Complementary feeding Bridging the gaps

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Complementary feeding
Bridging the gaps
Complementary feeding
Giving other foods in addition to breast milk
Breast milk only is not sufficient
To fill the gaps
breast milk will replaced by family foods
Complementary food should be:
Rich in energy and nutrients
Clean and safe
Easy to prepare from family foods
Locally available and affordable
When should complementary foods be
• At 6 months
• The age when the digestive system is mature
enough to digest a range of foods
When should complementary foods be
• Children :
– Can control their tongues better
– Start to make up and down munching movement
– Start to get teeth
– Like to put things in their mouths and are
interested in new tastes
Training material
Project Satellite
What are good complementary foods?
– Rich in energy, protein
– Micronutrient – Vitamin A, iron, Vitamin C
– Clean and safe
– Not too peppery or salty
Staple food/energy giving
• Main food eaten
• Cereals
– Rice
– Wheat
– Maize
• Roots
– Potato
– Sweet potato
– cassava
• Good sources of protein
• Examples
– Lentils
– Broad beans
– Chick pea
Training material
Project Satellite
Food from animals
Milk + milk products
Training material
Project Satellite
Dark green leafy vegetables
• Good sources of iron and Vitamin A
– Pumpkin leaves
– Chayote “Chouchou” leaves
– Spinach
– Amaranthus ( brede malbar)
Orange coloured vegetables and fruits
• Orange coloured vegetables
– Carrot
– Pumpkin
– zucchini
• Orange coloured fruits
– Mango
– Pawpaw
– orange
High iron food
• Liver
• Animal flesh – red meat
• Foods fortified with iron
– Fortified infant cereals
• Iron absorption is increased by:
Eating foods rich in vitamin C
Animal source iron
To increase energy value of food
• Thin watery food will not contain enough
energy and nutrients
• To make food more energy and nutrient
– Cook with less water
– make thicker porridge
To increase energy value of food
– Replace the water with milk
– Add extra energy and nutrients
• Powder milk powder, margarine, butter
– Toast cereal grains before grinding them into flour
• It will not thicken much
Training material
Project Satellite
Filling the gaps
• A mixture of complementary foods is the best
way to fill the gaps
• For the healthy growth and development
• During a day, a good mixture is
– Staple food + pulse + animal food + green leaves
or an orange coloured vegetable or fruit
Example of a day’s complementary
• 3 meals:
– A morning meal of cereal porridge
– A midday meal of rice + beans + orange
– An evening meal of rice + fish (or liver) + green
• 2 snacks:
– Banana
– Bread with margarine
How food items can fill in the gaps?
Food items
Gaps filled
Protein, small effect on iron gap, oil seeds
will have an effect on energy gap
Improves iron absorption, little effect on
vit A gap
Fills protein gap, small effect on iron gap,
improves iron absorption
Dark green leafy vegetables
Provides some iron, fills vit A gap
Fills protein gap, fills iron gap, fills vitamin
A gap
Training material
Project Satellite
Good snacks
• Mashed ripe banana, paw-paw, avocado,
mango and other fruits
• Yoghurt, milk, puddings made with milk
• Bread or chappati with butter, margarine
• Biscuit, crackers
• Baked potatoes
Training material
Project Satellite
• Drinks for young children should
be clean and safe
– Boil water, wash fruit before juicing
– Drinks should not replace solid food or breast milk
– If drinks are given with meal, Give drinks at the
end of meals
– Teas and coffee reduce iron absorbtion
Training material
Project Satellite
How much and how often?
• Start by giving one or two teaspoon twice
• Gradually increase the amount and variety (by
9 months, a child should be eating a variety of
family foods
Training material
Project Satellite
Rice pudding with peach
• Rice Pudding with Peach
• Preparation : 5 minutes
Cooking : 15-20 minutes
Time total : 20-25 minutes
• Equipment :
• Shopping
1 fresh ripe peach (approximately 110g, stone
30g uncooked risotto rice
60 ml (4tbsp) of baby’s usual milk*
Training material
Project Satellite
Rice pudding with peach
• Recipe details
1. Wash, peel, stone and finely dice the peach.
2. Place the diced peach, rice and milk into a saucepan
with 100ml water. Heat gently and bring to the boil,
then simmer for 15-20 minutes until the rice is tender,
stirring occasionally. Do not add any sugar.
• Suggestions/tips
Good to know: To increase your baby’s milk
consumption, replace the water with baby’s usual milk.
*This can be expressed breast milk or follow-on
formula made up as per instructions on pack.
Training material
Project Satellite
Vegetable pilaff
• Preparation : 5 minutes
Cooking : 10 minutes
Time total : 15 minutes
• Equipment :
Frying pan
Food processor
• Shopping
1 small onion, finely chopped (approximately 60g)
30g red pepper
50g dried apricots
15ml (1 tbsp) rapeseed or olive oil
5ml (1 tsp) mild curry powder
160g cooked basmati rice
50g frozen peas
75ml natural yoghurt (approximately half a small carton)
Training material
Project Satellite
Vegetable pilaff
• Recipe details
1. Finely chop the onion and pepper and apricots.
2. Heat the oil in the frying pan and gently sauté the onion and
pepper with the curry powder.
3. Stir in the cooked basmati, peas and apricots, heat gently, stirring
until warmed through.
4. Stir in the yoghurt. Mash the mixture or blend in a food
processor to make a chunky mixture.
• Suggestions/tips
If you wish to freeze the second portion omit the natural yoghurt,
then simply freeze the remaining portion in a clean sealable
Other delicious vegetables to include are okra, courgette, carrot, in
fact, any of your child’s favourites.
Training material
Project Satellite

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