Nutrigenomics

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Nutrigenomics
Sara Artigas Jerónimo
Advanced Genetics, 2015-1016
Contents
Introduction. Nutritional Genomics.
Nutrigenetics and associated examples
Nutrigenomics and liked diseases
Nutritional Epigenomics
Conclusions
Future perspectives
Introduction
Nutritional Genomics:
Nutrient-gene interaction.
Interactions among genes and
factors in the environment
and how these interactions
affect the survival and
reproduction of species.
Introduction
Nutrigenetics: response to
dietary components regarding to
the genetics differences of the
individual.
Nutrigenomics: study of the
influence of dietary components
on the genome.
Table. DD Farhud, M Zarif Yeganeh (2010) “Nutrogenomics and Nutrigenetics”. Iranian J Publ Health,Vol39, No.4
Nutrigenetics
It points to understanding how the genetic background of an
individual impact to the diet.
Interaction between SNPs in various genes and the metabolic
response to the diet.
SNPs can alter the bioactivity of important metabolic pathways
and mediators and influence the ability of nutrients to interact
with them
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene (LPH) polymorphisms show
how SNPs alter gene expression. This polymorphism is in the
upstream of the LPH gene associated with hypolactasia and changes
tolerance to dietary lactose and allows different expression of the
LPH.
Mutations in GALT gene, phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and G6PD
gene result in Galactosemia, Phenylketonuria and Fauvism diseases.
PPAR-α gene has a polymorphism at codon 162 that has been
associated with changes in total cholesterol and Apo B
concentrations.
Nutrigenomics
Explores how the interactions between genes and food components impact human
health.
Bioactive components can be nutritive or not nutritive, inherent part of food or
intentionally added to food.
Dietary compounds can effect gene expression directly or indirectly.
-As ligands for TF receptors
-Be metabolized by primary or secondary metabolized
pathway, altering concentrations of substrates or
intermediates
40 micronutrients are needed in the human diet.
Table 1. M. Müller, S. Kersten (2003) “Nutrigenomics: goals and strategies”. Nature Reviews. Genetics.Volume 4, April.
DNA damage
Chromosome breaks
due to incorporation of
uracil in DNA
Table2. DD Farhud, M Zarif Yeganeh (2010) “Nutrogenomics and Nutrigenetics”. Iranian J Publ Health,Vol39, No.4
Caffeinated-Coffee increases the risk of heart attack among
individuals who carry a version of a gene that makes them ‘slow’
caffeine metabolizers, but has no effect among individuals who are
‘fast’ caffeine metabolizers.
Dietary chemicals indirectly regulate some of TFs. SREBPs are activated by
protease cleavage, an event regulated by low levels of foxy sterols and changes in
insulin/glucose and PUFAS
PUFA intake can modulate the gene expression of several enzymes involved in
lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
Dietary chemicals can directly affect signal transduction pathways. Green tea
contains polyphenol EGCG that inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of Her-2/neu
receptor and EGFR that reduces signaling via the PI3-Akt kinase-NF-kB pathway.
L-tryptophan as a powerful inducer of collagenase gene expression at a
transcriptional level.
Folate deficiency increases genome damage, as telomeres degeneration
Increases risk of childhood leukemia in children with mother who did not intake enough folic acid
supplementation during pregnancy
Table 3. S B. Pajovic (2008). “Nutrigenomics”. Genetic,Vol. 40, No.1, 67-74
Nutritional Epigenomics
Epigenetic events can also be modified by bioactive food components.
Table 4 and 5. DD Farhud, M Zarif Yeganeh (2010) “Nutrogenomics and Nutrigenetics”. Iranian J Publ Health,Vol39, No.4
Conclusions
Under certain circumstances and in some individuals,
diet can be a serious risk factor for a number of
diseases
Common dietary components can act on the human
genome, either directly or indirectly, to alter gene
expression or structure
The degree to which diet influences the balance
between healthy and disease states may depend on an
individual’s genetics background
Some diet-regulated genes are likely to play a role in the
onset, indigence, progression, and/or severity of chronic
diseases
Dietary intervention based on knowledge of nutritional
requirement, nutritional status and genotype can be
used to prevent, mitigate or cure chronic diseases
References
DD Farhud, MZ Yeganeh (2010) “Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics” Iranian J Publ
Health,Vol 39, No4, 2010, pp.1-14
A. El-Sohemy (2008) “The science of nutrigenomics”. Health Law Review-16:3
R. DeBusk (2015) “The role of nutritional genomics in developing an optimal diet for
humans”. Nutrition in clinical practice,Vol 25, No 6, 627-633.
S. B. Pajovic (2008) “Nutrigenomics”. Genetic,Vol. 40, No. 1. 67-74
M. Muller, S. Kersten (2003) “Nutrigenomics: goals and strategies”. Nature Reviews.
Genetics,Vol. 4, 315-322.
Y. L. Low, E. Shyong Tai (2007) “ Understanding diet-gene interactions: lesson from
studying nutrigenomics and cardiovascular disease”. Mutation research 622, 7-13
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