έα τῆς φυ|[λῆς].
SEG 2:8 (4C BC) 3-4
[περὶ τῆς ἀνασ]|[τάσεως?] τῆς ε[ἰ]κό[ν]ος [χρηματισάτω? ὁ
γρα]|[μματε]ὺς τῆς φυλῆς το[ῖς φυλέταις ]
SEG 23:78 (361/0 BC) 22-26 (Reinmuth, EI 1)
ἀνα|[γράψαι τὸν γραμματέα τῆς φυλῆς ἐ]στήλην / [ἐφ’ ἧς
γέγρα]πται τὸ | [ψήφισμα περὶ τὸς ἐφήβους] with epimeletai.
other officers
γραμματεὺς τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς (grammateus for the Achaians)
and γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν (grammateus of the Achaians)
IG IV 795 (c.103-114 AD) 3-15
στρατηγὸν καὶ γραμματέα τῶν Ὰχαιῶν
2
[ἐπ]ὶ γραμματέος τοῖς Ἀχ[αιοῖς ...]
2
ἐπὶ γραμματέ[ος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς
2
IG IV ,1 80 (34/35 AD) 1-6
γραμματέα αὐτῶν (Statue base in IG IV2,1 81)
IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 7-18
[γραμματέα αὐτῶν]
IG VII 188 (242-223 BC) 2-3
[ἐπὶ δὲ] | [γραμμ]ατέος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς Στράτωνος
IG VII 2711 (37 AD) 43-45
...τοῦ | [γραμ]ματέως τῶν Ἀ[χαιῶν, τ]ῷ κοινῷ Βοιωτῶν καὶ τῷ
γραμματεῖ χαί|[ρειν]
SIG3 531 (3C BC) 1-8, 25-32
ἐπὶ γρα]μματέος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς Μενανδρίδα / γραμματιστάν.
IG IV ,1 60 (191 BC) 1
IG IV ,1 61 (150 BC) 2
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου (grammateus of the demos)
IG IV2 748 (before 160 BC) 11-12
ἀναγράψ]α[ι δὲ τόδε] τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν γ[ραμ|ματέα τοῦ δήμου
εἰς στήλην λιθίνη]ν
IG IV2 749 (158-144BC) 34-35, 38, 45-46, 51-53
(IG IV 1)
...τὸν δὲ γραμμα[τέα τ]οῦ δήμου ἀναγράψαι | [ἐς σ]τήλην...
IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 10-12
γρα[μ(μ)ατεὺς δάμω]·
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητής (grammateus of the epimeletes)
ID 1504 (147/6 or 146/5 BC) 2, 45-49
ἀναγράψαι / [τὸν γραμ]|ματέα τοῦ ἐπιμελητοῦ εἰς στήλην λιθίνην
ID 1505 (146/5 or 145/4 BC) 31-37
ἀναγράψαι / τὸν | γραμματέα τοῦ ἐπιμελητοῦ Μνησίφιλον εἰς
στήλην | λιθίνην
270
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου (grammateus of the Polemarch)
IG II2 545 (318/7 BC) 15-17
ἀπογρ[ά]|[ψασθαι δὲ αὐτοὺς τὰ ὀνόματ]α πρὸς τὸγ γραμματέα
[τ]|[οῦ πολεμάρχου καὶ τὸν γραμ]ματέα τῶν στ[ρ]α[τηγ]ῶ[ν]·
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου (grammateus of the synedrion)
Also the forms γραμματεὺς συνέδρων (grammateus of the synedroi) and
γραμματεὺς τοῖς συνέδροις (grammateus for the synedroi)
IG II2 1134 (117/6 BC) 3 (copy of FD III 2:69)
γραμματέως τοῦ συνεδρίου Ἀρχίππου τοῦ Ἀντιγένου Κιεριέως.
2
γραμ|ματεύσας | τοῦ συνεδρί|ου Ἐράτων | Ἀντιγόνου | Βησαιεύς.
2
γραμματεύ|σας τοῦ συ|νεδρίου — —]|ος Π Ῥοῦφ[ος]
2
[ὁ γραμμ]ατε|[ὺς τοῦ] συνεδ|[ρίου Κ]αλλίμα|[χος Ͻ]
2
IG II 3744 (mid 2C AD) 5-10
Ὄνασον Τροφίμου Παλλη|νέα γραμματεύσαντα | τοῦ συνεδρίου.
IG V,1 1390 (92/91 BC) 1, 49, 52, 56-7, 89,
112-114, 132-7, 185-6
ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων / ὁ γραμματεὺς | τῶν συνέδρων
IG V,1 1392 (58 BC) 1-4
ἐπὶ γραμματέος τῶν συνέδρων Νικαγόρου | τοῦ Δ[ι]οκλείδα,
ἔτους δὲ ὀγ[δ]οηκοστοῦ ...
IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 2, 13-30, 41-42
ἐπαινέσαι Ἀριστοκλῆ Καλλικράτεος τὸν γραμματῆ τῶν συνέδρω[ν]
IG V,1 1448 (14 AD) 2
γραμμ]ατέος συνέδ[ρων]
IG V,1 1449 (54-68 AD) 8
γραμματεὺς συνέδρων καὶ ἀγορανόμος
IG V,1 1463 (1C BC) 3
ἐπὶ γραμματέο[ς τῶν συνέδρων
IG V,2 313 (2C AD) 1-4
[τὸν γραμματέα] | [τοῦ σ]υνεδρίου
IG V,2 345 (79/8 BC) 1-25
τὸν γραμματῆ τῶν συνέ|δρων / γραμμα|[τεὺς συνέδρων] /
[γραμματεύοντος] τῶν συνέδρων
IG V,2 367 (168-146 BC) 1, 20, 23, 49 (IPArk 19)
γραμ[μ]α[τ]εὺς συνεδρίου / Μ[ει]δ[ίαν τὸν γραμματέα
IG V,2 439 (145 BC) 1
[ἐπὶ γραμματέος τοῖς συνέδρ]οις Ἰασιδάμου
IG V,2 440 (131 BC) 1
[ἐπὶ γραμματέος τοῖς συνέδροις Νικ]ηράτου
IG V,2 441 (130 BC) 1-2
ἐπὶ γραμματ[έος τοῖς συνέδροις τὸ βʹ Νι]|[κ]ηράτου
IG V,2 443 (Mid. 2/E1C BC) 1 (IPArk 32)
[ἐπὶ] γραμματέος τοῖς σ[υνέδροις
IG V,2 444 (Mid. 2/E1C BC) 1 (IPArk 32)
[ἐπὶ] γραμματέ[ος τοῖς συνέδροις —
ID 1641 (After 65 BC) 7
γραμματεύοντος τῆς συνόδου τὸ τρίτον Λ—
ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 1-2, 10-14
Ἐπὶ ἱερέος τᾶς Ἀθάνας Δαμίωνος, γραμματέος τῶν συνέδρων
Ἀριστομένἐος τοῦ Ἀριστίωνος. / ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν συνέδρων
ἐμ Πάτραις
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70 (A.vi.a),
unpublished (146 & after)
Δ Σικυωνίων γραμματεὺς συνέδρων
SIG3 684 (144 AD) 1-2, 6-11, 16-27
ἐπὶ θεοκόλου Λέωνος, γραμματέ|ος τοῦ συνεδρίου
Στρατοκλέος, nomographoi.
SEG 23:206 (2-3C AD) 1-2
γραμματεύς συνέδρων Φιλοξενίδα τοῦ ἐπὶ Θεοδώ[ρου(?)] | δόγμα·
IG II 2893 (85/6-94/5 AD) 1, 9-12
IG II 2898 (1-2C AD) 2-4
IG II 2930 (2-3C AD) 1-4
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (grammateus of the amphictyons)
ID 42 (341/0 BC) 1-8
[οἱ Ἀ]μφικτύονες καὶ [ὁ γ]ραμματεὺς
ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 20-37
ἀναγράψαι / ἐν | στήληι λιθίνηι τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς /
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν γραμματέα | τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων ἐν στήληι
λιθίνηι ἀντίγ|ραφον
ID 97 (393-367 BC) 4
[— ἐγραμμάτευεν, Ἀνδρίων? — ]
ID 98 (377-373 BC) A2-6, 49-50, 56-60, 74-75
γ[ραμματεῖ καὶ ὑπογραμμα]|[τεῖ — ]ΔΔΔ /
γραμματεῖ κα]|[ὶ ὑ]πογραμματεῖΧΧΗ[]·
(Athenian copy II2 1635)
271
ID 100 (372-367 BC) 5, 7, 9-12
οἷς Διόδω]ρος Σκαμβωνίδης ἐγ[ραμμά]|[τευεν — ]
ID 104 (364/3 BC) 5-7, 36-38
Μένης Μενεκλέους Πήληξ ἐγραμμάτευεν / [ἐπιγέγραπτ]αι ἐπὶ
τῶι πίνακι τῶν ἀργυ|ρῶν ΗΗΗΔΔΔ
ID 104-12 (353/2-352/1 BC) 3-4
[οἷς ἐγραμμάτευε —17—] | [— ὑπεγραμμάτευε δὲ —]φιλος
Φρεάρρ[ι]ος
ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 4-5, 9-10, 13-15
[γρανματεύον]|τος Ἐτεοχάρος Λεωχάρ[ος Φρεαρρίο / [παρὰ
γρα]νματέως Ἀνφ[ικτυόνων]
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 1-17
οἷς ἐ[γραμμάτευε]|ν Ἀρισθέταιρος Ἀν[αγ]υράσιος v ΗΗΗΔΤ v
ἀπὸ τού[τ]ου [μι]|σθὸν ἐμαυτῶι
ID 104-28 (341/0 BC) 5, 8
οἷς ἐγραμμάτευε Τεισιάδης Τεισίππου Σφήττιος,
ὑπεγραμμά]|τευε δὲ Μ[—
ID 104-32 (434-315 BC) 5
οἷς Δειν[— — — ἐγραμμάτευε]
SEG 39:170 (378/7 BC) 2-3
γρα[μματεῖ Χ]αιρενέωι Λαμπ(τρεῖ) μισ[θός] (figure ending 40 Dr.).
The following table lists inscriptions that include the grammateus of the amphictyons,
grammateus of the naopoioi, and hypogrammateus of the amphictyons:
γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων
378/7 BC
Χαιρένεως Λαμπτρευς1519
377-373/2 BC
Διόδωρος Ὀλυμπιοδώρο
Σκαμβωνίδης1520
373/2-367 BC
Νικόλεως Θο— ἐξ Οἴο1522
364/3 BC
Πραξιτέλης Πραξιάδου Κεφαλῆθεν1523
363/2 BC
Μένης Μενεκλέους Πήληξ1524
353/2-352/1
-ς1525
345/4 BC
Ἀρισθέταιρος Ἀναγυράσιος1527 /
For previous year: – ίλο Αἰγιλιέως1528
341/0 BC
Τεισιάδης Τεισίππου Σφήττιος1531 /
For previous year?: Διομ—ο?1532
γραμματέως τῶν ναοποιῶν
ὑπογραμματεύς
(τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων)
ὑπογραμματεῖ
[payment]1521
-φιλος Φρεάρριος?1526
Φιλιστίδης τοῦ Φιλίππου
Κεφαλῆθεν1529 / For previous
year: Ἐτεοχάρης Φρεάρριος1530
Μ-1533
Table 11 – Grammateis and hypogrammateis of the amphictyons.1534
1519
SEG 39:170 (378/7 BC) 2; Chankowski (2008) 526 dates this to 402/1 BC. This is the Athenian copy.
1520
ID 98 (377-373 BC) (and IG II2 1635 (374-3 BC)) A5-6, 49-50, 59-60, 74-75; ID 100 (372-367 BC) 11-12.
1521
ID 98 (377-373 BC) (and IG II2 1635 (374-3 BC)) A49-50, 74-75.
1522
ID 100 (372-367 BC) 7, 9-10.
1523
ID 104 (364/3 BC) 5.
1524
ID 104 (364/3 BC) 7.
1525
ID 104-12 (353/2-352/1 BC) 3-4.
1526
ID 104-12 (353/2-352/1 BC) 4.
1527
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 5-6; ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 13-15.
1528
ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 9-10 = Chankowski (2008) 512 no.52 9-10.
1529
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 2-3.
1530
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 13-15; ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 4-5 = Chankowski (2008) 512 no.52 4-5, 526 no.52 5.
1531
ID 42 (341/0 BC) 8; ID 104-28 (341/0 BC) 5.
1532
ID 104-28 (341/0 BC) 8.
1533
ID 104-28 (341/0 BC) 5-6, 8.
272
See also ὑπογραμματεύς (τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων) on page 289.
γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς <phyle name> φυλῆς
(grammateus of the bouleutai of the <phyle name> phyle)
IG II2 1775 (168/9 AD) 5-8 (Ag.15:373)
ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς Ἀκαμαν|τίδος φυλῆς
Φιλουμενὸς Ἔρωτος Κεφαλ|ῆθεν τιμήσας τοὺς συνάρχοντας καὶ
τοὺς ἀισί|τους ἀνέγραψεν.
IG II2 1777 (168/9 AD) 4-6 (Ag.15:385)
— ὁ γραμ]|[μ]ατεὺς τ[ῶν βουλευτῶν τῆς] | [Π]ανδειον[ίδος
φυλῆς —]
Ag.15:400 (c.180 AD) 2-4
[— ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν(?) τῆς Κεκροπίδος] | φυλῆς.
Ag.15:437 (end of 2C AD) 3-7
γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν folium Κάλλων Φιλοκράτους
Κυδαθη|ναιεὺς τιμήσας
γραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (grammateus of the eisagogeis)
IG I3 71 (425/4 BC) 2-3, 7-8, 21-22
τού]τος δὲ [hελέσθαι καὶ γραμμα]|τέα καὶ χσυ[γγραμματέα ἐχ
σφõν αὐτ]õν·
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (grammateus of the epistatai)
IG I3 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 114-125
...παρὰ τõμ πρ[οτέρον ἐ]πιστατ[õν hοῖς] | Ἐπικλες
ἐγρα[μμάτευ]ε Θορίκ[ιος]...
IG II2 1544 (333/2 BC) 1, 5-6
ἐπιστάται / οἷς ἐγραμμάτευεν Ἁγνόθεος
2
IG II 1669 (367/6 BC) 1-4
[συγγ]ραφαὶ? με[γ]άλης στήλης· / Δι[ὸς] Σωτῆρος
ἐπιστατούντων / ο[ἷ]ς ἐ[γ]ραμμάτευεν [Ἐπι]κρά[της — — — —]
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα (grammateus of the Eleven)
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 377-380, 385-393
ἀναγράψωσιν εἰς τ|ὴν στήλην ἢ ὁ γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱεροποιῶν (grammateus of the hieropoioi)
ID 290 (246 BC) 143
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν [ἱεροποιῶ]ν Κλε[οδίκ?]ο[υ]
ID 291 (246 BC) fr.a1 2
[πα]ρούσης βουλῆς καὶ γ[ραμματέων]
ID 298 (240 BC) A2-3
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν [ἱεροπο]ιῶν Ἐπικύδου
ID 316 (231 BC) 3-4, 9-10
grammateus of the polis and το[ῦ τῶ]ν ἱεροποιῶν Τληπολέμου
τοῦ Μαν[δ]ροῦ grammateus of the polis and [τ]οῦ τῶν
[τ]οῦ Ἀριστεί|[δου]
ἱεροποιῶν Φερεκλείδου τοῦ [Π]ολ[ύβ]ου?
ID 354 (218 BC) 3, 17
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν
Ἑλικάνδρου·ΧΧ//·
ID 355 (217 BC) 3-4
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱερο]ποιῶν Τύννωνος τοῦ
Βούλω|[νος —
ID 362 (209 BC) A7-9, 14
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Τελεστοκρίτου]
ID 365 (208 BC) 54-55
…γραμματέων ὃ παρέ|δοσαν Πόλυβος καὶ Ἑβδομίσκος
․․ΧΗΗΗΗΔΔΙΙΙ
ID 368 (206 BC) 5-6
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱερο]|ποιῶν Σκύλακος τοῦ
Λεοντ[ι]ά[δ]ου
ID 372 (200 BC) 99-100
1534
γραμμα|τεῖ Παρμενίωνι ΔΔΔ·
Chankowski (2008) 525-529.
273
ID 396 (194 BC) B60
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Φιλ[—·
ID 421 (c.190 BC) 21-22
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τ[ῶν ἱεροποιῶν] …
ID 439 (181 BC) fr.a1-3
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ [τῶν] | ἱεροποιῶν
Ἀριστοφάνου το[ῦ — … grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν
ἱεροποιῶν Χοιρύλο[υ τοῦ —
ID 442 (179 BC) A2-3, 198, B1-3
γραμματεῖ Νεοκροντίδῃ ΔΔΔ / grammateus of the polis and τοῦ
τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Νεοκροντίδου τοῦ Νεοκροντίδου … grammateus
of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Τιμοξένου τοῦ Τιμοξένου
ID 443 (178 BC) B104-105
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Τιμοξένου τοῦ
Τι|[μο]ξένου
ID 444 (177 BC) B23
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Τελεσαρχίδου
τοῦ Εὐδίκου·
ID 448 (175 BC) 7
…γραμματέων καὶ πρυτάνεων…
ID 453 (174 BC) A3
grammateus of the polis and gti (reconstructed)
ID 455 (173 BC) A3, B1-2
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν [Πολ]υξένου
το[ῦ Ἱ]έρωνος
ID 461 (169 BC) A3, B2-3
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Πολύβου τοῦ
Μενύλλου·/ grammateus of the polis and [τοῦ τῶν] ἱεροποιῶν
Τιμησιέργου·
ID 465 (C.170 BC) fr. c17, fr. d2-3
grammateus of the polis and γραμματεῖ Διογένει / & [τοῦ τῶν
ID 479 (c.175-166 BC) 3
grammateus of the polis and το[ῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν] …
ID 502 (297 BC) A25-30
ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ο[ἱ] ἕνδεκα καὶ [οἱ γραμματεῖς]·/ γραμματεὺς
ἱεροποιῶν καὶ ἀγορανόμων Θεόγνωτος Πατροκλέους.
ID 1523 (end 2C BC) 18-21
[ὁ γρα]μματεὺ{ι}ς | ....κ[.. ἀνα]γ[ρ]αψάτ[ω]σαν / εἰς | [σ]τήλην
[λιθί]νην
IG XI,2 135 (314-302) 31-36
παρό[ν]|[τ]ω<ν> τῶν βο<υ>λευτῶν καὶ τοῦ γραμματέως τῆς
πό|λεως καὶ τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν…
IG XI,2 142 (315-300 BC) 23
παρούσης [βουλῆς καὶ τῶ]ν γραμμ[ατέων of the polis and of
IG XI,2 144 (c.301 BC) A4-5
γραμματέ[ως] Κ[λε]ος … | … γραμματέως Εὐπαλάμου
IG XI,2 148 (297 BC) 78
παρόντων τῶν γραμματέων Διογνήτου τοῦ [Τι— — —],
Θεογνώτου τοῦ Πατροκλέους
IG XI,2 155 (287 BC) fr. b8
παρούσης βουλῆς καὶ γραμματέων Ἡγησαγόρου τοῦ
Ἀναξιμένους, Δεινομένους τοῦ Φ[— — —]
IG XI,2 158 (282 BC) A3-4
παρόντων βουλευτῶγ καὶ γραμματέων Τελέσωνο[ς] τοῦ
Αὐτοκλέους, Δημο[λύ]|του τοῦ Λύσου
IG XI,2 159 (280 BC) A70-71
παρόντων [βουλευτῶγ καὶ] | [γραμματέων Ἀριστ]είδου τοῦ
Ἀριστέου, Λεωνίδου τοῦ Μνησίκου
IG XI,2 161 (278 BC) A2-3, A124-6; B2-3
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν / Λυσιμαχίδου
τοῦ Λύσου; grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν
ἱεροπ]οιῶν? Ἐχο..
the hieropoioi
Κλεινοδίκου τοῦ Κλεινο|δίκου.
IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A1-4
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τ[ῶν ἱεροποιῶν Κλεινοδίκου
τοῦ Κλεινοδίκου
IG XI,2 163 (276 BC) fr. dg4
grammateus of the polis and — τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν — restored
IG XI,2 199 (273 BC) A2, B98
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροπο[ιῶν — /
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ [τῶν ἱεροποιῶν —
IG XI,2 203 (269 BC) A3, A61
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Σωστράτου
IG XI,2 224 (258 BC) A2-3
grammateus of the polis and τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Ἀριστέου τοῦ
τοῦ Στράτωνος / γραμματεῖ Σωστράτωι :ΔΔΔ:
Ἑρμοδότου·
IG XI,2 287 (250 BC) A3-4
274
γραμματέων Μνησικλέους | τοῦ Μνησικλέους, Θεοπρώτου τοῦ
Ἐπιχάρμου
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων (grammateus of the Hipparchs)
Hesp.6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 4-20
various minor secretaries / [γραμμ]ατεὺς ἱππάρχοις φυ[λετῶν] /
various other minor secretaries
SEG 21:525 (282/1 BC) 40-44
ἀναγράψαι / τοὺς γραμματεῖς τῶν ἱππάρχων | [ἐν] στήλαις
λιθίναις δυεῖν
SEG 46:167 (282/1 BC) 14-16, 40-43
ἀναγράψαι / ἐν στήλει λιθίνηι τοὺς | γραμματεῖς τῶν ἱππάρχων
γραμματεὺς τῶν ναοποιῶν (grammateus of the naopoioi)
ID 104-5 (359/8 BC) 14-15
γραμματε[ῖ] | [(ναοποιῶν?) (ὑπο?)γ]ραμματεῖ v ΔΔ:
ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 2, 4-5, 13-15
ναοποι[ȏ] / [γρανματεύον]|τος Ἐτεοχάρος Λεωχάρ[ος
Φρεαρρίο]. / γρανματεὺς
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 1-17
λόγος Φιλιστίδ[ο]υ Κεφαλῆθ[εν γραμματέω]|ς ναοποιῶν /
ναοποιοὶ … οἷς ἐγραμμάτ[ε]υ[ε]|ν Ἐτεοχάρης Φρεάρριος
γραμματεὺς τῶν νεωριων ἐπιμελητῶν (grammateus of the
naval dockyards)
IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 410-415
οἱ τῶν νεωριων ἐπι|μεληταὶ / καὶ ὁ γραμματεὺς αὐτῶν / ὧν
γράψαντες εἰς τὴν στήλ|ην ...
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων (grammateus of the prytaneis)
SEG 28:52 (333 BC) 22-29
[ἀναγράψα]ι / [γραμματέ]α τῶν πρυ[τάνεων] / στήληι λι]θίνηι
Ag. 15:259 (97/6 BC) 85
[γραμματεὺς τῆς Πτολεμαιί]δος Αἰσχρία[ς Φ]λυεύς· with other
Ag. 15:322 (c.120 AD) 1-3
Φειδίας Ͻ [Ῥαμνούσιος γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων ? εἶπεν]
/with aeisitoi
IG II2 1806 (190-200 AD) 1, 19-24 (Ag. 15:424)
περὶ τὸ βῆμα Ἐπι — / γρ(αμματεύς) π[ρυ]τάνεων N
secretaries, including grammateus kata prytaneian
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν (grammateus of the strategoi)
IG II2 545 (318/7 BC) 15-17
ἀπογρ[ά]|[ψασθαι δὲ αὐτοὺς τὰ ὀνόματ]α πρὸς τὸγ γραμματέα
[τ]|[οῦ πολεμάρχου καὶ τὸν γραμ]ματέα τῶν στ[ρ]α[τηγ]ῶ[ν]·
γραμματιστάς (grammatistas)
IvO 468 (2-3C AD) 1-7
γραμματίσαντα one of several offices held
SEG 30:990 (c.325-275 BC) 2-4
[Ἐπ]ὶ γραμματιστᾶ Εύθεα·
3
[ἐπι θεο]κόλου Θιλοκλέος, | [γραμ]ματιστᾶ Δαμοκρί|[του]
3
ἐπὶ γρα]μματέος τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς Μενανδρίδα / γραμματιστάν.
SIG 530 (end C3 BC?) 1-3
SIG 531 (3C BC) 1-8, 25-32
γραμματιστάς δαμοσιοφυλάκων (grammatistas of the
damosiophylakes)
SIG3 529 (219 BC) 1-11
γραμματιστᾶ δαμοσι|οφυλάκων
275
[ὁ] γράψας (the one who wrote [this])
The ‘ones who wrote [this]’ Neogenes (underlined) and Deinomenes (marked with a dashed
line), are known from several inscriptions from the third-century BC.
ID 290 (246 BC) 136-7
Νεογένει τὴ[ν στήλην γρά]|[ψαντι …· Η]ΔΔΔ μόλυβδος ·
ξύλα ΙΙΙ
ID 291 (c.248 BC) fr.d 15-16
Νεογέ[ν]ει γράψαν[τι] — | — [τὴν στή]λην ·
ID 440 (198-180 BC) A45-47
τ[ῶι] γράψαν|[τι Η]Η
ID 1520 (153/2 BC) 60-61
ὁ γράψας ἢ ὁ εἴπας ἢ ὁ ἀναγνοὺς
/ τῶι γράψαντι
· Λ
2
: τῶι γράψαντι τὰ κυ|μάτια Δεξιθέωι ἐμ Μελίτει οἰκοῦντι ::
2
IG II 11169,adn (undated) 1-2
Κῶμος κα[λὸς] | καὶ ὁ γράψας.
IG V,1 1390 (92/1 BC) 61-2
καὶ ὁ γράψας ἀποτεισάτω δρα|χμὰς δισχιλίας·
IG XI,2 147 (c.300 BC) A20
[γ]ράψαντι Δεινομένει ΔΔ·
IG XI,2 159 (280 BC) A66
γράψαντι τὰς στήλας Δεινομένει, γράμματα τριακόσια τῆς δραχμῆς·
IG XI,2 161 (278 BC) A90-91, 118-9
γράψαντι Δεινομένει · / γράψαντι τὴν στήλην Δεινομέν<ει> |
τῆς δραχμῆς γράμματα τριακόσια, τὰ πάντα γράμματα
τρισμύρια, μισθὸς δραχμαὶ ·Η·
IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A52
γράψαντι Σωσιμένει ··
IG XI,2 219 (c.265 BC) 19
γράψαντι Ναννάκωι· ·
IG XI,2 287 (250 BC) 197
Νεογένει γράψαντι τὴν στήλην ΗΔΔ· δέλτον ποήσαντι · τῶι
εἰς τὴν δέλτον γράψαντι τὰ ἐκ τῆς στήλης · τοῖς τὴν
στήλην ἀγαγοῦσι ·
Lang (1976) 13 (475-450 BC) C18 1-2, Pl.5
Σοσίας καταπύγον | hός φησιν hο γράφσας
SEG 1:25 (undated) 1-2
Κῶμος κα[λὸς] | καὶ ὁ γράψας.
SEG 30:266 (undated) 9-10
(IG II2 11530 Peek)
[ὁ τοῦτο γ]ράψας Φιλοπάτωρ καλ[οῦμ’ ἐγώ], | [εἰδώς τε]
Μουσῶν αὐλὸν ἡρώ[ων] τ’ ἔ[πη].
IG II  1672 (329/8 BC) 187-8
γροφεύς (gropheus) and γραφής (graphes)
See also γροφεὺς βωλᾶς, below.
Buck 87 (3C BC) 4-20
γροφέ[ες] Αἰσχύλος Ἀραχνά|δας, Τρύγης Αἰθωνίδας
IG IV 498 (after 195 BC) 4-7
[τ]ῶι γροφεῖ
IG IV²,1 103 (4C BC) 143
γροφεῖ Ἀλκιβίωι
IG IV²,1 106 (4C BC) 6, 10, 13-14, 30-1, 75-6
C40-43, C.115-6, 107
γροφεῖ | Κλειδίκωι / gropheus of hiaromnamones: unknown;
Dionysios; Kallinos; Timokles; -ro-s.
IG IV²,1 108 (4/3C BC) 82, 107, 111-2, 116, 123-5 katalogos boulas, γροφ[ε]ῖ Ἀλε[ξ]ιμ[ά]χωι / οἷς ἔγραφε Ἀρ|χιτέλης
141, 144, 150, 155-6, 159-167
gropheus of hiaromnamones:…
IG IV²,1 109 (early 3C BC) II, back 146
γροφεῖ Μνασικλεῖ
IG IV²,1 165 (4-3C BC) 1-8
γρο[φή]ς | Τιμυλ[— —] | Α..ο[— —]
IG IV 609 (Roman) 5-8
γροφεύσαντα
IG V,2 12 (240-228 BC) 5
γ[ραφής· — c.11? — ]
IG V,2 13 (bef. 228 BC) 9
[τῶ δάμω· — c.6 — γραφής·]
IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 7
γραφής· Εὐάρε[το]ς Σακλέος
IG V,2 550 (320/1-304/3 or 304/3) 1-6, 27-29
γροφεὺς | δαμιοργῶν·| Ἐστάτας.
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 2-26, 193-4 (IG V,2 357)
τὰς δὲ πό[λις] || ἀποστέλλειν ... τὸν γροφῆ τὰς
γραφθείσας [δίκας] | φέρ[ο]ντας· / katakoos
IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 1-9 (Buck 61)
Πατρίας ὀ γροφεὺς
276
Peek, NI 18 (4/early 3C BC) 19-20
οἷς ἔγ[ρ]α[φ]ε Εὐ[κ]λ[— —]
Peek, NI 19 (4/early 3C BC) C11
γροφεῖ Πανκράτ[ει]
SEG 31:358 (480-450 BC) 1-7 (SEG 26:475)
Πύρρο γρ[o]φέας
SEG 51:474 (3C BC) II.1-6
γροφεύς | Ἀριστόδαμος
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς (gropheus bolas)
Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 1-8 (IG IV²,1 69)
[βωλ]ᾶς γροφεὺς
IG XII,3 1259 (after 338 BC) 1-17
γρο[φ]εὺς βωλᾶς· Πέριλ|λος πεδιõν.
ISE 40 (c.300) 2-4, 27-33
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς Τιμοκλῆς Φολυγάδας Πρόσυμνα.
ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC?) 1-3, 10-13, 18-20
ἐπι γροφέος τᾶι βουλᾶι Θιοδέκτα, | τοῖς δὲ στραταγοῖς Δαμέα
Magnesia 55 (undated) 1, 9, 16-18 [I.Magn 41]
τὸν γροφῆ τᾶς βωλ[ᾶς] τ[ὰ ἐ]κ τᾶν πινακίδων
2
γρο[φεὺς] βωλᾶ[ς]
2
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς
2
γροφεὺς Ἰδαῖος Ὰ[…] | Φολυγάς
2
[γρο]|φεὺς βωλᾶ[ς Θ]ιομήδης
2
Mnem. 43:K (before 229/8?) 2-3
[γροφεὺς] | βωλᾶ[ς], Ἀμα…
SEG 13:240 (3C BC) 1-2
γροφε[ὺς] Παναίτιος Βραχᾶ Κλεοδαΐδας·
SEG 13:243 (3C BC) 2
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς Ἀριστόφρων Δαμ[--
SEG 16:247 (3C BC) 3-4
[γροφεὺς βωλᾶς Θιότιμος] | Θιοκλέος Μόκλα[ς Λαγαρία.
SEG 17:141 (3C BC) 4, 12-14
γ]ροφεὺς Λεωνίδας Παιονίς·/ ἀνγρά|ψαι δὲ ἐν στάλαι [ἐ]ν τῶι
τοῦ Λυ|κείου ἱαρῶι
SEG 17:142 (3C BC) 3
γροφ]εὺς βωλᾶς Νικόδαμος Ἀρχαιός·
SEG 17:144 (3C BC) 1-5
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς | Ἀριστεὺς Μναϊτίμου Ἡραιεὺς Παλλάς
SEG 30:355 (c.330-300 BC) 2-3, 11-12
γροφεὺς | Μναhίμαχος Πρόσυμνα·
SEG 30:356 (c.300 BC) 3-4
γροφεὺς | Τίμαιος Εύαλκίδας·
SEG 30:357 (c.300 BC) 3, 10-11
γροφεὺς ΔΑΙ . Ρ / άγγραψαι δὲ τὸ δόκ[ημ]α τόδε έν στάλαι έν
τῶι | τοῦ Λυκείου.
SEG 30:360 (early Hellenistic) 6, 16-18
γροφεὺς Κλεόδαμος Κολωνός· / άν|γράψαι τὸ δόκημα έν στάλαι
έν τῶι τοῦ | Λυκείου ὶερῶι·
SEG 31:306 (Hellenistic) 9
γρο[φ]εὺς β[ωλᾶς
Mnem. 43:C (248-245) 4
Mnem. 43:D (247-244) 3
Mnem. 43:F (before 243) 5-6
Mnem. 43:G (before 229/8) 4-5
SEG 33:278 (before 229/8?) 2 (Vollgraff Mnem.43 [γροφεὺς βω]λᾶς Θιο[— — — ]
(1915) 378-379; Charneux BCH 107 (1983) 266)
SEG 39:345 (3C BC) 3-4
[γροφεὺς βω]λας | θιό[τιμος] Θιοκλέος Μόκλας Λαγαρία
SEG 41:280 (3C, possibly before 224) 3
γροφεὺς Ἐρπέας Αἰσχιάδας Ζάραξ
3
SIG 644-5.i (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69)
gropheus
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχων (gropheus of the polemarchs)
Piérart (1987b) 306-9 (4C BC?) (SEG 37:280)
gropheus of the polemarchs?
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς (gropheus for the stratagoi)
ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC?) 1-3, 10-13, 18-20
τὸνς δὲ στραταγόνς, οἷς γράφει Δαμέας, ἀ[ν]|γράψαι ἐνς τὰνς
στάλανς
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι (gropheus for the Eighty)
SEG 33:286 (4C BC?) B5-6
γροφέε
277
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69 (A.i) (146 BC/after)
ἐπὶ γροφέος τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι
δαμιοργός (damiorgos)
I.Magn 39 (c.208/7 BC) 33-38, 43-45
[Magnesia 8]
τοὺς δὲ δαμιοργοὺς τῶν [Ἀ]|χαιῶν | ἀναγράψαι τὸ ψάφισμα τὸ
παρὰ τᾶς π[ό]|λιος τῶν Μαγνήτων καὶ τὸ δόγμα τῶν Ἀχαιῶν |
εἰς στάλαν λιθίναν καὶ ἀναθέμεν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν | τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ
Ἀμαρίου, ὅπως φανερὸν ἦι καὶ τοῖς | λοιποῖς Ἕλλασιν
Magnesian nomographoi, Magnesian grammateis
IPArk 24 (273 BC) 8-11, 14-18
τὰν δὲ στάλαν γράψαντες οἱ δαμιο[ρ]|γοὶ
SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 7, 11-19
[πολιτογραφηθέντες] / δαμιοργοὶ
δήμαρχος (demarch)
IG I3 138 (after 434 BC) 5-6
2
hοι δέμαρ[χοι παρὰ ἁπάντον τõν] | ἐς τὸ λεχσιαρχικὸν
γρ<α>μματ[εῖον γραφέντον.
IG II 1176 (c.360 BC) 2-6, 18-21
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν δήμαρχον καὶ τοὺς ταμίας ἀντί|γραφα τῶν
συνθηκῶν εἰς στήλην λιθίνην / παραγράψαι δὲ καὶ τὸ | ὄνομα...
IG II2 1177 (mid 4C BC) 13-14, 21-24
ἀναγρ[ά]ψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισ|μα τοὺς ὁριστὰς μετὰ τοῦ
δημάρχ|ου
IG II2 1182 (mid 4C BC) 16-26
ἀναγρά[ψαι] / τὸν δή[μ]|[α]ρχον ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι
2
[γράψαι δὲ τὸ ψήφισμα τ]όδε τὸν δήμα|[ρχον ἐν στήληι λιθίν]ηι
2
ἀνα|[γ]ράψαι / τὸν δήμ|[αρχ]ον Ἴσαρχον ἐν στήλει [λ]ιθίνει
2
ἀναγράψαι / εἰς στήλην λιθί|νην Φιλόθηρον τὸν δήμαρχον
2
ἀναγράψ|αι / τὸ|ν δήμαρχον Δωρόθεον εἰ|ς στήλην [λ]ιθίνην
2
IG II 1202 (313/2 BC) 3-10, 18-21
ἀναγρά|ψαι / εἰς στήλην λιθίνην τὸν δ|ήμαρχον Ἡγησίλεω καὶ
τοὺς ταμίας
SEG 43:26 (315/4 BC) A22-27, B14-15
ἀναγράψαι / ἐ στήληι | λιθίνει τὸν γραμματέα τῶν δημοτῶν /
ἀναγράψαι / ἐν | στήληι λιθίνει [τὸν δήμαρ]χον
IG II 1188 (mid 4C BC) 16-19, 31-33
IG II 1193 (end 4C BC) 1-2, 10-13, 27-31
IG II 1197 (c.330 BC) 18-21
IG II 1198 (326/5 BC) 2-3, 18-22
δημόσιος (demosios)
Ag.16:322 (c.120 BC) 1, 3-4
[...καθισταμ]έ[νοις δημοσίοις μετ’ ἀναγραφῆς πάντα τὰ μέτρα
καὶ σταθμά· / καταβαλλέ]|[σθωσαν δὲ καὶ χειρόγρ]αφον ἐν
[τῶι] Μητρώιωι [ὧν ἂν παραλάβωσι καὶ παραδῶσιν·
IG II2 120 (358/7-354/3 BC) 11-19
Ε[ὐκλ]εῖ τῶι δημοσίωι… γρα|[ψόμ]ενον
2
IG II 463 (307/6 BC) 28-9
... τοῦ τεί]χους κ[α]ὶ εἰς τὸ μ[ητ]ρῶιον πρὸ[ς] τὸν δημ[όσ]|[ιον
–18– ἀναγράψ]α[ι τό τε ὄνομ]α τοῦ μεμισθωμέν[ου] καὶ τὸ
ἀργύριον ὅσ[ου] | [ἂν μισθώσηται...
IG II2 583 (end 4C BC) 1-10
[τὸ]ν δημόσιον τὸν ἐκ τ[οῦ Μητρώιου]
δογματογράφος (dogmatographos)
IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1-8, 13-18
δογματογράφων Λυσινίκου τοῦ Σωτηρίδα / τὸν γραμματέα αὐτῶν
ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε (wrote and engraved)
IG V,1 179 (Roman) 8, 10
γραμματεὺς [— c.5 —] / ἔγραψε Ἀγ[— c.5 —]
IG V,1 210 (1C BC) 44-46, 58
γραμματε[ὺς]| Ἀριστοκλῆς | Φιλονικίδα / ἐπὶ γραφῶν Σωίνικο[ς].
IG V,1 211 (1C BC) 50, 52
γραμματεὺς Κλήνικος Ͻ. / ἐπὶ γραφῶν Εὐάμερος.
IG V, 1 212 (1C BC) 45-46, 59-60
γραμματεὺς | Κλέων ἐξ Ἀγήτας / ἐπὶ γραφῶν | Σωίνικος.
IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 29-30
γρα(μματεὺς) Κλα(ύδιος) Ἀνείκητος Πανκ[— | ἔγρα(ψε) καὶ
ἐχάραξε Δαμονικίδα[ς].
278
ἑλληνοταμίας (hellenotamias)
IG I3 34 (448/7 BC) 43-45
τὸς δὲ [hελλεν]|ο[ταμίας ἀναγράφσαντας ἐ]ς πινάκιον
λελ[ευκομέν]|[ον]
IG I3 68 (426/5 BC) 18-21
ἀναγ[ραφόντον δὲ hοι ἑλ]λενοτα|[μ]ίαι ἐς σανίδι
3
IG I 104 (409/8 BC) 9
οἱ δὲ ἑλλενοταμίαι δόντον τὸ ἀρ[γ]ύ[ρ]ι[ον].
ἐπιμελητής (epimeletes)
Ag.16 136 (4C BC) 6-7
[ἀναγρά]|[ψαι ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι / [τοὺς] ἐπ[ιμ]ελητὰς
Ag.16 202[3] (mid 3C BC) 7-9
[ἀναγράψαι] / [τοὺς ἐπιμελητὰς ἐν στήλει]·
IG II2 829 (mid 3C BC?) 1-4
[τοὺς δὲ ἐπιμε]|[λητὰς τ]οὺς αἱρ[εθέντας ἀναγράψαι] / [ἐν
στήληι λιθίνηι]
IG II2 1138 (c.403/2 BC) 7-9
ἀναγράψαι / εἰστήληι λιθίνηι / τὸς ἐπιμελη|τάς.
2
[ἀ]|[ναγράψαι] / ἐν [στήληι λ]|[ιθίνηι τοὺς] ἐπ[ι]με[λ]ητ[ά]ς.
2
ἐνγρά[ψ]|[αι] / [τ]|[ὸς ἐπιμελητ]ὰς
2
IG II 1144 (early 4C BC) 6-11
ἐπιμελητ[α]ὶ / [σ]τήλην λιθίνην / [ἐπιγράψαντ]|[ες]
IG II2 1147 (after mid 4C BC) 11-13
ἀναγρ[άψαι] / το[ὺς ἐπιμελητὰς ἐν στήληι] | [λιθίν]η[ι]
IG II 1139 (c.403/2 BC) 6-8
IG II 1140 (c.386/5 BC) 15-19
2
IG II 1148 (after mid 4C BC) 11-16
[ἀναγράψα]ι / [ἐν στήληι λι]θίνει / [εἰς δ]ὲ τὴν ἀναγραφὴν τ|[ῆς
στήλης δõναι] τοὺς ἐπιμελητὰ|[ς — 9 — δρ]αχμάς.
IG II2 1157 (326/5 BC) 11-15
ἀναγρ[άψαι] / τοὺς ἐπ[ιμελητὰς] / [ἐν στήλη]|[ι λ]ιθίν[η]ι
2
ἀναγράψαι / τοὺς ἐπιμελητὰς τῆς φυλῆς ἐ|ν στήλαις λιθίναις ...
2
IG II 1277 (c.278/7 BC) 3-6, 33-36
ἀναγράψαι / τοὺς ἐπιμελητὰς / ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι
IG II2 1319 (end 3C BC) 11-14
ἀναγρά|[ψαι τοὺς ἐπιμελη]τὰς / [ἐν στήληι] λ[ιθίν]ηι
IG II 1163 (c.288/7 BC) 22-28
2
IG II 1327 (c.178/7 BC) 26-29
ἀ[να]γράψαι / ἐν στήλει λιθίνει | [τοὺς] ἐπιμελητὰς καὶ στῆσαι
ἐν τῶι Μητρώιωι, τὸ δὲ | ἀνάλωμα τό τε εἰς τὸν πίνακα
γενόμενον καὶ εἰς | τὴν στήλην μερίσαι ἐκ τοῦ κοινοῦ.
IG V,2 510 (3/e2C BC) 7-9
γρά[ψαι] δὲ καὶ τὸς ἐπι|μελητὰς / ἐν χάλκω[μ]α
IG V,2 511 (undated) 10-12
γράψαι δὲ καὶ τὸς ἐπιμελητὰς / ἐγ χάλκωμα
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 3, 16-21
οἱ σταλογράφοι / ἐπιμελητὰς
SEG 23:78 (361/0 BC) 8-12 (Reinmuth, EI 1)
ἀνα[γ]|[ράψαι τοὺς ἐπιμελητὰς] / [προσγράψαι δὲ καὶ(?)]
[ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα (secretary in charge of decrees)
Ag.15:34 (323/2 BC) C3-4
ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα· | Δημόφιλος Πανταλέοντος Ἀγρυλῆθεν
Ag.15:43 (335/4 BC) 230
ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα Κρίτων Ἐρξιδίκου Μαραθώνιος
Ag.15:58 (305/4 BC) 83-84
ἐπ[ὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα] | Λυ[— c.11 —]νος Δειρα
Ag.15:62 (303/2 BC) 200-203
[ἐ]πὶ τὰ ψ[ηφίσματ]α | [Δ]ωρόθεος [— c.6 —]ος | [Π]αλλη[νε]ύς
Ag.15:243 (135/4 BC) 36t
ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσμ]ατα Δε[ι]νίαν Ἐπικηφίσιον
Ag.15:244 (135/4 BC) 5
[ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα Δεινί]αν Ἐπικηφίσιον
Ag.15:246 (131/0 BC) 35
[ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα — — —]
Ag.15:259 (97/6 BC) 85-96
ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματ[α Ἐ]ξηκίας [Ἐ]λευ[σίνιος· — c.4 —]
Ag.15:260 (early 1C BC) 28-29
[— καὶ τὸν ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσ]|ματα 〚Τιμοκλῆν〛
Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 59
[ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα — c.21 —]
2
ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα· | Δημόφιλος Πανταλέοντος Ἀγρυλῆθεν
2
ἐπὶ τὰ ψηφίσματα Κρίτων Ἐρξιδίκου Μαραθώνιος
IG II 223 (343/2 BC) C3-4, B4-6
IG II 1700 (335/4 BC) 216
279
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον (secretary for that which cannot be
mentioned)
Ag.15:243 (135/4 BC) 36u
ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον Ἡλιόδωρον Παιαν[ιέα]
Ag.15:244 (135/4 BC) 7
[ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον Ἡλιόδ]ωρον Παιανιέα·
Ag.15:259 (97/6 BC) 90
[— c.12 —· ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπ]όρρητον Φιλωνίδης Ἀφιδ[ν]αῖος·
Ag.15:260 (start 1C BC) 29-30
[τὸν ἐπὶ τὸ] | [ἀ]πόρρητον Δι[— —]
Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 60
[τ]ὸν ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον Σίδωνα Λακιά|[δην]
SEG 21:466 (135/4 BC) 6-7
τὸν] | [ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον Ἡλιόδ]ωρον Παιανιέα·
SEG 40:117 (131/0 BC) 38
[ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπόρρητον — —]
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους (secretary for the laws)
Ag.15:53 (324/3 BC) 19-21
ἐπὶ τοὺς νό[μους] | Εἰρηνοκλῆ[ς — ] | Ἀθμονεύ[ς]
Ag.15:58 (305/4 BC) 78-79
ἐπὶ τ[οὺς νόμους] | Δημ[— — —]
Ag.15:62 (303/2 BC) 235-6
ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους Φάϋλλος | Φαίακος Ἑστιαιόθεν
Ag.15:259 (97/6 BC) 92-93
ἐπὶ το[ὺς] νό[μους — c.6 —]
ἔφορος (ephor)
IG V,1 931 (after 146 BC) 34-37
[ἀναγράψαι] / εἰς στ[άλαν λιθίναν τοὺς] | ἐφόρους
IG V,1 962 (undated) 31-38 (Emprunt 25)
ἀναγράψαι δὲ | τὰν προξενίαν ταύταν | τοὺς ἐφόρους
IG V,1 965 (2C BC) 16-20
τὰν δὲ προξενί|αν ταύταν ἀναγραψάντω οἱ ἔφοροι
IG V,1 1110 (after 146 BC) 9-16
τὰ[ν δὲ προξενί]|αν ταύτα[ν ἀναγράψαι] | τοὺς ἐφό[ρους]
IG V,1 1111 (after 146 BC) 26, 34-38
τὰν [δὲ] | προξενίαν ταύταν ἀναγραψάντ[ω τοὶ ἔφο]|ροι
IG V,1 1113 (undated) 9-13
τὰν δὲ προξενίαν ταύταν τὼς | ἐφόρ<ω>ς ἀναγράψαι
IG V,1 1114 (1C BC) 2-4, 27-30
[ἐγδότωσαν] | [δὲ ο]ἱ ἔφοροι στάλαν λιθίναν κα[ὶ
ἀναγραψάν]|[τω τὸ ψάφισμα] καὶ θέντω εἰς τὰ[ν] ἀ[γορ]ὰ[ν
εἰς] | [τὸν ἐπιφανέστατ]ον τόπον
IG V,1 1144 (c.80 BC) 20-21, 33-36
οἱ δὲ ἔφοροι οἱ ἐπὶ Κλεάνορος τούτου | τοῦ νόμου ἀντίγραφον
εἰστάλαν λιθίναν γρά|ψαντες ...
IG V,1 1145 (70 BC) 4-5, 10, 44-51
…τὰν δὲ προξενίαν ταύ[ταν οἱ ἔφο]|[ροι ο]ἱ ἐπὶ στραταγοῦ
Βιάδα ἀναγράψαν[τες εἰς] | [στ]άλαν λιθίναν...
IG V,1 1146 (71/70 BC) 51, 52-54 (Emprunt 24)
ἀναγραψάντω δὲ οἱ ἔφοροι οἱ ἐπὶ Νικα|ρετίδα τούτων τ[ῶν]
φ[ι]λαν[θρώ]πων <ἀντίγραφον> εἰς στάλαν λιθίναν ...
IG V,1 1336 (undated) 17-22
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τοὺς ἐφόρους / τὰν προξενίαν / γράψαι δὲ καὶ
ἀντίγραφον τᾶς προ|[ξ]ενίας
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 14-15, 24-36
καὶ οἱ μετὰ Μενέ|[σ]στρατον ἔφοροι εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ γραπτὰν /
Γραψάντω δὲ καὶ οἱ νομογράφοι / Ἀναγραψάντω δὲ τοῦτο τὸ
ψάφισ[ζμα οἱ ἔφοροι]
ἱερεύς (priest)
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 1-3, 18-26, 61-68, 106-108,
116-126
τὸ δὲ ψήφισμα τόδε προσαναγ|ραψάτω ὁ ἱερεὺς
εἰς τὴν στήλην τὴν λι|θίνην / phratriarch / [δὲ καὶ
τὸν ἱερέα] | ἀναγράψαντα ἐν σανιδί[ωι λευκῶι]...
κατακόος (katakoos)
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 2-26, 193-4 (IG V,2 357)
280
gropheus / καὶ τὼ κατακόω εἰσδόντω τὰν ζα[μ]||ίαν τοῖς
ἄρχουσιν
κατάλογος βουλᾶς (katalogos boulas)
IG IV²,1 49 (4/3C BC) 1-15
κατάλογος βουλᾶς Ἀρι|στίων Ἐριλαΐς
IG IV2,1 51 (4C BC) 14
κατάλογος βου[λ]ᾶς·
IG IV²,1 53 (4C BC) 12-13
κατάλογο]ς βουλᾶς | [c.8] Μελκιδών.
IG IV²,1 54 (4C BC) 9-10
κατάλογος βουλᾶς vac. | Αἰσ[χ]ίνας Ναυφεΐς.
IG IV²,1 58 (4/3C BC) 4-5 & 12-14
κατάλογος βουλᾶ[ς] | Τιμοκράτης Παγασίνα.
2
IG IV ,1 96 (c.300-250 BC) 44-50
ἐπὶ καταλόγων βουλᾶς ἐπὶ τᾶς τελείας ...
Peek NI 11 (undated) 14
[καταλόγος βουλᾶς…]
Peek NI 12 (undated) 9
[καταλόγ]ος βο[υλᾶς — — ]
Peek NI 13 (undated) 11-13
καταλ[ό]|[γ]ος βουλᾶς Ἵλαρος [Πλει]άτιος.
Peek NI 15 (2C BC?) 14
[ἐπὶ καταλό]γων βουλᾶς Οἴτας Παγασίδ[α εἶπεν]·
SEG 11:413 (mid 3C) 24
ἐπὶ καταλόγου βου[λας
SEG 26:445 (c.350 BC) 17-20
κατα|λόγος βουλᾶς | Νίκαιος | Πολιτάδος
κήρυξ (herald)
IG IV2,1 83 (40-42 AD) 7, 14-19
τὸν δὲ κήρυκα Λυσιάδην γρά|[ψ]αι τῆι Ἐπιδαυρίων πόλει...
νομογράφος (nomographos)
IG IV 679 (late 3/2 BC) 4-13, 23-31
τοὺς δὲ νομογράφους / κατα[χ]ω|ρίσαι τοῦτο <τὸ> δόγμα εἰς
τοὺς [νόμους]. / With damiorgoi
IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 1-36
νομογράφοι Ἀχαιῶν οἱ τὸν ν|όμον τᾶι Ὑγιείαι θέντες /
γραμματε[ύς — —]
IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-10
γ[ραψ]άν[τ]ω δὲ καὶ οἱ καταστα[θέντες νομο]|γράφοι νόμον
περὶ τούτων·
IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 4-5
γραψάτωσαν δὲ καὶ οἱ νομο|γράφοι νόμον περὶ τούτων.
IG V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 4, 6-11 (IPArk 30)
μήτε νομογράφος μήτε γ[ραμμα|τοφύλαξ]...
I.Magn 38 (207/6 BC) 38-53 [Magnesia 44]
(SIG3 559)
οἱ νομογράφοι / γράψαν|τες
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 14-15, 24-36
καὶ οἱ μετὰ Μενέ|[σ]στρατον ἔφοροι εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ γραπτὰν /
Γραψάντω δὲ καὶ οἱ νομογράφοι / Ἀναγραψάντω δὲ τοῦτο τὸ
ψάφισ[ζμα οἱ ἔφοροι
SEG 48:470 (115-138 AD) 5
νομ(ο)γρ[[-c.18-]]
SEG 52:447 (c.190-180 BC) 31
ν]ομογράφους τοὺς ἐπὶ Προξένου…
SEG 52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7
νομογράφων Δαμοκρά|της Λαφρίου·
3
SIG 684 (144 AD) 1-2, 6-11, 16-27
grammateus of the synedrion, Τιμόθεον δὲ Νικέα τὸμ μετὰ τοῦ
Σώσου |[γεγονό]τα νομογράφον
[ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα ([ho] peri to bema, secretary ‘in attendance’
or ‘at the platform’)
Ag. 15:312 (96/97 AD) 43-44
περὶ τὸ βῆμα | Βούλων Μοιραγένους
Ag. 15:410 (185/6 AD) 7, 11
[γραμματεὺς βο]υλῆς Φλ Βάκχιος / [περὶ τὸ βῆμα] Ἑρμόδωρος
Θερμ[— —]
IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) 2-3, III.38, III.47-50
(Ag. 15:460)
περὶ τὸ βῆμα Ῥόδων Καλλίστου Μαραθ
IG II2 1759 (90-100 AD) 43-44 (Ag.15:312)
περὶ τὸ βῆμα | Βούλων Μοιραγένους | Φυλάσιος
IG II2 1806 (190-200 AD) 20 (Ag.15:424)
περὶ τὸ βῆμα Ἐπι[— — — —]
281
IG II2 1815 (c.200 AD) II.13
περὶ τὸ [βῆμα — — —]
SEG 32:196 (c.200 AD) 1
[π]ερὶ τὸ [βῆμα — — —]
σταλογράφος (stalographos)
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 3, 16-21
οἱ σταλογράφοι / ἐπιμελητὰς
στρατηγóς (strategos)
IG V,2 16 (218 BC) 7-9
καὶ ἀνγράψαντας τὸ ψάφισμα | τόδε τὸς στραταγὸς τὸς περὶ
Στρατέαν | εἰς στάλαν
συγγραμματεύς (syngrammateus)
Also the forms συγγραμματεύς and χσυγγραμματεύς
See also grammateus and syngrammateus of the eisagogeis (pages 273 and 282) and
syngrammateus of the epistatai (page 282).
IG I3 269 (443/2 BC) 1, 36
Σάτυρος Λευκονοεὺς χσυνεγραμ[μάτευε
IG I3 270 (442/1 BC) 1-2
Σά[τυρος] Λευκονοιεὺς συνε[γραμμάτευε]·
συγγραμματεὺς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν (syngrammateus of the
eisagogeis)
IG I3 71 (425/4 BC) 2-3, 7-8, 21-22
τού]τος δὲ [hελέσθαι καὶ γραμμα]|τέα καὶ χσυ[γγραμματέα ἐχ
σφõν αὐτ]õν·
συγγραμματεὺς τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν (syngrammateus of the
epistatai)
IG I3 437 (447/6-433/2 BC) 38
hο[ῖς Ἀντικλες χσυνεγραμμάτευε]
3
ἐπιστάται κ]αὶ hοῖς Ἀν[τικλες χσυνεγραμμά]|[τευε]
3
Τε[ιθράσιος ἐπιστάται hοῖς Ἀντικλες χσυνεγραμμάτευε]·
3
[ἐπιστάται hοῖς Ἀντικλες χσυνεγραμμάτευε]·
3
[ἐπιστάται hοῖς Ἀντικλες χσυνεγρ]αμμάτευ[ε]·
3
[τοῖς ἐπιστάτεσι h]οῖς Ἀντ[ικλες χσυ]νεγραμμάτευ[ε]
3
[τοῖς ἐπιστάτεσι hοῖς Ἀντικλες ἐ]γραμμάτευε...
3
[ἐπιστάτεσι hοῖς Ἀντικλ]ες ἐγραμμάτε[υε ...
3
IG I 449 (447/6-433/2 BC) 369-70
τοῖς ἐπιστάτεσι hοῖς | Ἀντικλες ἐγραμμάτευ[ε]....
IG I3 450 (447/6-433/2 BC) 410-412
[τ]οῖς ἐπιστάτεσι hο|[ῖ]ς Ἀντικλες ἐγραμ|μάτευε ∶
IG I 440 (447/6-433/2 BC) 114-5
IG I 442 (447/6-433/2 BC) 171
IG I 444 (447/6-433/2 BC) 240
IG I 445 (447/6-433/2 BC) 287
IG I 446 (447/6-433/2 BC) 312-314
IG I 447 (447/6-433/2 BC) 345
IG I 448 (447/6-433/2 BC) 366
συνγραφεύς (syngrapheus)
Also the forms συγγραφευς and χσυγγραφεύς
IG I3 21 (450/49 BC) 1-3
[Μι]λεσί[οις χσυγ]γρ[αφαί]·/ [hοι χ]συνγγρα[φες
χσυνέγραφσαν·]
IG I3 35 (c.448 BC) 6-8, 12-14, 16-18
Καλλικράτες χσυγγράφσ|ει·
3
2
IG I 78a 2-4 (IG I 76, c.422 BC)
282
Τιμοτέ|[λες ἐ]γραμμάτευε / τάδε οἱ χσυγγραφες
χσυνέ|[γρ]αφσαν·
IG II2 3806 (end 2C AD) 1-3
2
Πομπηιανὸν Κο[λ]|λυτέα τὸν συγγρα|φέα
IG II 5506 (117-138 AD) 1-3
Μόσχος hερμέροτος καὶ | Δορίδος hαλαιεὺς hο | συνγραφεύς.
I.Patras 364 (mid 2C AD) 13-14
ταμίαν Σικελίας, τὸν συνγραφέα. (Historian.)
ταμίας (treasurer)
IG I3 4 (485/4 BC) B3-4 & 23-25
γρά[φσα]σθαι : τὸς ταμί|[ας] / ταμίασι : τὰ ἐν τõι λί[θοι
γεγραμμένα].
IG II2 109 (363/2 BC) fr.b.24-29
εἰς [δὲ] τ|ὴν ἀναγραφὴν τῆς στήλ[ης δ]õναι τὸν τα[μ]|ίαν τõ
δήμο…
IG II2 1078 (c.220 AD) 39-43
ἀναγράψαι / τὸν [τα]μία[ν τ]οῦ γέ|νους τῶν Εὐμολπιδῶν ἐν
τρισὶν [στή]λαις …
IG II2 1176 (c.360 BC) 5-6, 18-21
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν δήμαρχον καὶ τοὺς ταμίας ἀντί|γραφα τῶν
συνθηκῶν εἰς στήλην λιθίνην / παραγράψαι δὲ καὶ τὸ | ὄνομα...
IG II2 1335 (102/1 BC) 2-14
ταμίας καὶ | γραμματεὺς | καὶ ἐπιμελητὴς | Δωρόθεος Ὄαθεν.
2
IG II 2492 (345/4 BC) 20-24, 38-39
τὴν δὲ μίσθωσιν ἀναγράψαντας ε|ἰστήλας λιθίνας τοὺς ταμίας
τοὺς ἐπὶ Δημοσθένου|ς δημάρχου {ς}…
IG IV 755 (3C BC) 9-11
[τὸ δὲ δόγμα τόδε τοὺς ταμί]ας ἀνθέμεν ἐν σ[τά]|[λαι
γεγραμμένον …]
IG V,1 1226 (2/1C BC) 17-21
[τὰν] | [δ]ὲ [π]ρ[οξ]<ε>[ν]ί[αν] ταύταν ἀνα|[γρ]α<ψάτω> ὁ
ταμίας εἰς [στά]|[λαν λιθίναν]
IG V,1 1227 (undated) 2-7
τὰν δὲ | προξενίαν ταύταν ἀνα|γραψάτω ὁ ταμίας εἰς στά|λαν
λιθίναν
SEG 26:121 (10/9-3/2 BC) 14, 16-17
[ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν ταμίαν τῆς ἱερᾶς διατάξεως ἐν στήλαιν
λιθίναιν δυοῖν]
SEG 36:186 (313/2 BC) 5-6, 11-12
(MDAI(A) 66:218,1 (313/2 BC) 10-11)
ἀναγράψαι/ τοὺς ταμία|ς ἐν στήληι λιθίνηι
ὑπηρέτης (hyperetes)
Ag.15:37 (343/2 BC) 1-4
2
IG II 1710 (beg. 2C BC) 6-11
ὑπηρέτης ⋮ Μητρόδ[ωρ?ος] The hyperetes as possible
replacement to the antigrapheus.
grammateus klerotos, grammateus hairetos, ὑπηρέτης |
Νουμήν<ι>ος Δημητρίου Παλληνεύς
SEG 21:587 (beg. 2C BC) 12-19
grammateus klerotos, grammateus hairetos, [ὑπηρέτ]ης | — χου
283
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus)
The following graph and table show the number of surviving inscriptions containing the word
hypogrammateus by century and type.
5C BC
4C BC
3C BC
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
3C AD
Fragmentary / misc.
2
5
1
6
0
0
0
1
Boule / demos
0
0
19
40
3
2
29
2
Ephebes
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
18
Total
2
5
20
46
3
2
39
21
Figure 7 – Athenian inscriptions containing a hypogrammateus.1535
ABSA 26 C1 (1st half 2C AD) II.4-7
Officers including Ὑπογρ(αμματεὺς) Θέλγων (Θέλγοντος).
Ag.15:85 (256/5 BC) 4-5 & 92-103
Boule honour τ[ὸ]ν ὑπογραμματέα | [Ἐ]<π>ικλῆν in corona
Ag.15:86 (256/5 BC) 9-20 83-120
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογρ|αμματέα | Ἐπικλῆν | Καλλιμάχο |
Ἰφιστιά in corona
Ag.15:89 (254/3 BC) 31-40
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Νικόμαχον Νίκωνος
Γαργήττιον and other officers
Ag.15:99 (c.250 BC) 4-6
Officers including [τὸν ὑπογ]|[ραμματέα — —]
Ag.15:115 (235/4 BC) 22-37
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογρ[αμματέα — — —] and other officers
Ag.15:126 (after 225 BC) 1-6
Officers including [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα]
Ag.15:127 (223/2 BC) 1-7
Officers including [τ]ὸν [ὑ]π[ογραμματέα Τιμοκράτην
Κυ]|[δαθηναιέα]
1535
Totals do not include decrees which are copies of others.
284
Ag.15:128 (223/2 BC) 51-63
(SEG 28:65 58-63 (IG II2 917+Ag. 15.128))
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Τιμοκρά]την Τιμοκράτου
Κυ[δαθηναιέα καὶ] and other officers
Ag.15:129 (222/1 BC) 48-58
Boule honour [τ]ὸν ὑπογραμ[ματέα Λάνομον] | [Βερενικίδην·]
and other officers
Ag.15:130 (220/19 BC) 47-58, 128-149
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Ὀνήσιμον | Ἡγησίου Πρασιέα
and other officers
Ag.15:132 (215/4 BC) 9-22
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — c.17 —] | Φυλάσιον
Ag.15:145 (end 3C BC) 2-5
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — c. 15 —] and other officers
Ag.15:158 (beg. 2C BC) 1-9
Officers including τὸν ὑπογραμματέα —]ικον
Ag.15:160 (beg. 2C BC) 5-7
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — —] and other officers
Ag.15:162 (beg. 2C BC) 6-17
Boule honour [— καὶ τὸν ὑπο]|[γρα]μματέα Σωσ[—] and other
officers
Ag.15:168 (193/2 BC) 35-47
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Εὐθ]ύμαχον Ἐργοχάρου ἐκ |
[Κεραμέων] and other officers
Ag.15:170 (190/89 BC) 7-16, 109-112
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Δημήτριον Κτήσωνος
Προβαλίσιον] and other officers
Ag.15:173 (189/8 BC) 11-20
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμ[ματέα ․․] | [— c.14 — ] and other
officers
Ag.15:179 (185/4 BC) 25-36
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμμα]τέ[α] and other officers
Ag.15:187 (180/79 BC) 16-30
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμμ]ατέα Αρ[— c.17 — ] and other
officers
Ag.15:189 (180 BC) 4-11
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — c.15 —] and other officers
Ag.15:191 (after 178/7 BC) 2-11
Boule honour [τὸν] ὑπογραμ[ματέα] and other officers
Ag.15:193 (after 178/7 BC) 1-11
Officers including [τὸν ὑ]πογραμματέ[α — c.18 — ]
Ag.15:194 (178/7 BC) 34-42
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Δημοκράτην Διφίλου
Χο|λαργέα and other officers
Ag.15:204 (176/5-170/69 BC) 2-17
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα] | [Λυσίμ]αχον Ἀριστοκράτου
Ἀφιδνα[ῖον] and other officers
Ag.15:205 (176/5-170/69 BC) 6-16
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Λυσίμαχον] | [Ἀριστοκράτου
Ἀφι]δναῖον and other officers
Ag.15:206 (173/2 BC) 53-65
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Φιλ|Ἀχαρνέα and other officers
Ag.15:212 (169/8 BC) 48-60
Boule honour τ[ὸ]ν ὑπογραμματέα Λ[․․]|ον Ἁλαιέα and other
officers
Ag.15:213 (168/7 BC) 8-20
Boule honour ὑπογραμματέα Ἡ]γέλοχον | [Ἀζηνιέα] and other
officers
Ag.15:216 (166/5 BC) 10-21
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Μνήσαρχον] Ἐπαμείνονος
Προβαλίσιον and other officers
Ag.15:217 (167/6-165/4 BC) 7-18
Boule honour [τ]ὸν ὑπογραμματ[έα — c.30 —] and other officers
Ag.15:220 (164/3 BC) 48-61
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπο]|[γραμματέα — 14? — ] and other officers
Ag.15:221 (164/3 BC) 3-14
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμμα[τέ]|[α] and other officers
Ag.15:222 (161-60 BC) 9-16
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμμ[ατ]έα [— — —] and other officers
Ag.15:226 (155 BC) 5-16
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Δημάνθην | [— c.8 —
Λαμπτρέα] and other officers
Ag.15:239 (145/4 BC) 5-17
Boule honour τὸ[ν ὑπογραμματέα — c.20 — ] and other officers
Ag.15:240 (140/39 BC) 45-55
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα v | Χαιρητίδην Κορυδαλλέα
and other officers
Ag.15:243 (135/4 BC) 36l-36y
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Καλλ[ί]|[αν — — — —
Ἀτηνέα] and other officers
Ag.15:246 (131/0 BC) 29-37
Boule honour [ — καὶ τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — ] and other officers
Ag.15:247 (130 BC) 7-14
Officers including [τὸ]ν ὑπο[γραμματέα —]
285
Ag.15:261 (95/94 BC) 51-65
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Εὔμαχον | [— c.16 — ] and
other officers
Ag.15:290 (29/8-22/1 BC) 56-60
Officers including v ὑπογραμμα|τέα Πτολε|μαῖον vvv |
Ag.15:311 (end 1C AD) 4-10
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺ[ς] | Νεικόμαχος [— — —]
Ag.15:367 (165/6 AD) 1-12
Officers including [ὑπ(ο)]γρ(αμματεὺς) Εἰσίδοτος Ͻ
[Μ]ένανδρος Μεν|[άνδρου] Ἁλαιεύς
[Μαρα]θώ[νιος]
Ag.15:369 (166/7 AD) 53-66
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς [Εἰσί]δοτος | [ἐπὶ Σκιάδος
Ἀφροδίσ]ιος
Ag.15:372 (168/9 AD) 31-40
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς | Εἰσίδοτος Ͻ Μαρα(θώνιος) |
ἐπὶ Σκιάδος | Ἰού
Ag.15:378 (169/70 AD) 42-45, 60-72
Officers including ὑπογραμ[ματεὺ]ς Μύρων.
Ag.15:381 (169/70 AD) 1-8
Officers including ὑπογραμ[ματεὺς] | Μύρων Λ[αμπτρεύς]
Ag.15:386 (173/4 AD) 1-10
Officers including [ὑπ]ογραμματε[ὺς Μύρων] | Λαμπ[τρεὺς]
Ag.15:402 (180/1 AD) 29-41
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς Μύρων Ͻ Λαμπτρεύς
Ag.15:406 (182/3 AD) 53-63
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς Μύρων Ͻ Λαμπτρεύς
Ag.15:412 (184/5 AD) 1-7
Officers including [ὑπογρα]μματεύς | [Δη]μήτριος | [— — —]
είονος | [Γαργ]ήττιος
Ag.15:410 (185/6 AD) 3-12
Officers including [ὑπογραμματεὺς Πρ]ωτογένης
Ag.15:411 (186/7 AD) 23-42
Officers including [ὑπογραμμα]τεὺς [— — — —]
Ag.15:414 (187/8 AD) 1-11
Officers including [ὑπογραμματεὺς — — —]ρ vacat
Ag.15:415 (188/9 AD) 1-6
Officers including [ὑπο]γραμμ[ατεύς — — — — ]
Ag.15:417 (188/9 AD) 1-9
Officers including [ὑπογραμματεύς — — —]
Ag.15:419 (188/9 AD) 43-51
Officers including ὑπογ[ρα]μματεὺς Π[ρωτογένης]
Ag.15:420 (190/91 AD) 13-29
Officers including ὑπογ<ρ>αμματε<ὺ>ς [— — — ]
Ag.15:442 (198/9 AD) 1-11
Officers including [ὑπογραμματεὺς Μη]νόφιλος
Ag.15:443 (c.198 AD) 22-33
Officers including ὑπ(ο)γ(ραμματεὺς) Μηνόφιλος Παραμόνου
Ag.15:445 (c.200 AD) 10-17
Officers including ἐπὶ Σ[κιάδος — —] | [ὑ]π[ογραμματεύς — —]
Hesp. 16:161,58 (c.200-37 BC) 1-6
Officers including τὸν ὑπογραμματέα] | [ — — — — —]στο[—]
Hesp. 16:161,59 (2C BC) 1-3
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς [— — — — —]
Hesp. 79:418,1 (165/6 AD) 1-4 (Corinth I 2649)
ὑπογραμμ[ατεὺς] | Εἰσίδοτος Ͻ Μ[αρα(θώνιος)] | ἀντιγραφεὺς Ν[—
3
IG I 476 (408/7 BC) 61-2, 268-9
hυπογραμματεῖ Πυργίον|ι hοτρυνεῖ : ΔΔΔ Erechtheum accounts.
IG II2 678 (276/5 BC) 51-52
τ[ὸ]ν ὑπογραμματέα | — — σικλῆν
IG II2 848 (219/18 BC) 33-46
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπ]ογρα[μματέα Ἐπ — —] and other officers
2
Boule fragment [Σ]ημαχ[ί]|δ[η]ν | [τὸ]ν ὑπογραμ<μ>ατέα
2
IG II 912 (after 200 BC) 10-20 (Ag.15:138)
Boule honour [ὑπογραμματέα — — — — Ἀλε]|ξάνδρου
Ῥαμνούσιον and other officers
IG II2 913 (c.200 BC) 1-11, 32-37 (Ag.15:137)
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπο]|γραμματέα Τιμοκλῆν Με[— c.7 —
IG II 876 (end 3C BC) 2-4
Κικυννέα.]
2
Officers including [τὸν ὑ]|πογραμματέ[α — —]
2
IG II 915 (c.200 BC) 17-29, III.30-35
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα Π]ρωτομένην (Ag.15:147)
Εἰτεαῖον and other officers
IG II2 918 (beg. 2C BC) 4-15 (Ag.15:214)
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — — — Ἀζ]ηνιέα] and other
officers
IG II2 952 (161-60 BC) 9-15
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμμ[ατ]έα — — — and other officers
IG II 914 (c.200 BC) 2-11
2
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμμα[τέα] | [— — —] and other officers
2
Officers including ὑπογραματεὺς Πάτρων vac. Φιλήμονος
IG II 972 (140 BC) 2-13
IG II 1059 (beg. 1C BC) 1-9
λειτουργοῦντ[ος]
2
IG II 1077 (209/10 AD) III.38-56 (Ag.15:460)
286
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς | Μηνόφιλος Παραμόνου
IG II2 1484 (306/5 BC) 1-11
2
IG II 1561 (330 BC) 32
Treasurers of Athena and ὑπογρ|[αμματεὺς —8— ταμίαις τοῖς
ἐπ]ὶ [Κ]οροίβ|ου ἄρχοντος —
Manumission. ὑπογραμματεύς, [ἀποφυγὼν] | Πρόξενον ․․λ — —
— — —, φιά[λη]ν [σταθμὸν ∶Η]·
2
IG II 1635 (374-3 BC) 2-6, 49-50, 74-5
Athenian amphictyons: [καὶ Ἀμφικτ]ύοσιν εἰς τὰ [ἐπιτή]δεια καὶ
γ[ραμματεῖ καὶ ὑπογραμμα]|[τεῖ ․․5․․]
· / Ἀμφικτύοσιν
Ἀθηναίων εἰς [τ]ἀπ[ι]τήδει[α καὶ γραμματεῖ κα]|[ὶ
ὑ]πογραμματεῖ ΧΧΗ[]·
IG II2 1703 (4C BC?) 4-7
Fragment ὑπ[ογραμματεύς]
IG II2 1708 (beg. 2C BC) 7-10
Fragment [ὑ]πογραμματέα | — — ωρον Ἀχαρνέα
2
Fragment ὑπογραμμ[ατεύς] | Ἀντίγο[νος]
2
klerotos & hairetos grammateus, ὑπογραμματεύς | Ζωπυρίων
IG II 1709 (beg. 2C BC) 1-9
IG II 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-19
2
IG II 1758 (med 1C AD) 3-8
Τέχνωνος Προβαλίσιος
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς Πάτρων | Φιλήμονος
λειτουργοῦντ —
2
Officers including ὑπογραμματεὺς —5— ιος
2
Officers including ὑπο<γ>ρ<α>μματεὺς Εἰσίδοτος | ἐπὶ Σκιάδος
IG II 1773 (166/7 AD) 53-65
IG II 1774 (167/8 AD) 7-9, 58-59, 62, 68-77
(Ag.15:371)
2
IG II 1775 (168/9 AD) 38-50 (Ag.15:373)
Ἀφροδίσιος.
Officers including ὑπογραμ<μ>ατεὺς [Ε]ἰσίδοτος | ἐπὶ
[Σκιά]δος Ζ[ώσιμ]ος?
IG II2 1776 (169/70 AD) 41-45, 58-71,
Officers including ὑπογραμ[ματεὺ]ς Μύρων.
IG II2 1794 (c.180 AD) 29-41
Officers including ἐπὶ [Σκιάδος] Ἑρμείας Ͻ Ἀ<ζη>νιεύς |
ὑπογραμματεὺς Μύρων Ͻ Λαμπτρεύς.
2
IG II 1795 (c.180 AD) 31-57 (Ag.15:407)
Officers including ἐπὶ Σκιά|δος | Ἑρμείας | Ἀζηνιεύς |
[ὑ]πογραμμα|τεὺς | Μύρων.
2
IG II 1798 (c.180 AD) 13-29
Officers including ἐ<π>ὶ [Σκιά]|δος <Ἑρ>μ<εί>ας Ͻ Ἀζηνιεύ[ς]
| ὑπο<γραμ>ματ<εύ>ς — —
2
Officers including [ὑ]π[ογραμματεύς — — —]
2
Ephebes, grammateus and ὑπογραμματ | Σωκράτης Σκαμβω
2
Ephebes, grammateus and ὑπογραμματ· Ὀνήσιμος Διομήδ-
2
IG II 2091/2 (after mid. 2C AD) 4-7
Fragment [γ]ραμματε[ὺς — — —] | Εἰσι[δ]ότο[υ — — —] |
IG II2 2094 (166/7 AD) 125
Ephebes ὑπ[ο]γραμματεύς· Ἡρακλέων Τιμοκράτους Θορί[κιος]
IG II 1815 (c.200 AD?) II.10-17
IG II 2049 (142/3 AD) 11-14
IG II 2086 (163/4 AD) 132-3
2
IG II 2099 (163/4-169/70 AD) 29-42
2
IG II 2113 (183/4–191/2 AD) 13-14, 32-33
2
IG II 2130 (192/3 AD) 7-8, 33-44
ὑπογραμμα[τεὺς — — —] | Μελι[τεύς]
Ephebes, grammateus and ὑπο[γραμματεύς] | — όδωρος —
Ephebes γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου | Στράτων Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρ /
[ὑ]πογραμμ[ατεύς] | [Κιθ]αιρ[ών Ͻ] Ἀχαρ
Ephebes γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου | ἱερεὺς Στρ[ά]των Ἀχαρ τὸ διʹ /
ὑπογραμματεύς | Πο Αἴλ Ἄνθος [Ἠ]ρεσί
2
Ephebes ὑπογραμ[ματεύς] | Πο Αἴλ Ἄνθος vac.
2
Ephebes [ὑπογραμ]ματεὺς Φλ Ἄνθιμο[ς]
2
Ephebes γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου· ἱερεὺς Στράτων Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρ
IG II 2131 (192/3 AD) 2-7
IG II 2144 (2C AD) 4-6
IG II 2193 (c.200 AD) 32-93 esp. 35, 87-88
/ ὑπογραμματεὺς Αἴλ | Εὐχάριστος Σφήττιος
2
Ephebes, grammateus and ὑπογραμμα[τεύς — —]
2
Ephebes, γραμματεύ]|οντος διὰ βίου Στράτων[ος τοῦ Κιθαιρῶνος
IG II 2201 (after 200 AD) 26-31
IG II 2203 (c.200 AD) 2-3, 27-28
2
IG II 2208 (212/3 AD or later) 11, 37-38
2
IG II 2223 (218/9 AD or later) 14-15, 34-35
Ἀχαρνέως / ὑπογραμματεύς | Μηνόδωρος Ἀγαθοκλέους
Ephebes, γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίου· ἱερ· Στράτωνος τοῦ
Κιθαιρῶνος Ἀχαρ, / ὑπογραμματεύς | Ἰούλιος Ἀριστείδης Ἀχαρ
Ephebes γραμματεὺς δ[ι]ὰ βίο[υ]·| Σύντροφος Εὐκ[αρπίδου ἐκ
Κοίλης] / ὑπογρα[μ]ματεύς | Ὀνήσιμος [Εὐ]καρπίδου ἐκ Κοί
2
Ephebes, ὑ[πογραμματεύς] | Ὀνήσιμο[ς Εὐκαρπίδου ἐκ Κοίλης]
2
Ephebes, [ὑπ]ογραμμα[τεύς] | Ὀν[ήσιμ]ος Ε[ὐκαρπίδου] | ἐκ
IG II 2225 (218/9 AD) 4-5
IG II 2226 (218/9 AD) 34-36
[Κοίλης]
287
IG II2 2228 (c.220 AD) 7-8
Ephebes, ὑπογραμματεύς | Ὀνήσιμος Εὐκαρπίδου ἐκ <Κοί>
2
Ephebes, ὑπογρα[μματεύς] | Αὐρ Ὀν[ήσιμος]
2
Ephebes, [ὑπ]ογραμ[ματεύς] | [Αὐρ Ὀ]νήσιμο[ς]
2
Ephebes, [ὑπ]ογραμματεύς | [Αὐρ Ὀ]νήσιμος | [Εὐκ]αρπίδου ἐκ Κ
2
IG II 2239 (238/9-243/4 AD) 7-8, 21-24
Ephebes, γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίου | ἱερέως Συντρόφο[υ τ]οῦ
IG II2 2243 (after 243/4 AD) 26, 32-33
οἱ διὰ β[ίου] / ὑπογραμμ[ατεύς] | Αὐρ Ὀνήσιμος.
IG II 2232 (230 AD) 7-8
IG II 2236 (c.230 AD) 3-4
IG II 2237 (230-235 AD) 25-27
2
Εὐκαρπίδου ἐκ Κοίλης / [ὑπογρα]μμα[τεύς] | [Ὀνήσιμ]ος
Ε[ὐ]|[καρπίδ]ο[υ] | [ἐκ Κοίλ]ης
IG II 2825 (mid 4C BC) 11-13
Ten names, Χαιρέστρατος Φανοστράτου Κηφισιεὺς
IG II2 2858 (200-150 BC) 3-7
Unknown type. γραμματεύς — — | Φιλοκράτης Φιλισ — |
IG V,1 48 (1C BC) 17-19
γρα(μματεύς)· Σωτηρίδας Ἀγαθοκλέος. |
ὑπογρα(μματεῖς)·Ἀριστοκλῆς, Σωκρατίας,
IG V,1 115 (mid 2C AD) A.4
γ(ρ)α(μματεύς)· Τ(ίτος) Ὀκτάβιος Ἀγαθίας. ὑπογρα(μματεύς)·
Τιβ(έριος) Κλαύδ(ιος) [— ].
IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 1-25
γραμματεῖς·| Δαμιάδας, | Στ<ρ>άτων. | ὑπογραμματεῖς·|
Εὐδαίμων, |Κ[λ]έων, | [Ε]ὐδαιμοκλῆς. / γραμ(ματεὺς) | βο[υλᾶς?]
MDAI(A) 67:22,25a (200-150 BC) 15-20
Unknown type. [τὸν] γραμματέα τοῦ δ[ήμου] | [․3-4․α]νδρον
ἐγραμμά[τευε] | Ἰοφῶν Σοφοκλέους ἐκ Κολωνοῦ
ὑπογραμματε[ύς]. / Λεωχάρης ἐπόησε.
ὑπογραμματεύς — — | Παυσίας | κῆρυξ κληρωτὸς Φιλο —
Κηφισι[έα] | [τὸν ὑ]πογραμματέ[α] | ․4-5․ν Ἀφιδναῖον | [τὸν
μ]άντιν τ[ῶ]ν στ[ρατηγῶν] | ․․6․․․ιον ἐ[κ] Κηδῶ[ν].
SEG 12:84 (401/0 BC) B1-40
[γραμ]ματεύ[ς] / ὑπογ(ραμματεύς)
2
SEG 18:55 (195/6 AD) 3-4 (II 2131+)
Ephebes, ὑπογραμ(ματεὺς) | Πό Αἴλ Ἄνθος,
SEG 19:191 (beg. 2C BC) 2
Fragment — — ὑπογραμματεύς | — — — στρατηγῶι. v
SEG 28:63 (c.240 BC) 5-10
Officers including τὸν [γραμματέα τοῦ δήμου ——] | [καὶ τὸν]
SEG 32:192 (185/4 BC) 19-24
Officers including [ὑ]πογραμματεὺ[ς — — —
SEG 32:195 (c.200 BC) 1-5
Officers including ὑπο[γραμματεὺς — — —]
SEG 32:196 (c.200 AD) 2-5
Officers including ὑπογρ[αμματεὺς — — — —]
SEG 39:123 (260-50 BC) 2-9
Officers including [— καὶ τὸν ὑπογραμματέα — — —]| [— 5 —
ὑπογρα[μματέα — — —]
]ον Α[— 17 —]
SEG 48:455 (c.25-1 BC) 25-26
Gerontes, γρα(μματεὺς) Ἐπίνικος (Ἐπινίκου), |
SEG 48:458 (160-165 AD) 27-34
Gerontes, Γραμματεύς Βουλῆς | Γά(ῑος) Ἰούλιος / Φειδίας;
[ύ(πο)]γρα(μματεύς)·Νίκανδρος Καλλικέτους
[ὑπογρ(αμματεύς) - -]ος Δη[- - -]
Athenian hypogrammateis of the boule known from two or more years
Years
Personal names
References
165/6 AD - 166/7 AD,
168/9 AD
Εἰσίδοτος Ͻ Μαραθώνιος
Ag.15:367; Ag.15:369; Ag.15:372; IG II2 1774 (Ag.15:371);
IG II2 1775 (Ag.15:373); Hesp. 79:418,1
180/1 AD + 182/3 AD
Μύρων Ͻ Λαμπτρεύς
Ag.15:406 63; IG II2 1794 41 (Ag.15:402); IG II2 1795
(Ag.15:407) 55-57
185/6 AD + 188/9 AD
Πρωτογένης
Ag.15:410 12; Ag.15:419 51
198/9 AD + 209/10 AD
Μηνόφιλος Παραμόνου
Ag.15:442 11; Ag.15:443 27; IG II2 1077 55-56
Table 12 – Hypogrammateis who may have served for more than a year.
Agora numbers are bracketed when the Agora inscription is a copy of the IG text.
288
ὑπογραμματεύς διὰ βίου (hypogrammateus for life)
IG II2 2199 (c.200 AD) 41-43, 66-7
Ephebes, γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου | ἱερεὺς Στράτων Κιθαι|ρῶνος
Ἀχαρνευς / ὑπογραμμα· Αἴλ Εὐχάρι|στος Φαλη
2
Ephebes, οἱ διὰ β[ίου] / ὑπογραμμ[ατεύς] | Αὐρ Ὀνήσιμος
2
IG II 2245 (262/3 or 266/7 AD) 29-408
οἱ διὰ βίου / γραμματεὺς Κλ Ἀντίλοχος / ὑπογρα Αὐρ
Ἐλευσείνιος Ͻ / Ephebes from all 12 tribes
SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 48-51
Ephebes, οἱ διὰ βίου / γραμματεὺς Ἀλκιβιάδης / ὑπογραμματεὺς
IG II 2243 (243/4 AD) I.26, 32-33
Ἀλκιβιάδης
SEG 39:189 (226/7–234/5 AD) 8-9, 60, 65-66
(IG II2 2235)
Ephebes, γραμματεύοντος διὰ βίου ἱερέως Συντρόφου] τοῦ
Εὐκαρπ[ί]δου ἐκ Κοίλης / οἱ διὰ βίου / ὑπογραμματε]ύς |
[Ὀνήσιμος Εὐκαρπίδ]ου ἐκ Κοίλης
ὑπογραμματεύς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου (hypogrammateus
of the boule and the demos)
Ag.15:225 (155/4 BC) 52-65
Boule honour τὸν ὑπογραμματέα τοῦ [δήμου] [[Πυ[θα]γόραν]]
Ἁμαξα[ντέ]α and other officers
Ag.15:259 (97/96 BC) 85-96
Officers including ὑπογραμματε[ὺς βουλῆς καὶ δήμου]
Ag.15:260 (beg. 1C BC) 10-32
Boule honour [τὸν ὑπογραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς καὶ] | τοῦ δήμου
Δίων[α] and other officers
SEG 19:190 (bef. 200 BC) 2-5
Boule fragment. ὑπογραμματεὺ]ς τεῖ βουλε[ῖ]|[καὶ τῶι δήμωι
ὑπογραμματεύς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (hypogrammateus of the
amphictyons)
ID 98 (377-373 BC) A49-50, 74-75
Athenian copy = IG II2 1635 (374-3 BC)
εἰς τὰ [ἐπιτή]δεια καὶ γ[ραμματεῖ καὶ ὑπογραμμα]|[τεῖ ․․․․․]ΔΔΔ· /
εἰς [τ]ἀπ[ι]τήδει[α καὶ γραμματεῖ κα]|[ὶ ὑ]πογραμματεῖ
ΧΧΗ[]·
ID 104-9 (355/4 BC) vers 2.1-2
[— — Λα]|[μπ]τρεὺς ἐγρανμά[τευε, ὑπεγραμμάτευε δὲ — —
ID 104-12 (353/2 – 352/1 BC) 3-4
[συνά[ρ]χ[οντες, οἷς ἐγραμμάτευε — 17 —] | [— —
ὑπεγραμμάτευε δὲ? — — ]φιλος Φρεάρρ[ι]ος
ID 104-28 (341/0 BC) 1, 5-6, 8
τάδε ἔπραξα[ν Ἀμφικτύονες Ἀθηναίων / οἷς ἐγραμμάτευε
Τεισιάδης Τεισίππου Σφήττιος, ὑπεγραμμά]|τευε δὲ Μ[— — —
ID 104-31 (333-331 BC) 1, 3-4
[τάδε παρέδοσαν Ἀμφικτύονες / [— ο]ἷ<ς> [ἐ]γρα[μμ]άτ[ευε]ν
Λυς | [— 12 — , ὑπεγραμμάτευε δὲ — ]υσικλῆ[ς] Α[ἰ]γιλ[ιε]ύς
ID 104-8,A (c.330-320 BC) 4, 39-40
ὑπεγραμμ[άτευε] / [τοῖς Ἀμφικτύοσ?]ι καὶ τῶι γρα[μματεῖ καὶ
τῶι ὑπογραμμ]|[ατεῖ?]
ὑπογραμματεύς τῶν ναοποιῶν (hypogrammateus of the
naopoioi)
ID 104-5 (359/8 BC) 14-15
γραμματε[ῖ] | [(ναοποιῶν?) (ὑπο?)γ]ραμματεῖ
:
φρατρίαρχος (phratriarch)
IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 121-6
τὸν δὲ φρατρία[ρχον ἀπογραψ]|αμένων ἀναγράψαντα
ἐκ[τιθέναι ὅπου ἂν Δεκ]|ελέες προσφοιτῶσι / with hiereus
289
The following table shows the date range for all designations. Officers such as the tamias and epimeletes are included only for the periods in which they were charged
with writing something. Athenian evidence is indicated by light grey boxes, Peloponnesian evidence by black boxes, and Delian evidence by dark grey boxes.
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
2C BC
3
4
1
2
1C BC
3
4
1
2
1C AD
3
4
1
2
2C AD
3
4
3
4
1
2
3
2
ἀντιγραμματεύς
3
ἀντιγραφεὺς
4
ἀρχιγραμματεύς
5
ἀρχιθιασίτης
6
7
βωλογράφορ
γραμματεὺς (Athens)
8
γραμματεὺς (Peloponnese)
9
γραμματεὺς (Delos)
10
1
ἀναγραφεύς: Earliest: IG I3 258bis 6-7 (c.420BC) 6-7; Latest: Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 45, 58. ‘Earliest’ and ‘latest’ dates refer to the earliest and latest surviving inscriptions.
2
ἀντιγραμματεύς: IG II2 2067 (154/5 AD) 225-6, page 110.
3
ἀντιγραφεὺς: Earliest: IG II2 1740 (388/7 BC) 53-6; Latest: IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) 96.
4
ἀρχιγραμματεύς: IG II2 3169/70 (253/257 AD) 32-37, page 93.
5
ἀρχιθιασίτης: ID 1520 (153/2 BC) 89-91, page 341.
6
αρτύνας: IG IV 554 (480-470 BC) 2, 4, page 131.
7
βωλογράφορ: IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 37, page 202.
8
γραμματεὺς: Athens: Earliest: IG II2 537 (end 4C BC) 4-8; Latest: IG II2 1368 (aft. 178 AD) 155-6.
9
γραμματεὺς: Peloponnese: Earliest: IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 79, 81; Latest: IvO 122 (265 AD) 24.
290
2
1
ἀναγραφεύς
αρτύνας
1
3C AD
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
2C BC
3
4
1
2
1C BC
3
4
1
2
1C AD
3
4
1
2
2C AD
3
4
4
1
2
3
13
γρ. αἱρετός and κληρωτός
14
γραμματεύς βουλευτῶν
15
γραμματεὺς διὰ βίου
16
17
18
19
γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς (Sparta)
γραμματέως τῆς πόλεως
3
12
γραμματεύς (treasurers of Athena)
γρ. τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου*
2
11
γραμματεύς (of hellenotamiai)
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς /
κατὰ πρυτανείαν / [ὁ] περὶ τὸ
βῆμα (Athens)
1
3C AD
20
21
10
γραμματεὺς: Delos: Earliest: ID 104-3 (c.367 BC) 9-10; Latest: ID 1505 (146/5 or 145/4 BC) 34-37, page 337.
11
γραμματεύς (of the hellenotamiai): Earliest: IG I3 259 (454/3 BC) 72-73; Latest: IG I3 383 (429/8 BC) 260-262.
12
γραμματεύς (of the treasurers of Athena): Earliest: IG I3 465 (437/6–433/2 BC) 121-123, page 88; Latest: IG I3 319 (432/1 BC) 17.
13
γραμματεὺς αἱρετός and γραμματεὺς κληρωτός: Athens: Earliest: Hesp. 6:445 No.2B (239/38 BC) 9-10; Latest: IG II2 1711 (mid. 2C BC) 6-11, n.361. Delos: ID 1500 (c.150 BC) 6-7, 25, 27-28.
14
γραμματεύς βουλευτῶν: Earliest: SEG 32:339 (1-2C AD) 1; Latest: Ag.15:491 (c.231/2 AD) 38.
15
γραμματεύς διὰ βίου: Earliest: IG II2 2110 (179/80-190/1 AD) 7-8; Latest: SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 48-51, page 111.
16
γραμματεύς (of the boule) / γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς: Athens: Earliest: IG I3 508 (562-558 BC) A5-B6; Latest: IG II2 1078 (c.220 AD) 2.
17
γραμματεὺς κατὰ πρυτανείαν: Earliest: IG II2 124 (357/6 BC) 1-3; Latest: IG II2 1789 (c.175 AD) 4-7.
18
[ὁ] περὶ τὸ βῆμα: Earliest: IG II2 1759 (90-100 AD) 43-44; Latest: IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) III.50, page 56.
19
γραμματεὺς βουλᾶς: Sparta: Earliest: IG V,1 206 (1C BC) 5; Latest: SEG 48:460 (160-165 AD) 6-7.
20
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου: Earliest: IG II2 1740 (388/7 BC) 53-6; Latest: IG II2 1077 (209/10 AD) III.47-49, page 56.
21
γραμματέως τῆς πόλεως: Earliest: IG XI,2 142 (315-300 BC) 23; Latest: IvO 460 (Roman) 3-4.
291
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
2C BC
3
4
1
1C BC
2
3
4
1
2
1C AD
3
γρ. τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς / τῶν Ἀχαιῶν
23
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου
24
2
3
4
1
2
3
25
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητής
26
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου
27
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου
28
γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων
29
γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν
30
γρ. / συνγρ. τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν
31
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα
32
22
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς: Earliest: SEG 23:78 (361/0 BC) 22-26; Latest: Hesp.6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 8-20, page 98.
23
γραμματεὺς τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς: Earliest IG VII 188 (242-223 BC) 2-3; γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀχαιῶν: Latest: IG IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 10, 17, page 223.
24
γραμματεὺς τοῦ δήμου: Peloponnese: Earliest: IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 10-11, page 183; Latest: IG IV2 749 (158-144BC) 45-46, page 124.
25
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητής: Earliest: ID 1504 (147/6 or 146/5 BC) 2, 45-49; Latest: ID 1505 (146/5 or 145/4 BC) 31-34.
26
γραμματεὺς τοῦ πολεμάρχου: IG II2 545 (318/7 BC) 15-17, page 89.
27
γραμματεὺς τοῦ συνεδρίου: Earliest: IG V,2 367 (168-146 BC) 1, 20, n.1032; Latest: IG II2 2930 (2-3C AD) 1-4.
28
γραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων: Earliest: ID 104-32 (434-315 BC) 5; Latest: ID 42 (341/0 BC) 1-8.
29
γραμματεὺς τῶν βουλευτῶν: Earliest: IG II2 1775 (168/9 AD) 5-8, n.469; Latest: Ag.15:437 (end of 2C AD) 3-7.
30
γραμματεὺς and συνγραμματεύς τῶν εἰσαγωγῶν: IG I3 71 (425/4 BC) 7-8, 21-22, page 68.
31
γραμματεὺς and συνγραμματεύς τῶν ἐπιστάται: All dated to the same, five-year period, e.g.: IG I3 446 (447/6-433/2 BC) 312-314, page 100.
32
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἕνδεκα: IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 377-380, 388-393, page 90.
292
1
3C AD
22
γραμματεὺς τῆς φυλῆς
γρ. / συνγρ. τῶν ἐπιστάτῶν
4
2C AD
4
1
2
3
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
2C BC
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
1C AD
3
4
1
2
2C AD
3
4
1
2
3C AD
3
4
1
2
3
33
γραμματέως τῶν ἱεροποιῶν
34
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων
35
γρ. τῶν νεωριων ἐπιμελητῶν
36
γραμματέως τῶν ναοποιῶν
37
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων
38
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν
39
γραμματιστάς
40
γραμματιστάς δαμοσιοφυλάκων
41
[ὁ] γράψας
γροφεύς
4
1C BC
42
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς
43
33
γραμματέως τῶν ἱεροποιῶν: Earliest: IG XI,2 142 (315-300 BC) 23; Latest: ID 461 (169 BC) A3, B2-3.
34
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱππάρχων: SEG 21:525 (282/1 BC) 40-44, plus one other text from the same year; Latest: Hesp.6:460,8 (after 166 BC) 8-20, page 98.
35
γραμματεὺς τῶν νεωριων ἐπιμελητῶν: IG II2 1631 (323/2 BC) 410-415, page 99.
36
γραμματέως τῶν ναοποιῶν: Earliest: ID 104-5 (359/8 BC) 14-15, n.1719; Latest: ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 2-3, 13-15, page 338.
37
γραμματεὺς τῶν πρυτάνεων: Earliest: SEG 28:52 (333 BC) 22-29, page 71; Latest: IG II2 1806 (190-200 AD) 24, page 71.
38
γραμματεὺς τῶν στρατηγῶν: IG II2 545 (318/7 BC) 15-17, page 89.
39
γραμματιστάς: Earliest: SIG3 531 (3C BC) 4, 27; Latest: IvO 468 (2-3C AD) 5, page 207.
40
γραμματιστᾶς δαμοσιοφυλάκων: SIG3 529 (219 BC) 4-5, page 214.
41
[ὁ] γράψας: Athens: Lang (1976) 13 (475-450 BC) C18 1-2, page 352. Delos: Earliest: IG XI,2 147 (c.300 BC) A20; Latest: ID 1520 (153/2 BC) 60-61. Peloponnese: IG V,1 1390 (92/1 BC) 61-2.
42
γροφεύς and γραφής: Earliest: IvO 2 (before 580 BC) 8, page 208; Latest: IG IV 609 (Roman) 8, n.727.
43
γροφεὺς βωλᾶς: Earliest: IG XII,3 1259 (after 338 BC) 14-17, page 138; Latest: Mnem.2 43:G (before 229/8) 4-5.
293
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
1C BC
3
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3C AD
3
4
1
2
3
46
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι
47
δαμιοργός
48
49
δημόσιος
50
δογματογράφος
ἐπιμελητής
1
2C AD
45
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς
ἑλληνοταμίας
4
1C AD
44
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχῶν
δήμαρχος
2C BC
51
52
[ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα
53
[ὁ] ἐπι τὸ ἀπόρρητον
54
44
γροφεὺς πολεμάρχῶν: Piérart (1987b) 306-9 (4C BC?).
45
γροφεὺς τοῖς στραταγοῖς: ISE 41 (1st half 3C?) 10-11, page 140.
46
γροφεὺς τοῖς ὀγδοηκοστεῦσι: Earliest: SEG 33:286 (4C BC?) B5-6; Latest: Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69 (A.i) (146 BC/after).
47
δαμιοργός: Earliest: IPArk 24 (273 BC) 14-15, page 182; Latest: I.Magn 39 (c.208/7 BC) 33-38.
48
δήμαρχος: Earliest: IG I3 138 (after 434 BC) 5-6; Latest: IG II2 1193 (end 4C BC) 1-2, 10-13, 27-31.
49
δημόσιος: Earliest: IG II2 120 (358/7-354/3 BC) 13-17, page 82; Latest: IG II2 583 (end 4C BC) 5-7.
50
δογματογράφος: IG V,1 26 (2-1C BC) 1, 17, page 156.
51
ἑλληνοταμίας: Earliest: IG I3 34 (448/7 BC) 43-45; Latest: IG I3 104 (409/8 BC) 9.
52
ἐπιμελητής: Athens: Earliest: IG II2 1138 (c.403/2 BC) 7-9; Latest: IG II2 1327 (c.178/7 BC) 26-29, page 109. Peloponnese: Earliest: IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-21, page 188; Latest: IG V,2 510 (3/e2C BC) 7-9.
53
[ὁ] ἐπι τὰ ψηφίσματα: Earliest: IG II2 223 (343/2 BC) C3-4; Latest: Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 59.
54
[ὁ] ἐπι τὸ ἀπόρρητον: Earliest: SEG 21:466 (135/4 BC) 6-7; Latest: Ag.15:261 (95/4 BC) 60.
294
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
2C BC
3
4
1
2
1C BC
3
4
2
3
4
1
2
2C AD
3
4
1
2
3C AD
3
4
1
2
3
55
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους
56
ἔφορος
57
ἱερεύς
58
κατακόος
59
κατάλογος βουλᾶς
60
κήρυξ
61
νομογράφος
62
σταλογράφος
63
στρατηγὸς
συγγραμματεύς
64
συγγραφεύς
65
ταμίας
1
1C AD
66
55
[ὁ] ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους: Earliest: Ag.15:53 (324/3 BC) 19-21; Latest: Ag.15:259 (97/6 BC) 92-93, page 72.
56
ἔφορος: Earliest: IG V,1 931 (after 146 BC) 34-37; Latest: SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-5, 29, 34, page 177.
57
ἱερεύς: IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 64-68, 106-108, 121-126, page 106.
58
κατακόος: IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 7-10, 19-26, page 184.
59
κατάλογος βουλᾶς: Earliest: SEG 26:445 (c.350 BC) 17-20; Latest: Peek NI 15 (2C BC?) 14.
60
κήρυξ: IG IV2,1 83 (40-42 AD) 17-18, page 103.
61
νομογράφος: Earliest: IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 2-3, 29-30, page 226; Latest: SIG3 684 (144 AD) 1-2, 6-11, 16-27, page 216.
62
σταλογράφος: IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 18, page 188.
63
στρατηγὸς: IG V,2 16 (218 BC) 7-9, page 197.
64
συγγραμματεύς: Earliest: IG I3 269 (443/2 BC) 36; Latest: IG I3 270 (442/1 BC) 1-2, page 74.
65
συγγραφεύς: Earliest: IG I3 21 1-3 (450/49 BC), page 75; Latest: IG II2 3806 (end 2C AD) 2-3.
295
Century
6C BC
Quarter of century
2
3
5C BC
4
1
2
4C BC
3
4
1
2
3C BC
3
4
1
2
2C BC
3
4
1
2
1C BC
3
4
1
2
1C AD
3
4
1
2
2C AD
3
4
1
2
67
ὑπηρέτης
68
ὑπογραμματεύς (Athens)
69
ὑπογραμματεύς (Peloponnese)
70
ὑπογραμματεὺς διὰ βίου
71
ὑπογρ. τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου
72
ὑπογρ. τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων
73
ὑπογραμματεὺς τῶν ναοποιῶν
74
φρατρίαρχος
Table 13 – Secretaries and magistrates associated with the writing of public documents.
*For γρ., read γραμματεύς.
66
ταμίας: Athens: Earliest: IG I3 4 (485/4 BC) B3-4 & 23-25; Latest: IG II2 1335 (102/1 BC) 10-13. Peloponnese: Earliest: IG IV 755 (3C BC) 9-10; Latest: IG V,1 1226 (2/1C BC) 17-21.
67
ὑπηρέτης: Earliest: Ag.15:37 (343/2 BC) 4, page 83; Latest: SEG 21:587 (beg. 2C BC) 12-19.
68
ὑπογραμματεύς: Athens: Earliest: IG I3 476 (408/7 BC) 61-2, 268-9; Latest: IG II2 2239 (238/9-243/4 AD) 7-8, 21-24.
69
ὑπογραμματεύς: Peloponnese: Earliest: IG V,1 48 (1C BC) 17-19; Latest: SEG 48:458 (160-165 AD) 27-28, 33-34.
70
ὑπογραμματεὺς διὰ βίου: Earliest: IG II2 2199 (c.200 AD) 41-43, 66-7; Latest: SEG 33:158 (late 3C AD) 11, 49, 51.
71
ὑπογραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς καὶ τοῦ δήμου: Earliest: SEG 19:190 (bef. 200 BC) 2-5; Latest: Ag.15:259 (97/96 BC) 85-96, page 72.
72
ὑπογραμματεὺς τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων: Earliest: ID 98 (377-373 BC) A49-50, 74-75; Latest: ID 104-8,A (c.330-320 BC) 4, 39-40.
73
ὑπογραμματεὺς τῶν ναοποιῶν: ID 104-5 (359/8 BC) 14-15, page 335.
74
φρατρίαρχος: IG II2 1237 (396/5 BC) 121-6, page 106.
296
3C AD
3
4
1
2
3
Instances of grammateus of the boule, grammateus kata
prytaneian and grammateus of the boule and the demos
The following table illustrates the usage of the designations grammateus of the boule and
grammateus kata prytaneian. It lists all inscriptions in IG I3 and IG II2 which contain either
full designation.1610
The evidence shows that the designation grammateus of the boule fell out of common usage
shortly after the electoral reforms of 367/6 BC, in which the office of grammateus of the
boule became a magistracy held for a year (rather than a single prytany). From this date
onwards, the designation used in the majority of cases was grammateus kata prytaneian.
Please note the following formatting conventions:

Inscription references in bold indicate that this grammateus is to write the decree, etc.

Inscription references in (round brackets) indicate that this grammateus is honoured,
and either another officer writes up the decree, or the inscription formula is absent.

Inscription references in normal text indicate that this grammateus is mentioned in the
text, but is not charged with writing up the decree or honoured as far as can be
discerned from the surviving text.
The table also illustrates the usage of the designation grammateus of the boule and the
demos. Therefore, inscription references in bold in this column indicate that the grammateus
of the boule and the demos is to write up the text, rather than the grammateus of the boule.
1610
That is, it includes only those inscriptions in IG (and not, for example, the honorific inscriptions in
the Agora 15 volume, which are not in IG). It omits all inscriptions where the secretary is known only
by the designation grammateus.
297
Date
Designations:
grammateus of the boule
grammateus kata prytaneian
grammateus of the
boule and the demos
IG inscription and line references:
450426
IG I3 11 11-13; 12 4-6; 27 7-9; 37
38-40; 40 57-64; IG I3 43 18-19;
55 1-3; 60 31-2; 62 9-11; 63 5-7;
65 5-7; 66 20-22; 70 3-4; 87 1213; 130 20-21; 149 1-2; 153 1921; 155 5-9; 156 19-26; 159 1215; 163 3-7; 164 6-9; 167 17-20;
183 1; 193 3-4; 195 2-4; 200 2-3
425401
IG I3 71 23-25; 72 3, 31-32; 75 2,
30-32; 80 1-2, 12-18; 81 17-19; 82
2-3, 43-44; 84 26-28; 89 45, 58-59;
90 8-9; 98 12-15 26-29; 101 58;
102 21-22, 28-30; 103 8-11; 104
6-7; 106 19-21; 110 20-24; 113
27-28; 118 33-36; 119 6-8; 122 69; 123 6-8; 125 2-32; 126 8-10;
127 38-40; 136 37-39; 140 6; 165
5-8; 170 1-2; 174 7-11; 175 2-4;
179 3-5; 180 1-4; 182 25-27, 3032; 182bis 1-3; 198 4-7; 227 1-4;
1453,B/G 10.1; II2 1 38-39, 6667; 3 2-4; 4 1-2; 5 11-12; 6 14-16;
8 1-2, 6-8; 9 4-6; 12 12-14, 26-28;
13 8-13; 142 8-11; 174 11-14
400376
IG I3 228 7-9; 229 4-6; II2 17 811, 28-31; 19 a7-9, b8-10; 21 1; 22
b6-8; 24 b-c.6-10; 25 7-10; 29 711; 31 12-14; 32 7-9; 33 3; 37 2123; 39 2-6; 40 13-15, 21-23; 41
14-15; 42 8-11; 43 63-66; 51 9-13;
52 5-8; 53 5-9; 54 3-6; 55 6-8; 56
1-5; 57 1-4; 63 7-10; 69 1-3; 70 614; 73 3-6; 76 17-20; 79 13-15; 80
5-7; 81 7-10; 83 10-13; 95 6-9;
141 12-18; 245 2-4
375351
II2 77 5-8; 96 13-17; 105 40-41;
107 18-24; 109 24-26; 111 23-25;
116 42-45; 117 14-19; 120 17-19,
22-24; 130 15-19; 132 10-13; 133
14-17; 140 31-35; 148 6-10; 149
17-20; 173 11-14; 184 7-9; 188 811; 189 1-3; 196 3-8; 197 1-2;
204 23-24, 30-32, 54-57
II2 120 15-17; 124 1-3; 198 1-3
350326
II2 206 27-30; 211 11-13; 212 4447; 220 9-12; 221 3-5; 226 17-21;
232 20-23; 237 31-35; 238 14-17;
250 4-6; 252 16-19; 253 4-8; 265
1-2; 274 1-3; 275 10-12; 278 1011; 282 3-6; 287 12-16; 288 9-12;
289 8-11; 290 7-10; 298 1-5; 299
2-3; 301 2-4; 304 8-11; 343 13-15;
351 33-35; 410 37-39; 660 19-22
II2 210 15-18; 222 26-29; 223 1415; 235 26-29; 240 19-23; 256 14; 257 2-4; 264 9-15; 269 3-6; 272
4-6; 293 1-5; 330 23-26; 338 2428; 339 9-13; 344 18-21; 354 2629; 368 13-15; 415 1-4; 418 4-7;
424 11-14; 425 14-18; 426 11-14;
433 6-8; 1155 12-14; 1195 1-3;
1440 20-21
II2 660 43-45
325301
II2 365 12-16; 373 9-12; 448 6673; 607 5-6
II2 360 21-24; 374 19-22; 463 3133; 466 46-49; 478 27-30; 479 2527; 483 27-31; 487 17-20; 488 2225; 500 36-40; 505 59-62; 509 57; 511 6-9; 512 8-11; 513 9-11;
516 3-6; 521 3-5; 522 1-3; 529 12; 530 3-5; 551 12-14; 555 33-35;
558 25-29; 564 5-7; 571 5-8; 579
12-16; 589 1-4; 590 1-3; 696 7-9
II2 496 36-39; 510 7-9;
520 5-7; 523 2-4; 524 25; 527 1-3; 542 12-14;
570 11-13; 572 11-13;
594 6-8
298
Date
Designations:
grammateus of the boule
grammateus kata prytaneian
grammateus of the
boule and the demos
300276
II2 641 25-29; 643 3-9; 646 5255; 653 52-54; 657 68-70; 661 2932; 663 33-36; 665 31-33; 668 3336; 674 21-23; 675 e1-5; 676 3335; 677 19-20; 682 87-89; 695 1416; 706 6-9; 707 6-8; 711 10-12;
713 3-6; 717 18-20; 721 21-23;
722 9-11; 723 5-7
II2 651 26-28; 652 3335; 672 38-39; (678)
III.49-51; 710 17-20;
712 15-17; 725 7-9; 741
9-10
275251
II2 687 64-66; 689 26-29; 690 912; 766 12-14; 803 3-5; 811 1416; 812 1-3; 820 12-14; 821 1013; 1534 13-14
II2 801 13-14; 805 9-11
250226
II2 775 23-25; 776 30-32; 780 2224; 786 32-34; 788 26-28; 789 47; 790 26-28; 792 11-14; 808 2426; 810 4-6; 835 27-30
II2 791 22-24; 806 4-6;
809 1-4
225201
II2 847 51-55; 848 17-19; 851 2123; 854 2-4; 855 9-11; 856 12-14;
861 26-29; 862 9-11; 863 3-7
II2 844 28-30; 845 1921; (848) 45-46
200176
II2 884 21-24; 890 19-21; 891 1819; 892 15-17; 893 27-29; 895 7-8;
896 17-19; 899 23-25; 900 24-25;
908 18-20; 909 20-24; 913 7-9;
914 7-9; 915 26-27; 916 3-5; 917
18-20; 918 12-14; 919 2-3; 920 1113; 921 6-8; 922 13-15; 924 6-8;
926 13-15; 927 13-15; 928 1-3
II2 (913) 5-6; (914) 2-3;
(915) 22-23; (918) 8
175151
II2 853 11-13; 907 14-17; 912 1718; 947 5-7; 949 19-21; 954 2022; 956 35-37; 957 20-21; 958 3133; 997 6-8
II2 (912) 14-15; (952) 1213; 1223 16-17
150126
II2 963 4-5; 977 17-19; 978 1416; 981 16-17; 982 16-18; 983 911; 984 22-24; 985 11-13; 987 13; 991 8-9
II2 (972) 5-6; 1227 33-36
125101
II2 1004 15-17; 1006 96-98; 1008
41-42; 1009 54-55; 1011 51-52;
1019 36-37; 1028 55-57; 1054
28-31
1008 87; 1011 62-63;
1228 10-11
IG inscription and line references:
100-76
II2 1061 15-17
II2 1029 36-37; 1036 23-25
75-51
II2 1062 6-8
50-26
II2 1041 5-6; 1047 2-3; 1049 1719; 1050 14-16
101125
II2 1073 6-7
II2 1051 4-5
176200
II2 (1077) 47-49
201225
Table 14 – Use of the designations grammateus of the boule, grammateus kata prytaneian,
and grammateus of the boule and the demos.
299
The prominence of secretaries in inscriptions
The following table lists inscriptions where the name and designation of the secretary has
been carved in larger letters than the remainder of the text, and/or is displayed prominently at
the start of the text, before any other officials.1611 In the majority of cases, the secretary is
either the grammateus of the boule or the anagrapheus; however, the syngrammateus,
grammateus of the treasurers of Athena, grammateus of the epistatai and grammateus of the
prytaneis could also be recorded in this fashion. All examples are from Athens.
With the exception of a single, tribal decree in which Aiantis honours its own officers, 1612
displaying the name of the secretary prominently is confined to the period before
c.367/6 BC, when the office of grammateus of the boule became annual and selected by lot,
and the first brief period in which the anagrapheus replaced the grammateus of the boule as
the most prominent secretary in Athens (321/20 to 319/18 BC).
Reference
Description
Secretaries of the boule and demos
Anagrapheus
Ag. 16 97[1]
(321/20 BC) 2-3
and SEG 21:304
(321/0 BC) 1
The anagrapheus Thrasykles is the first officer mentioned in two decrees from
321/0 BC. His name and designation are given before the eponymous archon.
e.g. IG II² 381
(320/19 BC) 110, page 481613
The anagrapheus Archedikos is known from eleven surviving decrees from the
year 320/19 BC, and is the first officer mentioned in seven of them. In IG II2 383b
(320/19 BC) 1-2, Archedikos’ name and designation are given before ‘theoi’.
Ag. 16:101
(319/8 BC) 2-3
The anagrapheus Eukadmos is the first officer mentioned, before the
eponymous archon.
Grammateus of the boule
3
IG I 99
(410/09 BC) 1-2
Fragmentary decree. The first two lines comprise the name and designation of
the grammateus. These are the same size as the remaining text, but separated
from it by an etched line.
IG I3 104
(409/8 BC) 1-2,
page 40
The law on homicide. Line one contains the grammateus; line two contains the
proposer. Both names and designations are given in larger letters than the
remaining text, and are separated from it. At line ten, ‘protos axon’ is also given
in larger letters.
IG I3 127
(405/4 BC) 1-2
Athens honours the Samians. The decree is surmounted by a large relief,
depicting friendship between Athens and Samos.1614 The first two lines contain
the name and designation of the grammateus; the letters used are
approximately four times the size of those in the body of the decree. The
following two lines note that this decree is ‘to those Samians who supported the
(See IG II2 1,
page 25)
1611
I.e. it does not include the single inscription in which the designations of the metronomoi and
grammateus are painted red in the body of the text, but not the names of the officers. See SEG 24:157
(222/1 BC) 1, 7-13 on page 94.
1612
Ag.15:322 (c.120 AD) 1-3, page 69.
1613
See also IG II² 380 (321/0-319 BC) 1-4, IG II² 382 (320/19 BC) 2-5, IG II² 383 (320/19 BC) 1-2,
IG II² 384 (320/19 BC) fr.1-2, Hesp. 40:174,25 (320/19 BC) 1-2.
1614
Blanshard (2007) 19-20. See Blanshard for a photograph of this decree.
300
Reference
Description
Athenian people’. The letters in these lines are approximately twice the size of
the text used in the body of the decree.
IG I3 261
(452/1 BC) 1
Record of tribute. The prescript comprises a single line, which includes the name
and designation of the grammateus, but no other officers. The effect is
accentuated as the prescript spans the five columns of the remaining text.
IG I3 262
(451/0 BC) 1
Record of tribute. As above.
IG I3 269
(451/0 BC) 1
Record of tribute. As above. The final line contains a similar prescript: the start
of a subsequent text on the same stele.
IG II2 2
(405/4 BC) 1-2,
6-7
Proxeny decree. The first line comprises the name designation of the
grammateus. This is separated from the remainder of the text. The name and
designation of the grammateus is given again in lines 6-7.
IG II2 13
(399/8 BC) 1-2,
6-7
Proxeny decree. The first line comprises the name and designation of the
archon. This is separated from the remaining text by two incised lines. Line two
comprises the name and designation of the grammateus. This is followed by the
name of the honorand. The name and designation of the grammateus is then
repeated in the prescript.
IG II2 26 (394387 BC) 1-3,
page 62
Honorific decree. The first three lines comprise the name and designation of the
grammateus. This is in larger text than the remainder of the decree. The name
and designation of the grammateus is then repeated in the prescript.
IG II2 44
(378/73 BC)
1-3, 5-6
Symmachia (alliance) with the Chalcidians. Lines one and two comprise the
name and designation of the grammateus; line three contains the name and
IG II2 127
(378/73 BC) 1
Symmachia with Thrace. The name and designation of the grammateus are
written as agent noun + personal name in the nominative, on a pediment,
designation of the archon. All three lines are in larger text than the remainder of
the inscription. In line one, between the first and second name of the secretary,
is a pattern of five dots. The name and designation of the grammateus is
repeated in the prescript.
separate from the remainder of the text.
Grammateus of the boule and syngrammateus
IG I3 270
(442/1 BC) 1-2,
page 74
Record of tribute. The prescript comprises two lines, containing the name and
designation of the secretary, the hellenotamias, and the syngrammateus. Both
lines span the five columns of the remaining text.
Grammateus of the prytaneis
Ag 15:322 
(c.120 AD) 1-3,
page 69
Honorific decree for the prytaneis of Aiantis, written up by their secretary. The
name of the secretary is displayed at the head of the stele, above the deeplyincised border which surrounds the decree itself.
Treasury officers and secretaries
Grammateus of the treasurers of Athena
2
IG II 1428
(367/6 BC) 1, 45
Treasury document. The first eight lines comprise the prescript, which includes
the treasurers of Athena, and (at 4-5), their secretary. The prescript is in larger
text than the remainder of the document, and spans both columns of the
remaining text. A pattern of five dots separates the names of each officer.
Secretaries of other bodies
Grammateus of the epistatai
2
IG II 1669
(367/6 BC) 1-4
Building account. The first four lines comprise a prescript. The first words are
(uniquely) “[συγγ]ραφαὶ? με[γ]άλης στήλης·” The prescript contains the names
of the epistatai and their secretary.
Table 15 – Prominent display of the name and designation of secretaries.
301
Appendix B – Inscriptions from the Peloponnese
This appendix contains all inscriptions from the Peloponnese which include a secretary (as
defined in Chapter 1 page 21) or other writer. The Geographical Distribution section below
lists inscriptions in chronological order, by region and polis. The Chronological Distribution
section (page 313) provides distribution maps for the Peloponnese as a whole, one map per
century. In both sections, the numbers provided in round brackets against some
designations indicate that there are two or more secretaries (or writers) with the same
designation in a single inscription (that is, the evidence notes officers in the plural, and
occasionally names them).
Where a designation is given in the plural form but the number of officials in this board is
not known, I have assumed two officers are indicated, and marked this estimate with a
question mark. This number is based partly on the assumption that a plural does not
indicate one officer, and partly on other examples of officers working in pairs, such as the
grophees at Argos,1615 katakooi at Stymphalos,1616 and the two named Arcadian epimeletai in
IG V,2 516 (42 AD) 2-3, 32-33. Estimates have been necessary in the case of six inscriptions
containing nomographoi (plural) – an office where numbers may fluctuate within a single
polis depending on the period in question (as appears to be the case at Megalopolis), 1617
three instances of damiorgoi,1618 and two instances of epimeletai.1619
Geographical Distribution
Saronic Gulf and Corinthia
Aigina
2C BC
IG IV2 748 11-12
2
IG IV 749 34-35, 38, 45-46, 51-53
(= Dittenberger IG IV 1)
grammateus of the demos
Before 160 BC
grammateus of the demos
158-144 BC
grammateus (two, Hellenic League)
302 BC
Corinthia
4C BC
IG IV2,1 68 78-83 (Peek, Asklepieion 23)
1615
E.g. Buck No.87 (3C BC) 4-6 on page 135.
1616
IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 7-10, 22-23 on page 184.
1617
IG IV 679 (Late 3/2 BC) 23; IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-2; IG V,2 24 (1C BC or after) 4-5; I.Magn 38 (207/6 BC) 45;
SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 24-30, 34-36; SEG 52:447 (c.190-180 BC) 31.
1618
I.Magn 39 (c.208/7 BC) 33-38, 43-45; IPArk 24 (273 BC) 14-15; SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 7.
1619
IG V,2 510 (3C/e.2C BC) 7-9; IG V,2 511 (undated) 10-12.
302
ἐπὶ + grammatistas
c.325-275 BC
Corinth 8,1 4 9
grammateus
Mid 2C BC
Corinth 8,1 7 1-2
grammateus
Undated
Corinth 8,1 8 1-2
grammateus
Undated
grammateus
44 BC
grammateus
Mid 3C AD
gropheus bolas
Undated
artunas
480-470 BC
IG XII,3 1259 1-17 (Buck 86)
gropheus bolas
After 338 BC
ISE 40 2-4, 27-33
gropheus bolas
c.300 BC
Piérart (1987b) 306-9 (SEG 37:280)
gropheus of the polemarchs?
4C BC?
SEG 30:355 2-3, 11-12
gropheus bolas
c.330-300 BC
SEG 30:356 3-4
gropheus bolas
c.300 BC
SEG 30:357 3, 10-11
gropheus bolas
c.300 BC
SEG 30:360 6, 16-18
gropheus bolas
Early Hellenistic
SEG 33:286 B5-6
gropheus of the 80
4C BC?
Buck 87 4-20
gropheus (two)
3C BC
ISE 41 1-3, 10-13, 18-20
ἐπὶ + gropheus bolas
1st half 3C BC?
ISE 41 1-3, 10-13, 18-20
gropheus for the stratagoi
1st half 3C BC?
Mnem.2 43:C 4
gropheus bolas
248-245 BC
2
Mnem. 43:D 3
gropheus bolas
247-244 BC
2
gropheus bolas
Before 243 BC
2
gropheus bolas
Before 229/8 BC
2
Mnem. 43:K 2-3
gropheus bolas
Before 229/8 BC?
SEG 13:240 1-2
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 13:243 2
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 16:247 3-4
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 17:141 4, 12-14
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 17:142 3
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 17:144 1-5
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 33:278 2
gropheus bolas
Before 229/8 BC?
SEG 30:990 2-4 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 72)
2C BC
1C BC
Corinth 8,3 46 b2-5
3C AD
SEG 26:396 2 (Corinth 8,3 486)
Sicyon
3C BC
Magnesia 55 1, 9, 16-18 [I.Magn 41]
Argolid
Argos
5C BC
IG IV 554 1-7 (Buck 84)
4C BC
3C BC
Mnem. 43:F 5-6
Mnem. 43:G 4-5
303
SEG 39:345 3-4
gropheus bolas
3C BC
SEG 41:280 3
gropheus bolas
3C, poss. < 224 BC
IG IV 498 4-7
gropheus
After 195 BC
IG IV 558 29-43
grammateus, ho katastatheis
grammateus, ho aei grammateus
114 BC
IG IV 609 5-8
gropheus (participle)
Roman
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69 (A.i)
ἐπὶ + gropheus of the 80
146 BC and after
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 70 (A.vi.a)
grammateus of the synedroi
146 BC and after
SEG 31:306 9
gropheus bolas
Hellenistic
SIG3 644-5.i (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69)
gropheus
?
IG IV 589 2-5
grammateus
Roman Imp.
IG IV 606 1-5
grammateus
Roman Imp.
SEG 13:244 7-8
grammateus
1C BC – 1C AD
2C BC
1C AD
Epidauros
For Achaian League inscriptions published in Epidauros, see page 312.
4C BC
katalogos boulas
4/3C BC
IG IV ,1 51 14 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
katalogos boulas
4C BC
IG IV²,1 53 12-13 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
katalogos boulas
4C BC
IG IV²,1 54 9-10 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
katalogos boulas
4C BC
IG IV²,1 58 4-5, 12-14 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
katalogos boulas
4/3C BC
IG IV²,1 103 143
gropheus Alkibios
4C BC
IG IV²,1 106 6, 10, 13-14, 30-1, 75-6, C40-43
C115-6, 107
gropheus Kleidikos
4C BC
gropheus of hiaromnamones: unknown;
IG IV²,1 49 1-15 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
2
Dionysios; Kallinos; Timokles; -ro-s.
IG IV²,1 108 82, 107, 111-2, 116, 123-5, 141
144, 150, 155-6, 159-167
(katalogos boulas)
4/3C BC
gropheus Aleximachos
gropheus of hiaromnamones: unknown;
Damophon; Kallikles; Timokles;
Damophilos; Architeles
IG IV²,1 165 1-8
grophees (two)
4-3C BC
Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 1-8 (IG IV²,1 69 3)
gropheus bolas
4C BC
SEG 26:445 17-20 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
katalogos boulas
c.350 BC
IG IV2,1 96 44-50
(katalogos boulas)
c.300-250 BC
IG IV²,1 109 II.146
gropheus Mnasikles
Early 3C BC
IG IV ,1 306 A1-C5
grammateus (two)
c.206 BC
Peek NI 11 14 (SEG 26:446)
katalogos boulas
Undated
Peek NI 12 9
katalogos boulas
Undated
Peek NI 13 11-13
katalogos boulas
Undated
Peek, NI 18 19-20
gropheus of hiaromnamones: Eukl—
4/early 3C BC
Peek, NI 19 C11
gropheus Pankrates
4/early 3C BC
SEG 11:413 24 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
katalogos boulas
Mid 3C
3C BC
2
304
2C BC
Peek NI 15 14
ἐπὶ + katalogos boulas
2C BC?
Peek NI 32 1-7
grammateus
Undated
grammateus
117-138 AD
nomographos (two?)
Late 3/2 BC
grammateus (two)
3C BC
tamias
3C BC
2C AD
IG IV2,1 25 2
Troizenia and Hermionis
Hermione
2C BC
IG IV 679 4-13, 23-31
(Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 76 & 78)
Kalaureia
3C BC
IG IV 824 1-9
Troizen
3C BC
IG IV 755 9-11
Laconia
Amyklai
2C BC
IG V,1 26 1-8, 13-18 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 82)
grammateus, dogmatographos (three) 2/1C BC
Epidauros Limera
2C BC
ephor (three)
After 146 BC
ephor (three)
Undated
IV V,1 1110 9-16
ephor (three)
After 146 BC
IG V,1 1111 26, 34-38
ephor (three)
After 146 BC
IG V,1 1113 9-13
ephor (three)
Undated
IG V,1 1114 2-4, 27-30
ephor (three)
1C BC
IG V,1 931 34-37
Gerenia
2C BC
IG V,1 1336 17-22
Geronthrai
2C BC
305
Gytheion
1C BC
IG V,1 1144 20-21, 33-36
ephor (three)
c.80 BC
IG V,1 1145 4-5, 10, 44-51
ephor (three)
c.70 BC
IG V,1 1146 51, 52-54 (Emprunt 24)
ephor (three)
71/70 BC
IG V,1 962 31-38 (Emprunt 25)
ephor (three)
Undated
IG V,1 965 16-20
ephor (three)
2C BC
IG V,1 7 1-10
nomographos (two?)
3C BC
SEG 52:541 4-7
nomographos
3C BC?
IG V,1 9 4-5
grammateus
1C BC
IG V,1 48 17-19
grammateus, hypogrammateus (three) 1C BC
IG V,1 92 11-12
grammateus
1C BC
IG V,1 141 6
grammateus
Mid 1C BC
IG V,1 206 5
grammateus of the boule
1C BC
IG V,1 208 7
grammateus
1C BC
IG V,1 209 26
grammateus
1C BC
IG V,1 210 44-46, 58
grammateus, stonecutter
1C BC
IG V,1 211 II.50
grammateus, stonecutter
1C BC
IG V,1 212 II.45-46
grammateus, stonecutter
1C BC
SEG 48:455 25-26 (ABSA 93 427-429 no.1)
grammateus, hypogrammateus
c.25-1 BC
IG V,1 20 A3-4, B5
grammateus (two),
grammateus of the boule
98-117 AD
IG V,1 97 25 (ABSA 27 E1)
grammateus
Late 1C AD
ABSA 26 A5 5-6
grammateus of the boule
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 B4 1-4
grammateus of the boule
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 B6 1-3
grammateus of the boule
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 B8 4
grammateus of the boule
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 C1, II.4-7
grammateus of the boule,
hypogrammateus (one)
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 C4 10
grammateus
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 C7 8-9
grammateus of the boule
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 C10 4-5
grammateus of the boule
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 20b 5-6
grammateus
101-150 AD
ABSA 26 20c 9-12
grammateus, hyperetes grammateus
101-150 AD
ABSA 27 E30 3-4
grammateus of the boule
c.134 AD
Kortyrta
2C BC
Sparta
3C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
306
IG V,1 32 A15
grammateus of the boule
After 125 AD
IG V,1 34 3-13
grammateus of the boule
117-138 AD
IG V,1 37 1
grammateus of the boule
138-161 AD
IG V,1 39 24
grammateus of the boule
Mid 2C AD
IG V,1 40 9-11, 13-14
grammateus, grammateus of the boule 138-180 AD
IG V,1 46 8-9
grammateus of the boule
Late 2/3C AD
IG V,1 60 4
grammateus of the boule
117-138 AD
IG V,1 71 III.4
grammateus of the boule
(with grammatophylakes at II.17,
Mid 2C AD
IG V,1 74 8
grammateus
138-161 AD
IG V,1 110 5
grammateus of the boule
Mid 2C AD
IG V,1 112 11
grammateus of the boule
138-161 AD
IG V,1 115 A4
grammateus, hypogrammateus (one)
Mid 2C AD
IG V,1 116 6-9
grammateus of the boule
161 AD or later
IG V,1 118 1
grammateus of the boule
Undated
IG V,1 137 1-25
grammateus (two), hypogrammateus
(three), grammateus of the boule
98-117 AD
IG V,1 147 13-14
grammateus
Early 2C AD
IG V,1 152 9
grammateus
2C AD
IG V,1 162 B19
grammateus of the boule
Mid 2C AD
IG V,1 168 1
grammateus
Late 2/3C AD
IG V,1 174 13
grammateus
Roman
IG V,1 179 8, 10
grammateus, stonecutter
Roman
IG V,1 479 1-14
grammateus of the boule
131/132 AD
IG V,1 603 7
grammateus
Roman Imperial
IG V,1 643 3
grammateus
Undated
SEG 30:410 (IG V,1 111 26)
grammateus of the boule
Mid 2C AD
SEG 31:340 8
grammateus of the boule
98-138 AD
SEG 48:456 9 (ABSA 93 427-429 no.2)
grammateus
98-117 AD
SEG 48:458 27-34 (ABSA 93 427-429 no.4)
grammateus of the boule
hypogrammateus (one)
160-165 AD
SEG 48:459 6-9 (ABSA 93 427-429 no.5a)
grammateus of the boule
150-155 AD
SEG 48:468 7-8 (ABSA 93 427-429 no.12)
grammateus
98-117 AD
SEG 48:460 6-7 (ABSA 93 427-429 no.5b)
grammateus of the boule
160-165 AD
SEG 48:470 5 (ABSA 93 446 no.14)
nomographos
115-138 AD
grammateus
225-250 AD
IG V,1 1226 17-21
tamias
2/1C BC
IG V,1 1227 2-7
tamias
undated
grammateus
117-138 AD
III.15, 34, 52)
3C AD
SEG 34:308 7
Tainaron
2C BC
Thalamai
2C AD
IG V,1 1314 12
307
grammateus, stonecutter
117-138 AD
grammateus of the synedroi
(and ho grapsas)
92/91 BC
grammateus
193-5 AD
ἐπὶ + grammateus
Late 2C BC
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
58 BC
ἐπὶ + grammateus
Undated
gropheus
3C BC
SEG 31:346 (all)
grammateus
Hellenistic
IG V,1 1428 3-5
grammateus of dikasts
Late 2-1C BC
IG V,1 1432 2, 13-30, 41-42
grammateus of the synedroi
39 BC
IG V,1 1463 3
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
1C BC
IG V,1 1448 2
grammateus of the synedroi
14 AD
IG V,1 1449 8
grammateus of the synedroi
54-68 AD
IG V,1 1467 7
grammateus
1C AD
SEG 23:208 2, 15-29
grammateus
42 AD
IG V,1 1469 6
grammateus
126 AD
SEG 23:206 1-2
grammateus of the synedroi
2-3C AD
grammateus
2-1C BC
IG V,1 1315 29-30
Messenia
Andania
1C BC
IG V,1 1390 1, 49, 52, 56-7, 61-62, 89, 112-114,
132-7, 185-6
Asine
2C AD
IG V,1 1412 1-9
Kolonides
2C BC
IG V,1 1402 1
Korone
1C BC
IG V,1 1392 1-4
Kyparissos
1C BC
IG V,1 1559 2-3
Messene
3C BC
SEG 51:474 II.1-6
2C BC
1C BC
1C AD
2C AD
Thouria
2C BC
IG V,1 1379 14-16, 18, 23
308
grammateus of the synedroi
182-167 BC
nomographos (two?), ephor (three)
1C AD
damiorgos (two?)
273 BC
grammateus
3C BC
grammateus of the synedrion
168-146 BC
gropheus of the damiorgoi
304/3 or
320/1-304/3 BC
stalographos (two?), epimeletes
c.350-340 BC
grammateus
125-128 AD
nomographos (two?)
207/6 BC
IG V,2 433 4, 6-11 (IPArk 30)
nomographos (one)
Early 2C BC
IG V,2 439 1
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
145 BC
IG V,2 440 1
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
131 BC
IG V,2 441 1-2
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
130 BC
IG V,2 443 1 (IPArk 32)
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
Mid 2/early 1C BC
IG V,2 444 1 (IPArk 32)
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
Mid 2/early 1C BC
SEG 52:447 31
nomographos (two?)
c.190-180 BC
BCH 38 No.5 6-8
grammateus
3C BC
BCH 38 No.6 12
grammateus
3C BC
ISE 51 1-2, 10-14
One from Thouria (in prescript),
one from Patrai (writes decree)
1C AD
SEG 11:974 14-15, 24-36
Arcadia
Alipheira
3C BC
IPArk 24 8-11, 14-18
Heraia
3C BC
IG V,2 415 5-6 (IPArk 23)
Kletor
2C BC
IG V,2 367 1, 20, 23, 49 (IPArk 19)
Lykaia
4C BC
IG V,2 550 1-6, 27-29
Mantinea
4C BC
IPArk 9 3, 16-21
2C AD
IG V,2 302 1-8
Megalopolis
3C BC
I.Magn 38 38-53 [Magnesia 44] (SIG3 559)
2C BC
Orchomenos
3C BC
309
BCH 38 No.8 2-8, 10-13
grammateus of the thearoi
3C BC
ISE 53 1-5, 9-11 (BCH 38 no.1)
grammateus
265/4 BC
SEG 33:319 3-6, 17-19 (BCH 38 No.11)
grammateus
3C BC
katakoos (two), gropheus
303-300 BC
IG V,2 351 10-12
grammateus of the demos (?)
c.266-219 BC
IG V,2 356 1, 5-8
grammateus
240 BC
IG V,2 11 19 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 91)
grammateus
Bef. 228 BC
IG V,2 12 5 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 90-91)
graphes
240-228 BC
IG V,2 13 9
graphes
Bef. 228 BC
IG V,2 16 7-9
stratagos
218 BC
IG V,2 116 7
graphes
3C BC
grammateus
2C BC
nomographos (two?)
1C BC or after
grammateus
165/166 AD
IG V,2 510 7-9 (IPArk 36,r)
epimeletes (two?)
3C/early 2C BC
IG V,2 511 10-12
epimeletes (two?)
Undated
IvO 2 1-9 (Buck 61)
gropheus
Bef. 580 BC
SEG 31:358 1-7 (SEG 26:475)
gropheus
480-450 BC
bolographor
300-250 BC
IvO 59 14-15
grammateus
36 BC
IvO 61 4
grammateus
After 36 BC
IvO 62 1-17
grammateus
36-24 BC
IvO 64 24-25
grammateus
28-24 BC
Stymphalos
4C BC
IPArk 17 2-26,193-4 (IG V,2 357)
3C BC
Tegea
3C BC
2C BC
IG V,2 43 1
1C BC
IG V,2 24 4-5 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 91)
2C AD
IG V,2 50 78
Thisoa
3C BC
Elis
Olympia
6-5C BC
3C BC
IvO 39 4-5, 30-40 (Buck 66)
1C BC
310
1C AD
IvO 69 17-18
grammateus
5AD
IvO 74 11
grammateus
Bef. 57AD
IvO 80 9-10
grammateus
c.57 AD
IvO 82 16
grammateus
c.67 AD
IvO 83 4-5
grammateus
c.69-73 AD
IvO 84 20
grammateus
69-73 AD
IvO 85 15
grammateus
77-81 AD
IvO 86 11
grammateus
85-93 AD
IvO 433 1-6
grammateus
After c.95 AD
IvO 91 21
grammateus
113-117 AD
IvO 92 16-17
grammateus
After 113-117 AD
IvO 99 19-20
grammateus
After 165 AD
IvO 102 20-21
grammateus
181-185 AD
IvO 103 23
grammateus
177-189 AD
IvO 104 23
grammateus
185-189 AD
IvO 105 11-12
grammateus
Late 2-3C AD
IvO 107 16-17
grammateus
Late 2-3C AD
IvO 430 6-7
grammateus (to b’)
Not bef. beg. 2C AD
IvO 460 3-4
grammateus of the polis
Roman
IvO 468 1-7
grammateus
2-3C AD
IvO 110 17-19, 27
two periegetai, grammateus
209-213 AD
IvO 117 22
grammateus
237-241 AD
IvO 121 28
grammateus
245-249 AD
IvO 122 24
grammateus
265 AD
2C AD
3C AD
Achaia
Dyme
3C BC
SIG3 529 1-11 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97)
3
grammatistas of the damosiophylakes 219 BC
SIG 530 1-3 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97)
grammatistas
End C3 BC?
SIG3 531 1-8, 25-32 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97)
ἐπὶ + grammateus for the Achaian
3C BC
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi,
nomographos (two)
144 BC
grammateus of the synedroi
182-167 BC
League, grammatistas
2C BC
SIG3 684 1-2, 6-11, 16-27 (RDGE 43, CQ2 XLV 1995
129-53, Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97)
Patrai
2C BC
ISE 51 1-2, 10-14
One from Thouria (in prescript),
one from Patrai (writes decree)
311
Tritaia
3C BC
damiorgos (two?)
3C BC
IG VII 188 2-3
ἐπὶ + grammateus of the synedroi
242-223 BC
I.Magn 39 33-38, 43-45 [Magnesia 8]
(Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99)
(Achaian) damiorgos (two?),
c.208/7 BC
(Magnesian) nomographos, grammateus
SEG 40:400 7, 11-19
Achaian League
Achaia: Aigion
3C BC
Achaia: Dyme
3C BC
SIG3 531 1-8, 25-32 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 97)
ἐπὶ + grammateus for the Achaian
3C BC
nomographos (twenty-four),
grammateus
After 224 BC
IG IV2,1 60 1 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 74)
ἐπὶ + grammateus for the Achaian
191 BC
IG IV2,1 61 2
ἐπὶ + grammateus for the Achaian
150 BC
IG IV2,1 63 9-13, 17-18
grammateus (of the Achaians?)
115/114 BC
grammateus of the Achaians
34/35 AD
grammateus of the Achaians
34/35 AD
grammateus of the Achaians
c.103-114 AD
ἐπὶ + grammateus
119-138 AD
grammateus of the synedroi
2C AD
grammateis of the synedroi
79/8 BC
League, grammatistas
Argolis: Epidauros
3C BC
IG IV2,1 73 1-36 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 98)
2C BC
League
League
1C AD
IG IV2,1 80 1-6 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99)
2
IG IV ,1 81 7-18 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99)
Argolis: Troizen
2C AD
IG IV 795 3-15
Messene: Abia
2C AD
IG V,1 1352 7-11
Arcadia: Mantinea
2C AD
IG V,2 313 1-4
Arcadia: Orchomenos
1C BC
IG V,2 345 1-25
312
Origin unknown
1C AD
IG VII 2711 43-45 (Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 99)
grammateus of the Achaians
AD 37
Chronological Distribution
The numbers in the following maps represent the total number of secretaries or other officers
who are known from that location in the period in question, rather than the number of
inscriptions. Therefore, if one inscription contains officers of several different designations, it is
noted more than once, and, conversely, if a particular secretary is named in more than one
inscription, he is recorded only once. Where the possible date of an inscription spans two
centuries, I have placed the text in the ‘most likely’ century, based on other texts of that type.
These maps are analysed in the conclusion to Chapter 3.
6-5C BC
Figure 8 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the sixth and
fifth centuries BC.1620
1620
Argos artunas: IG IV 554 (480-470 BC) 2, 4 (one). Olympia gropheus: IvO 2 (Bef. 580 BC) 8; SEG
31:358 (480-450 BC) 1 (two). Total: 3
313
4C BC
Figure 9 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the fourth century BC.1621
1621
Argos gropheus bolas: IG XII,3 1259 (After 338 BC) 1-17; ISE 40 (c.300 BC) 4; SEG 30:355 (c.330300 BC) 2-3; SEG 30:356 (c.300 BC) 3-4; SEG 30:357 (c.300 BC) 3, 10-11; SEG 30:360 (early
Hellenistic) 6, 16-18 (six); gropheus for the 80: SEG 33:286 (4C BC?) B5-6 (two); gropheus of the
polemarchs Piérart (1987b) 306-9 (SEG 37:280) (4C BC?) (one). Corinthia grammateus [Hellenic
League] IG IV2,1 68 (302 BC) 79, 81 (two); grammatistas: SEG 30:990 (c.325-275 BC) 2 (one).
Epidauros gropheus: IG IV²,1 103 (4C BC) 143; IG IV²,1 106 (4C BC) C.40-41; IG IV²,1 108 (4/3C BC)
160 (three); gropheus boulas: Mitsos (1947) A1 (4/3C BC) 3 (one); gropheus of the hiaromamones: IG
IV²,1 106 (4C BC) 6, 10, 13-14, 30-1, 75-6, C41-3, C115-6, 107; IG IV2,1 108 (4/3C BC) 82, 107, 1112, 116, 123, 141, 144, 150, 155-6, 160-1, 167; IG IV²,1 165 (4/3C BC) 6 (eleven); katalogos boulas:
IG IV²,1 49 (4/3C BC) 14-15; IG IV2,1 51 (4C BC) 14; IG IV²,1 53 (4C BC) 12-13; IG IV²,1 54 (4C BC)
9-10; IG IV²,1 58 (4/3C BC) 4-5, 12-14; SEG 26:445 (c.350 BC) 17-20 (six). Lykaia gropheus
[damiorgon]: IG V,2 550 (304/3 or 320/1-304/3) 4-6 (one). Mantinea epimeletes and stalographoi:
IPArk 9 (c.350-340 BC) 16-21 (two each). Stymphalos gropheus: IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 19-21 (one);
katakoos: IPArk 17 (303-300 BC) 7-10, 22-26 (two). Total: 41
314
3C BC
Figure 10 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the third century BC.1622
1622
Achaian League at Aigion grammateus for the Achaians: IG VII 188 (242-223 BC) 2-3 (one);
damiorgos: I.Magn 39 (c.208/7 BC) 33-38 (two?). Alipheira damiorgos: IPArk 24 (273 BC) 14-15
(two?). Argos gropheus bolas: ISE 41 (1st half 3C BC) 2-3; Mnem.2 43:C (248-245) 4; Mnem.2 43:D
(247-244) 3; Mnem.2 43:F (Before 243) 5-6; Mnem.2 43:G (before 229/8) 4-5; Mnem.2 43:K (before
229/8?) 2-3; SEG 13:240 (3C BC) 2; SEG 13:243 (3C BC) 2; SEG 16:247 (3C BC) 3-4; SEG 17:141 (3C
BC) 4, 12-14; SEG 17:142 (3C BC) 3; SEG 17:144 (3C BC) 3-4; SEG 33:278 (before 229/8?) 2; SEG
39:345 (3C BC) 3-4; SEG 41:280 (3C BC) 3 (fifteen); gropheus for the stratagoi: ISE 41 (1st half
3C BC?) 10 (one); grophees: Buck 87 (3C BC) 4-5 (two). Dyme grammatistas: SIG3 529 (219 BC) 5;
SIG3 530 (end C3 BC?) 1-3; SIG3 531 (3C BC) 4, 27 (three); Achaian League at Dyme grammateus for
the Achaians: SIG3 531 (3C BC) 4, 27 (one). Epidauros gropheus: IG IV²,1 109 (early 3C BC) II.146;
Peek, NI 19 (4/early 3C BC) C11 (two); gropheus hiaromamones: Peek, NI 18 (4/early 3C BC) 19-20
(one); katalogos boulas: Peek NI 11 (undated) 14; Peek NI 12 (undated) 9; Peek NI 13 (undated) 1113; SEG 11:413 (Mid 3C) 24 (four); grammateus: IG IV2,1 306 (c.206 BC) A2, C3 (two); Achaian
League at Epidauros grammateus and nomographos: IG IV2,1 73 (after 224 BC) 2-3, 29-30 (one,
twenty-four). Heraia grammateus: IG V,2 415 (3C BC) 5 (one). Kalaureia grammateus: IG IV 824
(3C BC) 2-4 (two). Megalopolis nomographos: I.Magn 38 (207/6 BC) 45 (two?). Messene gropheus:
SEG 51:474 (3C BC) II.1-2 (one). Olympia bolographor: IvO 39 (300-250 BC) 37 (one). Orchomenos
grammateus: BCH 38 No.5 (3C BC) 7-8; BCH 38 No.6 (3C BC) 12; ISE 53 (265/4 BC) 10; SEG 33:319
(3C BC) 17-19 (four); grammateus of the thearoi: BCH 38 No.8 (3C BC) 10-11 (one). Sicyon gropheus
of the bola: Magnesia 55 (undated) 16-18 (one). Sparta nomographos: IG V,1 7 (3C BC) 1-2; SEG
52:541 (3C BC?) 4-7 (two?+one). Stymphalos grammateus: IG V,2 356 (240 BC) 6-7 (one);
grammateus of the demos: IG V,2 351 (c.266-219 BC) 11 (one). Tegea graphes: IG V,2 12 (240228 BC) 5; IG V,2 13 (Bef. 228 BC) 9; IG V,2 116 (3C BC) 7 (three); grammateus: IG V,2 11 (bef.
228 BC) 19 (one); stratagos: IG V,2 16 (218 BC) 7-8 (two). Thisoa epimeletes: IG V,2 510 (3C/E.
315
2C BC
Figure 11 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the second century BC.1623
2C BC) 7-9; IG V,2 511 (undated) 10-12 (two each?). Tritaia damiorgos: SEG 40:400 (3C BC) 7 (two?).
Troizen tamias: IG IV 755 (3C BC) 9-10 (two). Total: 93
1623
Aigina grammateus of the demos: IG IV2 748 (241-197 BC) 11-12; IG IV2 749 (158-144 BC) 45-46
(two). Amyklai grammateus, dogmatographos: IG V,1 26 1, (2/1C BC) 17 (one, three). Argos
grammateus: IG IV 558 (114 BC) 36-38 (two); grammateus of the synedroi: Unpublished, Rhodes with
Lewis (1997) 70 (A. vi. a) (146 and after) (one); gropheus: IG IV 498 (after 195 BC) 4-7; IG IV 609
(Roman) 8; SIG3 644-5.i (three); gropheus bolas: SEG 31:306 (Hellenistic) 9 (one); gropheus for the 80:
Unpublished, Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 69 (A.i) (146 and after) (two). Corinthia grammateus: Corinth 8,
1 4 (Mid 2C BC) 9; Corinth 8, 1 7 (undated) 1; Corinth 8, 1 8 (undated) 1 (three). Dyme grammateus of
the synedrion, nomographoi: SIG3 684 (144 BC) 1-2, 6-11, 16-27 (one, two). Epidauros grammateus:
Peek NI32 (undated) 6-7 (one); katalogos boulas: Peek NI 15 (2C BC?) 14 (one). Achaian League at
Epidauros grammateus for the Achaians: IG IV2,1 60 (191 BC) 1; IG IV2,1 61 (150 BC) 2; IG IV2,1 63
(115/114 BC) 18 (three). Epidauros Limera ephor: IG V,1 931 (after 146 BC) 34-36 (three). Gerenia
ephor: IG V,1 1336 (undated) 17-19 (three). Geronthrai ephor: IV V,1 1110 (after 146 BC) 9-11; IG V,1
1111 (after 146 BC) 34-36; IG V,1 1113 (undated) 9-10 (nine). Hermione damiorgos, nomographos: IG
IV 679 (Late 3/2 BC) 23-31 (two each). Kletor grammateus of the synedroi: IG V,2 367 (168-146 BC) 1,
20 (one). Kolonides grammateus: IG V,1 1402 (late 2C BC) 1 (one). Kortyrta ephor: IG V,1 962 (undated)
31-38; IG V,1 965 (2C BC) 16-17 (six). Patrai grammateus of the synedroi: ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 1-2
(one). Megalopolis grammateus of the synedroi: IG V,2 439 (145 BC) 1; IG V,2 440 (131 BC) 1; IG V,2
441 (130 BC) 1-2; IG V,2 443 (Mid.2/E.1C BC) 1; IG V,2 444 (Mid.2/E.1C BC) 1 (five); nomographos: IG
V,2 433 (early 2C BC) 9-10; SEG 52:447 (c.190-180 BC) 31 (three?). Messene grammateus: IG V,1 1428
(late 2-1 C BC) 4; SEG 31:346 (Hellenistic) (all) (two). Tainaron tamias: IG V,1 1226 (2/1 C BC) 17-21; IG
V,1 1227 (undated) 2-7 (two). Tegea grammateus: IG V,2 43 (2C BC) 1 (one). Thouria grammateus of
the synedroi: IG V,1 1379 (2-1C BC) 14-16, 18, 23; ISE 51 (182-167 BC) 10-14 (two). Total: 69
316
1C BC
Figure 12 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the first century BC.1624
1624
Andania grammateus of the synedroi: IG V,1 1390 (92/91 BC) 1, 134-5 (one). Corinthia grammateus:
Corinth 8,3 46 (44 BC) b3 (one). Geronthrai: ephor: IG V,1 1114 (1C BC) 27-30 (three). Gytheion ephor:
IG V,1 1144 (80 BC) 33-36; IG V,1 1145 (c.70 BC) 4-5, 10, 44-47; IG V,1 1146 (71/70 BC) 52-54 (nine).
Korone grammateus of the synedroi: IG V,1 1392 (58BC) 2 (one). Kyparissos grammateus: IG V,1 1559
(undated) 2-3 (one). Messene grammateus of the synedroi: IG V,1 1432 (39 BC) 2, 13-25, 41-42; IG V,1
1463 (1C BC) 3 (two). Olympia grammateus: IvO 59 (36BC) 14-15; IvO 61 (after 36 BC) 4; IvO 62 (3624 BC) 7-8; IvO 64 (28-24 BC) 24-25 (four). Achaian League at Orchomenos grammateus of the synedroi:
IG V,2 345 (79/8 BC) 1-2, 10-11, 13 (two); Sparta grammateus boulas: IG V,1 206 (1C BC) 5 (one);
grammateus: IG V,1 9 (1C BC) 4-5; IG V,1 48 (1C BC) 17-18; IG V,1 92 (1C BC) 11-12; IG V,1 141 (Mid
1C BC) 6; IG V,1 208 (1C BC) 7; IG V,1 209 (1C BC) 26; IG V,1 210 (1C BC) 44-46, 58; IG V,1 211
(1C BC) II.50; IG V,1 212 (1C BC) II.45-46; SEG 48:455 (c.25-1 BC) 25-26 (ten); hypogrammateus: IG
V,1 48 (1C BC) 18-19; SEG 48:455 (c.25-1 BC) 25-26 (four). Tegea nomographos: IG V,2 24 (1C BC or
after) 4-5 (two?). Total: 41
317
1C AD
Figure 13 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the first century AD.1625
1625
Argos grammateus: IG IV 589 (undated) 2-4; IG IV 606 (Roman Imp.) 3; SEG 13:244 (Roman
Imp.) (three). Achaian League at Epidauros grammateus of the Achaians: IG IV2,1 80 (34/35 AD) 5; IG
IV2,1 81 (34/35 AD) 10, 17 (two). Messene grammateus: IG V,1 1467 (1C AD) 7; SEG 23:208 (42 AD) 2
(two); grammateus of the synedroi: IG V,1 1448 (14 AD) 2; IG V,1 1449 (54-68 AD) 8 (two). Olympia
grammateus: IvO 69 (5AD) 17-18; IvO 74 (Bef. 57AD) 11; IvO 80 9 (c.57 AD) 9-10; IvO 82 9 (c.67 AD)
16; IvO 83 (c.69-73 AD) 4-5; IvO 84 (69-73 AD) 20; IvO 85 977-81 AD) 15; IvO 86 (85-93 AD) 11; IvO
433 (After c.95 AD) 6 (nine). Sparta grammateus boulas: IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4, B5 (one).
grammateus: IG V,1 20 (98-117 AD) A3-4, B5; IG V,1 97 (Late 1C AD) 25 (four). Thouria ephor: SEG
11:974 (1C AD) 24-28, 34-36 (three); nomographos: SEG 11:974 (1C AD) 29-30 (two?). Not on map
(origin unknown): grammateus of the Achaians: IG VII 2711 (AD 37) 43-45. Total: 28
318
2C AD
Figure 14 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the second century AD.1626
1626
Achaian League at Abia grammateus (of the Achaian League): IG V,1 1352 (119-138 AD) 9-10
(one). Asine grammateus: IG V,1 1412 (AD 193-5) 7-9 (one). Epidauros grammateus: IG IV2,1 25
(117-138 AD) 2 (one). Mantinea grammateus: IG V,2 302 (125-128 AD) 5-6 (one). Achaian League at
Mantinea grammateus of the synedrion: IG V,2 313 (2C AD) 1-2 (one). Messene grammateus: IG V,1
1469 (126 AD) 6 (one); grammateus of the synedroi: SEG 23:206 (2-3C AD) 1 (one). Olympia
grammateus: IvO 91 (113-117 AD) 21; IvO 92 (aft.113-117 AD) 16-17; IvO 99 (After 165 AD) 19-20;
IvO 102 (181-185 AD) 20-21; IvO 103 (177-189 AD) 23; IvO 104 (185-189 AD) 23; IvO 105 (Late 2-3C
AD) 11-12; IvO 107 (Late 2-3C AD) 16-17; IvO 430 (Not bf.b.2C AD) 6-7 (nine); grammateus of the
polis: IvO 460 (Roman) 3-4 (one); grammatistas: IvO 468 (2-3C AD) 5 (one). Sparta grammateus:
ABSA 26 C4 (101-150 AD) 10; ABSA 26 20b (101-150 AD) 5-6; ABSA 26 20c (101-150 AD) 9-12*; IG
V,1 40 (138-180 AD) 9-11, 13-14; IG V,1 74 (138-161 AD) 8; IG V,1 115 (Mid 2C AD) A4; IG V,1 137
(98-117 AD) 3-9, 23-24*; IG V,1 147 (early 2C AD) 13-14; IG V,1 152 (2C AD) 9; IG V,1 168 (Late 2/3C
AD) 1 or 7; IG V,1 174 (Roman) 13; IG V,1 179 (Roman) 8, 10; IG V,1 603 (Roman Imp.) 7; IG V,1
643 (undated) 3; SEG 48:456 (98-117 AD) 9; SEG 48:468 (98-117 AD) 7-8 (eighteen, two in texts
marked with an asterisk); grammateus boulas: ABSA 26 A5 (101-150 AD) 5-6; ABSA 26 B4 (101-150
AD) 1-4; ABSA 26 B6 (101-150 AD) 1-3; ABSA 26 B8 (101-150 AD) 4; ABSA 26 C1 (101-150 AD) II.4-7;
ABSA 26 C7 (101-150 AD) 8-9; ABSA 26 C10 (101-150 AD) 4-5; ABSA 27 E30 (c.134 AD) 3-4; IG V,1 32
(After 125 AD) A15; IG V,1 34 (117-138 AD) 7; IG V,1 37 (138-161 AD) 1; IG V,1 39 (Mid 2C AD) 24; IG
V,1 40 (138-180 AD) 9-11, 13-14; IG V,1 46 (Late 2/3C AD) 8-9; IG V,1 60 (117-138 AD); IG V,1 71
(Mid 2C AD) III.4; IG V,1 110 (Mid 2C AD) 5; IG V,1 112 (138-161 AD) 11; IG V,1 116 (161 AD or later)
6-7; IG V,1 118 (undated) 1; IG V,1 137 (98-117 AD) 3-9, 23-24; IG V,1 162 (Mid 2C AD) B19; IG V,1
479 (131/132 AD) 2-4; SEG 30:410 (Mid 2C AD) 26; SEG 31:340 (98-138 AD) 8; SEG 48:458 (160-165
AD) 27-28, 32-33; SEG 48:459 (150-155 AD) 6-9; SEG 48:460 (160-165 AD) 6-7 (twenty-eight);
hypogrammateus: ABSA 26 C1 (101-150 AD) II.4-7; IG V,1 115 (Mid 2C AD) A4; IG V,1 137 (98-117
319
3C AD
Figure 15 – Secretaries or other officials charged with writing a text in the third century AD.1627
AD) 3-9, 23-24; SEG 48:458 (160-165 AD) 27-28, 33-34 (six); nomographos: SEG 48:470 (115-138
AD) 5 (one). Tegea grammateus: IG V,2 50 (165/166 AD) 78 (one). Thalamai grammateus: IG V,1
1314 (117-138 AD) 12; IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 29-30 (two). Achaian League at Troizen grammateus
of the Achaians: IG IV 795 (c.103-114 AD) 12 (one). Total: 75
1627
Corinthia grammateus: SEG 26:396 (mid 3C AD) 2 (one). Sparta grammateus: SEG 34:308 (225250 AD) 7 (one). Olympia grammateus: IvO 110 (209-213 AD) 27; IvO 117 (237-241 AD) 22; IvO 121
(245-249 AD) 28; IvO 122 (265 AD) 24 (four). Total: 6
320
Appendix C – Honours for Roman Magistrates who
held the office of grammateus
The following table comprises a list of inscriptions from the Peloponnese which honour
magistrates who were part of the Roman administration, and who held the office of
secretary, and often several other magistracies, during the course of their lifetime.
Location
Reference
Designation(s)
Date
See:
Argos
IG IV 589 2-10
officer of the ephebes,
undated
grammateus, tamias, agonothetes
n/a
Argos
IG IV 606 1-6
aedile, grammateus,
hierophant, agonothetes
Roman Imp.
page 135
Argos
IG IV 609 5-8
agoranomos, public buyer of
corn, gropheus
Roman
n.727
Argos
SEG 13:244 1-11
gymnasiarch, agoranomos,
grammateus, tamias
1C BC-1C AD
n/a
Troizen
IG IV 795 3-14
strategos, agonothetes,
grammateus of the Achaians
103-113 AD
n/a
Epidauros
IG IV2,1 25 3-10
grammateus, ambassador,
gymnasiarchos, agoranomos
117-138 AD
n/a
Achaia
IG IV2,1 81 7-18
(and IG IV2,1 80)
grammateus
34/35 AD
page 223
Sparta
IG V,1 479 3-8
grammateus of the boule,
hipparch, agonothetes
131/132 AD
page 164
Asine
IG V,1 1412 7-9
grammateus
193-5 AD
page 169
Mantinea
IG V,2 313 1-4
grammateus of the synedrion,
agonothetes
2C AD
n.1072
Elis
IvO 430 6-7
stratagos, grammateus (twice)
2-3C AD
n/a
Elis
IvO 433 1-6
priest of Zeus Olympios,
agoranomos, gymnasiarch,
chief of police, grammateus
after c.95 AD
page 206
Elis
IvO 460 3-4
priest of Zeus Olympios,
grammateus of the polis,
president of Achaian League
Roman
page 206
Elis
IvO 468 1-7
epimeletes, priest,
agoranomos, chief of police,
magistrate, grammatistas
2/3C AD
page 207
Corinth
SEG 26:396 2
—arch, tamias, grammateus,
agoranomos, strategos
3C AD
page 128
Table 16 – Honours for Roman magistrates who held the office of grammateus.
Honours of this type for secretaries are not known from Athens.
321
Appendix D – Delos
A study of Athens and the Peloponnese shows that there is a great deal of variety in the
types of secretaries found and the duties that they performed, but also that there was very
little spread of offices from one region to the other. A study of a third region, Delos, may
serve as a case study to indicate whether this lack of spread – and therefore the regionspecific nature of secretaryships – is to be expected.
Overview
The story of secretarial activity on Delos is inextricably linked to the Athenian administration
of this small island, since there is no evidence for bureaucratic or secretarial offices before
Athenian occupation.
Delos drew visitors from throughout the Aegean from the eighth century BC, for worship of
Apollo, although it had been occupied from much earlier.1628 From the sixth to the second
century BC, Athens gained and repeatedly lost control of Delos, installing its own
administration on the island, and occasionally removing existing populations to ensure its
own control.1629 After the end of the Persian wars, Delos became the meeting-place of the
(Athens-led) Delian League, which had its treasury here until 454 BC, when it was moved to
Athens.1630 During this period, the island and treasury were administered by Athenian
hellenotamiai (treasurers), who were elected by lot, from the pentakosiomedimnoi,1631 the
highest-producing of the Solonian classes.
Little is known about the earliest period of Athenian administration. Since the hellenotamiai
in Athens had their own grammateis (see page 86), it is highly likely that the hellenotamiai
on Delos also had their own secretaries; however there is no surviving evidence for this. The
earliest records from Delos pertaining to Athenian control date to 434/3 BC, and here, the
designations of the officials responsible are not preserved. 1632
1628
Constantakopoulou (2007) 38.
1629
Hdt. 1.64.2; Th. 3.104.1-3; OCD 320-321. Laidlaw (1933) 57, 67, 73-4. By the end of the fifth
century BC, Athens had purified Delos twice, and had removed nearly all Delian citizens from the
island. The only Delians to remain behind were minor Delian officials called neokoroi (literally, ‘templesweepers’), who are unlikely to have had any real influence. Some of the islanders then returned the
following year.
1630
Th. 1.96.2; OCD 320-321.
1631
Ath. Pol. 8.1; OCD 320-321; Laidlaw (1933) 62-63.
1632
Chankowski (2008) 41, 128; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 142. See n.1648.
322
The first reference to administration by four Athenian magistrates – called amphictyons –
dates to 410 BC.1633 The amphictyons managed Delos and its treasuries from the end of the
fifth century BC until 314/3 BC,1634 assisted by their grammateus and hypogrammateus (see
page 325).1635
The treasury of the Delian League was removed to Athens in the mid-fifth century BC;
however, the remaining temple holdings were considerable, and by the start of the fourth
century BC, there were two temples of Apollo and a temple of Artemis on Delos.1636 From
359 BC, a second board of Athenians, the naopoioi (‘temple-builders’), were formed as an
architectural commission1637 responsible for building and repairing these temples. This group
also had their own grammateus and hypogrammateus (page 338).
From the end of the fifth century BC, Delian decrees were enacted by its boule and the Delians
(the demos).1638 However, evidence for a Delian grammateus of the boule is scarce, and when
the designation occurs in inscriptions, it may refer to the grammateus of the boule at Athens
(page 327). From the end of the fifth century BC to the start of Delian independence in 314 BC,
the grammateus of the boule is invisible in the epigraphic record, and the (possibly
synonymous) designation grammateus of the polis is used instead (see page 333).
From the end of the fifth century BC, there is also evidence for Delian officials known as
hieropoioi (ministers of the sacrifice, or ‘doers of sacred things’), who met in the
Neokorion.1639 When Delos gained independence in 314 BC, it took control of its own
sanctuaries, and the hieropoioi took on the bureaucratic and administrative duties that had
previously been carried out by the amphictyons.1640 The Delian hieropoioi had their own
grammateus, who recorded the contents of the treasuries, in much the same way that the
grammateus of the amphictyons had done; effectively continuing a tradition of ‘Athenian-
1633
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 142; Rhodes (1993) 694-5; ID 93 (410/09 BC) 2-3.
1634
OCD 320-321; Laidlaw (1933) 75; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 142. There were two possible
interruptions to this period of control: In 404, Athens lost control of Delos when defeated by Sparta,
but regained it in the late 390s. The Athenians may have lost control again after the Corinthian War,
until the formation of the second Athenian Confederacy (c.386-378/7).
1635
Four amphictyons: ID 93 (410/09 BC) 2-7; five amphictyons plus their secretary: ID 42 (341/0 BC) 18; Chankowski (2008) 214; Rhodes (1993) 693-4.
1636
Hamilton (2000) 34, 41-43; Laidlaw (1933) 83-84. The two temples of Apollo were referred to as
‘of the Athenians’ and ‘of the Delians’, and then later as ‘of the Seven Statues’ and ‘the Poros temple’,
respectively.
1637
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 144.
1638
E.g. ID 71 (c.400 BC) 1-2 ἔδοξεν τῆι βολῆι | καὶ Δηλ[ί]οισιν.
1639
E.g. ID 104-13 (434-315 BC) 13; ID 95 (403-377 BC) 6; ID 73 (400-375 BC) 3. Chankowski (2008)
530-536; Laidlaw (1933) 74. The use of the Neokorion as a meeting place suggests that the neokoroi
predate the hieropoioi.
1640
Laidlaw (1933) 94; Reger (1994) 15. Vial (1984) 221 gives a list of the known grammateis of the
hieropoioi for 297-168 BC. See also Appendix A page 273.
323
style’ inventories. It can even be argued that the treasury records became more
sophisticated without Athenian intervention, due to Delos’ increasing wealth and importance
as a centre of the grain trade (see page 330).1641
Delos remained independent until 167 BC. In 166, Delos supported Macedon against Rome,
which led to Rome returning control of Delos to Athens. Once again, Athens removed the old
inhabitants, and made Delos an Athenian cleruchy, with an epimeletes as eponymous
official,1642 assisted by a grammateus (see page 336). Delos was turned into a free port, which
both damaged Rhodian trade, and meant that while Athens administered the island, it could
make little profit from it.1643 Epigraphic evidence from this period is scarce, with treasury
records not extant after 169 BC.1644 The cleruchy appears to have been dissolved after a slave
uprising, after which Delos became an organisation of Athenians and foreign traders.1645
Subject matter and style of texts
Texts from Delos written by men with Athenian names differ from texts from Athens in
several respects. The most significant of these is the high proportion of financial documents
(or inventories), which reflect the importance of Delos’ treasuries. In contrast, financial
documents from Athens are almost entirely confined to fifth century BC treasury documents,
or documents of the boule which detail interaction between the boule and the hellenotamiai.
Delian inventories contain much information relating to the payment of officials (including
grammateis) and stonecutters (see page 347). The sheer number of these texts means that
we have more evidence of this type from Delos than from elsewhere. The unusual level of
detail they contain means that we also have information about the materials required for the
creation of inventories (stone, wooden tablets, lead, etc.), and how much these items cost.
Other differences between the epigraphic habit of Delos and Athens are the high proportion
of honorific and proxeny decrees for non-Delians, which illustrate the importance of Delos’
external connections.1646 Texts also rarely include the epigraphic formulae which direct
officers to write and set up stelai.1647
1641
OCD 320-321; Hamilton (2000) 60; Laidlaw (1933) 83-84, 95-96, 101-102.
1642
E.g. ID 1450 (140/39 BC) A2; Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 243.
1643
OCD 320-321.
1644
ID 461 (169 BC).
1645
OCD 320-321.
1646
For example ID 78 and ID 79, 4C BC proxeny and honorific decrees.
1647
Where given, formulae can also provide the names of groups responsible, and omit the names and
designations of specific officers. See IG XI,4 813 (start 2C BC) 17-20 on page 328.
324
Secretaries of the boule and demos
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἀμφικτυόνων (grammateus of the amphictyons)
From the middle of the fifth century BC, Athenian officials administered the treasuries on
Delos. The earliest records pertaining to this control date to 434/3 BC, although the
designations of the officials responsible are not preserved. 1648 The first reference to
administration by four Athenian magistrates – called amphictyons – dates to 410 BC.1649 This
group had their own grammateus and hypogrammateus (page 335).1650
The amphictyons managed Delos and its treasuries until 314/13 BC, performing a range of
functions such as administering loans advanced by the temple, collecting rents from sacred
land and estates, and administering festival expenditure and wages for officials. 1651 These
officers were ‘amphictyons’ in name only, functioning neither as representatives of a league
of neighbouring states, nor as part of a religious foundation. 1652 This appears to be an
appropriation of a term for the purpose of legitimation. The amphictyony at Delphi, which
administered the temple of Apollo, was already long-established, and from the seventh
century BC, the island of Kalaureia was also the centre of an amphictyonic league connected
with the temple of Poseidon, whose members came from several mainland and island
locations, including Athens.1653 In appropriating this same term for Delos, Athens attempted
to associate the Athenian officials administering the treasury with Delos’ pre-existing cult
network, rather than with the Athenian empire. 1654
Activities
Since the amphictyons managed the treasuries, it is not unreasonable to assume that their
grammateis compiled the treasury inventories, and had them written up on stelai. However,
there is no explicit evidence for this, since these inventories lack verbs of writing. 1655
1648
Chankowski (2008) 41 & 128 places ID 89, the first administrative act of the Athenians at the shrine,
at 434/433–433/432 BC, though it was previously dated to 421-407 BC. The text describes the distribution
of roles between Athenian and Delian magistrates whose designations are not preserved. See also OCD
320-321; Laidlaw (1933) 75; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 142.
1649
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 142; Rhodes (1993) 694-5; ID 93 (410/09 BC) 2-3.
1650
ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 20-28 & 31-37. Four amphictyons: ID 93 (410/09 BC) 2-7; five amphictyons plus
their secretary: ID 42 (341/0 BC) 1-8; Chankowski (2008) 214; Rhodes (1993) 693-4.
1651
Laidlaw (1933) 78.
1652
Chankowski (2008) 3, 7.
1653
Str. 8.6.14; Constantakopoulou (2007) 30-32.
1654
Constantakopoulou (2007) 62.
1655
E.g. the treasury inventory ID 104 (364/3 BC) 5-7 records the grammateus of the year 364/3 and
the grammateus of the year 363/2, with the expression of paradosis in 2-3. No officials are directed to
write up the inventory.
325
The only surviving instance of the grammateus of the amphictyons in an epigraphic formula
is in an Athenian proxeny decree for a Delian, Pythodoros, found on Delos.1656 In this text,
the Athenian grammateus of the boule is directed to write the Athenian copy, while the
(Athenian) grammateus of the amphictyons on Delos is to write the Delian copy. Both
officials perform the same duties, which are described in the same way; both must also later
amend the stele, granting the rights of proxenos to someone else.
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα ἐν | στήληι λιθίνηι τὸν γραμματέα τῆς βουλῆς καὶ
στῆσαι | ἐν ἀκροπόλει· ἀναγράψαι δὲ τὸν γραμματέα | τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων ἐν στήληι
λιθίνηι ἀντίγ|ραφον καὶ στῆσαι ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι τῶι Ἀπόλλωνος | ἐν Δήλωι·
...
περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀδελφῆς [τῆς Πυθοδώρου] καὶ τοῦ ἀδελφιδο[ῦ τ]|οῦ Πυθοδώρο[υ
δεδόχθαι· ἐπειδή ἐστιν χρήσιμ]ος ἀνὴρ ἐ|ν ταῖς νήσοις [.....ος, εἶναι καὶ .....ωι τῶι
ἀ]δελφι[δ]|ῶι τῶι Πυθο[δώρου τὴν προξενίαν· καὶ ἀναγράψαι .....]| õ τοὔνομα [εἰς
τὰς στήλας τὰς Πυθοδώρου, εἰς] μὲν τὴν | [ἐ]ν ἀκροπόλει τὸν γραμματέα τῆς
βουλῆς, εἰς δὲ τὴν [ἐ]ν Δήλωι τὸν γραμματέα τῶν Ἀμφικτυό[νων]. 1657
And the grammateus of the boule is to write up this decree on a stone stele and set
it up in the acropolis. And the grammateus of the amphictyons is to write up a copy
on a stone stele and set it up in the sanctuary of Apollo in Delos.
…
And concerning (what is to be granted to) [Pythodoros’] sister and his nephew [it
has been decided: that since he (Pythodoros) is a useful] man among the islands ...
[there is to also be the (state of) proxeny] for Pythodoros’ nephew: [and write] ...
–‘s name [on the stelai of Pythodoros: on] the one in the acropolis, the grammateus
of the boule, and on the one on Delos, the grammateus of the amphictyons.
Both the grammateus of the boule and the grammateus of the amphictyons are to complete
the same task: writing a stele declaring Pythodoros proxenos, then later, amending the
same stele to include the name of his nephew. The Delian version is described as a copy of
the Athenian text (ἀντίγραφον, lines 23-24); that is, a subordinate copy of the primary,
Athenian version.1658 Even so, the grammateus of the amphictyons is clearly performing
some of the same functions as the Athenian grammateus of the boule at this time, rather
than any other Athenian or Delian secretary. He also provided Athens with copies of Delian
treasury accounts.1659
1656
ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 20-37.
1657
ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 20-25, 31-37. Durrbach (1922) 11-12.
1658
For a copy of a decree sent to a grammateus of the boule, see page 329.
1659
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 1-17.
326
Only one inscription from Delos itself specifically refers to the grammateus of the
amphictyons using this full title, and this is a decree of the naopoioi (see page 338).1660
Further particulars
The amphictyons initially comprised four officials, plus a grammateus and hypogrammateus
(see page 335).1661 From 374/3 BC there were five amphictyons.
Athenians holding office on Delos did not (initially) serve for the same amount of time as
Athenians in Athens: it would have been entirely impractical for the grammateus of the
amphictyons to have served for one prytany only. Initially, the office of amphictyon and
grammateus of the amphictyons appears to have been for five years,1662 until c.367, when
the offices became annual.1663
γραμματεὺς τῆς βουλῆς (grammateus of the boule)
There is very little evidence for an office of grammateus of the boule on Delos. The
designation is found in three inscriptions only, and in at least one of these (and possibly all
of them), the official referred to is the grammateus of the boule in Athens.
The lack of texts containing the designation grammateus of the boule in Delos suggests one of
three things:
1. that the secretarial functions of the Delian boule were carried out by another officer,
such as the grammateus of the amphictyons and later, the grammateus of the polis;1664
2. that the Delian grammateus of the boule existed and recorded the business of the
boule, but his designation was not recorded on the documents on permanent media
for which he was responsible;
3. that the Delian grammateus of the boule existed and recorded the business of the
boule, but he played little or no role in the creation of permanent documents.
1660
ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 9: [παρὰ γρα]νματέως Ἀνφ[ικτυόνων ․․․․]
1661
See, for example ID 98 (377-373 BC) A49-50, 74-75.
1662
Diodorus was grammateus of the amphictyons between 377/6 and 374/3 BC: ID 98 (377-373 BC) A26: τάδε ἔπραξαν Ἀμφικτύονες Ἀθηναίων ἀπὸ Καλλέο ἄρχοντος μέχρ|ι τõ Θαργηλιῶνος μηνὸς τõ ἐπὶ
Ἱπποδάμαντος ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι, | ἐν Δήλωι δὲ ἀπὸ Ἐπιγένος ἄρχοντος μέχρι τõ Θαργηλιῶνος μηνὸς | τõ
ἐπὶ Ἱππίο ἄρχοντος, χρόνον ὅσον ἕκαστος αὐτῶν ἦρξεν, οἷς Διό|δωρος Ὀλυμπιοδώρο Σκαμβωνίδης
ἐγραμμάτευεν... Here are the transactions of the amphictyons of the Athenians, from the archonship of
Kalleas until the month of Thargelion in the archonship of Hippodamas in Athens, and in Delos from the
archonship of Epigenes until the month of Thargelion in the archonship of Hippias, for the time when
each of them was in office, for whom Diodoros son of Olympiodoros of the deme Skambonidai was
grammateus.... This is the Delian copy. IG II2 1635 (374-3 BC) 2-6 is the Athenian copy. Develin (1989)
237-8; Prêtre (2002) 33; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 134.
1663
Chankowski (2008) 214. Rhodes (1993) 693-4. For a slightly later list of the five amphictyons plus
their secretary, see ID 42 (341/0 BC) 1-8.
1664
See pages 325 and 333, respectively.
327
It may also be that a combination of these factors occurs, depending on the period in question.
The earliest instance of this designation is a fourth-century BC proxeny decree, referring to
the grammateus of the boule in Athens. The grammateus of the boule is to write the initial
copy of the decree and set it up in the acropolis; the grammateus of the amphictyony is to
write the Delian copy.1665 The direction that the grammateus of the amphictyony is to write
the Delian copy strongly suggests that there was no other officer performing the same
functions as the Athenian grammateus of the boule on Delos at this time.
There is no other evidence for a Delian grammateus of the boule during the first period of
Athenian control, suggesting either that this officer is invisible in the permanent record, or
does not exist. Invisibility in the permanent record could be due to either the boule’s use of
temporary media (with only the sanctuary copy written on stone), 1666 or the particular style
of documents of the boule and demos. From the fourth to the second centuries BC, while
there are a large number of decrees published on stone and enacted on behalf of the boule
and demos, these texts systematically omit the names and designations of the officers
responsible for the writing and setting up of these texts. Instead, the texts simply state that
the inscription is to be set up by the boule in the bouleuterion, and by the hieropoioi in the
sanctuary, as follows:
ἀναγράψαι δὲ | τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὴμ μὲμ βουλὴν εἰς τὸ βου|λευτήριον, τοὺς δὲ
ἱεροποιοὺς εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν | εἰς στήλην·1667
And write up this decree: the boule in the bouleuterion, and the hieropoioi in the
temple, on a stele.
The second inscription containing the designation grammateus of the boule is from 297 BC,
during the period of Delian independence when the office would have been held by a Delian.
Here, it is not possible to tell whether the designation refers to an Athenian or Delian officer,
as the demotic is missing. The text relates to building work carried out on the temple of
Apollo. The grammateus of the boule is referred to solely as one of several witnesses, along
with the (Delian) grammateus of the hieropoioi and agoranomoi, as follows:
... ἔγγυοι· Ἀνδρο[μ]ένης Δημόνου, Νίκων Δημόνου. μάρτυρες οἵδε· ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ο[ἱ]
ἕνδεκα καὶ [οἱ γραμματεῖς]· | <eleven personal names>· γραμματεὺς βουλῆς Διόγ[νη]τος Τι
— — —· | γραμματεὺς ἱεροποιῶν καὶ ἀγορανόμων Θεόγνωτος Πατροκλέους· ταμίας τῆς
1665
ID 88 (368, 362 BC) 20-25, page 326.
1666
Rhodes with Lewis (1997) 243; Schoeffer (1889) 116.
1667
IG XI,4 813 (start 2C BC) 17-20. There are over 160 decrees dating from the end of the 4C BC-2C BC
(the period of Delian independence), containing an inscription formula of this type. The majority of
these decrees are either proxeny decrees or honorific inscriptions.
328
πόλεως Τλησιμένης Ἐρα(σίνου)· ἀγορανόμοι· <three personal names>. ἰδιωτῶν· <16 +
personal names>.1668
... Providing sureties: Andromenes son of Demonous, Nikon son of Demonous.1669 The
witnesses as follows: from the polis, the Eleven and [the grammateis]: <eleven
personal names>; grammateus of the boule Diognetos Ti--, grammateus of the
hieropoioi and of the agoranomoi Theognotos son of Patrokles; treasurer of the polis,
Tlesimenes son of Erasinos; agoranomoi: <three personal names>. From among
private citizens, the following: <16 + personal names>.
In Athens, the Eleven were officers who had jurisdiction over kakourgoi (‘common
criminals’), prisons and executions.1670 At Delos, this board appears to have a different
function: to appear as witnesses for contracts for public building works. 1671 The reference to
witnesses is similar in nature to phrases in temple inventories produced by the hieropoioi,
where the grammateus of the polis and the grammateus of the hieropoioi are described as
being present (παρόντων), along with the bouleutai.1672
From 297 BC until 170 BC (almost the entire period of Delian independence), the designation
grammateus of the boule is absent from epigraphic sources. Instead, documents note an
officer known as the grammateus of the polis, and it may be that any boule documents were
written up by the grammateus of the polis during this period (see page 333).1673
The final text from Delos containing the designation grammateus of the boule is an honorific
inscription from the second century AD; considerably later than the previous two examples.
In this text, the grammateus of the boule is referred to as the recipient of a copy of a
decree, the initial version of which is written by another, unspecified official.
τοῦ δὲ ψ[η]φίσματος παραδοθῆναι | τοῦδε τὸ ἀντίγραφον τῶ<ι> τῆς [β]ου[λ]ῆς
γρα[μμα]τεῖ καὶ κατατάξαι1674 εἰς [κι]|βωτόν· ἀναγράψαι δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ εἰς στήλην ἣν καὶ
ἀνατεθῆναι εἰς [τὸ] δάπεδον τὸ ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι.1675
1668
ID 502 (297 BC) A25-30.
1669
LGPN I 128.
1670
For more information on the Eleven and their grammateus in Athens, see page 90.
1671
Ath. Pol. 52.1; Arist. Pol. VI 1322 a.19-20; Rhodes (1993) 579-580; Vial (1984) 116. This is the only
instance of the term ‘the Eleven’ on Delos. At least two of these named individuals also appear in another
inscription dated to the same year, where they are listed as bouleutai: ID 500 (297 BC) B16-20.
Ὀλυμπιόδωρος Ἑλικάνδρου, Ἐπιθάλης Ἀριστοδίκου and possibly also [Ἀντί]γονος in 17-18 also appear
in ID 502 (297 BC) A26-27.
1672
See n.1706.
1673
It also seems unlikely that decrees of the boule and demos were written up by the grammateus of
the hieropoioi. The grammateus of the amphictyons was no longer present on the island.
1674
This term is rarely used, and occurs in one other instance only in the regions covered by this thesis.
See IG II2 233 (340/39 BC) 15-16: μηδὲ τοῖς σ[υνέδροις εἶναι] | κατατά{τα}ξαι ἐν τῶι χρόνωι το[ύτωι….
329
And the copy of this decree is to be handed over to the grammateus of the boule, and
he is to put it in its proper place in the coffer; and he is to write it up also on a stele,
which is to be set up on the floor in the sanctuary.
The copy of the decree is stored, and the copy of the copy, written by the grammateus of
the boule, is displayed.
γραμματεὺς τῶν ἱεροποιῶν (grammateus of the hieropoioi)
The hieropoioi were Delian temple officials, attested from the fourth to the second centuries
BC.1676 During the Athenian administration of the island, the hieropoioi functioned as minor
officials, and administration of temple finances was carried out by Athenian amphictyons.1677
During the period of Delian independence, however (314-166 BC), the hieropoioi took on the
duties previously carried out by the amphictyons;1678 duties which included, but were not
limited to, the compiling and publishing of temple accounts, which listed the contents of the
treasuries and the temple funds passed from one set of hieropoioi to another at the end of
their year in office.1679 This group possessed its own secretary, the grammateus of the
hieropoioi.
Activities
The grammateus of the hieropoioi is known solely from the Delian temple inventories, where
he almost always appears in conjunction with the grammateus of the polis (see page 334).1680
From all instances of both designations, there is only one example of a verb of writing directly
associated with either office,1681 and so it is almost impossible to determine the duties of either
officer, or distinguish the duties of the grammateus of the hieropoioi from those of the
grammateus of the polis. Of the two officials, it is more likely that the grammateus of the
hieropoioi wrote temple accounts than the grammateus of the polis (or any other official),
since the former was a temple employee, and no other types of grammateis receive
payments from temple funds. (See example on page 331.)
1675
ID 1522 (98-117 AD) 19-21.
1676
E.g. ID 73 (400-375 BC) 3; ID 1523 (end 2C BC) 4.
1677
Chankowski (2008) 530-536 identifies some (pre-independence) Delian hieropoioi. Laidlaw (1933)
74, 82.
1678
Laidlaw (1933) 94. Vial (1984) 221 gives a list of the known grammateis of the hieropoioi for 297168 BC. See also Appendix A page 273.
1679
See e.g. IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A1-4 on page 334.
1680
An exception is ID 502 (297 BC) A25-29, in which the grammateus of the hieropoioi is shown with
the grammateus of the boule instead. See page 328.
1681
ID 1523 (end 2C BC) 18-21: … καὶ [ὁ γρα]μματεὺ{ι}ς | ....κ[.. ἀνα]γ[ρ]αψάτ[ω]σαν τό[δε τὸ ψ]ήφισμα
εἰς | [σ]τήλην [λιθί]νην καὶ ἀναθε[σάτωσαν] ἐν τῶι | [ἱερῶι? παρὰ τ]ὴν εἰκόνα. …and the grammateus …
is to write up this decree on a stone stele and set it up in the sanctuary beside the statue.
330
The temple inventories of the hieropoioi are typically long and divided into sections, each
section serving a different purpose. They list the treasures held in the temples and expenditure
on laws and decrees,1682 and can also record a variety of other things, such as rents collected
from sacred and other properties,1683 debtors1684 and loans,1685 monthly expenditure,1686
dedications of phialai,1687 and even transactions pertaining to the trade in wheat.1688
In some respects these inventories contain a large amount of detail, as they contain
exhaustive lists of many items. In other respects, they are imprecise, as they group together
seemingly unrelated objects or expenses. For example, in the following excerpt from the
section of a temple inventory that deals with expenditure on laws and decrees, the wages
for the grammateus of the hieropoioi and the stone-cutter are listed alongside other items
required for the creation of the inventory, and the amount spent on sacrifices and wood.
…γραμματεῖ Νεοκροντίδῃ 
. ἄγαλμα τῶι Διονύσωι  … | ... | …[πέτευρα ταῖς]
δι[εγγ]υήσεσιν καὶ ταῖς συγγραφαῖς · εἰς Θεσμοφόρια τῇ Δήμητρι ὗς ἐγκύμων
·...
…[στ]ηλῶν Δ· βατήρων
ΙΙ· τοῖς ἀπενέγκασιν · τοῖς ἐργασαμένοις
·
τῶι γράψαντι ΗΗ· μολύβδου ·| [— c.23 — πέτευρα ταῖς π]αραδόσεσιν · καὶ
τῶι γράψαντι
·1689
…For the secretary Neocrontides, 80 drachmas. The processional statue for Dionysos,
50 drachmas. ... [Wooden boards for] recording deposits and contracts, 8 drachmas.
For Thesmophoria, a pregnant sow for Demeter, 32 drachmas. ...
…For stelai, 65 drachmas. For their bases, 16 drachmas, 2 obols. For those who
delivered them, 4 drachmas. For those who manufactured them, 16 drachmas. For
the one who did the inscribing, 200 drachmas. For lead, 7 drachmas.... wooden
boards for the paradoseis, 8 drachmas. ...and for the one who wrote (the
paradosis), 12 drachmas.1690
1682
ID 442 (179 BC) A195-207.
1683
ID 442 (179 BC) A140-152.
1684
ID 442 (179 BC) A159-180 & 240-252.
1685
ID 442 (179 BC) A209-219.
1686
ID 442 (179 BC) A180-194.
1687
ID 442 (179 BC) A224-225.
1688
ID 442 (179 BC) A105-135; SEG 49:1052. Prêtre (2002) 178-9, 190.
1689
ID 442 (179 BC) A198, 200, 203-204.
1690
Translation of Prêtre (2002) 184-5.
331
Although Athenian accounts are similar (for example recording expenditure on decrees or
amounts payable to various officers),1691 they do not contain the same type of information or
level of detail, such as the amount spent on temporary media, portage charges for media,
incidental items such as lead, and sacrifices. Athenian documents are also almost entirely
silent on ‘the one who did the inscribing’ (the stone-cutter) or ‘the one who did the writing’
(on temporary media), here indicated by the informal expression τῶι γράψαντι + the
amount he is to be paid. (For more information, see page 347.)
The wooden boards for recording deposits and contracts mentioned above may refer to
running accounts made on temporary media throughout the year, which were then used for
the (final, stone) temple accounts at the end of the year.
There is a great deal of variation between inventories, with the order of the contents
changing from year to year, suggesting that these texts were not written with the
expectation that the year’s accounts would either be read, or compared with the accounts
for a previous year.1692 Additionally, there is sloppiness in the recording in some years, for
example in 278 BC, when part of the account is copied verbatim from the previous year,
including its errors.1693 However, there are also running totals given through the text, and
these are cumulative.1694
Vial notes that there is only one respect in which these accounts are meticulous: during the
period of independence, they always record broken, incomplete or damaged objects, since
this both clears the incoming board of responsibility for any damage, and proves that no
objects have disappeared.1695 In this respect, the inventories produced by the Delian
hieropoioi are more meticulous than those produced by the Athenian amphictyons,
suggesting a similar or greater level of accounting expertise.
The boule and hieropoioi also collectively published other forms of inscription, such as proxeny
decrees. While both groups separately wrote and set up a copy of the decree, the designations
of the officials responsible are not specified.1696
1691
See examples on pages 54, 88 and 106.
1692
Hamilton (2000) 1-2. The initial creation of the inventories stemmed from the Athenian requirement
for accountability. There was no need to facilitate this process during the period of Delian independence.
1693
Vial (1984) 220.
1694
For example, in ID 442 (179 BC), the total from A37 (60929 drachmas, 4 and a half obols, a
quarter, 1 copper coin) is added to the amount in A53 (14623 drachmas, 1 and a half obols), to give
the total in A54 (75553 drachmas, 1 copper coin), with the bronze calculated separately.
1695
Vial (1984) 220.
1696
See example on page 328.
332
Further particulars
Each Delian temple inventory contains the transactions for a single year.1697 In addition to
recording the incoming and outgoing hieropoioi, some texts also record the names of
incoming and outgoing grammateis. From this, we can see that the office of grammateus of
the hieropoioi was also annual.1698
The board of hieropoioi was supposed to contain four members, although there were
frequently only two hieropoioi, and sometimes one.1699 The small size of this board, and the
frequent proximity of the grammateus of the hieropoioi to the grammateus of the polis in
inventories suggests a small (but not necessarily close) collegial environment, which was not
limited to temple employees.
γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως (grammateus of the polis)
The Delian boule was ultimately in charge of the administration and financial management of
the city, the temples and their treasures.1700 However, inscriptions rarely record a grammateus
of the boule, and when they do, they may be referring to the grammateus of the boule in
Athens (see page 327). During the period of Delian independence (314-166 BC), the officer
who may have performed duties more usually attributed to the grammateus of the boule is the
grammateus of the polis.1701 The grammateus of the polis is recorded alongside the
bouleutai, while the grammateus of the boule is not (see example on page 334).
1697
See example on page 334, where the outgoing and incoming archons are also named.
1698
For example ID 439 (181 BC) fr.a.1-3: [τ]άδε παρελάβομεν ἐν τ[ῶι ναῶι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος παρὰ
ἱεροποιῶν Τ]ελεσαρχίδου τοῦ Εὐδίκου, Πραξιμένου τοῦ Πρ[αξιμέν]ου, παρούσης βουλῆς καὶ
γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Δημοσ<τ>ράτου τοῦ Διογένου, τοῦ [τῶν] | ἱεροποιῶν Ἀριστοφάνου το[ῦ
— — καὶ παρέδομεν] τοῖς ἱεροποιοῖς Κρίττει Νικάρχου, Συνωνύμωι [Ἱερομβ]ρότο[υ], παρούσης βουλῆς
καὶ γραμματέως τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἀντιγόνου τοῦ Τεισικλέο[υς], | τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Χοιρύλο[υ τοῦ — —
The following is what we received in the sanctuary of Apollo from the hieropoioi Telesarchides son of
Eudikos, Praximenes son of Praximenes, in the presence of the boule and the grammateus of the polis
Demostratos son of Diogenes, and that of the hieropoioi, Aristophanes son of - - , and we handed over
to the hieropoioi Krittes son of Nikarchos, and Synonymos son of Hierombrotos, in the presence of the
boule and the grammateus of the polis Antigonos son of Teisikles, and that of the hieropoioi, Choirulis
son of - - . The hieropoioi for the year just ending, in the presence of the boule and the grammateis
for that year, formally received, then handed over (here, paradomen, line 2) the treasury contents at
the end of the year, to the hieropoioi of the following year, also in the presence of the boule and
grammateis of that following year). Hamilton (2000) 7. Vial (1984) 221 gives a list of the known
grammateis of the hieropoioi for 297-168 BC.
1699
Reger (1994) 7.
1700
Vial (1984) 120.
1701
Vial (1984) 110, 119-120, 258. Vial’s view (110 & 258) is that grammateus of the polis is
synonymous with the grammateus of the boule, and elected by the council, or by an assembly of the
people. However, he also contradicts himself (119-120), stating that the office of grammateus of the
boule continued alongside the offices of grammateus of the polis and grammateus of the hieropoioi,
and that together, these three offices were responsible for the administration of the Delian temples and
council. If there was a separate office of grammateus of the boule during Delian independence, this
officer is invisible in the permanent record. See page 327 for more information.
333
Unfortunately, while a large number of decrees are enacted on behalf of the boule and
demos, the officials responsible for the writing and setting up of these texts are not specified
(see example on page 328).
Activities
The grammateus of the polis is known from Delian temple inventories,1702 where he is shown
(with only one exception1703) in conjunction with the grammateus of the hieropoioi. In every
instance, the grammateus of the polis is recorded before the grammateus of the hieropoioi,
as follows:
[λόγ]ος ἱεροποιῶν τῶ[ν ἱεροποιη]σάντων ἐπὶ ἄρχοντος Μενεκ[ράτου, Δημόνου τοῦ
Νίκωνος, Π]ί[στου] τοῦ [Ξέ]ν[ωνος]. | [πα]ρελάβομεν παρὰ ἱεροποιῶν τῶν
ἱεροποιησάντων ἐπὶ ἄρχοντο[ς Ὑψοκλέους Ξενοκλέους, Ἀριστοθέ]ου, παρ[όντων
βου]λευτῶν | καὶ γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἀντιπάτρου τοῦ Δημητρίου, τοῦ τ[ῶν
ἱεροποιῶν Κλεινοδίκου τοῦ Κλεινοδίκου δρ]αχμὰς ·ΜΜΜΜΧΗΗΗ
[] ...1704
Account of the hieropoioi who held office as hieropoioi during the archonship of
Menekrates, [Demonous1705 son of Nikon, Pistos] son of [Xenon]. We received from
the hieropoioi who held office as hieropoioi during the archonship of [Hypsokles,
namely Xenokles and Aristotheos], in the presence of the councillors and the
secretaries, the one of the polis Antipatros son of Demetrios, and the one of [the
hieropoioi, Kleinodikos son of Kleinodikos]: 41,342 drachmas, [half an obol and a
quarter].
It is difficult to distinguish the duties of the grammateus of the polis from those of the
grammateus of the hieropoioi. We cannot categorically state which officer was ultimately
responsible for the creation of temple accounts or other financial accounts of this type, since
none of these texts contain an inscription formula, or directions that any one official is to
record this information; however, since these are temple accounts, it is likely that the
grammateus of the hieropoioi was the officer who wrote temple documents. Indeed, it
seems that the only part played by the grammateus of the polis was ‘to be present’
(παρόντων), along with the bouleutai.1706
1702
Earliest: IG XI,2 135 (314-302 BC) 34-35. Latest: ID 461 (169 BC) A3, B2-3. See also Appendix A,
page 268.
1703
In the exception, ID 502 (297 BC) A25-30, the grammateus of the hieropoioi is shown alongside the
grammateus of the boule. See page 328.
1704
IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A1-4.
1705
LGPN I 128.
1706
For example: IG XI,2 161 (278 BC) A124-126: πα|ρόντων βουλευτῶν καὶ γραμματέων, τοῦ τῆς πόλεως
Ἀντιπάτρου τοῦ Δημητρίου καὶ τοῦ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Κλεινοδί[κου τ]οῦ Κλεινοδίκου... See also ID 502 (297 BC)
A25-28, where the grammateus of the boule and grammateus of the hieropoioi are described as witnesses
334
Further particulars
Delian temple inventories record transactions for a year, and incoming and outgoing
hieropoioi and grammateis. From these, we can see that the office of grammateus of the
polis was annual.1707
ὑπογραμματεύς (hypogrammateus)
The hypogrammateus or ‘under-secretary’ occurs in several fragmentary texts, in
conjunction with the grammateus of the amphictyons (page 325) and the grammateus of
the naopoioi (page 338).1708
Further particulars
As with inscriptions from Athens and the Peloponnese, these texts provide no information
about the duties of the hypogrammateus, simply providing his designation and occasionally
his name, along with that of the grammateus of the amphictyons or grammateus of the
naopoioi. However, Delian texts differ from those from Athens and the Peloponnese in that
they occasionally also record the wages of the hypogrammateus and grammateus (or other
officers) as a lump sum.
Ἀμφικτύοσιν Ἀθηναίων εἰς [τ]ἀπ[ι]τήδει[α καὶ γραμματεῖ κα]|[ὶ ὑ]πογραμματεῖ
ΧΧΗ[]·1709
For the Amphictyons of the Athenians for necessities, [and for the grammateus and]
hypogrammateus, 2,658 drachmas.
The wage of the hypogrammateus of the amphictyons is believed to have been 2 obols a
day.1710
Other attributes
Chankowski notes that the name of the (restored) hypogrammateus working with the
Athenian amphictyons in ID 104-31, -υσικλῆ[ς] Α[ἰ]γιλ[ιε]ύς ( –ysikles of Aigilia), confirms
(μάρτυρες). During the period of Delian independence, a contract is also laid down (κειμένην) in the
presence of one grammateus of the hieropoioi (IG XI,4 1028 (start of 3C BC) fr.bc.1-4).
1707
See n.1698.
1708
Chankowski (2008) 236-7. hypogrammateus of the Amphictyons: Earliest: ID 98 (377-373 BC) A49-50,
74-75; Latest: ID 104-8,A (c.330-320 BC) 4, 39-40. See Appendix A pages 284-289 for a full list.
hypogrammateus of the naopoioi: ID 104-5 (359/8 BC) 14-15: γραμματε[ῖ] | [(ναοποιῶν?)
(ὑπο?)γ]ραμματεῖ v
: The reconstruction of the term appears to be based upon its position in the
text (after grammateus, line 14), and by the sharing of the funds between the two officers. (There is
no evidence that the naopoioi ever had two grammateis.)
1709
ID 98 (377-373 BC) A74-75.
1710
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 144.
335
that he (along with the amphictyons) was an Athenian.1711 In the period in which this
inscription was created, Delian officials were once again filling minor administrative offices
on the island.1712 Whilst it is by no means certain that all hypogrammateis on Delos were
Athenian, the placement of an Athenian in this role suggests either that this office required
some expertise not otherwise available, that –ysikles had previous experience in this area,
and/or that it was considered inappropriate to place a Delian in this office.
Secretaries of other bodies
γραμματεύς (grammateus)
The designation grammateus (γραμματεύς) is used on Delos without additional qualification
to refer to secretaries of minor groups. Epigraphic evidence for these officers is scarce, and
almost entirely confined to texts where honours are bestowed upon grammateis, or where a
grammateus is one of several officials honouring someone else, for example by setting up a
statue in their honour. Because of this, it is difficult to say anything more about the duties
that these officers would have performed.
In these instances, the designation of the secretary can be supplemented by an epithet. For
example, the following text is an honorific inscription of the enatistai, a Delian religious guild,
in which the members honour their current secretary and their archithiasites (leader of a
thiasos, religious guild).
Σαράπιδι, Ἴσιδι, Ἀνούβιδι, | τὸ κοινὸν τῶν ἐνατιστῶν ὧν ἀρχιθιασίτης | Διονύσιος
Νουμηνίου Κασσανδρεύς, γραμματεὺς | Ἀπολλώνιος μελανηφόρος, <list of 24
members, each referred to by given name only>.
(in laurel crown)
<honours for the archithiasites>
(in laurel crown)
τὸ κοινὸν | τῶν θιασι|τῶν τὸν | γραμματέα | Ἀπολλώνιον |
μελανηφό|ρον1713
To Sarapis, Isis and Anubis: The association of the enatistai, whose archithiasites is
Dionysios son of Noumenios of Kassandreia, grammateus Apollonios melanephoros
<list of members>
<honours for the archithiasites>
The association of the guild (honour) the secretary Apollonios melanephoros.
1711
Chankowski (2008) 236; ID 104-31 (333-331 BC) 4.
1712
Laidlaw (1933) 74-5.
1713
IG XI,4 1228 (start 2C BC) 1-27.
336
The epithet of the secretary, μελανηφόρος (melanephoros), is used for priests of Isis at
Delos and Eretria, suggesting that the secretary of the cult also functioned as a priest.1714
κληρωτὸς γραμματεύς (klerotos grammateus)
The designation klerotos grammateus appears in a decree and inscription honouring the
agoranomoi and their grammateus.1715 Klerotos refers to the method of selection of the
grammateus, i.e., appointed by lot. See page 94 for the klerotos grammateus in Athens.
γραμματεὺς τῆς σύνοδου (grammateus of the synod)
The society of the worshippers of Pompeios at Delos was known as a ‘synod’. This group
had their own grammateus, known from a single inscription in which the officers of the
synod and their secretary dedicate a statue to Gnaios Pompeios.1716
γραμματεὺς τοῦ ἐπιμελητοῦ (grammateus of the epimeletes)
Athenian control returned to Delos in 166/5 BC. Delos was maintained as an Athenian
cleruchy, whose primary interest was trade. At this time, the chief magistrate was an
epimeletes, who held office for a year, and who also had his own grammateus.1717
The grammateus of the epimeletes was the official responsible for writing an honorific
inscription praising the agoranomoi (market overseers) and a secretary from Rhamnous.
ἀναγράψαι δὲ τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν | γραμματέα τοῦ ἐπιμελητοῦ Μνησίφιλον εἰς
στήλην | λιθίνην καὶ στῆσαι ἀκολούθως τοῖς ἄρξασιν τὸν ἐπὶ | Λυσιάδου ἄρχοντος
ἐνιαυτόν· ἐπαινέσαι δὲ καὶ τὸν | γραμματέα Διογείτονα Διογνήτου Ῥαμνούσιον καὶ |
στεφανῶσαι αὐτὸν θαλλοῦ στεφάνωι ἀρετῆς ἕνεκεν | καὶ δικαιοσύνης· 1718
And Mnesiphilos, the grammateus of the epimeletes is to write up this decree on a
stone stele and set it up in accordance with the instructions of those who were
archons in the year of the archonship of Lysiades. And also praise the secretary
Diogeiton son of Diognetos of Rhamnous, and crown him with an olive crown, on
account of his excellence and righteousness.
1714
Delos: Orph.H.42.9; SIG 977a2 (2C BC); Eretria: AD 1.148. Possibly μελανηφόρος refers to the
bearer of black pigment (kohl), used in Egyptian make-up. For more examples of grammateis
functioning as priests, see grammateus for life on page 111.
1715
The decree that the officers should be honoured with a stele: ID 1500 (c.150 BC) 6-7: ...
κ[λη]|[ρωτὸς? γραμματεὺς —. The stele honouring the officers: ID 1833 (undated) 6-7: ὁ κληρωτὸς
γραμματεὺς | Μενεκλῆς Αἴσχρωνος Ἁλαιεύς.
1716
ID 1641 (after 65 BC) 7; Sherk (1984) 75B 95.
1717
Laidlaw (1933) 169-170; 176-177, 179.
1718
ID 1505 (146/5 or 145/4 BC) esp. 31-37.
337
The grammateus of the epimeletes is given instructions to create an inscription; however,
the regulations concerning its construction (the location of the stele and possibly the funds
to be used) have been set down in a prior administration.
The secretary Diogeiton of Rhamnous was Athenian. We cannot tell whether he was a
secretary in Athens or Delos, as, during periods of Athenian occupation, secretarial offices
on Delos were filled by Athenian citizens. It is possible that Diogieton was the previous
grammateus of the epimeletes.
γραμματεὺς τῶν ναοποιῶν (grammateus of the naopoioi)
The naopoioi were an architectural commission, known in the epigraphic record from a
fifteen-year period in the middle of the fourth century BC only.1719 There were three
naopoioi, plus a secretary.1720 Inscriptions containing the designation grammateus of the
naopoioi fall into two categories: building contracts, and accounts which detail payments
made and any penalties incurred in the process of these building works. 1721
The naopoioi and their grammateus were Athenian;1722 therefore, this board would probably
have ceased to exist at the start of Delian independence.
Activities
The following account describes the duties of Philistides, grammateus of the naopoioi in
346/5 BC:
θ[εοί] | λόγος Φιλιστίδ[ο]υ <τοῦ [Φ]ιλίππ>ου Κεφαλῆθ[εν γραμματέω]|ς ναοποιῶν
τῶν ἀρ[ξ]άντων ἐ[π’] Εὐβούλου ἄρχ[οντος. ἀργύρ]|ιον ἔλαβον παρ’
Ἀμ[φι]κ[τ]υόνων ἐπ’ Εὐβούλου ἄ[ρχοντος πα]|ρὰ Θεομένους Ὀῆθεν καὶ
συναρχόντων οἷς ἐ[γραμμάτευε]|ν Ἀρισθέταιρος Ἀν[αγ]υράσιος : ΗΗΗ Τ : ἀπὸ
τού[τ]ου [μι]|σθὸν ἐμαυτῶι τὸγ γιγνόμενον κατὰ τὸ Ἀρησιμ[βρό]το[υ] ψ|ήφισμα : 
: τῆς ἡμέρας : κεφάλαιον : ΗΗΗ : [εἰς σανίδ]|ια ἐν οἷς οἱ λόγοι, τὸ μὲ[ν] ἐν τῶι
Δηλίωι, τὸ δ’ ἐν [πόλει, ἀνά]||λωμα : [Τ] : λίθοι ἀνετέθ[η]σαν ἐπὶ τὸν νεὼ ἐπὶ τῆ[ς
ἡμετέ]|ρας ἀρχῆς :  : τούτων λογ[ί]ζονται δεδωκέναι τὸ ἀ[ρ]γύρ|ιον τοῖς
1719
naopoioi and grammateus: ID 104-5 (359/8 BC) 14-15: γραμματε[ῖ] | [(ναοποιῶν?) (ὑπο?)γ]ραμματεῖ
:; ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 4-5, 13-15 (= Chankowski (2008) 512 no.52 4-5 and 526 no.52 5); ID 104-24
(345/4 BC) 2-3, 14-15. naopoioi: ID 104-6 (c.359/8 BC) 22; ID 104-4 (360-50) A fg.a.16, 20; B10; A fg.b.7, 12.
1720
Chankowski (2008) 237-238.
1721
See n.1719.
1722
Chankowski (2008) 237-238; Develin (1989) 322, 325; Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 144; ID 104-23
(346/5 BC) 13-15 ἐγραν|[μάτευεν Φιλιστί]δης Φιλίππο Κεφαλ|[ῆθεν; ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 2-3 λόγος
Φιλιστίδ[ο]υ <τοῦ [Φ]ιλίππ>ου Κεφαλῆθ[εν γραμματέω]|ς ναοποιῶν τῶν ἀρ[ξ]άντων ἐ[π’] Εὐβούλου
ἄρχ[οντος; ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 5-6 ἐ[γραμμάτευε]|ν Ἀρισθέταιρος Ἀν[αγ]υράσιος; 14-15
ἐγραμμάτ[ε]υ[ε]|ν Ἐτεοχάρης Φρεάρριος; ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 4-5 γρανματεύον]|ος Ἐτεοχάρος
Λεωχάρ[ος Φρεαρρίο].
338
μεμισθωμένοις τὰ ἔργα καὶ εἰς δεσμὰ καὶ γόμ|φους καὶ μόλυβδον ναοποιοὶ οἱ ἐπ’
Ἀρχίου ἄρχ[οντος Ἄρ]|χιππος Ἀφιδναῖος καὶ συνάρχοντες οἷς ἐγραμμάτ[ε]υ[ε]|ν
Ἐτεοχάρης Φρεάρριος : το[ύτ]ων ἐπιτιμήματα τάδε [ἐπ]|ετιμήθη ἐπὶ τῆς ἡμετέρας
[ἀρχ]ῆς τοῖς μεμισθωμένο[ις] | τὰ ἔργα κατὰ συγγραφάς.1723
Gods! The account of Philistides son of Philippos, of Kephale, [secretary] of the
naopoioi in office during the archonship of Euboulos. I received money from the
amphictyons in the archonship of Euboulos, from Theomenes of Oe and those in
office at the same time, whose secretary was Aristhetairos of Anagyrous, 360
drachmas and a quarter obol. From this account comes my wage, according to the
decree of Aresimbrotos: 1 drachma a day, total: 355 drachmas. [For the boards] on
which (are) the accounts, both the one in Delos, and the one on the [Acropolis],
expenditure: 5 drachmas [and one quarter obol]. (For) stones laid at the temple
during our archonship, 50 drachmas. For them, the naopoioi in the archonship of
Archias son of Archippos of Aphidna and those in office at the same time, for whom
Eteochares son of Phrearrios was grammateus, have calculated: to have paid money
for the contractors’ work and also chains, bolts and lead. The following penalties
were imposed during our office for the contractors’ work, according to the
contracts….1724
The remainder of the decree details the blocks of stone that have been damaged during the
building of the Artemision, who is responsible for the damage, and the penalties to be paid.
The duties of this secretary appear to be as follows. Philistides received the funds for
building work from the amphictyons.1725 From the money provided by the amphictyons,
Philistides drew the amount for his own wage: ἀπὸ τούτου μισθὸν ἐμαυτῶι τὸγ γιγνόμενον,
from this account comes my wage (underlined). In other words, he was apparently in charge
of the funds from which he was paid (the use of first person is unparalleled).
Philistides compiled the accounts for money spent on temple building. These accounts were
broken down into the amount spent on contractors, stones, and sundry items of expenditure
such as chains, bolts and lead. Part of the fund was also used to pay for the boards on
which two copies of the accounts were written (but not the stele that provides us with this
information). We are not told who wrote either account, but since Philistides was secretary
and administered the fund, it seems reasonable to assume that he wrote both the Delian
and the Athenian copy. Since this account was to be displayed on temporary media, it would
1723
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 1-17. The grammateus Aristhetairos in 5-6 is the grammateus of the amphictyons.
1724
Prêtre (2002) 55.
1725
ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 3-4; see also ID 104-23 (346/5 BC) 9-10. Chankowski (2008) 239.
339
make little sense to ship a temporary version of the accounts to Athens, and pay again to
have another temporary copy made there. 1726
A separate account was kept of damages incurred, and penalties to be paid by contractors
for failing to adhere to the terms of their contracts. The amount for damages and penalties
included here was compiled by the previous secretary; this suggests that Philistides kept a
similar account of his own, which was to be included in the accounts published by the
secretary who served after him.
Inscriptions created by the naopoioi do not contain the designation of the officer responsible
for having them inscribed and set up. It is likely that this was also the duty of the
grammateus of the naopoioi.
Chankowski suggests that the duties of the grammateus of the naopoioi may have differed
from the duties of the naopoioi themselves, with the secretary in charge of inspecting
building work already completed, and fining those who provide sub-standard work, while the
naopoioi were in charge of creating contracts.1727
Further particulars
If Chankowski’s theory about the difference between the duties of the grammateus of the
naopoioi and the duties of the naopoioi is correct, the grammateus of the naopoioi may have
had closer ties to the amphictyons (who provide the funds for his work and also his wages)
than to the naopoioi.
For a similar, Athenian, grammateus working with an architectural commission, see
grammateus of the epistatai on page 100.
Other officers
ἀρχιθιασίτης (archithiasites)
An archithiasites was a leader of a religious guild. During the Roman period, the
archithiasites was, for a while, the presiding official for meetings of the ekklesia of the
temple of Apollo.1728
1726
The account is unusual in specifying the display of temporary media on the acropolis.
1727
Chankowski (2008) 237-238; ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 14-15; ID 104-22 (c.346/5 BC) fr.b.13-15.
Chankowski’s argument is based on the content of ID 104-24, which describes inspections carried out on
stones used to build the temple and penalties incurred due to damaged stones, and the verb ἐπιτηρεῖν in
the fragmentary inscription ID 104-22 (c.346/5 BC) fr.b.15, in the part of the text concerning the duty of
the grammateus, which is otherwise almost entirely absent. See also Prêtre (2002) 56.
1728
ID 1519 (153/2 BC) 1-3: ἐπὶ Φαιδρίου ἄρχοντος, Ἐλαφηβολιῶνος ὀγδόει, ἐκκλησί|α ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι τοῦ
Ἀπόλλωνος· Διονύσιος Διονυσίου | ἀρχιθιασίτης εἶπεν· At this time, the sanctuary also had a
grammateus (line 46). SEG 42:740 bis.
340
One surviving inscription specifies that the archithiasites is to write up honours for a Roman
official, honoured by the koinon of merchants and merchant ship-owners.1729
ἀνα|[γρ]αψάτω δὲ ὁ ἀρχ[ιθιασίτης τόδε τὸ ψή]φισμα εἰς στήλην λιθίνην καὶ | [θέ]τω
ἐν τῆι αὐ[λῆι — — ]1730
And the archithiasites is to write up this decree on a stone stele and place it in the
courtyard...
This is the only surviving example from Delos where an official other than a grammateus
writes and sets up an inscription. It suggests that grammateis were usually available if
required for the drafting of documents for publication on stone.
Conclusions
Written bureaucracy on Delos is first attested comparatively late, in the fourth century BC,1731
and was produced by Athenians on Delos, rather than by the Delian population. From the
fourth century BC to the second century AD, the types and numbers of secretaries on Delos
are linked to Athens’ occupation of the island. Despite Athens’ administration of Delos, there
are far fewer types (and numbers) of bureaucrat or secretary found on Delos than in Athens,
and their functions often also differ, due to the importance of Delos’ treasuries.
Delian independence coincided with a drop in the number and type of secretaries on the
island, as some Athenian boards were no longer present. However, Delians assumed roles
previously carried out by Athenians (the recording of the contents of treasuries), and by the
end of the second century BC, the number and variety of secretaries had risen once more,
and had exceeded fourth century BC levels. The number of secretaries (and stonecutters) fell
again at the end of Delian independence, when the primary function of the island was as a
centre for trade.
Activities
Evidence suggests that secretaries on Delos wrote a more limited range of texts, and
performed a more limited range of duties than in Athens.1732 This does not imply that their
1729
ID 1520 (153/2 BC) 1-2: γνώμη τοῦ ἐν Δήλ]ωι κοινοῦ Βηρυτίων Ποσ[ειδω]|[νιαστῶν ἐμπόρω]ν καὶ
ναυκλήρων [καὶ ἐ]γδοχέων·, and 89-91, in n.1730, below. See IG XI,4 1228 (start 2C BC) 1-27 and
IG XI,4 1229 (start 2C BC) 1-4, 20a-27 for an example of members of a Delian religious guild honouring
their secretary and archithiasites.
1730
ID 1520 (153/2 BC) 89-91. Possibly the missing text contains τόπον, ‘place’ as in 23: δεδόσθαι δ’
αὐτῶι τόπον ἐν τῆι αὐλῆι, and a place is to be given to him in the courtyard, suggesting that other
honours are also set up here.
1731
ID 89 (434/433 – 433/432 BC or 421-407 BC). See n.1648.
1732
I do not take this as evidence for specialisation (as defined in n.32, page 23).
341
duties required less skill: the treasury documents produced by the grammateus of the
hieropoioi are highly complex.
Temporary media were extremely important for treasury records and accounts, and
references to writing on boards helps us to understand connections between Delos and
Athens. Copies of decrees on temporary media were used to inform the grammateus of the
boule at Athens of a decree passed on Delos,1733 and copies of treasury accounts were also
supplied to Athens on this medium.1734 Because of logistical issues connected with conveying
Delian records to Athens, it is fair to say that temporary media were more significant to the
smooth administration of Delos by Athens than records written on stone.
The importance of the treasuries is reflected in the high percentage of documents that
comprise accounts, both before and during Delian independence. The creation of accounts
appears to be the primary function of both the grammateus of the hieropoioi (who compiled
treasury accounts) and the grammateus of the naopoioi (who compiled accounts related to
the building of the treasuries themselves).
Further particulars
There is no evidence for many of the offices found in Athens – for example, the
anagrapheus, antigrapheus, and grammateus of the boule and demos. This could be due to
many factors, including the size of the boule and demos at Delos, the (comparatively)
smaller number of decrees passed there, and the absence of collective honours which
provide the only evidence for some Athenian designations. It may also be due to the style of
documents of the Delian boule, which frequently omit the designations of the officers who
are to write their records. In Athens, a high percentage of all inscriptions were written by
the grammateus of the boule. Evidence for this officer is almost entirely absent on Delos,
though this too may be due to the reasons given above. The evidence for the officer who
appears to have fulfilled this role during Delian independence, the grammateus of the polis,
is also slight, and in treasury records, his role appears to be entirely supervisory.
A lack of literary evidence means that there is a great deal of information that we do not
have for secretaries on Delos. For example, there is no evidence for a secretary reading
aloud to the boule (a duty performed by the grammateus of the boule and demos in
Athens). This does not mean that this did not occur. We also lack information about the
means of appointment of officers, and in some cases, the duration of the office.
The duration of Athenian offices on Delos was not always the same as the duration of
comparable offices in Athens. For example, it would have been entirely impractical for the
1733
See ID 88 (368-362 BC) 20-28 & 31-37 on page 326.
1734
For example see ID 104-24 (345/4 BC) 1-17 on page 338.
342
Athenian grammateus of the amphictyons on Delos to serve for a prytany only. The duration
of this office was initially five years, and was changed to one year at approximately the
same time that offices in Athens were made annual.
The collegial environment of these officers seems to have been very different from that in
Athens. Some bodies appear rather small (such as the three naopoioi, two hieropoioi and
single epimeletes), but more significantly, there was never more than one secretary
employed by a body at one time. There does, however, appear to have been close
collaboration between bodies, usually linked to the transferral of funds, or the handing over
of accounts to the officers for the coming year. (The amphictyons provided funds for the
naopoioi; the grammateus of the polis and the bouleutai were present for the annual
reckoning of accounts of the hieropoioi.)
Other attributes
The public profile of secretaries on Delos appears to have been very low. While Athenian
secretaries were frequently honoured en masse, there is no surviving evidence for honours
bestowed on any of the major administrative bodies on the island. 1735
A difference between the Delian and Athenian epigraphic habit is the large amount of
evidence from Delos for ‘the one who did the inscribing/writing’, and for the wages of these
men and the grammateis (page 347).
Finally, as far as we can tell from treasury inventories, the geographical and social
provenance of officers appears to have made little difference to the functioning of the
treasuries. There is an apparently seamless switch from Athenian to Delian secretaries for
the period of Delian independence, when we might assume that Athenian officials would be
more familiar with written accounts and accounting procedures.
1735
The only surviving honour for a secretary is for the grammateus of a Delian religious guild, page 336.
343
Appendix E – The Status of the hypogrammateus
The following table contains all Athenian decrees which honour the secretaries of the boule
and demos, and shows the order in which secretaries are honoured. If position in decree can
be taken as an indication of status, by examining the position in which the hypogrammateus
is placed in each instance, it may be possible to infer that hypogrammateis working with the
boule and demos were perceived to be of a lower status than other secretaries. While the
order in which secretaries are listed is extremely variable, in 39 of 43 decrees, the
hypogrammateus is listed last of all secretaries. Exceptions are shown underlined. Other
officers can be listed after the hypogrammateus; typically a herald (kerux), or flute-player
(auletes). However, there are also frequently other officers interspersed among the
secretaries, to whom it is impossible to assign a like status, such as a herald or priest
(hiereus).
Inscription
Officers honoured, in the order in which they are honoured
(b) = of the boule (b&d) = of the boule and demos
Ag.15:89 (254/3 BC) 31-40
tamias (b), grammateus,
herald (b&d), grammateus
(b&d)
hypogrammateus
Ag.15:115 (235/4 BC) 29-37
tamias, tamias (b), hiereus,
herald (b&d), grammateus
(b&d)
hypogrammateus
Ag.15:128 (223/2 BC) 51-63
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
tamias (b), herald (b&d),
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
Ag.15:129 (222/1 BC) 48-58
tamias, grammateus, tamias
(b), hiereus, herald (b&d),
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
Ag.15:130 (220/19 BC)
47-58
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
tamias (b), herald (b),
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
auletes
Ag.15:132 (215/4 BC) 9-22
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
tamias (b), herald (b&d),
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
auletes
Ag.15:145 (end 3C BC) 2-5
hiereus, grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d)
Ag.15:160 (beg. 2C BC) 5-7
grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes
Ag.15:162 (beg. 2C BC) 6-17
tamias, grammateus, tamias
(b), hiereus, grammateus
(b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes
Ag.15:168 (193/2 BC) 35-47
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:170 (190/89 BC) 7-16
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
tamias (b), grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes
344
auletes
Inscription
Officers honoured, in the order in which they are honoured
(b) = of the boule (b&d) = of the boule and demos
Ag.15:173 (189/8 BC) 11-20
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes
Ag.15:179 (185/4 BC) 25-36
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
tamias (b), herald (b&d)
Ag.15:187 (180/79 BC)
16-30
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes
Ag.15:189 (180 BC) 4-11
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes
Ag.15:191 (after 178/7 BC)
2-11
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
tamias (b), grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald, auletes
Ag.15:194 (178/7 BC) 34-42
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:204 (176/5-170/69
BC) 2-17
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:205 (176/5-170/69
BC) 6-16
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:206 (173/2 BC) 53-65
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:212 (169/8 BC) 48-60
grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:213 (168/7 BC) 8-20
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:216 (166/5 BC) 10-21
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:217 (167/6-165/4 BC)
7-18
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:220 (164/3 BC) 48-61
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:221 (164/3 BC) 3-14
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:222 (161-60 BC) 9-16
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:225 (155/4 BC) 52-65
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
(d)
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:226 (155 BC) 5-16
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:239 (145/4 BC) 5-17
tamias — —
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Ag.15:240 (140/39 BC)
45-55
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b), hiereus
345
Inscription
Officers honoured, in the order in which they are honoured
(b) = of the boule (b&d) = of the boule and demos
Ag.15:243 (135/4 BC) 36l36y
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), hiereus,
auletes, tamias (b),
antigrapheus,
anagrapheus, secretary
in charge of decrees,
grammateus kata
prytaneian, secretary for
that which cannot be
mentioned
Ag.15:246 (131/0 BC) 29-37
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), hiereus,
anagrapheus, [secretary
in charge of decrees,
antigrapheus
Ag.15:260 (beg. 1C BC)
22-32
tamias (b), grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
(b&d)
herald (b&d), hiereus,
anagrapheus,
grammateus kata
prytaneian, secretary in
charge of decrees,
antigrapheus, secretary
for that which cannot be
mentioned, auletes
Ag.15:261 (95/94 BC) 51-65
tamias, grammateus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), hiereus,
tamias (b), auletes,
antigrapheus,
anagrapheus, secretary
in charge of decrees,
grammateus kata
prytaneian, secretary for
that which cannot be
mentioned — —
IG II2 848 (219/8 BC) 37-46
tamias, grammateus, tamias
(b), hiereus, herald (b&d),
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
IG II2 912 (after 200 BC)
10-20 (Ag.15:138)
grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
IG II2 913 (c.200 BC) 1-11
(Ag.15:137)
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
herald (b&d), grammateus
(b&d)
hypogrammateus
IG II2 914 (c.200 BC) 2-11
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes.
IG II2 915 (c.200 BC) 17-29
(Ag.15:147)
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes.
IG II2 918 (beg. 2C BC) 4-12
(Ag.15:214)
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
IG II2 952 (161-60 BC) 9-15
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
IG II2 972 (140 BC) 2-13
tamias, grammateus, hiereus,
grammateus (b&d)
hypogrammateus
herald (b&d), auletes,
tamias (b)
Table 17 - The status of the hypogrammateus.
346
herald (b&d), auletes.
Appendix F – Stonecutters
In the regions covered by this thesis, several expressions are used to indicate a stonecutter.
All are somewhat problematic. The most common expression found on monuments and
statues and in short dedications is <personal name> ἐποίησε, or ‘so-and-so made this’: the
expression also used for signatures on pottery (see page 143). It is often not possible to tell
from this whether the cutter made, for example, a statue attached to a base which contains
a few lines of text, the base itself, the lines of text, or any combination of these three things.
The same problem exists with other expressions used to indicate a stonecutter.
In addition to ἐποίησε, in Athens and the Peloponnese, where inscriptions contain a
secretary (always a type of grammateus), the stonecutter can be indicated in one of the
following ways:

ἀγγραφᾶς or ἐγγροφᾶς ‘for engraving’, found at Epidauros (see page 350).

ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε ‘wrote and engraved’, found at Thalamai, Laconia (see page 351).

ἔγραψε ‘has written’, or ἐπὶ γραφῶν ‘for writing,’ found at Sparta (see page 351).

τῶι γράψαντι ‘for the one who did the inscribing/writing’ and γράψας ‘upon
inscribing/writing,’ often found at Delos, and occasionally in Athens.1736 See below.
In most cases, a phrase indicating that something is to be written, or has been written, is
accompanied by the personal name of the stonecutter (in the dative), plus an amount to be
paid to the stonecutter on completion of the task.
On one occasion (which lacks any other secretary), at Mantinea in Arcadia, we also find the
stalographos (σταλογράφος), an officer who appears to have been both secretary and
stonecutter. See page 189.
Stonecutters are almost entirely absent from Athenian texts, and ho grapsas (ὁ γράψας) can
instead occasionally be used in an informal context to mean ‘the writer’ (see page 352).
[τῶι] γράψαντι ([for] the one who did the inscribing/writing)
The informal (verbal) expression τῶι γράψαντι (toi grapsanti) or γράψαντι (grapsanti), lit.
‘the one who did the writing,’ is the expression most often used to indicate the person who
did the inscribing, i.e. the stone-cutter, or the person who wrote words onto a wooden
board or other object. It is also occasionally used to indicate ‘the one who did the painting
1736
The term Λιθουργός (lithourgos, stone-mason) is rare, occurring only once in Athens
(SEG 21:586 (aft. mid. 4C BC) 18) and twice in Delos. The Delian instances both date to 278 BC:
IG XI,2 161 A83-4, 87, 107-8; IG XI,2 162 A46: τοῖς λιθουργοῖς Λεπτίνηι καὶ Βακχίωι ·ΔΔ·, 51.
347
(of letters and numbers or other things)’, and so we need to know the context in order to
ascertain the precise meaning. These persons performed a range of functions, which range
from painting or engraving short texts on statues, to transcribing accounts on boards, and
inscribing entire temple inventories on stone.
Activities
At Delos, the term appears in both treasury inventories and building contracts, sometimes
with the personal name of the individual involved, and usually in conjunction with an amount
paid for work carried out.1737 There can be more than one person identified in this manner
per text, and this person is not the secretary.
‘The one who did the inscribing/writing’ is not often named, and so when the expression
grapsanti occurs several times in one text, it is difficult to ascertain whether these functions
were carried out by the same man, or by more than one man. For example, the following
text shows two different amounts paid to ‘the one who did the inscribing/writing’ on the
same line, and it is impossible to say what work has been carried out and by whom in either
case. Since the first occurrence of the expression is after the amount allocated for stelai, and
the second occurrence is after the amount allocated for writing tablets, we can only infer
that the first instance indicates the stone-cutter, while the second instance is for a ‘writer’.
…στηλῶν δύο | [ ]
κυπαρισσίνης
· … τ[ῶι] γράψαν|[τι Η]Η · μολύβδου · δέλτου
· τῶι γράψαντι
· Λ․1738
Two stelai, 80 drachmas. For the one who did the inscribing, 260 drachmas. Lead
objects, 8 drachmas. Cypress-wood writing tablets, 15 drachmas. For the one who
wrote on them, 25 drachmas.1739
The issue is complicated further in that statues (for example) could have writing either
inscribed or painted on them. For example, in the following text, it is impossible to tell whether
Deinomenes was both a stone-cutter and a painter, or functioned only as a stone-cutter:
ἐργασαμένωι τὸ ἄγαλμα Ἀριστοθάλει ·· γράψαντι Δεινομένει ·· εἰς κόσμησιν τοῦ
ἀγάλμα|τος ·ΙΙΙ· … γράψαντι τὴν στήλην Δεινομέν<ει> | τῆς δραχμῆς γράμματα
τριακόσια, τὰ πάντα γράμματα τρισμύρια, μισθὸς δραχμαὶ ·Η· μόλυβδος ·· ξύλα ··
τοῖς στήσασι τὴν στήλην ·ΙΙΙ·1740
1737
Temple inventory: IG XI,2 162 (278 BC) A3, 52: γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Ἀντιπάτρου τοῦ
Δημητρίου, τοῦ τ[ῶν ἱεροποιῶν Κλεινοδίκου τοῦ Κλεινοδίκου]; γράψαντι Σωσιμένει ··. Building
contract: IG XI,2 219 (c.265 BC) 19 γράψαντι Ναννάκωι· ·
1738
ID 440 (198-180 BC) A45-47.
1739
The high figure allocated to the stonecutter is most likely the amount for cutting both stelai.
1740
IG XI,2 161 (278 BC) A90-91, 118-9.
348
For the one who made the processional statue, Aristothales, 5 drachmas. For the
one who inscribed (or wrote on) it, Deinomenes, 5 drachmas. For the decoration of
the processional statue, 6 drachmas, 5 obols. … For Deinomenes, having inscribed
the stele, at the rate of 1 drachma per three hundred letters, for a total of thirty
thousand letters, as wages, 100 drachmas. Lead, 5 drachmas. Wood, 1 drachma.
For those who set up the stele, 2 drachmas, 3 obols. 1741
The stonecutter is almost invisible at Athens, and the only instance of τῶι γράψαντι is in
relation to a payment for interior decoration:
: τῶι γράψαντι τὰ κυ|μάτια Δεξιθέωι ἐμ Μελίτει οἰκοῦντι ::1742
For having painted the waves for Dexitheos, resident in Melite: 5 drachmas.
Further particulars
Where wages for officials are given in temple inventories, they are a ‘yearly wage’, while
artisans and unskilled labourers were allocated set amounts per task, no matter what the
task (the preparation of wooden tablets, the cutting of an entire inscription, etc.). For
example, in 374/3 BC, the Athenian amphictyons at Delos were granted a total sum of 2,658
drachmas for the amphictyons, their grammateus, and their hypogrammateus. Rhodes
calculates this at one drachma a day for 420 days (i.e. including two intercalary months) for
each of the amphictyons and their grammateus, and 2 obols a day for the hypogrammateus;
a figure that agrees with the daily amount set out in Ath. Pol. 62.2.1743 Wages for the
grammateis of the hieropoioi were lower: between 60 and 97 drachmas a year, in the years
303-224 BC.1744 (Note that we do not have, nor could we have, wage information for both
types of officials for the same period.) By contrast, the stonecutter was allocated a fixed
amount, which could be noted alongside the amount allocated for supplies:
Νεογένει τὴ[ν στήλην γρά]|[ψαντι Η]ΔΔΔ …· μόλυβδος · ξύλα ΙΙΙ·1745
For Neogenes, [for having inscribed] the [stele], 180 drachmas… lead, 6 drachmas,
wood, 1 drachma 3 obols.
1741
Prêtre (2002) 68-70.
1742
IG II2 1672 (329/8 BC) 187-8.
1743
Rhodes & Osborne (2003) 144; IG II2 1635 (374/3 BC) 74-5: Ἀμφικτύοσιν Ἀθηναίων εἰς
[τ]ἀπ[ι]τήδει[α καὶ γραμματεῖ κα]|[ὶ ὑ]πογραμματεῖ ΧΧΗ[]·. Each inventory covers the year in
office of the secretaries. Ath. Pol. 62.2: ἀμφικτύονες εἰς Δῆλον δραχμὴν τῆς ἡμέρας ἑκάστης ἐκ Δήλου
<λαμβάνουσι>. Amphictyons for Delos get a drachma a day from Delos.
1744
Reger (1987) 762. Although the higher wages are found in the second half of this period, this is
not a case of (e.g.) an inflationary rise. For most of this period, wages are given as 80 drachmae per
year, for example: IG XI,2 203 (269 BC) A3 γραμματέων τοῦ τῆς πόλεως Φιλαίθου τοῦ Νησιώτου, τοῦ
τῶν ἱεροποιῶν Σωστράτου τοῦ Στράτωνος·; A61 γραμματεῖ Σωστράτωι :
:
1745
ID 290 (246 BC) 136-7.
349
Assuming that a stele of this size would take less than a year to engrave, this compares
extremely favourably with the 60-97 drachmas a year earned by the grammateus of the
hieropoioi in the same period.
When the personal name of ‘the one who did the inscribing/writing’ is included more than
once in the same text, it is also possible to ascertain different rates of pay depending on the
task. For instance, in the example on page 348, Deinomenes is granted a lump sum for
writing on a processional statue (5 drachmas), but a rate of 1 drachma per 300 letters
engraved, up to a fixed sum and number of letters (100 drachmas or 30,000 letters) for the
larger tasks of engraving a stele.
Other attributes
The origins of these artisans and labourers are not clear, although one Delian stone-cutter is
known to have been from Cyrene.1746
ἀγγραφᾶς or ἐγγροφᾶς (for engraving)
As on Delos, at Epidauros, the same expressions are used to indicate both the stonecutter
and ornamental stonemason. For example, the following Epidaurian text is part of a series of
abbreviated proxeny decrees on a single stele. In this text, the same man appears to carve
decorative cornices and words:
Σαννίωνι τῶν ἐγγλυμμάτων ἐργασία|[ς ἐ]ν τοῖς καταλοβεῦσι καὶ ὑπερθύρωι τῶν
δεδοκιμασμένων Ἀττικοῦ –
…
ἐγγροφᾶς εἰς τὰν στάλαν Σαννίωνι ·Ι1747
For Sannion, for working on the ornamental carvings on the cornices over the doors
and door lintels of Attikos: 80 drachmas
…
For Sannion, for engraving on the stele: 8 drachmas, 1½ obols.
1746
IG XI,4 1184 (2C BC) 4: Πολιάνθης Κυρηναῖος ἐπόει. Austin (2004) 1243, no.1028: Κυρηναῖος
(Cyrenaios) is the city-ethnic for Cyrene. Laidlaw (1933) 140. Several short dedicatory inscriptions from
2C BC Delos bear the name Polianthes, and the statement that he ‘made’ (ἐπόει) the text. This
example is the only text to contain the demotic of the stone-cutter. It is by no means clear that this
Polianthes also worked as a stone-cutter (grapsas) for the boule and/or hieropoioi.
1747
IG IV²,1 103 (4C BC): 96-97, 136-137. For Sannion, see also ibid 58-60, 101, 104-105, 110-111, 117118, 140-1. For similar examples, see: IG IV²,1 105 (4/early 3C BC) 17-18, 21-22; IG IV²,1 108 (4/3C BC)
144-5, 151, 157, 164-6, 168-9; IG IV²,1 111 (4/early 3C BC) 8; Peek, Asklepieion 42 (late 4/e.3C BC) XIV 65.
350
As at Delos, a rate per set number of words can also be specified:
καὶ Στασιμένει γραμμάτων δισ|χιλίων ὀκτακο[σίω]ν εἰς τὰν στάλαν ἀγγραφᾶ[ς,
ἑλο]μένωι τὰ ἑκατὸν πέντ’ ὀβολῶν, γίνεται δραχμαὶ [=]:·ΙΙ λόγος δαπά|νας
ΧΗΗΗΗ[-:·ΙΙ] 1748
And for Stasimenes, on engraving 2,800 letters on the stele, taking five obols per
one hundred (letters), he is given 23 drachmas 2 obols, account of expenses: 1,913
drachmas, 2 obols.
ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε (wrote and engraved)
At Sparta and Thalamai (also in Laconia), stonecutters are known from five inscriptions, and
are identified either by the phrase ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε ‘wrote and engraved,’1749 ἐπὶ γραφῶν
‘for writing,’1750 or ἔγραψε ‘has written’.1751 In each case, the text also notes a separate
named officer serving as grammateus, suggesting that the two officers may have worked
together.
Mulliez compares the formula ἔγραψε καὶ ἐχάραξε to the Latin scripsit et sculpsit, indicating
the preliminary drawing and engraving of a text; 1752 however I have been unable to find any
conclusive Greek parallels for this.
1748
IG IV2,1 108 (4/3C BC) 164-6.
1749
IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 30, from Thalamai.
1750
IG V,1 210 (1C BC) 44-46: γραμματε[ὺς] | Ἀριστοκλῆς | Φιλονικίδα, 58: ἐπὶ γρ<α>φῶν Σωίνικο[ς].;
IG V,1 211 (1C BC) 50: γραμματεὺς Κλήνικος, 52: ἐπὶ γραφῶν Εὐάμερος.; IG V, 1 212 (1C BC) 45-46:
γραμματεὺς | Κλέων ἐξ Ἀγήτας, 59-60: ἐπὶ γραφῶν | Σωίνικος. All three texts are lists of cult officials
are from Sparta, and list worshippers at the sanctuary of Poseidon Tainarios. The precise sense of the
phrase is difficult to render in English. SEG 50:393. In IG V,1 210 and 212, the stonecutter has the
name Σωίνικος, which may indicate that this is the same person, although the dating of these texts is
vague. Boring (1979) 89 interprets ἐπὶ γραφῶν as ‘keepers of sacred books’.
1751
IG V,1 179 (Roman) 8-10: γραμματεὺς [— c.5 —] | ἰατρός· Κλεόβο[υλος —]. | ἔγραψε Ἀγ[— c.5 —].
From Sparta.
1752
IG V,1 1315 (117-138 AD) 30, SEG 48:2127; Mulliez (1998) 815-830.
351
[ὁ] γράψας (the one who wrote [this])
ho grapsas (ὁ γράψας) is an infrequently-used expression found in graffiti, epigrams and
funerary monuments and signifying ‘the writer’, 1753 as in this piece of Athenian graffiti from
the early fifth century BC:
Σοσίας καταπύγον | hός φησιν hο γράφσας1754
Sosias is a letch. Thus says the writer.
Figure 16 – Graffito on a small lekane.
This participle is not used in any kind of formal setting, for example as the designation of an
officer of the boule and demos.
1753
For example see IG II2 11169,adn (undated) 1-2 (SEG 1:25) and SEG 30:266 (undated) 9-10
(IG II2 11530 Peek) for ho grapsas in epigrams and memorials.
1754
Lang (1976) 13 (475-450 BC) C 18 1-2, Plate 5.
352
Glossary of technical terms
Aeisitoi (ἀΐσειτοι, ἀΐσιτοι) Sg. aeisitos (ἀείσιτος). Those who are ‘always fed’, i.e. maintained
at public cost during meals held at Athenian Prytaneum.
Agoranomos
‘Clerk of the market’; the officer who regulated buying and selling.
Aliaia (ἀλιαία)
One of the two councils at Argos, sometimes known as the bola
(βωλά). The other council was the Eighty.
Aliaia teleia
The monthly meeting of the aliaia at Argos.
Amphictyons
Athenian magistrates who managed the treasuries at Delos from
the end of the fifth century BC until 314/3 BC.
Apodektai (ἀποδέκται)
The ten ‘receivers’ at Athens who reviewed, amended and edited
financial records.
Artunai (ἀρτύναι)
Treasurers at Argos.
Bola (βωλά)
One of the two councils at Argos, usually known as the aliaia
(ἀλιαία). The other council was the Eighty.
(ἀγορανόμος)
(ἀλιαία τελεία)
Boularchos (βούλαρχος) One of the primary officers at Dyme.
Bouleutes (βουλευτὴς)
At Athens, the bouleutai were the 500 councillors who were the
members of the boule. The bouleutai were chosen by sortition from
each of the ten Athenian tribes, fifty per tribe. For 1/10th of the year,
each group of fifty formed the executive officers of the boule, during
which time they were known as prytaneis (sg. prytanis).
Chalkotheke (χαλκοθήκη) At Athens, the treasury in which all metal objects were stored.
Cheiroskopos
Official responsible for ‘an account of the votes’, Orchomenos.
Damiorgos (δαμιοργός)
In various locations, a generic term for ‘magistrate’. The damiorgos
was, for a while, the eponymous official at Orchomenos.
Damosiophylakes
‘Guardians of the demos.’ A board of magistrates at Dyme.
(χειροσκόπος)
(δαμοσιοφυλάκες)
Damosios (δαμόσιος)
The public archive at Sparta (δαμόσιος), or the building containing
or demosios (δημόσιος) the public records at Dyme (δημόσιος).
Demarch (δήμαρχος)
Lit. ‘chief official of a demos’. An official who performed a wide
range of duties related to deme administration.
Demosios (δημόσιος)
A public slave who could be employed by the boule as a clerk.
Diagramma (διάγραμμα) A register of taxable properties.
Dogma (δόγμα)
(pl. δόγματα, dogmata) Decisions or ordinances which required
ratification before becoming law. (See esp. Laconia.)
Dogmatographos
A board of three men at Amyklai (Laconia), involved in financial
and administrative decisions.
Eighty, The
(οἱ ὀγδοήκοντα)
One of the two councils at Argos, possibly dating from its oligarchic
period of government, which co-existed alongside the aliaia. Also
the name given to the governing body in pre-Roman Corinth.
(δογματογράφος)
Eisagogeus (εἰσαγωγεύς) Magistrate who brought the lawsuits of the tribes to court. There
were five eisagogeis, each acting on behalf of two phylai.
353
Eleven, The (οἱ ἕνδεκα)
Archons who enforced legal decisions of the courts at Athens.
Ephor (ἔφορος)
Lit. ‘overseer’; magistrate of Laconia. Sparta had five ephors;
evidence suggests that other poleis had three.
Epimeletes (ἐπιμελητής) Generic term for a magistrate, translated as either ‘manager’ or
‘curator’. Also `overseer,’ for example in the process of the
registration of new citizens at Mantinea.
Epistates (ἐπιστατης)
‘Commissioner’ or ‘overseer’. Boards of epistatai (ἐπιστάται)
oversaw building work on the Acropolis at Athens, and also at
Epidauros. Epistates was also the title given to Attalos Philadelphos
as commissioner of Aigina.
Epistoleus (ἐπιστολεύς)
The second-in-command of the Spartan navy.
Eponymous archon
The magistrate whose name (and year in office) was used to
identify the year.
Five Thousand, The
In 411 BC, a reduced and somewhat oligarchic electorate at
Athens, replaced by full democracy in 410 BC.
Four Hundred, The
In 411 BC, a short-lived oligarchic government at Athens.
Gerousia (γερουσία)
The council of elders at Sparta. Membership consisted of 28 men
over sixty years old, plus the two Spartan basileis.
Grammateus
(γραμματεύς)
(pl. γραμματεῖς, grammateis) The most commonly-occurring term
for ‘secretary’ in the ancient Greek world.
Grammatistas
A Corinthian and Achaian dialect word, roughly equivalent to
Grammatophylax
At Sparta and Megalopolis, ‘guardian of the laws’ or ‘registrar’,
whose duties remain uncertain. The grammatophylakes appear to
have acted as guards or administrators of archives.
Grammatophylakion
(γραμματοφυλάκιον)
At Sparta and Megalopolis, a repository or archive of bureaucratic
and legal documents.
Grapheus (γραφεύς)
Informally, ‘painter,’ ‘writer’ or ‘personal secretary’.
Gropheus (γροφεύς)
(pl. γροφέες grophees) The most commonly-occurring term for
‘secretary’ in the Peloponnese. The term fell out of usage c.146 BC,
and the term grammateus was used instead.
Gymnasiarch
Officer in charge of a gymnasium, the school in which ephebes
were trained.
Hairesis (αἱρετός)
To be elected by hairesis was to be elected by show of hands. This
term can be found in conjunction with klerotos (κληρωτός), elected
by lot.
Hellanodikas
The chief judges at the Olympic games, these officers also appear
to have been judges or magistrates who could enforce legal
decisions enacted by the Eleans.
Hellenotamias
The chief financial officer of the Delian League (at Delos), and
later, sacred treasurer; one of the treasurers of Athena at Athens.
Hiaromnamon
(ἱερομναμων)
Temple official at Argos and Epidauros, responsible for the
management of sacred treasuries.
Hieraules (ἱεραύλης)
Flute-player at sacrifices.
Hiereus (ἱερεύς)
A priest; officer who performed sacred rites and sacrifices.
Hieropoios (ἱεροποιός)
A temple official at Delos who managed the sacred treasuries.
Possibly an equivalent office to that of hiaromnamon.
(γραμματιστάς)
(γραμματοφύλαξ)
(γυμνασίαρχος)
(ἑλλανοδίκας or
ἑλλανοζίκας)
(ἑλλενοταμίας)
354
grammateus.
Hipparch (ἵππαρχος)
Commander of cavalry.
Hyperetes (ὑπηρέτης)
A generic term for servant; also a minor officer of the Athenian
boule.
Katakoos (κατακόος)
A minor clerical officer at Stymphalos. The term can be interpreted
as either ‘listener’, ‘official witness’, or ‘clerk of the court’.
Katalogeus (καταλογεύς) At Athens, one of the ‘registrars’ appointed to register citizens for
the Five Thousand.
Katalogos boulas
Officer of the boule and demos at Epidauros.
Kerux (κήρυξ)
Herald, public messenger.
Klerotos (κληρωτός)
Elected by lot. This term can be found in conjunction with hairesis
(αἱρετός), elected by show of hands.
(κατάλογος βουλᾶς)
Kolakretai (κωλακρέται) Financial officers at Athens in the period before 450 BC, at which
point this responsibility was given to the hellenotamiai.
Kosmetes (κοσμητής)
An officer of the ephebes.
Mastros (μαστρός)
Magistrate or financial officer at Elis.
Metronomos
Inspector of weights and measures at Athens.
Metroön (μητρῷον)
Temple of Demeter or Cybele. At Athens, the depository of the
state archives.
Nomodeiktes
Officers involved in the drafting of laws at Andania, Messenia.
Nomographos
Officer who drafted and revised laws. Nomographoi are usually
found as boards of officials working together for a polis or league.
(μετρονόμος)
(νομοδείκτης)
(νομογράφος)
Nomophylax (νομοφύλαξ) ‘Guardian of the laws’ or archives.
Nomophylakion
‘Law-repository’ or archive.
Nomos (νόμος)
A law, statute or ordinance.
(νομοφύλακιον)
Nomothetes (νομοθέτης) Lit. ‘lawgiver’. At Athens, officers elected to review the laws of
Solon and Draco.
Oi dia biou (οἱ διὰ βίου) Officers of the ephebes who hold their offices ‘for life’.
Pentakosiomedimnos
Those men at Athens who owned land producing 500 medimnoi
each year. The ‘first class’, according to the Solonian constitution.
Pentekostys
(πεντηκοστύς)
A division of the Argive people, the precise nature of which is
unknown. It may have been a toponym of some sort, synonymous
with kome.
Phratriarch
Chief officer of a phratry.
(πεντακοσιομέδιμνος)
(φρατρίαρχος)
Polemarch (πολεμάρχος) Generally, ‘leader’, or military commander.
Proboulos (πρόβουλος)
Member of the council at Corinth.
Propylaia
The monumental gateway at the entrance to the Athenian Acropolis.
Prostatas boulas
Presiding officer of the council at Orchomenos. Dyme also had an
officer called a prostatas.
Proxenos (πρόξενος)
A proxenos was a citizen who hosted foreign ambassadors at his
own expense, in return for honours (such as a decree, written on
(προστάτας βωλᾶς)
355
stone and sometimes read out in public), a crown (gold or olive),
and sometimes other awards such as money or a statue. The
proxenos would use any personal connections to promote good
relations or alliances between cities. Decrees announcing this
arrangement are known as proxeny decrees.
Prytanis (πρύτανις)
The prytaneis were the fifty men from a single tribe who formed
the executive officers of the boule for a tenth of the year (a period
called a prytany). The prytaneis ate at public expense in the tholos
(i.e. were aeisitoi). Each day, one member of the prytaneis was
selected by lot to act as foreman (epistates) – effectively acting as the
chief executive officer of Athens. No man was allowed to hold this
office more than once. In the fourth century, this role was taken over
by the office of proedroi. A prytanis was known by this title only
when in office. For the remainder of the year he was a bouleutes.
Psephisma (ψηφίσμα)
(pl. psephismata, ψηφίσματα) Decree passed by majority vote in
an assembly.
Skytale (σκυτάλη)
Method used by magistrates in Laconia as a way to send short
messages to other magistracies and commanders in the field.
Strategos (στρατηγός) Lit. ‘general’. A magistrate; an eponymous officer at Corinth, and
or stratagos (στραταγός) an officer of the Achaian League and at Dyme.
Synarchos (συνάρχος)
Leading magistrate at Troizen.
Syndikoi (συνδίκος)
Advocate at Megalopolis; magistrate at Patrai.
Synedrion (συνέδριον)
Assembly or council holding formal sessions. Synedrion was the
name for the council in many poleis in the Peloponnese.
Synegoros (συνήγορος) One of the ten assessors who, with the ten logistai, were the
officials to whom all other officials had to submit their accounts at
the end of their year in office.
Synlutai (συνλύται)
The members of the court at Stymphalos.
Tamias (ταμίας)
Generally, a treasurer; someone who managed the funds of an
organisation. In Athens, the most important treasurers were the
treasurers of Athena (hellenotamiai).
Thearodokos
At Sicyon and Epidauros, an officer who received thearoi, envoys
from other poleis.
Thearos (θεαρός)
At Orchomenos, one of five magistrates who were part of the
boule administration, and who could occasionally be eponymous.
Also a magistrate at Elis. The term can also refer to an envoy sent
to consult an oracle.
Theokolos (θεοκόλος)
A magistrate known only from Dyme.
Thesmothetes
Lit ‘law-giver’. At Athens, one of six junior archons, who, together
with three senior archons and a grammateus formed the board of
archons. These officers wrote up legal judgements and handled
irregularities in other magistrates’ accounts.
Thesmotoaroi
‘Guardians of the laws’ at Mantinea.
Thirty, The
A pro-Spartan oligarchic body installed at Athens at the end of the
Peloponnesian war (404 BC). Government by The Thirty lasted for
less than a year.
(θεαροδόκος)
(θεσμοθέτης)
(θεσμοτοάροι)
356
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