ENGLISH PARALLEL SYLLABUS

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Palestine
Ministry of Education & Higher Education
Directorate General of General Education
ENGLISH PARALLEL SYLLABUS
Part Two
‫بس ـ ـ ــم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم‬
PALESTINE
Ministry of Education & Higher Education
Directorate General of General Education
PREPARED BY
MU’TAZ AHMAD ASFOUR
SUPERVISOR
JERUSALEM SUBURBS DIRECTORATE
BASIMA TAMMAM AROUQI
TEACHER
DIR DEBWAN GIRLS’ SEC. SCHOOL
HAYAT HAFEZ REMAWI
TEACHER
ABU QASH BOYS’ BASIC SCHOOL
REVISED BY
OTHMAN DIAB AMER
DIRECTOR
PALESTINIAN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
RAPPOTEUR
MU’TAZ ASFOUR
SUPERVISOR
JERUSALEM SUBURBS DIRECTORATE
2
The Program Outline – The four skills-reading, listening, writing and speaking - in all the units focus on some
particular vocabulary, structures and language functions.
U NIT
1
R EADING
COMPREHENSION
In The Zoo
VOCABULARY
General
Vocabulary
Animals
LANGUAGE
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
Greeting
Asking About
Well-Being
Discussing
Present
Continuous
Stative Verbs
Narrating
2
3
Email From Turkey
The Ant And The
Grasshopper
Places
Favorites
Daily Routines
Telecommunication Means
General
Describing
Requesting
Politely
Clarifying
Asking and
Giving
Directions
and Responding
to Telephone
Call
Present Prefect
(Recycling)
Regular &
Irregular Verbs
Narrating Past
Events
Identifying
Describing
Happenings
Giving Reasons
Sequencing
Events
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Save The World
4
General
Pollution
Word Building:
Prefixes &
Suffixes
Passive Voice:
Present
Giving Advice
Describing
Expressing
Opinion
Agreeing and
Disagreeing
Anticipating
Problems
Proposing
Solutions
Expressing
Intention
Proposing
Solutions
3
LISTENING &
SPEAKING
Dialogue
Sounds / i / +/ e /
Discussion of
Animals
A Poem: The
Book of Life
Rhythm
Sounds / f / +/ v
/
/b/+/p/
Word Stress (2
Syllable Word V&
N
Discussion
Expressing Likes
and Dislikes
Expressing
Talking About
Oneself and Your
Family
Dialogue
Role Paly
Description
Through Role Play
Three Syllable
Word Stress
Sound : Bridge &
Vision
Reading Aloud
Discussion About
Raising Awareness
About the
Importance of
Controlling
Pollution
Focus on The
Sounds of Regular
Past Verb Endings
-ed ( t, d, id)
W RITING
Punctuation Marks (. ,
?) and Capitalization
Dictation
Developing A Very
Short Paragraph
Developing Texts:
Practice on Guided
Emails or Letters to A
Friend ( Mainly
Informal)
E.G. Email Completion
Punctuation: Focus On
The Use Of Comma,
Full Stop, Apostrophe,
Question Mark.
Dictionary Work
Dictation
Ordering Jumbled
Sentence
Writing Emails And
Replying
Developing Sentences
Using Connectors:
Conjunctions)
Developing Paragraph
(Guided Writing:
Students Complete A
Text by Joining
Sentences
Developing Sentences
: Use of Which And
That
Word Building
(Affixation : Prefixes &
Suffixes)
Developing Paragraph:
Topic Sentence.
Developing Paragraph
\Use of Cohesive
Devices
Use of Transitional
Words (However,
Nevertheless)
Rearranging Jumbled
Paragraph
5
See You Old
Machines
Technology Makes
Life Easier
General
Synonyms
Antonyms
Technologies(Inv
entions)
Comparatives
And Superlatives
Use of Must ,
Have to, Should
And Can ( And
Their Negation)
Revision of
Modals
Talking About
My Favorite
Technological
Means
Comparing And
Contrasting
Connected
Speech:
Contracted Form
of Is or Has And
Th Sound
3- Consonant
Clusters
Sound sp, pr, pl ,
& spr
Reading Aloud
Role Play
Sound Thin and
Then
Reading Aloud
Developing Paragraph:
Consolidating the
Topic Sentence
Filling Forms
Developing Texts:
Making Notes
Dictation
Simulation of Real
Life Situation –
Role Play
( Semi-Controlled
Practice)
6
7
8
What’s Global
Warming?
At the Restaurant
Friends
Plants
Animals
Geological
Features
Word
Collocations
General
Food
General
Vocabulary
Opposites
Synonyms
Conditionals:
If.. (Con.Type
Zero , One,
Two)
Simple
Imperative
Would You Like
…?
Can I Help…?
Present Tense
Using The
Copula Verbs (
Look, Sound ,
Taste)
Reported
Speech:
Statements,
Request and
Commands, and
Questions
4
Describing
Expressing
Views
Agreeing and
disagreeing
Sound ch & sh
Reading Aloud
Discussing
Environmental
Issues
Ordering Food
at a Restaurant
Inviting
Requesting
Politely
Role Play
Listening for
Information
Speech-Rhythm
Intonation:
Yes/No Questions
& Wh-Questions
Agreeing and
Disagreeing
With So and
Nor/Neither
Giving
Permission
Expressing
Necessity
Poem About
Friends
Rhythm & Rhyme
Sentence Stress
Role Play
Consolidating Topic
Sentences
Further Developing
Paragraph Introducing
Supportive Sentence
(Guided)
Use of Transitions
Dictation
Consolidating The
Topic Sentence and
Supportive Sentences
Developing Paragraph
Guided Writing : Use
of Sequence Markers
Concluding Sentence
A PLAN TO TEACH THE BOOK ENGLISH P ARALLEL SYLLABUS PART TWO.




The book consists of 8 units .
The school years consists of 32 weeks.
A unit is to be taught in 4 weeks .
There are 3 periods per week .
This means that a unit is to be taught L covered in 12 teaching periods .
Going through the syllabus outline , the unit has the following components : reading
comprehension, vocabulary, language( structure ), functions, listening & speaking and
writing.
The following breakdown of periods could be used to cover these components .
Reading comprehension
vocabulary development
Language ( structure)
Functions
Listening & speaking
Writing
Unit Revision
Unit Testing
2 periods
2 periods
3 periods
1 period
1 period
2 periods
1 period
1 period
The teacher has the freedom to distribute the periods in a similar way as this is governed by
other time constraints and classroom environment, especially the level of the students and
their number in the class.
THE TEAM
5
IN THE ZOO
READING & VOCABULARY
Before you read
1. What is this picture about? Where was it taken?
2. Have you ever visited a zoo?
3. Did you enjoy it?
4. What did you see? Did you take some pictures?
1.Listen then read silently.
Ali is calling Ahmad.
Ali: Hello, Ahmad.
Ahmad: Hello , Ali ! How are you?
A: I'm fine, thanks .What about you ? I haven’t heard from
you for ages.
B: I'm very well, thank you.
A: I barely hear you . There is a lot of noise around you.
What are you doing?
B: I'm taking some photos of my favourite animals.
A: Are you in the zoo ?
B: Yes , I am .
A: Which animals are you watching right now?
B: At the moment I'm getting closer to two monkeys .
They are sitting on a tree nearby.
A: That's great !
B: Listen, can you hear this ?The lions are roaring .
A: Yes , that’s really frightening .
B: Now I can see a bear .It is lying in
a cave.
A: This will be a great shoot.
B: Wait to see the Giraffes while they are eating
some tree leaves. That’s another great shoot, too.
2. Answer the following questions:
1.
What are Ali and Ahmad doing right now?
2. Which animals are roaring?
3. Who's taking the photos?
6
4. What animals did Ahmad watch ?
5. Are the following statements True ( T ) or False ( F ):
a. Ali is taking some photos. (
)
b. Ahmad isn't interested in animals. (
)
3. Match and Write the statements in your notebook .
LANGUAGE
1. Look at the picture below then answer the questions .
1.
What is the boy doing? ( play basketball)
He’s playing basketball.
2. What is the boy sitting on the desk doing? (read a book)
3. What is the girl doing ? ( jump over the box)
4. What is the girl sitting on the desk doing? (play with a toy car)
5. What is the parrot doing? (look at the can)
7
Language Focus
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present continuous tense is about an action or condition taking place at the present moment.
We use the present continuous tense to talk about something that is happening at this moment ,i.e.,
while we are speaking.
I am reading this box right now.
To make a question, we begin with am ,is or are, then we put the personal pronoun I, you, he, she,
we or they. The main verb with the suffix -ing stays in the same place. We put a question mark at the
end.
Are you reading? Are they wearing green hats?
To make the negative, we put not after am, is or are. The main verb with the suffix -ing stays in the
same place. These short forms are I'm not, we're not, you're not, they're not, he’s not and she’s
not.
We are not sleeping.
We're not sleeping.
We are reading.
We're reading.
They are not singing.
They're not singing.
He is not talking
He’s not talking
In short answers we do not repeat the main verb with the suffix -ing .
Are they cooking?
No, they aren't.
Are you sleeping?
No, I'm not.
Is she studying?
No, she isn’t.
2. Complete the sentences below with verbs from the box. Change the verb tense.
roar, rain, sleep, call
1. Ali's phone is busy at the moment because he's calling Ahmad .
2. I need an umbrella. It is ................................ .
3. Be quiet! The baby is .................................... .
4. I 'm scared . The lions are ............................. .
3. Write the suitable verb to be ( am , is, are ) + ( verb + ing ) in the brackets .
1. Rawan can't answer the phone because she .......... the dishes . ( wash )
2. After three days of rain ,I'm glad the sun............. again . ( shine )
8
3. Ali and his friends................. football . ( play )
4. ...........it......... outside right now? ( snow )
5. My teachers ................ to each other about our exam results. ( talk)
4. Study the example then write questions and answers.
1. (they/ make/ cake)
Are they making cake?
No, they aren’t. They are eating their breakfast.
2. (the man / use / computer)
Is the man using his computer?
_______________________________________
3. (the boy /use / the phone)
Is the boy using the phone?
_______________________________________
4. (the two girls / tidy / the room)
Are the two girls tidying the room?
_______________________________________
5. Study the table below. Learn how to form the –ing verbs and complete the verbs in the cells
below.
Verbs that end in a
vowel before the last
letter
Verbs that end in – y.
Verbs that end in - ie
Verbs that end in – e
stop
beg
rob
begin
prefer
enjoy
study
buy
try
cry
die dying
lie ________
tie ________
vie ________
hope
drive
injure
examine
write
stopping
________
________
________
________
enjoying
________
________
________
________
hoping
________
________
________
________
NONCONTINUOUS VERBS
Some verbs are stative. They are not used in present continuous tense because
they describe states.
I think Sami is right
I love my country
The cake tastes very delicious
I am thinking Sami is right.
I am loving my country.
The cake is tasting delicious.
NOT
NOT
NOT
9
Look at the table of noncontinuous verbs then complete the sentences below:
Mental State
Emotional State
know
believe
recognize
think
1.
love
hate
like / dislike
feel
Senses Verbs
see
hear
taste
smell
Perception Verbs
look
seem
sound
appear
Circle the correct form.
1.
A : I ( think / am thinking ) this grammar is a bit hard .
B : At the moment, I ( think / am thinking ) about tomorrow’s picnic .
2. A: My children ( are seeing / see ) their friends at the weekend .
B: Turn the light on. I can’t (see / seeing).
3. A: The teacher ( looks / is looking ) very angry . Don’t interrupt her.
B: She ( looks / is looking ) at me. Stop talking.
2.
Did you spot any difference in meaning between each pair of sentences( A and B )?
3. Complete the following table with A or B from the previous exercise .The first sentence
is done for you .
Think
Think
Consider; have an opinion or idea
Reason; using a brain to solve
problem, plan something ,ect.
___A ___
_________
See
See
Use eyes
Meet
_________
_________
Look
Look
See; direct your eyes in order to see
Seem or appear
_________
_________
Note: All group A verbs are called stative or noncontinuous whereas all group
B verbs are called continuous verbs .
PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE .
1. Listen to the difference between [ I ] and [ e ].
sit
and
set
pin
and
pen
01
2. Listen to your teacher and list the following words under the correct column
whether [ I ] or [ e ].
pet tin led big bit ten pit set beg sit
/ɪ/
bet lid
/e/
SPEAKING
1. Read this dialogue.
A:
A:
Many people think of spiders as
insects. But they 're not .
B:
That's really interesting .
What's the difference
between an insect and a
spider ?
B:
The main difference is the number
of legs. All insects have six legs ,but
spiders have eight .
That's great .
2. Talk about the following animals with your partner. Use the ideas next to each picture.
1.
Spiders
2.
whales
3.
/
/
insects
the number of legs: insects have six legs/
spiders have eight legs.
fish
family: whales are mammals
dolphins as smart as / elephants
brain size: elephants have the largest
brains of any land mammal. They can
learn tricks .
00
WRITING
Punctuate the following sentences using the capital letters, full stops(.), commas (,)
or question marks (?).
1.
well I feel worried
2. this car is new isn't it
3. are you happy
4. yes I am
Look at the paragraph below. Punctuate the sentences correctly using capital letters, full
stops, commas and question marks .
*have you ever seen an elephant * elephants are huge * but they are lovely at the same time* they
live for about 70 years * it takes about 22 months for an elephant to be born * are elephants smart
* the answer is yes * when two elephants greet each other * they may twist their trunks together as a
greeting
*There
are some stars where you should put the punctuation marks.
02
EMAIL FROM TURKEY
READING & VOCABULARY
Blue Mosque
Topkapi Palace
Before you read.
1. Listen to your teacher then read the text silently.
To :Safi @yahoo .com
From: [email protected]
Subject: A wonderful journey
Dear Sofia,
Hello, how are you? I miss you a lot, I've been so busy recently. I am in holiday
in Turkey with my family. It is very exciting to see Istanbul city for the first
time .It is the only city in the world that stands on two continents.
We have been here for a week .We have visited Istanbul, the historical capital city
of Ottomans. It is really a wonderful city. We have visited most of its historical
landmarks ( the Blue Mosque, Aya Sofya and Topkapi Palace). I think the blue
mosque is one of the most wonderful Islamic buildings in the world. We have taken
photos of its six tall minarets. Then we have visited Aya Sofya, which is more
than 1500 years old. After that we have walked in the lovely gardens and the
beautiful rooms of the huge museum of the Topkapi Palace. This museum contains
fantastic collection of pictures, maps and jewelry.
We have been to Ankara, the new capital city of Turkey, since last Monday .But we
haven’t seen Azmeer, although we heard that it’s a very beautiful city.
We have eaten a lot of Turkish food. It is very delicious and I like it.
Looking forward to meeting you in Palestine very soon.
Wishes,
Hala
03
After you read
2. Read and answer.
1. Who wrote this email ?
2. Who did he write it to ?
3. Where is Hala ?
4. How long have Hala and her family been in Turkey ?
5. Have they seen the Topkapi museum?
6. Does Hala like the Turkish food ?
3.
Write True (T) or False (F) next to each statement.
1.
Sofia’s family have been in Turkey for a month. _____________
2. The Blue Mosque is one of Istanbul’s historical landmarks. _____________
3. The Blue Mosque was named after its Blue Dome. _____________
4. Halla has been to Azmeer. _____________
5. Ankra is the historical capital city of Turkey. _____________
4. What about you?
Would you like to visit Turkey? Why? Why not?

I ‘d love to, but I have been so busy lately that I have no time to do anything .

I ‘d like to. I am thinking of going there next summer.

_________________________________________________________________________
5. What do you like most about Turkey? Why?
Blue Mosque
Istanbul Bridge
Topkapi Palace
Aya Sofia

I like Topkapi Palace most. I can see the collection of its maps and jewelry.

I think Aya Sofya is the best. It is 1500 years old.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
04
LISTENING
1. Look at the title of the poem. What does it mean?
a. The diaries in which people write about their lives.
b. The stages of our lives that we travel through from the past, present, and the future.
2. Listen to the poem and check your answers.
The Book of Life
Life is a book in chapters three
The Past, the Present, and the Yet to Be
The Past has gone, it could not stay,
It’s in your dreams of yesterday,
Remembered sometimes for its sadness,
But also for its joy and gladness,
Live for the Present, live for today,
So quickly does it pass away.
Help one another along life’s path,
Cheer them up, and make them laugh,
For the Past it soon will be,
So live it now, it’s yours you see,
But what about the Yet to Be?
It’s locked away. … God holds the key.
By: Margaret Curtis
3. Listen to your teacher’s explanation. Work out the meaning of these words:
Line 2
Yet to Be
a. things that have been happening recently
b. things that are going to happen
Line 5
sadness
a. unhappy feeling
b. happy feeling
Line 6 gladness
a. unhappy feeling
b. happy feeling
Line 12 it’s yours you see
a. it’s yours if you can find it
b. please understand that it’s yours
4. Answer these questions.
05
a.
b.
c.
d.
Where has the Past gone?
What does the writer want us to do for ourselves in the Present?
What will soon happen to the Present?
What does only God know about?
5. Mark the words that rhyme aa, bb, cc, dd. Find one that is only a half-rhyme. Give
examples.
6. Listen to your teacher, and read the poem aloud.
7. What do you think ?
a. Do you agree we should live for the Present or live just for today?
b. If you could , would you like to know the future? Why? Why not?
PUNCTUATION
1. Match each punctuation mark with its use.
Punctuation Mark
Use
a. A comma
_b_ is used at the end of the sentence.
b.
____ is used to separate a list of items in a sentence.
A full stop
c. A capital letter
d. An apostrophe
e. A question mark
____ is used to show where letters are missing and also with s to show
Possession.
____ is used at the beginning of the sentence , names of people ,places,
countries and names of languages.
____ is used to end a question.
2. Punctuate the following sentences using commas ,full stops, capital letters an apostrophes:
EXAMPLE : My name's Ali Odeh. I’m from Palestine. I now live in New York. Arabic is my first
language, but I speak English, French and Spanish.
a. we bought apples oranges bananas and grapes
b. you need to be fit strong and brave to sky-dive
c. my friend lives in france and speaks french spanish and english
d. how long has ali lived in palestine
e. is this ranias doll
06
DICTATION
1. Listen , write and read: ( Your teacher will dictate something from the reading passage to
you. Write down what the teacher reads for you.)
It is the only …………………………………………………………… . We have been here …………………………….. . We
have ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. of the Ottomans. It
is really …………………………….. . We have visited most …………………………………………………………………………
(the Blue Mosque,…………………………………………………………………)
LANGUAGE
The Simple Past Tense: Positive
Use: We use the simple past tense to talk about things that happened in the past (a completed
action or state in the past).
1.
I watched an exciting movie last night.(the action (watching) happened at a specific
time in the past ,last night).
2. I lived in Nablus for two years. ( the action began and ended in the past)
Form: The simple past tense of regular verbs is usually made by adding - ed to the verb.
Positive (Affirmative)
Negative
Question
I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they worked
I didn’t work
I did not work
He didn’t try
Did you work?
They didn’t have a
car
Did they have a car?
He tried
They had a car
Did he try?
► For both regular and irregular verbs.
SPELLING OF PAST SIMPLE OF REGULAR VERBS.
Add - ed to regular verbs.
a. ed to verbs ending in consonants. ( e.g. walk
b. d to verbs ending in e. (e.g. move
walked , start
moved, like
started)
liked)
c. ied to verbs ending in a consonant + y. Change y into ied.
(e.g. try
tried, carry
d. Double the consonant and add ed to verbs ending in a vowel + a consonant
(e.g. stop
stopped , shop
shopped, rob
robbed)
e. ed to verbs ending in a vowel + y or w. ( e.g. play
played, pray
prayed)
( view
viewed, mew
mewed)
Note: Don’t add - ed to irregular verbs. (e.g. put, give, read, write, see, run,…ect)
put
put NOT
putted
07
carried)
1. Write the past simple of these verbs.
Infinitive
Past Simple
Infinitive
Past Simple
Infinitive
Past Simple
stay
stayed
stop
stopped
walk
walked
welcome
play
cry
help
look
live
answer
ask
watch
relpy
open
dance
carry
wash
end
try
drop
study
want
study
skate
2. Complete the following sentences in the past simple.
1.
I stayed at home yesterday.I did not go out. (stay)
2. It rained heavily last night. ( rain)
3. The supermarket __________ at 10:00 p.m last night. (close)
4. I __________ football with my friend this morning. (play)
5. Sami __________ Ali an hour ago. ( phone)
6. My little brother __________ a vase of flower this afternoon. (drop)
7. Jane _________ (try) a new recipe for making cake.She ________ it. (enjoy)
3.
1.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past simple.
A: What did you do last weekend ? ( you\do)
B: I visited my grandparents on their farm . (visit)
2. A: ..................(you\enjoy )yourself?
B: Oh, yes .
3. A: What .............. (you\do) last Friday?
B: Well, I.........(go) swimming ,and I ...............(help) my grandfather milk the cows .
It ..........(be) really fun .
For the irregular verbs, study this table.
Infinitive
Past Simple
Infinitive
Past Simple
Infinitive
Past Simple
bring
brought
fly
flew
leave
left
buy
lose
do
drink
drive
eat
bought
lost
did
drank
drove
ate
forget
get up
give
go
have
say
forgot
got up
gave
went
had
said
think
make
meet
come
read
speak
thought
made
met
came
read
spoke
08
find
write
teach
know
hear
pay
keep
break
take
found
wrote
taught
knew
heard
paid
kept
broke
took
see
grow
tell
take
stand
sing
hear
sit
fall
saw
grew
told
took
stood
sang
heard
sat
fell
run
ride
put
shut
win
wear
stand
choose
cost
ran
rode
put
shut
won
wore
stood
chose
cost
4. Write these sentences in the past simple.
1.
I meet my friends every Friday . (yesterday)
I met my friends yesterday.
2. Ali sometimes drink milk before he goes to school. (this morning)
Ali drank milk this morning.
3. We go to the beach in the summer. ( last summer)
_______________________________________________
4. She eat a lot of popcorn every evening. ( last night)
________________________________________________
5. Our school starts at 8:00 everyday. ( this morning\ today)
________________________________________________
6. I love climbing mountains at the weekend. ( when I was a child)
________________________________________________
5. Complete the sentences ,using the simple past form of the verbs in the box.
Add cook enjoy
lift mix pour sprinkle turn
She poured some milk
into the bowl
with the eggs.
She _______ the egg
and the eggs together.
Then she _______ some
grated cheese to the
mixture.
She _______the mixture
in the frying pan.
When it was cooked, she
________ one half over
the other
09
She _______ it onto the
plate carefully.
Finally, she ______
salt and pepper into the
mixture.
Everyone ________
their breakfast.
PAST SIMPLE VERBS: NEGATIVE
Add did not / didn’t to the infinitive verb for all persons and all verbs, regular and irregular.
Study these examples.
1.
Ali did not \ didn’t get up early in the morning.
2. Ali did not\ didn’t walk fast.
1. Compelete the sentences by choosing the suitable verb from the box and putting it in the
negative form of the past simple.
answer , eat, post, like, arrive , succeed, watch
1. I tried to do a handstand, but I didn’t succeed.
2. The teacher asked her a question, but she _____________ her.
3. I tried hard to get to work early, but I _____________ in time.
4. We listened to the news on the radio, but we _____________ it on T.V.
5. Ali remembered to buy his sister a card, but he _____________ it.
6. The burger looked delicious, but I _____________ it.
PAST SIMPLE VERBS: QUESTION
The past simple question form is the same for all persons (I, you, he, she, it, you, we, they) and all
verbs. (Did + Subject+ infinitive…?)
Question
Short answer
Did he get up early?
Yes, he did.
No, he didn’t.
Yes, he did.
No, he didn’t.
Did he walk fast?
2. Write a question and an answer. The first one is done for you.
1.
A: I went to the market yesterday.
B: (with your father?) Did you go with your father?
A: ( ) Yes, I did.
2. B: We didn’t eat at home last night
A: (Where?) Where did you eat?
B: At Almanara Restaurant.
21
3. A: Ali felt ill this morning.
B: ( yesterday) Did ______________________ ?
A: ( ) No, I didn’t.
4. A: She is very sad.
B: ( upset/ last night) Was ____________________________ ?
A: ( ) Yes, she was.
5. A: Her friends brought her a valuable gift.
B: (What) What did________________________ .
A: (A nice watch) __________________________ .
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Form: To make the present perfect tense, use present tense of have (has / have)+ a past participle.
Positive (Affirmative)
Negative
Question
I/you/we/they have washed
the dishes.
OR
I/you/we/they've washed the
dishes.
He/she/it has washed the
dishes.
OR
He/she/it's washed the dishes.
I/you/we/they haven't washed have I/you/we/they washed
the dishes.
the dishes?
he/she/it hasn't washed the
dishes.
has he/she/it washed the
dishes?
REMEMBER
Past participles could be regular or irregular.
Regular past participles end in - ed, e.g. washed, landed, finished.
We've washed the dishes.
The aircraft has landed safely.
The students haven't finished their exams.
Some participles are irregular. They don’t end in - ed.
I've made a shopping list.
We've sold our car.
She hasn't drunk her coffee.
Use :

( When is it used? )
We use the present perfect tense to talk about an action , situation or condition which
occurred at some indefinite time in the past. (The past is indefinite because the time it happened is
not important, or because we do not know when it happened ).
e.g. She has heard this song. (indefinite past action)
I've been to Paris.( It happened at some point in the past )
20

We use the present perfect tense to talk about action or situation which started in the past
and continue to the present .
e.g. They have lived in Ramallah for three days. (action began in past, continues
into present)

We use present perfect tense to talk about action or situation which have started in the past
and have a present result (effect).
e.g. I am really tired. I’ve walked 10 kilometers
The aircraft has landed safely. I’m really happy. ( the plane is now on ground)

We use present perfect tense to talk about an action or situation which happened before
now.
e.g. I’ve already called him. Don’t worry.
Maram's just finished her exam.

We use the present perfect tense to talk about personal experience.
e.g. Have you ever been to China? (ever = in your life)
Have you ever been to India?
Yes, I have been there.
No, I have never been to India.
REMEMBER
1. The present perfect is NOT used with past time words (last night, yesterday,
in1999, etc).
Don’t say I've seen him yesterday ,but say I saw him yesterday.
2. See the difference between gone and been:
She's gone to Amman. (= and she's there now)
She's been to Amman. (= but she isn't there now)
She's been in Amman. (= but she is there now)
3. Ever and never go before the past participle.
Have you ever been to London? I have never been to London
4. We can use the present perfect with for and since.
We've lived in Ramallah since 2000. ( we use since to say when the period began
–since 2000)
We’ve lived in Ramallah for 1o years. We use for to say how long this period is (for
10 days).
5. We use how long in questions about since and for .
How long have they lived in Ramallah?
For seven years.
1. Draw a circle around the correct past participle in each sentence below.
1.
Your child has (broke/
broken
) my window!
2. Have you (eaten/ate) all your dinner?
22
3. I have (known/knew) Sameera since we were in kindergarten.
4. Muhammad has (drew/drawn) a picture for his grandfather.
5. The new student seems nice, but I haven’t (spoke/spoken) to her yet.
6. We’ve (drank/drunk) all the milk.
7. The ball has (went/gone) over the garden fence.
8. Has Sami (did/done) all his homework?
9. You have (been/was) late for school every day this week.
10. Help! I’ve (fell/fallen) in a hole!
2. In pairs ,use the following prompts words to ask and answer questions. Example:
1.
A: you /be/ America Have you ever been to America?
B: Yes, I’ve gone to America.
No, I haven’t gone to America.
2.
A: ride/ a bicycle _________________________________________
B: _______________________________________________________
3.
A: cook/ a breakfast _______________________________________
B: _______________________________________________________
4.
A: be / Egypt _____________________________________________
B: _______________________________________________________
5.
A: Play / chess ____________________________________________
B: _______________________________________________________
3. Write sentences about Fatima using the present perfect tense. Use for or since.
Example: be / at his computer / six hours He's been at his computer for six hours.
1. not / have / any fun / a long time . ......................................................................................
2. have / a cold / a week.
......................................................................................
3. not / see / his friends / ages.
He hasn’t seen his friends for ages
4. not / do / any sport / last year .
......................................................................................
5. be / busy with her studies / months . ......................................................................................
4. Complete the sentences. The first example is done for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
You ought to wash the car. You haven't washed it for ages.
I think I'll ring my friend. I haven't .......................................... the weekend.
We're going to see some old friends. We haven't............................................... five years.
Let's watch a video, shall we? We haven't.............................................. quite a while.
We could have a barbecue. We haven't .............................................. last summer.
Shall we play tennis? We haven't.............................................. our holiday.
23
LISTENING
1. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions .
Nadia's mother: Hello, can I help you ?
Sally : Good morning .It’s Sally here .Can I speak to Nadia, please ?
Nadia's mother: I’m sorry, Sally. She’s just gone out with her uncle. Can I give her a massage?
Sally: Yes, please. Could you ask her to phone me when she gets home?
Nadia's mother: Of course.
Sally: Thank you. Goodbye.
Nadia's mother: Goodbye.
QUESTIONS.
a. Who is the caller?
b. Who is the person being called?
c. Who does the caller want?
d. What message does the caller leave for Sally?
2. Now listen again and complete the following sentences:
a. Good morning. It’s Sally _________. Can I _____________ , please?
b. I’m sorry, Sally. She’s______________________. Can I ___________________?
3. Complete the following sentences with words from the list below:
here, in, mobile, moment , see, speaking
a. Hello, is that Dr. Ali ______________.
b. Just a ________________ , please.
c. Wait a minute. I’ll _______________ if he is here.
d. Try calling back ______________ an hour’s time.
e. Sorry, he’s not _______________ at the moment.
f.
You can reach him on his ________________ .
24
SPEAKING
Giving Directions.
2.
Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the restaurant, please?
Go along this road, then turn left. It’s near the supermarket.
Go along this way
Go straight ahead
right
turn
left
right
It’s on the
left
corner
3.
next to the …
It’s
near to the …
opposite the
Work in pairs. Talk about yourself and your family .Exchange roles.
Use the following
your name ,your age ,nationality, name of place where you live, your hobbies ,what you learn, who you
live with, your brothers and sisters, and your parent’s work .
A: What ‘s your mane?
What’s your nationality?
How old are you?
Where do you live?
Who do you live with?
Do you have brothers and sisters?
What is your father’s job?
What is your hobby?
What do you like most?
B:
My name’s Ali.
I’m Palestinian? What about you?
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
25
PRONUNCIATION
1. Listen then distinguish between /f/ as in few and /v/ as in view
/f/
fan
file
sofa
define
life
/v/
van
vile
over
divide
live
2. Practice saying these words and expression
Very fast
I feel fine
all over the world
4.
four fans
the farmer's field
four vans
a good view
first flight
alive dove
Now listen to these words and write number (1) for / f / sound and (2) for / v / sound.
few _________
alive _________
love _________
off_________
view _________
life _________
dove _________
of _________ half _________
5.
Listen then distinguish between /p/ as in pit and /b/ as in bit.
/p/
pit
pray
pure
pack
pin
6.
7.
have _________
/b/
bit
bray
beauty
back
bin
Listen and repeat.
page
paper plan
project
bad
bag
bring
black
April
able
spring
slip
lap
about
job
tribe
cap
cab
Listen and write (1) for /p/ sound and (2) for /b/ sound.
pair _____
bear _____
part _____
bark _____
appear _____
about _____
speak _____
break _____
clip _____
rib _____
stop _____
rob _____
26
8.
Now practice saying these sentences.
1. I like playing basketball but my brother prefers baseball.
2. Some people have problem looking at the blackboard .
3. I have a cap on my lap.
WRITING
1. Order the following broken sentences:
1. watched/ a great show/ We/ last night.
___________________________________________
2. went/ I / yesterday/ to the gym.
___________________________________________
3. send/ Did/ Paul / an email ?
___________________________________________
2. Now write a short paragraph introducing yourself to a pen friend from England.
Dear Judie ,
I am writing to introduce myself to you. I hope we form a lasting friendship by
exchanging emails.
My name is _________________.I am _________________ years old.
I am _________________ (nationality). I live in_________________. I have got two
younger __________________.Their names _____________________________.I like
_________________ ,but I enjoy ________________________ more.
Here is my email: [email protected]
Looking forward to receiving your reply.
Wishes,
Ali
3. Read the following pen friend reply email then fill the spaces from the box below.
27
From: [email protected]
To: [email protected]
Subject: Re your letter
Dear Ali,
I am very happy to be your new pen friend. I have read your email ,and I
think we will make good friends.
My name is Judie and I‘m from Bristol , England .I'm _________________.
We are a big family. I have ____________________.They are
_________________ ,and I also have two younger brothers they
are__________________. They are fourteen and ten. I like _____________,
and I enjoy chatting on the internet, too . I now learn a course in
computer called ____________________________ .Can you tell me more about
yourself, your brothers, sisters and friends?
My Regards,
Judie
16 years old,
Jason and Ben,
two younger sisters,
International Computer Driving License (ICDL),
Jane and Rebecca,
playing football
The Return Home from Turkey
4. You and your family have just got back from your holidays in Turkey. Write five things
about what you did on your holiday, using the phrases in the box.
go cycling
go sightseeing
go hiking
pitch a tent
go on a guided tour
take photos
send a post card
speak a foreign language
sunbathe
1.
2.
_________________________________________________________________________________
3.
_________________________________________________________________________________
4.
_________________________________________________________________________________
5.
_________________________________________________________________________________
6. _________________________________________________________________________________
28
THE ANT AND THE GRASSHOPPER
READING AND VOCABULARY
Before you read.
1. Answer the following questions.
1. How do you pass your time?
2. Do you usually plan for future? Why?
The Ant and the Grasshopper
One fine summer day, while the silly grasshopper was playing and relaxing in the field, he saw
some ants. The grasshopper noticed that the ants were all hauling seeds on their backs." What are
you doing?" he asked them.
"We're collecting food for winter, "said one of the ants.
‚You should do the same .Did you gather any food for winter? ‚ asked another ant.
The grasshopper laughed.‛No, I didn't gather any .It's the middle of summer! I still have plenty of
time to collect food,‛ said the grasshopper and jumped high away.
So all summer long the grasshopper didn’t do anything, but playing in the fields, jumping from a
tree to another and singing his songs.
Soon fall came, but the grasshopper was still wasting his time playing and hopping across grassy
fields .Once winter came, he was near starving .Then he went to the ants to beg for food, but they
laughed and drove him away.
29
2.
Read and answer.
1.
What kind of creatures are those in the picture?
2. Which season is the picture about? How do you know?
3. What is the moral of story? It is ...
a. plan ahead and be prepared for tomorrow.
b. everything comes to those who wait.
3. Tick (√) for TRUE or (X) for FALSE.
1.
The grasshopper stopped the ants to help them.
2. The ants were all working together.
3. The grasshopper wasted two seasons, spring and summer.
4. The ants helped the grasshopper when he needed them.
4. Read the text again and find the words that complete the table below.
Seasons
Insects
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
Past actions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
5. Circle the suitable meanings for the following words.
1. Which word in paragraph one means carrying ?
a. working
b. collecting
c. hauling .
2. Which word in paragraph five has the closest meaning to hungry ?
a. starving
b. sent
c. wasting .
3. The word beg means :
a. ask for
b. Write
c. noticed .
4. The word moral means :
a. tale
b. lesson
c. advice .
6. Use the table above to complete the following Summary.
The ............. worked all summer and ................ days to collect food for.............. . But the .....................was
relaxing. He .............his time. Then when winter................., he ....... to the ants to beg some food, but they
.................. and ................him away .
31
LANGAUGE
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Form: Use was or were + ing form of the verb to form the past continuous tense.
Positive
I
He
She
It
You
We
They
Negative
was working
I
He
She
It
was not working
(wasn’t working)
were working
You
We
They
were not working
weren’t
Was
Were
Question
I
He
working?
She
It
You
We
They
working?
Use: a.
Study the following examples:
1. While I was having a bath, the phone rang.
2. I was eating when John arrived.
3. As Ali was standing at the bus stop, he saw a car accident.
Note:
The time order for 1 is having a bath, during which the telephone rang.
The time order for 2 is eating, during which John arrived.
The time order for 3 is standing at the bus stop, during which he saw an accident
TIMELINE
X………………………….
Past Continuous
simple past

now
Future
We often use while and as with the past continuous and when with the past simple.
When the while, when or as clause comes first, it is followed by a comma.
e.g. While I was eating the lunch, the mobile phone rang.
1. Look at these sentences and answer the questions by circling A or B.
1.
When I saw them, they were playing football.
2. She telephoned, while I was having a bath.
3. They were watching television when I visited them.
4. I was walking into the house when I heard the noise.
30
5. While she was making the beds, her daughters got here.
2. Complete the following sentences by putting the verb in the past continuous or past simple.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What were you doing when the teacher asked you a question? (ask)
I found JD 50 note while I (clean) my closet.
While we (have) a long walk around, we ran into an old friend.
What were you wearing when I first (meet) you?
Fortunately, he (not/ drive) very fast when the wheel came off?
What he (do) when his little brother fell off the table?
3. Write did, was, or were to complete these sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
I didn’t like it.
They were enjoying themselves.
……... you have a good time?
…..…. he staying in a hotel?
What …..…. they doing?
What …..… you say?
Why ……… he working late last night?
They …..…. n't playing cards.
She ……... n't understand.
I ……... n't having a bath.
SPEAKING
1. Read The Ant and the Grasshopper again. In pairs, Ask and answer questions about
summer from the grasshopper's diary .
Note: Give imaginative answers.
VERY ENJOYABLE S UMMER TIME
☺ There was a plenty of food
☺ The weather was warm .
☺ Days were long .
☺ fields were green
.
☺ enjoyed jumping and hopping
across the grass.
☺ hope next summer the same.
A: Was there any food in summer?
B: Yes, there was a lot .
32
A: Was the weather cold?
B: No, it was lovely.
A: ____________________
B: ___________________
A: ____________________
B: _____________________
WRITING
1. Read The Ant and the Grasshopper again then complete the story map below.
Who?
...................
When?
.....................
Problem
.................
..................
.................
Result
.................
.................
Then
........................
A
Goal
.....................
B
1.
All the summer days the
ants were working hard
because
2.
They told the hopper to
work
,but
3.
They kept working in
Autumn
so
4.
The grasshopper kept
singing and playing
and
5.
He thought that the
ants will help him
6.
The ants laughed at him
C
a.
collect as much food as
possible.
b. he thought it is too early to
start .
c.
winter comes soon .
d. the summer fruits and seeds
have gone from the plants.
although
in order to
33
e.
he went to beg for food .
f.
sent him on his way .
2. Now write the sentences you have joined like in the example .
1.
All the summer days the ants were working hard in order to collect as much food as possible.
2. ............................................................................................................................................................ .
3. ............................................................................................................................................................ .
4. ........................................................................................................................................................... .
5. ........................................................................................................................................................... .
6. ........................................................................................................................................................... .
3. Write a summary for the story by using the sentences above. Start like this :
All the summer days the ants were ………......................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................
34
SAVE THE WORLD!
READING & VOCABULARY
Mother Earth coughs
Factories Smoke
Bears under threat
Before you read
1.
What are these pictures about?
2.
What is pollution?
3.
What causes pollution?
4.
Why is pollution bad for environment?
1.
Listen and read.
Pollution is man-made. Nature doesn’t produce pollution. It recycles everything. Dead bodies decay and
make soil fertile and rich. However, people produce things which can't be recycled. They cause pollution
twice when they produce things and when they throw them away.
Pollution is divided into three types. Land, air and water pollution.
Water pollution
Most countries don’t have enough water. Even this water is mixed up and polluted with chemicals from
factories or from farms and this is unhealthy and dangerous and causes death for a lot of people every day.
Land pollution
We keep rubbish in special places .These places are ugly and dirty. Moreover they cause serious illnesses.
Air pollution
Air pollution is caused by gases of cars, taxis, buses and factories. The gases go up into the atmosphere
where they form a layer of pollution around the world. As a result, heat can't escape and our world is
getting warmer. This is called global warming.
2.
1.
Read and answer
What causes pollution?
35
2.
How many types of pollution are there ?
3. Is pollution dangerous for humans?
3. Tick (√) for TRUE or (X) for FALSE.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.
Nature causes pollution. ____________
People cause pollution . ____________
Pollution causes global warming. ____________
Global warming causes pollution. ____________
Read the text and complete the following sentence.
The water pollution most countries have is _________________________ from factories. This brings
about ___________ for so many people every day because the water is unhealthy and ______________.
5.
Use the words from the box below to complete the following sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The gas station went up in smoke. This ____________ the air.
There are many ____________ of gases around the Earth .
When we walk in the mountains and hills ,we see the beauty of ____________.
All of our ------------------- is full of paper, so we can easily ---------------- it.
6. Match each word in column A with its opposite in B.
A
,
B
a. cause
_______ 1. unhealthy
b. ugly
_______ 2. dangerous
c. healthy
_______ 3. effect
d. safe
_______ 4. beautiful
e. go up
f. recycle
_______ 5. Not to use
again
_______ 6. fall
7. Choose the word from the box that best goes with its partner in the box below.
A. global ________________.
B. get ________________.
C. cause ________________.
d. form a _______________.
e. air ________________.
f. fertile ________________.
36
VOCABULARY: WORD BUILDING
1. PREFIXES: UN & DIS.
1. Study the following examples and find out when is un and dis are used.
Clean
Happy
Important
agree
appear
continue
unclean
unhappy
unimportant
disagree
disappear
discontinue
2. Make opposites of these words by adding a suitable prefix ( -un or -dis ).
1.
Healthy _________________
2.
Agree _________________
5. usual _________________
6. obey _________________
3. sure _________________
7. cover _________________
4.
8. common _________________
tidy _________________
2. SUFFIX: -Y
1. Study these examples.
a. The wind is getting stronger. It’s windy today.
wind (noun ) + y = windy (adj)
b. Shall we sit out in the sun?
sun
It’s sunny today.
37
(noun)+ y =
sunny ( adj)
Just remember !
Sometimes the suffix adds a new meaning. When we add full to a word, it means it has the
stated quality to a high degree, but when we add less it means without that quality, e.g. hopeful
and hopeless. Hopeful means having hope, but hopeless means without hope.
2. Change the following nouns into adjectives by adding -ful & -less.
Nouns
Pain
Adjectives
Painful
or
Painless
help
____________ or _____________
colour
____________ or _____________
thought
____________ or _____________
care
____________ or _____________
3. Complete the following sentences with the suitable adjective from the table above .
1.
2.
3.
4.
The cut in his hand was very _____________.
We went to the _____________ beaches of Akko.
Samia was really angry because she made ___________ mistake in the exam.
He felt _____________. He doesn’t know what to do or where to go.
LANGUAGE
PASSIVE VOICE
The Passive : Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Perfect
Look ! Do these sentences have the same information?
Scientists
Pollution
divide
is divided
38
pollution into three types .
into three types.
Study the following sentences:
Tense
Active
Passive
Present Simple
They grow tea in China.
Samira cleans our classes every day.
Tea is grown in China.
Our classes are cleaned every day.
Past Simple
The government built 3 schools 1n 2000.
The mechanic repaired the car.
Three schools were built in 2000.
The car was repaired.
Present Perfect
The workers have painted the house.
The mechanic has repaired the cars.
The house has been painted.
The cars have been repaired.
Form: These are the forms of the passive voice for the present, past and present perfect.
Present
Past
Present Perfect
is/ are + past participle
was/were + past participle
Has/have been + past participle
( is grown)
( were built)
(have been repaired)
Use (Meaning)



Passive sentences describe what happened to people or things as a result of an action by other people
or thing.
Passive sentences generally indicate what happens is more important than who does it. That is, the
focus is on the result of the action, not on the doer of the action.
Use passive with by if you mention the agent.
The article was written by the teacher. (by + agent: the doer of the action)
( Either because you want to give the teacher the credit or you just mention necessary information about
the agent.)
1. Now make sentences from the table.
This olive tree
Arabic
Cotton
Our school
was built
was planted
is used
is spoken
In 1990
to make clothes
about 1000 thousand years ago
in many countries
2. Complete the sentences putting verbs in the brackets in the passive form.
1. Football ------------------( play) all over the world .
2. Global warming --------------(cause ) by air pollution .
3. This book ------------------(write) by my uncle .
3. Change these sentences into passive beginning with the underlined word.
Example: Thieves robbed a woman.
1.
A woman was robbed.
They banned the film.
2. We always correct their mistakes.
39
3. Someone painted our classroom yesterday.
4. They tested the new drug.
5. We haven't used this machine for ages.
6. We clean the floor every day.
7. My parents have given him a lot of money.
8. When did they decorate your kitchen?
4. Write sentences using the present simple passive.
our school is cleaned every day.
Example: our school / clean / every day
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Tea / grow / in India
Cars / not / repair / here
How / ice cream / make / ?
When / dinner / serve / ?
Newspapers / deliver / every morning.
English / speak / everywhere / in Palestine.
5. Use these jumbled words to make past simple active and passive sentences :
Example : The table \the carpenter\ made
A. The carpenter made the table.
B. The table was made by the carpenter.
1.
The lesson \the teacher\explained
A. …………………………………………..
B. …………………………………………..
2. Marie Curie \radium\ discovered
A. …………………………………………
B. …………………………………………
3. The secretary \ letters \ typed
A. ………………………………………
B. ………………………………………
6. Look at these pictures then write the correct caption under them .
a. A car was hit by a tree.
b.
________________________________
__________________________
A car hit a tree .
__________________________________
____________________________
41
7. Read the text then rewrite it using the present simple passive.
1.
The farmers grow vegetables in the north of the country. They grow oranges in Jericho. They grow
grapes in Hebron. They produce some very good raisins. They eat them in winter.
Vegetables are grown in the north of the country.____________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
PRONUNCIATION
1.
Listen to your teacher then repeat these words.
/d /

Jar
Jug
Journey
Enjoy
Imagine
pleasure
garage
measure
usual
vision
2. Listen to you teacher reading of these sentences.
3. Read the following sentences carefully.
1. You can't imagine how much we enjoy our journey to Jericho .
2. The tape measure is in the garage as usual .
Pronunciation of regular past verb endings / t / , / d / and / ɪd /
1. Listen to your teacher then repeat.
/t /
/d/
/ ɪd /
passed
Cleaned
greeted
walked
moved
included
washed
climbed
decided
2. Now listen to the verb endings. Write for 1 for /t/ , 2 for /d/ and 3 for /ɪd/.
1 /t/
Passed
2 /d/
Cleaned
3 /ɪd/
Greeted
Wanted _____
Finished __1__
Opened _____
Listened ____
Laughed _____
Completed _____
Worked _____
Watched _____
Received _____
Loved _____
Helped _____
Matched _____
3. Go back to the table of regular form of past simple verbs you have completed on page 18,
exercise one. Practice saying them again.
40
SPEAKING
1. Work with your partner to ask and answer questions about the items below.
A: What is the hand mirror made of ?
B: It’s made of glass.
Use these words in your answer:
Hand mirror
2.
pencils
dress
metal
glass cotton
chair
gold
ring
Make a list of things that cause pollution in Palestine, then propose solutions. Use the
expressions in the box to express your opinion.
I think ………….
What about………..?
List of pollutants:
1.
plastic wood
I am sorry, I disagree with you……………….
I partly agree with that ,but …………….
, ……………………………………
……………………….,…………………….,…………………………….,…………………………
A: I think cars pollute the air, and this causes a lot of diseases.
B: That’s right. I agree with you, but what is the solution?
A: Perhaps we have to decrease the number of cars.
2. A: In my opinion, dump burning causes pollution. It emits more carbon dioxide than cars.
B: I partly agree with that, but what about factories?
A: factories emits CO2 , too.
WRITING
Linking words : however, nevertheless.
We use however or nevertheless when we join different ideas in two sentences. That is, we use
them to introduce statements contrasting with the previous ones.
1. Study these examples:
1. Hala worked more than nine hours .However, she wasn’t tired.
2. It was cold and rainy day. Nevertheless, more people came than we had expected.
42
Topic sentences.
It is the main idea of the paragraph. It is usually found in the first sentence.
2. Read the following sentence.
Books are my father’s hobby. He collects books that were written over a hundred years ago.
However, he is also interested in the best sellers of today. If I ever need to get him a present, I know I
can always please him by buying him a book.
Note
The topic sentence is written in bold. Every other sentence in the paragraph supports or explains
the idea expressed in the topic sentence
3. Which topic sentence is the best one for the following paragraph?
1. Don’t you just love spring?
2. The rose is the most loved flower over the world.
3. There are many lovely flowers to consider for your garden.
_______________________________________________ .The most beautiful flower is the rose because it
comes in so many different colors. Another beautiful flower is the daisy which sometimes grows wild.
Spring flowers like tulips, daffodils, and crocuses are also very pretty.
4. Reorder these sentences to form paragraph. Upon finishing ,then circle the topic sentence:
1. Tigers live in the forests of Africa
2. Tigers are from the cat family.
3. Also they are found in Bangladesh, , Cambodia, China and India.
4. There are now very few tigers living in the wild and the numbers have
been falling.
5. In fact , they live in the zoos
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
43
SEE YOU, OLD MACHINES
READING & VOCABULARY
Before you Read.
1. Answer the following questions.
1. Which calculator uses the solar power?
2. Is life easier than it used to be in the past ?
3. Can you name two or more inventions that made life easier?
See You Later , Old Calculator.
Today we can buy a small but powerful simple calculator for just a few dollars. Moreover ,many
people have cell phones, calculators or laptops that they carry with them wherever they go.
However, all these machines used to be larger, more expensive and less efficient in the past. For
example, the first calculators, which were invented in the 1960s, were larger, heavier and less
efficient. Some weighed more than 30 pounds.
However, technology has changed since then .Today, most calculators run on batteries or solar
power .They can even be found inside tiny cell phones ,computers and many other machines.
Now , modern calculators are cheaper, easier and more powerful . Because of their efficiency and
relatively low price , they are found everywhere. Students use them, teachers use them, grocers
use them, bank tellers use them. In a word, this modern invention has made life easier. It has
changed the way people used to do their job.
44
2. Read and answer.
1.
How much does a calculator cost today ?
4. Were old calculators as efficient as modern calculators ?
5. When were first calculators invented?
6. Describe the calculators now?
3. Tick ( √ ) for TRUE statements and ( X ) FALSE ones.
1.
Cell phones and laptops are new machines .
2. People could carry their calculators everywhere in 1960s.
3. Calculators are run now only by batteries.
4. Pocket calculators are more efficient than old ones.
4. Circle the correct answer.
1.
Which word in paragraph 1 means a lot ?
a) a few
b) many
c) not only
2. Which word in paragraph 2 means the opposite of big?
a) tiny
b) simple
c) expensive
3. The word simple means :
a) easy .
b) hard .
4.
c) large
Find a word in paragraph 4 that means work?
a) change
b) run on
c) found
5. Fill in the spaces with
invent(ed)
/
weigh(ed )
a. Thomas Edison .......................the electric light bulb .
b. Old calculators ...............3o pounds.
c. A: Were people able to call each other when they were out ?
B: No, because cell phones weren't ................ then .
d. I want only two kilos .Can you .................these tomatoes for me , please ?
45
6. Find in the text words that mean the opposite of the words in list (A),then write them in
(B).
B
A
1. difficult
2. sell
3. the last
4. small
5. cheap
1.buy……..
2. ________
3. ________
4. ________
5. ________
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
PRONUNCIATION : /p/ in pairs of letters .
1. Listen and repeat .
speak
2.
project
plastic
Now Listen and practice saying these words.
space
speed
spoon
sport
prayer
price
problem
programme
plastic
play
please
plus
3. Listen and say this three times as fast as you can.
What's the price of plastic spoons, please?
4. Listen then distinguish between
/  / as in that and /  / as in thirsty.
/ /
/  /
/ /
/  /
/ /
/  /
thirst
thin
thrill
three
thought
that
they
these
than
their
author
nothing
earthy
Arthur
Martha
other
brother
worthy
rather
mother
tooth
both
faith
mouth(n)
wreath
smooth
clothe
bathe
mouth (v)
breathe
5. Practice saying these expressions.
A nice thing
These three
Jack’s thin
who’s this?
yes, thanks
Use that
let’s think
Ali’s there
46
pass through
it’s theirs
he’s thirsty
breathe softly
6. Now listen to these words and write number
sound.
father ___
faith ___
thigh ___
weather ___
(1) for /  / sound and (2) for /  /
though ___
neither___
worth ___
clothes ___
fourth___
mouth ___
either ___
path ___
leather ___
thumb ___
LANGUAGE
COMPARISON of ADJECTIVES.
Comparative & Superlative Form of Adjectives.
1. Compare the following inventions in different ways.
Laptop $1000
iphone $300
cell phone $100
2. Study the following sentences:
The cell phone is less expensive than the iphone.
47
calculator $ 10
When you compare two people or things, use the comparative form of the adjective.
With one - syllable adjectives such as cheap, clear, new, old, or rich, use adjective+ er than.
Ali is taller than Sami.
The cell phone is cheaper than the laptop.
With adjectives that have more than one syllable such as expensive, beautiful , active or cheerful,
use more +adjective than.
Ali is more active than Sami.
The iphone is more expensive than the cell phone.
We use the superlative form of an adjective to compare three or more nouns.
Use the adjective+est with the short adjective ( one – syllable adjective like big, mad, short or
loud )
Ahmad is the tallest boy in the class.
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
Use the most + adjective with the long adjective ( two-syllable adjective or more like ex-pen-sive,
beau-ti-ful or fa-mous)
Samia is the most intelligent girl I have ever seen.
The laptop is the most expensive machine of all.
Remember :
1. Add the before the superlative form of adjective ( the tallest, the most beautiful)
2. Don’t add -er or more to form the comparative, or -est or most to form the superlative of
these adjectives: good and bad
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative and superlative forms of the following adjectives.
1. big
1. bigger
1. biggest
2. short
2. ____________
2. ____________
3. wonderful
3. more wonderful
3. most wonderful
4. interesting
4. ____________
4. ____________
5. exciting
5. ____________
5. ____________
6. easy
6. ____________
6. ____________
7. delicious
7. ____________
7. ____________
8. good
8. ____________
8. ____________
9. bad
9. ____________
9. ____________
10. dirty
10. ____________
10. ____________
11. busy
11. ____________
11. ____________
12. foolish
12. ____________
12. ____________
48
2. Complete the following sentences with the comparative form of adjectives in brackets.
1. Now, cell phones are lighter than ( light ) old phones .
2. Life in the country _______________ (easy) life in the city.
3. New cars are _______________ ( efficient ) old ones .
4. Space journeys are the _______________ ( expensive ).
5. Emailing friends is _______________ ( good) than calling them .
6. Egypt is _______________ (hot) France.
7. Ramallah is _______________ (beautiful) Jericho.
3. Complete the following sentences with the superlative form of adjectives in brackets .
1.
The Nile is the longest
(long) river in the world.
2.
Adel Imam is _______________ (interesting) actor in the Arab World.
3.
Watching T.V. is _______________ ( easy ) way to spend your free time .
4.
Who is _______________ (funny) student in the class?
5.
Is December 21st _______________ (short) day of the year?
6.
I think Messi is _______________ (good) footballer in the world.
7.
I want to buy _______________ (beautiful) flower in the shop.
4. Compare between Mohammad's , Hisham's and Rania's marks in the following school
subjects .
Mohammad
Hisham
Rania
Math
93
90
97
Science
98
92
95
English
90
99
92
Math
a. Mohammad is better than Hisham in Math ,but Rania is the best
.
b. Rania is better than ________________ in Science , but ________________ .
c. _______________________________________________________________ .
49
COMPARISON Of ADVERBS.
Comparative and superlative forms of adverbs
1. The comparative form of adverbs ending –ly is
Carefully
wonderfully
more + adverb .
more carefully than
more wondefully than
2. The comparative form of the adverbs that have the same form as the adjective is
the adverb + -er.
Fast
Hard
faster than
harder than
3. The superlative form of the adverbs ending in –ly is the most + adverb.
Carefully
wonderfully
the most carefully
the most wonderfully
4. The comparative form of the adverbs that have the same form as the adjective is
the the adverb + -est.
Fast
Hard
the fastest
the hardest
Note:
Example:
Good gooder
goodest ( X ), but
good
worst (√ )
Adjective
Adverb
Comparative Form
Superlative Form
good
well
better
best
bad
badly
worse
worst
far
far
farther\further
farthest\furthest
1. Rewrite the sentences using the given words.
1.
worse
My bike isn’t as expensive as yours. ( more)
Your bike is more expensive than my bike.
2. Ali and Adam are both the same age. ( as old as)
Ali is __as_____ _as ___________________________
3. You don’t speak English as well as I do. ( better than)
I __________________________________________
51
4. Your bag weighs 10 kg , but mine weighs 13 kg. ( heavy)
My bag _____________________________________
2. Make comparisons with comparative adverb. Use the present tense of the verb. The first
two are done for you.
1.
Today ( 30 Co ) / Yesterday ( 26 Co ) .
Today is hotter than yesterday
( be / hot )
2. Ali’s motorbike ( 200 kph) / my motorbike ( 170 kph).
Ali’s motorbike goes faster than my motorbike.
( go / fast )
3. Samia (9 p.m.) / Sameera ( 11 p.m.). ( go to bed / early)
___________________________________________________________
4. Basem ( O pauses/ minute / Adel ( 3 pauses/ minute). ( speak English/ fluent)
___________________________________________________________
5. Fadi (8 a.m) / Sali (7 a.m.) . ( get up / late)
___________________________________________________________
MODAL VERBS:
MUST, HAVE TO, and CAN
Have to and must are used to express obligation and necessity.
You must study . ( we feel studying is necessary)
You have to go to the post office.
He has to be there on time.
Note: Must can only be used in the present tense .
Have to can be used to form all the other tenses .
Mustn’t expresses prohibition ( e.g. You mustn’t make noise in the class)
Don’t have means not necessary (e.g. You don’t have to hurry up. You have enough time)
Can is used to express ability or possibility
I can swim.
I can’t help you. I am sorry.
Note:
Can be used with all persons ( I, she, he, they, you, we)
1. Study the following dialogue about Ali multilingualism to learn how modals are negated
and used in questions.
Samia: I heard you’re a multilingual. You can speak three languages. Is this true?
Ali: Yes, I can speak Arabic and English fluently, but I can’t speak French very well.
Samia: What about Spanish? Can you speak Spanish?
Ali: Yes, I can.
50
2.
Modals
Negative
Question
should
shouldn't to
Should you…?
have to
don' t have to
Do you have to …?
must
mustn't
Must you …?
can
can't
Can you …?
Choose a suitable modal from the table above to fill in the gaps below.
1.
You __________ do the shopping . I have gone to the supermarket this morning.
2.
John __________ do his homework first . Then he can watch TV .
3.
I __________ clean my room every Friday .
4.
Susan is ill today . She __________ go to school .
5.
Sally __________ catch the bus to work . She has a car .
6.
They __________ work on Fridays . The shop is closed .
3. Choose the correct item .
1. That ……….. be Muhammad's leather jacket . His is brown .
A can't
B must
C can
2 That ………... be Ahmad's twin brother .They look exactly the same .
A must
B mustn't
C can't
3. Waiters …………… know all the dishes on the menu.
A can't
B don't have to
C have to
4. It is midnight . You …………. Play loud music .
A must
B can't
C can
5. You ……….. keep the medicine away from the reach of children .
A must
B can
C don’t have to
4. Rewrite the following rules using must or mustn’t.
1.
Don’t play loud music in my room.
You mustn’t play loud music in my room.
2. Empty the rubbish pin every morning.
You must empty the rubbish pin every morning.
3. Switch off your mobile phones when you come to school.
52
4. Don’t eat in your bedroom.
5. Clean the table after use.
6. Don’t turn off light before 7:00 am
5.
Make sentences like the example using must , mustn't or don't have to .
1. You / keep / quiet / in the library .
You must keep quiet in the library.
2. You / call / the fire service . Helen's kitchen is on fire .
______________________________________________________________
3. We / go to bed / early. It is Friday tomorrow.
_______________________________________________________________
They / drink / water in the class. It is not allowed.
_______________________________________________________________
3.
SPEAKING
1. Discuss with your partner the new inventions that make life easier.
The first example is done for you.
[Old telephone
mobile phone ]
[typewriter
How did people use to call
one another sixty years ago?
computer ]
[washing machine
washing by hands]
They used to use inefficient
telephones. Things have
changed since then. Now they
use mobile phone .
2. Work in pairs. Ask your partner these questions. Make a note of his/ her answers.
Change roles.
QUESTION
PARTNER’S ANSWER
Which mobile phone do you like most?
Do you have one like it? If no, what kind
of mobile phone do you have?
53
What do you use it for?
What features do you like most in it?
Why do you consider it the most
important?
Which is better laptop or desktop? Why?
What’s your favorite laptop / computer?
What do you use it for ?
What a word or phrase do you most use?
DISCUSSION
3. Which, in your opinion, is a more important invention, the mobile phone or computer?
Why?
Take note of other students ideas
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
WRITING
1.
Compare the animals in the photos using different forms of comparison.
Use the following adjectives and adverbs:
fast,
huge,
strong,
dangerous,
intelligent,
friendly,
slowly
The dolphin is less dangerous than the shark.
The dolphin is more intelligent than the shark.
The shark may swim faster than the dolphin.
The tiger runs _____________________________________ the elephant.
The elephant ______________________________________ the tiger.
The dolphin is __________ friendly _______________________________.
______________________________________________________________.
______________________________________________________________.
54
2.
Adel is talking to his grandson about his life when he was young.
Study the following table. Then ask and answer questions about Adel’s grandfather past
activities :
ADEL’S PAST ACTIVITIES.
Used to
Didn’t
use to
Wake up early to milk the cows.
Get our water from a well.
Had to
Didn't
have to
X
X
X
Buy eggs .We had our hens.
X
Travel a lot. We didn’t have car.
Send only letters to communicate
with each other.
X
X
G. : Did you have to wake up early to milk the cows ?
Adel: Yes we did . We had to wake up early to milk the cows .
G. : ……………………………………………………………...................................
Adel: ……………………………………………………………...................................
G. : ……………………………………………………………...................................
Adel: ……………………………………………………………....................................
3.
Use your answers in the exercise above to write a paragraph about life then. Use first,
secondly, thirdly and finally to join your sentences. Start like this:
Life now is easier than it used to be in the past.. First , people had
to wake up early to milk the cows, but now they can buy it from
the supermarkets.
………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….……
……………………………………………………………………………………………..………………
……………………….........................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Finally, people now can communicate with each other by mobile
phones, telephones or internet , whereas then we used to contact
each other by sending letters.
55
WHAT’S GLOBAL WARMING?
READING & VOCABULARY
Before you read
a. What do you see in the picture?
b. What do we need trees for?
1. Read the dialogue and find.
a. What do we call the person whose job is to cut down trees in the woods?
b. How many times do O2 and CO2 appear in the text?
c. Which cities will be flooded if sea water rises to high levels?
OUR FRIENDS , THE FORESTS !
A forest near Jerusalem
An old olive tree
Mother Earth has got a severe fever
On a fine summer day, Rahma and her friends went camping in a forest near their village in Jerusalem
District. They saw a strong logger trying to cut down a big tree.
The children : (shouting ) Don't cut the tree down, please.
The man:
Rahma:
The man:
Rahma:
The man:
Rahma:
The man:
The kids:
The man:
What’s the matter, kids? I'm a logger. I'm doing my job.
Stop, please. Trees are our friends .We can't live without them.
We can't live without the trees ! It’s funny.
Yes, we can’t. They produce oxygen which we breathe.
But millions of trees have been cut yearly, and nothing has happened .
If we don't stop now, we will destroy our life .
How, Naughty Kids?
Our teacher has told us that cutting down trees causes global warming.
What does this mean?
56
Rahma:
The man:
Unless we keep the balance between oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide
(CO2) or what we call the carbon- cycle ,temperatures will soon rise, many
animals die, and some plants will disappear .
What will happen if the temperature rises?
Rahma:
Ice will melt ,sea will rise and sea water will flood big cities like Tokyo and
Alexandria.
The man:
What should we do to keep this balance?
Rahma:
The man:
We should stop logging and plant more trees .We breathe in
oxygen (O2) and breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2), but trees take in CO2 and give out O2 .
Now, I see. Trees are our best friends.
The kids:
Yes, they are.
Note : Unless = If not
2. Decide whether the following statements are true ( √ ) or false ( X ).
1.
Rahma went camping in the forest alone. ________
2. The man was about to cut down a big tree. ________
3. The balance between O2 and CO2 is called the carbon- cycle . ________
4. Trees take in oxygen like us. ________
4. Group the following words.
flowers
insects
mountains
seas
trees
fish
birds
land ice
grass
rivers
Fish ,
Animal life
THING IN NATURE
Trees,
Plant life
Landscape
5. Choose the best answer to complete the following statements .
1.
We can’t live without trees and other plant life because _________
a. they are beautiful .
b. we use them to make furniture and papers .
c. they produce the oxygen that we need to live .
57
2. Sea level will rise , and so ________
a. ice will melt .
b. global warming will get worse .
c. cities by the sea will flood .
3. The forests mean _________
a. homes for animals and plants .
b. more papers to write on .
c. money for loggers .
6. Match the words in list (A) with their partners in list (B) .
A
B
global
1.
carbon
2.
carbon
b. level
3.
global
c.
4.
sea
d. cycle
3.
a.
warming
dioxide
7. Read the text again quickly and complete the following sentences.
1. Trees _____________ and gives out O2.
2.
All the animals breathe in O2 and _____________ CO2 .
3.
Global warming happens when the level of _____________ is more than O .
4.
Plants and animals are partners in Earth's great _____________ .
LANGUAGE ONE
CONDITIONALS: Type Zero & Type One
Type 0
We use type O for general truths ( and things that always happen) and scientific facts .
Study these examples:
If clause
, Result clause
If you heat water at 100 C˚, it boils.
If air expands, it becomes lighter.
When trees take in CO2, they give out O2
When spring arrives, plants flower.
Rule : When / if + present simple , present simple .
Note: Use the simple present tense in both clauses
Type 1
We use type 1 to express something that may happen in the future. That is, what might happen under
certain conditions. The If clause states the condition and the result clause states the results.
Study these examples:
58
If clause
,
Result clause
If we don't stop cutting down trees , we will destroy the environment.
If we disturb the balance between O2 and CO2, temperatures will rise .
Rule: If + present simple , will + infinitive.
Note : We can start with the main clause before the if clause.
Temperatures will rise if we disturb the balance between O2 and CO2.
REMEMBER !
1. Even though the if clause refers to future, use the simple present tense.
2. Use the comma between clauses only if the if clause comes first.
1. Write about things that always happen. Use when . The first example is done for you.
1.
winter ( end ) / the temperature ( begin ) to rise
2.
When winter ends , the temperature begins to rise .__
water ( reach ) 100 ºc / it ( boil )
3.
autumn ( come ) / trees ( lose ) their leaves
4.
animals ( produce ) CO2 / they ( breathe ) out
5.
Blood ( come )out / you (cut ) your finger
2. Write about things that may happen. Use If .
1.
we ( cut ) more and more trees , the CO2 level ( increase )
If we cut more and more trees , the CO2 level will increase._
2.
you ( help ) us , we ( finish)the work soon .
_________________________________________________________
3.
forests ( disappear ) if we ( continue )cutting down trees.
_________________________________________________________
4.
many animals ( lose) their only home / we ( clear ) the forests
_________________________________________________________
3. Match if-clauses in column A with result clauses in column B.
A
B
1. If you mix yellow and blue ,
a. it burns.
2. When it rains ,
b. he takes an aspirin .
3. If you leave meat in the oven
for a long time ,
c. people carry umbrellas .
4. When Ali has a headache ,
d. you get a green colour.
59
4. Circle the correct choice a, b, or c .
1.
If Mark ……….. the boat , we will go fishing .
a.
repair
b. repairs
c. repaired
2. If she calls me ,I ..................... her the news .
a. tell
b. tells
c. will tell
3. If mum ........................ dinner, we will order a pizza.
a. don't cook
b. doesn't cook
c. cooks
4. You will burn yourself if you...................... careful.
a. are
b. aren't
c. be
5. If Rawan doesn't come early , she .................... dinner with us .
a. will have
b. won't have
Note: The short form of will not is
c. has.
won't .
PRONUNCIATION
1. Practice your pronunciation: /t∫/ as in watch and /∫ / as in wash.
a. He is being given a wash .
A
B
sheep
sheet
shop
wash
dish
cash
cheap
cheat
chop
Watch
ditch
catch
b. He is being given a watch .
2. Listen then read aloud.
The children were having a football match on the beach. Charles scored a goal and
everybody cheered.
Charles was not so lucky with his next ball. John managed to catch the ball and that was
the end of the match. Charles sat on a chair when everybody was leaving the beach .
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LANGUAGE TWO
Unreal Conditionals: Type 2
We use type 2 to express an imaginary or improbable situation which is unlikely to happen in the
present or future. That is, we use it to talk about unreal, untrue, imaginary or impossible conditions
and their results.
Study these examples:
If clause
,
Result clause
If I had money, I would buy a car
If we knew the importance of trees , we would never cut them .
If Ali knew the answer, he would answer the teacher.
If I were rich, I would travel to Paris
Rule: If + past simple , would + infinitive.
Note: Use the simple past tense in the if clause and would + infinitive in the result clause.
REMEMBER !
1. The if clause use simple past tense, but the meaning is not past.
If I had money, I would buy a car means I don’t have money now.
2. Don’t use would in the if clause in the present unreal conditional sentences.
NOT If we would know the importance of trees, we would never cut them.
3. Use were for all subjects when the verb in the if clause is a form of be.
If I were rich, I would travel to Paris NOT If I was rich,……
4. Use a comma between the two clause if the if clause comes first.
If Ali knew the answer, he would answer the teacher.
OR
Ali would answer the teacher if he knew the answer.
5. The shortened form of would is ‘d.
I ‘d leave early if she called me.
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, as in the example.
1.
If someone played ( play ) loud music late at night, I'd complain .
2.
If I _______ (buy)this jacket for you, would you wear it ?
3. If we moved from our house, I _______ ( miss) my friends .
4. If Layan _______ ( have )time , she would learn how to type .
5. If she studied harder, she _______
( not ,fail ) her tests .
6. If Rania were rich , she _______ ( travel ) around the world .
2. Use the prompts to make sentences, as in the example below.
1.
( repair my bicycle
ride it)
If I repaired my bicycle ,I could ride it.
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2.
(get lost
ask for help )
______________________________________.
3. (exercise more often
be fit )
______________________________________ .
4. ( win a million dollar
stop working )
______________________________________ .
3. Look at the pictures and the prompts and ask questions ,as in the example below.
1.
(send my mother red tulips/ yellow tulips.)
A: Shall I send my mother red tulips ?
B : If I were you ,I'd send her yellow tulips .
2.
( eat/burger/an apple.)
A: _Shall I a burger?________________________ .
B : ________________________________________ .
3.
( visit UK/Canada.)
A: ________________________________________ .
B : ________________________________________ .
4. Complete the sentences below about yourself.
1. If I lived near the sea , __________________________________.
2. If I went to Paris , __________________________________.
3. If my favourite team won the match , __________________________________.
4. If I spoke Spanish fluently __________________________________.
5. Use the prompts below to complete the following sentences.
1. buy pizza,
2. send an email to his friend
3. go to the park,
4. go skiing
1. We are not hungry.
If were hungry , we would buy a pizza .
2. Hisham is at school .
If he weren't at school ,
_______________________________.
3. Basil does not have a computer.
If he had a computer, ___________________________.
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4. It doesn't snow where Jawad lives.
If it snowed where Jawad lives, _______________________.
SPEAKING
1. Read the following discussion on a radio program called Save the World with Dr, Hussein,
an environmentalist, and Ms. Kate from Green Peace.
The Radio Presenter:
Dr. Hussein:
Ms. Kate:
What should we do to save the world?
I think people around the world should act immediately to save the
planet. If we do not stop dumping the poisonous wastes from
factories into rivers and seas, the environment will be destroyed soon.
I completely agree. And we cannot also ignore the hunting of wild animals and
the destruction of their natural habitats. Unless something is done, they
will disappear soon.
Discuss the following topics with your partners. Use the model above.
Note: Use the ideas written in italics and your own ideas, too.
a. dumping poisonous wastes from factories into rivers and seas / environment will be
destroyed
b. cutting down trees to have more lands for crops / this will cause deforestation
c. hunting wild animals like deer, rabbits or birds and destroying their habitat / a large
number of animals will become extinct
d. throwing away plastic water bottles / this will pollute the land
e. burning city dumps / this will pollute the air and harm our health
REMEMBER
Use the following phrases: I agree with you
It ‘s true, but…
I completely / partly agree
You’re right
WRITING
TOPIC SENTENCE & SUPPORTING SENTENCES
The topic sentence is
the main idea of the paragraph. That is, what is the
paragraph about.
The supporting sentences
develop the topic sentence by giving specific details
about the topic .You can do that by asking questions about the topic sentence a. ( See
exercise 1)
In order to support your topic sentence, you can explain , describe, or give
examples.
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Look at this organization chart for the topic sentence.
TOPIC
SENTENCE
SUPPORTING
SENTENCE
SUPPORTING
SENTENCE
1. Underline the topic sentence (that tells you about the main idea). Then write ONE
supporting sentence for the topic sentence. The first one is done for you.
A. Long ago, the life was different from today. Most people were farmers . They used to
grew their own food . They made almost everything they needed. Nobody used to eat
canned food or drink bottled water .The garbage was less and there were no
dumps.
Note: The writer here explains his topic sentence. He tells us how the life long ago was different from today’s life.
B. Schools were different then ,too. Children of all ages learned together in the same room.
They shared books and slates . No trees were cut to make books or pencils
__________________________________________________________ .
C. The land and the air were clean .There were only a few cars so the smoke was less and
fuel use was limited. Only several factories were there, so no waste products were
produced_______________________________________________.
2. Choose the best topic sentence that connects with this title SAVE THIS BEAUTIFUL ANIMAL
Topic sentences:
a. Giant pandas are beautiful animals
b. Giant pandas come from china .
c. Giant Pandas are a species in great danger.
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3. Read the sentence parts a-e and 1-5 ,then match them . Use them to write a paragraph
supporting the topic sentence above.
a. They have always been in china’s
forests ,
1. zoos in china and other countries
were trying hard to increase their
numbers.
b. This happened because
2. and there are now about 1,600 in the
wild
c. However, many have survived
because
3. but recently they have nearly
disappeared there.
d. Because of this,
4. people had cut down a lot of Pandas’
forest environment .
e. The first one went back in 2006,
5. they can now put some pandas back
into safe areas of forest.
Begin like this:
Pandas are beautiful animals. They have always been in China’s forests, but recently they
have disappeared. ….…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………….…………………….…….…..............................................................................................................
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……
………….. The first one went back in 2006, and there are now about 1,600 in the wild.
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AT THE RESTAURANT
READING & VOCABULARY
Before you read.
1. Look at the picture then answer the question.
a.
Where was this picture taken?
b. What are the men and women doing ?
c.
Who are they?
2. Listen to this dialogue, then answer the questions that follow :
Waiter : Can I help you, Sir?
Ali : Yes, I'd like to have some lunch.
Waiter: Would you like a starter?
Ali: Yes, I'd like a bowl of chicken soup, please.
Waiter: And what would you like for the main course?
Ali: I'd like a grilled cheese sandwich.
Waiter: Would you like anything to drink?
Ali: Yes, I'd like a glass of Coke, please.
Waiter: (After Ali had his lunch) Can I bring you anything else?
Ali: No, thank you. Just the bill.
Waiter: Certainly, sir.
Ali: I don't have my glasses. How much is the lunch?
Waiter: That's $6.75.
Ali: Here you are. Thank you very much.
Waiter: You're welcome. Have a good day.
Ali: Thank you.
3. Read the dialogue silently, then answer the questoins.
a. What kind of starters did Ali order at the restaurant?
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b. What did he order for the main course?
c. How much did the meal cost him?
4. Decide if these statements are True or False.
a. Ali went to the restaurant in the morning. (
)
b. Ali ordered for a drink a glass of apple juice. (
c. Ali couldn’t read the sum he had to pay. (
)
)
Notice how the waiter asks, ‘What would you like…?’ And how Ali responds, ‘I ‘d like …’
We use would like for requesting and asking for things politely.
DIALOGUE RECONSTRUCTION
5. Have a quick look at the dialouge then fill in the blanks. Reread the text to check out your
answers.
Waiter: Hello, Can I _____________ you?
Ahmad : Yes, _____________ to have some lunch.
Waiter: _____________ a starter?
Ali: Yes, I'd like a bowl of chicken soup_____________.
Waiter: And what _____________ for the main course?
Ali: I'd like a grilled cheese sandwich.
Waiter: Would you like_____________ to drink?
Ali : Yes, I'd like a glass of Coke, please.
Waiter... After Ali has his lunch.: Can I bring you anything else?
Ali: No thank you. Just the _____________ waiter :Certainly .
Ali :I don’t have my glasses. _____________ is the lunch ?
Waiter :That’s 6.75 dollar.
Ali: _____________ Thank you very much .
Waiter _____________.Have a good day.
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6. Match the waiter’s questions with the customer’s responses. Then write them in a form of a
dialogue
A. Ordering a Meal at Restaurant
WAITER
1. Can I help you?
2. Would you like a starter?
3. What would you like for the main
course?
4. Would you like anything to drink?
5. Would you like anything else?
6. Could I have the bill, please?
CUSTOMER
a. Yes, could I see the menu, please?
b. A cup of coffee, please.
c. No, thank you.
d. I 'll have steak and chicken breast.
e. Certainly.
f.
I ‘d like some salad , please.
B. The Dialogue
Waiter: Can I help you?
Customer: Yes, Could I see the menu, please?
Waiter: ______________________________________
Customer: _____________________________________
Waiter: ______________________________________
Customer: _____________________________________
Waiter: ______________________________________
Customer: _____________________________________
Waiter: ______________________________________
Customer: _____________________________________
Waiter: ______________________________________
Customer: _____________________________________
LANGUAGE USED DURING A MEAL
If you'd like to get the waiter's attention, the most polite way is simply to say:
Excuse me!
These are some other phrases you may hear or wish to use during your meal.
Enjoy your meal! , Bon appétit!
If you have a problem during the meal, you could say :
This
This
This
This
isn't what I ordered.
food's cold.
is too salty.
doesn't taste right.
If you want to pay the bill, you can say:
The bill, please.
Could I have the bill, please?
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SPEAKING
1. Work in pairs .Order food from the menu. Change roles.
2. Work in groups . Act out the dialogue below.
Would you like some biscuits?
That looks nice.
It looks
good
That looks tasty
It tastes delicious. It’s
wonderful.
It’s awful. It doesn’t
taste good.
Mother :( offering you some biscuits) Would you like some biscuits?
Girl: ( wanting to try) that looks good /nice / interesting .
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Boy: ( wanting to try )its tasty /lovely/excellent/wonderful.)
You don’t like it: it's awful /terrible .it doesn't taste good /nice
You like it: it’s delicious/ It tastes good/nice.
LISTENING
Before you listen.
1. Look at the menu. What would you like to eat?
Waiter: Good evening , sir. What can I get you
tonight?
Old City Restaurant
Menu
Salem: I'll have fish ,please .
Starter
Waiter: What about a starter ,sir ? Hummus will
be
very good .
Soup
Hummus
Eggplant salad
Sfeehah
Tomato and cucumber salad
Salem :No, thank you.
Main course
Waiter: Will you have a dessert ,sir ?
Maklouba
kabab
Fish and chips
Grilled Cheese sandwiches
Grilled meat :steak /chicken
Salem: Oh, yes . I'll have a fruit salad ,please .
Waiter: What would you like to drink ,Sir?
Dessert
Salem :Give me an orange juice ,please .
Fruit salad
Ice-cream
Cheese cake
Waiter :Very good, that's fish followed by fruit
salad and an orange juice.
Drinks
Orange juice
Coffee tea
Soft drinks
Salem :Thank you
2. Listen and fill in the gaps in the box below :
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WRITING
(Main Idea)
A main idea tells the topic of the paragraph and what the paragraph says about the topic .
Read each of the following paragraphs .Underline the sentence that tells us the main idea .
Then write two sentences that give details about the main idea .
The Palestinians have a very healthy traditional diet . They eat a lot of olive oil and vegetables , and
these are very good for the body . Things like tomatoes and onions appear in hundreds of dishes .
1.
MI. The Palestinians have a very healthy traditional diet
2
D They eat a lot of olive oil and vegetables , and these are very good for the
body.
Let's look at some of the ingredients that are used in making the most famous traditional dish in
Palestine - Musakhan . To make Musakhan, we need some onions and also some olive oil. Then we
need some loaves of traditional Palestinian bread which is called Taboon .
1.
_____________________________________________________________________
2.
_____________________________________________________________________
And now let's cook this great Palestinian dish . First , Cut the onions into small pieces .Then heat 56 cups of olive oil and start cooking the onions . Add all the spices with salt to the onions .
1.
_____________________________________________________________________
2.
_____________________________________________________________________
Now write about another traditional Palestinian dish ( Mansaf, Makloubah, or Mujaderah)
using the same paragraph organization.
The Palestinians have a very healthy traditional diet . They eat a lot of olive oil and vegetables , and
these are very good for the body . Things like tomatoes and onions appear in hundreds of dishes .
Let's look at some of the ingredients that are used in making the famous traditional dish ___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
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A FRIEND IN NEED IS A FRIEND INDEED
READING & VOCABULARY
Before you read .
Answer these questions.
1.
2.
3.
Do you have a friend ? Who is he\she?
Have you ever helped him \ her ? How ?
What does this proverb, “ A friend in need is a friend indeed” mean?
Friends
Lubna and Mariam are friends. Ali, Mariam's son, fell from a tree and
broke his arm yesterday morning. Mariam asked for her friend’s help.
Lubna came immediately. She rushed Ali to the hospital and
stayed with him for several hours. Now, she is calling her friend, who has
gone to hospital to stay with her son
Lubna:
Hello, Mariam .What's the news from the hospital ?
How's Ali ? Hope he’s well.
Mariam:
Much better, thanks .He is sitting up in bed now.
Lubna:
Great! You sound relaxed now. You were very upset and angry yesterday morning
Mariam:
Yes, I thought he might have several broken bones. Luckily, he has some bruises,
twisted ankle, and broken arm.
Lubna:
That's why you looked really frightened.
Mariam:
Well , now the doctor says he ‘ll be fine. He wants to discharge him tomorrow. But
Listen, Lubna. I want to say sorry for yesterday.
Lubna:
Oh, is it because you were angry? It's O.K .
Mariam:
Thanks, Lubna. I was angry because I didn’t know what to do.
Lubna:
It’s all right. Don’t worry about it.
When people are friends , they should help each other .
Mariam:
That makes me feel a lot better.
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1. Read and find in the dialogue .
1.
Who are the friends mentioned in the text ?
2. What is Lubna doing now ?
3. Why did Lubna call Mariam while she was in hospital ?
2. Read the text again then choose the best answer.
1) Ali went to hospital after falling off a tree,… .
a. and he may die .
b. and he is getting better .
c. but he was out of hospital and in bed at home by last night .
2) Mariam called Lubna to… .
a. invite her to Ali's birthday party.
b. take Ali to the hospital by her car.
c. help because she's a doctor.
3) Ali fell down and broke his arm while … .
d. he was climbing a tree .
e. he was playing football .
f.
he was riding his bike .
3. Read the text again. Find the opposites to the words in List (A) and write them in list (B).
1. rose
1. _____________
2. after a while
2. _____________
3. left
3. _____________
4. worse
4. _____________
5. after
5. _____________
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LANGUAGE
REPORTED SPEECH
Direct Speech states the exact words a speaker uses. In writing ,we use quotation marks (“ ”) in
direct speech .
" I need your help, " Lubna said .
“ Come early and bring your workbook,” said the teacher.
Reported speech reports what a speaker said without using the exact words . There are no
quotation marks. We use an introductory ( reporting ) verb such say or tell. They are usually in the
simple past.
Lubna said ( that ) she needed her help .
The teacher told us to come early and bring our workbooks.
* When the introductory verb is in the present tense or when the sentence expresses
something which is always true ( general truth ) ,there are no changes in the verb tenses in
reported speech .
Direct Speech
Reported
she says ,“ Jerusalem is the capital city of Palestine .”
she said ( that ) Jerusalem is the capital city of Palestine.
REPORTED STATEMENTS.
* When you report statements, use the introductory verb in the past tense and change the verb
tenses as follows:
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
Present Simple
“ I want to go out ,” he said .
Present continuous
“ She is playing music ,” he said .
Past Simple
He said ( that ) he wanted to go out.
Past continuous
He said ( that ) she was playing music.
Present Perfect
“ They have finished ,” he said .
Past simple
“I went out ,” he said .
Future simple
“ I will call ,” he said .
Past Perfect
He said ( that ) they had finished.
Past Perfect
He said ( that ) he had gone out.
Conditional ( would )
He said ( that ) he would call.
In direct speech, change time phrases and certain words as follows :
Direct Speech
* Tonight , today , this week \month etc.
* now
* yesterday, last night \week etc.
* tomorrow, next week \month etc.
* two days\ months etc. ago
* this ,these
Reported Speech
* that night ,that day ,that week\month etc .
* then, at that time
* the day before ,the previous night\week etc.
* the next day , following week \ month etc.
* two days \months etc. before
* that ,those
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1. Fill in the gaps with the correct pronoun or possessive adjectives ,as in the example .
a. Ali said,“ I have lost my wallet . ”
Ali said that _he_ had lost __his_ wallet .
b. Rania said ,“ My brother is going to take me to the station . ”
Rania said that ........ brother was going to take ............ to the station .
c. Aziza said , “ I want you to have dinner with me tomorrow night . ”
Aziza said that..... wanted ........to have dinner with .......the following night.
d. Rawan said , “ I will buy a new sofa for my living room . ”
Rawan said that .......... would buy a new sofa for ............ living room.
e. Adel and Rahma said, “ We're going to have a barbecue party at our backyard next
weekend . ”
Adel and Rahma said that........ were going to have a barbecue party at ...................
backyard ,the following weekend .
2.
Change the following direct statements into reported speech, as in the example .
a. “I'll go to the dentist ,” she said .
She said ( that ) she would go to the dentist .
b. “We are leaving tomorrow ,” mum and dad said .
...........................................................................................
c.
“I forgot to call my friend ,” said Laila.
.............................................................................................
d. “I've brought you some flowers,” mum said .
.............................................................................................
3. Change the following statements from direct speech into reported speech ,as in the
example.
1. “The sun sets in the west ,” the teacher said .
He said that the sun sets in the west .
Tenses do not change –General Truth.
2.
“Penguins can't fly ,” he said.
........................................................................................
........................................................................................
3. “I don't like milk,” she said.
........................................................................................
........................................................................................
4. “They will go shopping tomorrow,” she said .
........................................................................................
........................................................................................
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In indirect speech, the verb tense change is optional when reporting:
a. something someone has just said
A: “ I ‘m tired,” he just said.
B: He said he is tired OR He said he was tired
b. something that is still true
She said that she doesn’t like milk. OR (didn’t)
c. a general truth or scientific law. He said that the earth goes round the sun OR went
4. Complete each sentence and include the word in bold , as in the example.
had
He said that he had graduated two years before_ .
2. “Mary will visit us next summer ,” she said .
would ................................................................................
3. “Dolphins are very intelligent animals ,” said the teacher .
were The teacher said that ..........................................................
4. “Hisham invited me to his wedding ,” Adel said .
invited Adel said that ..................................................................
Change the pronouns, time expressions, this and here in indirect speech to keep the speakers
original meaning.
REPORTED SPEECH: Request & Command
In order to convert orders and commands into reported speech, the imperative ( do ) that exists in
direct speech is changed into infinitive ( to do ).
Direct speech
Reported speech
Ali said to me, “Open the window.”
He told me to open the window.
“Don’t use my mobile, Suha,” Rania said.
She told her not to use her mobile.
The teacher said, “Come early.”
He told them to come early.
In order to convert request into reported speech, the imperative that exists in direct speech is
changed into infinitive.
Direct speech
Reported speech
“ Please let me know when she comes,”
Ibrahim said to Ahmad.
Ibrahim asked Ahmad to let him know when she
comes.
Samia said to Laila, “ Would you lend me
your pen , please?
Samia asked Laila to lend her her pen.
Note: Use
the reporting verb tell or order to report orders or commands.
Use the reporting verb ask to report requests.
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1. Change these sentences into reported speech. Use the given word.
1.
‘ Give me the money!’ the thief said to the boy. ( order)
The thief ordered the boy to give him the money.
2.
She said, ‘ Don’t make noise, Sami.’ ( told)
She __________________________________________
3. Suha said to Fadi , ‘Could you bring me a cup of tea, please?’ (ask)
She __________________________________________
4. ‘Please meet me at the library at 10:30.’ Shadi said to him. (ask)
He __________________________________________
5. ‘Stop talking!’ The teacher said to the student. (order)
She __________________________________________
LISTENING
1. Discuss these questions.
a. Which is more important in life: good friends or a lot of money ?
b. What do friends do for each other ? or What are friends for?
2. Listen to the poem and say what it is about.
FFR
RIIEEN
ND
DSSH
HIIPP
Friendship is a priceless gift
That can't be bought and sold.
But its value is far greater,
Than a mountain made of gold .
For gold is cold and lifeless.
It can neither see nor hear,
And in the time of trouble It is powerless to cheer.
It has no ears to listen nor heart to understand,
It cannot bring you comfort, or reach out a helping hand .
So when you ask God for a gift,
Be thankful if he sends
Not diamonds, pearls or riches,
But the love of real true friends .
Helen Steiner Rice
1.
Make the pairs of words that rhyme aa, bb, cc etc.
2.
Now listen to the poem again and answer the questions.
a.
What things does the writer compare friendship with in the poem?
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b. Why is friendship better than gold?
c.
3.
If you received the gift of friendship, how would it be different from a gift of gold or riches?
Now listen to your teacher's explanation, then work out the meanings.
Lifeless
a. without life
b. with less life
neither....nor
a. not (one thing )and not ( another thing )
b. perhaps (one thing ) or (another thing )
riches
a. rich people
b. money , diamonds , etc
REPORTED SPEECH: Reported Questions
We introduce reported questions with ask or want to know .
To report questions, begin with question word (who, where, when, why, what etc) and
invert the verb + subject order.
Direct speech
"where do you live ? " she asked me.
Reported speech
she asked me where I lived.
Note: Change verb tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives as in statements.
When the direct question is a yes / no question (which begins with an auxiliary verb (do, be, etc )
or a modal verb (can, will etc), the reported question begins with if or whether .
Direct speech
Reported speech
“ Have you got a pet?” he asked me.
He asked me if /whether I had got a pet .
1. Read what these people said and write each statement or question in reported speech.
1. “ Have you forgotten the meeting? ”asked the manager.
He asked him whether he had forgotten the meeting.
2. “ Are you all right? ”
They asked him ................................................
3. “ I'm working late today .”
He told his wife that ..........................................
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2. Change these questions from direct into reported speech, as in the example.
a.
“ Do you like playing volleyball? ”Adel asked Hassan .
Adel asked Hassan if /whether he liked playing volleyball .
b. “ What do you want for lunch? ”mother asked .
..................................................................................................
c.
Hisham asked,“ Have you ever seen a camel? ”
....................................................................................................
d. “How old are you ?” Aziza asked me .
....................................................................................................
e.
“Is Salem your best friend ?” she asked .
....................................................................................................
LISTENING & SPEAKING
SENTENCE STRESS
1. Listen to your teacher saying the following sentence in four different ways. Notice how
the underlined words are pronounced.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ali jumped out of the car.
Ali jumped out of the car.
Ali jumped out of the car.
Ali jumped out of the car.
2. Now listen and underline sounds that are stressed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lubna is my best friend.
Our English test will be tomorrow.
Mariam's son fell from a tree.
I visited my cousins three weeks ago.
3. Work with your partner .Do a short role play.
B:
A:
.
.
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You could use these phrases:
Hello, I’m so glad to meet you. So, what brings you here? How are you? I’m very
well, thank you. And how are you? Pretty well, thanks. It’s been ages since we
last met. What are you doing nowadays? I’m an engineer. I work at a big
company. See you. Goodbye. Could you give me your email or mobile phone
number? Certainly.
4. Read the following sample dialogue and act it out.
Ahmad: Ali ! It's really great to see you again!
Ali: Yes, it really is ! How are you ?
Ahmad: Oh, fine . It's been nine years since we last met . How are you ?
Ali: I'm fine .The world really is a small place !So, Ahmad , what have you been
doing?
Ahmad: I'm a food expert for the WFP. What about you?
Ali: That sounds like a good job . I'm an assistant Research Director at
the Ministry of Education .
Ahmad: Well ,I ‘m afraid I have to say goodbye, but please keep in touch .We should
swap email addresses .
Ali: Yes, of course. Here's my card .
Ahmad: See you.
WRITING
CONCLUDING SENTENCE
The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph. It gives a
final comment on the topic and leaves the reader with the most
important idea to think about.
End of Paragraph Transitions
In short
Finally
In conclusion
In summary
In brief
Therefore
To conclude
To summarize
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1. Choose the concluding sentence from a, b, or c.
. ……………………………………………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
a. Finally, its cities are clean and efficiently managed
b. Workers there get high salaries.
c. Its doctors are well-educated.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..
To conclude, they have even killed them in large number.
In short, these rodents continue to prove that they are the most powerful of all enemies.
In spite of all this, they have used germ warfare again.
1.
Underline the concluding sentence in this paragraph.
2. Read the following paragraph about the the Chinese medicine, then write the concluding
sentence
In stead of focusing on a patient’s health problems, Chinese medicine tries to make the patient’s
whole body well again. Doctors of chinese medicine believe that a human body has two types of
energy: one is active, the other passive. When there is too much of passive enery, a person
becomes ill. Chinese medicine doctors’ treatment focuses on keeping a balance between the
types of energy the body has. Therefore, they give a patient a mixture of herbs to achieve the
balance once again. In other words, they don’t give a paitient an ordinary medicine to fight the
disease. In summary, when the human body is in balance, it works naturally.
:
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