If there are “CUES” listed within the question, please USE them and UNDERLINE them in your answer!
Learning Log Chapter 2
1. Review the discussion of emergent properties in Chapter 1. Explain how table salt and water have emergent
2. If you were a pharmaceutical researcher, why would you want to learn the three dimensional shapes of naturally
occurring signal molecules? Be thorough. (CUES: receptors, function, binding, structure)
3. Provide 3 common trace elements important to human beings. Is a trace element an essential element?
4. In humans, iron is a trace element required for the proper functioning of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries
oxygen in red blood cells. What might be the effects of iron deficiency? (CUES: function, protein, structure)
5. Why does the structure H-C=C-H fail to make sense chemically? (CUES: valence electrons, bonds, stable)
6. Describe 2 biological applications that use radioactive isotopes.
7. Write an equation that uses the products of photosynthesis as reactants, and the reactants of photosynthesis
as products. Add energy as another product. This new equation describes a process that occurs in your cells.
Describe this equation in words. How does this equation relate to breathing? (CUES: food, oxygen, metabolism)
Learning Log Chapter 3
1. Describe how the properties of water contribute to the upward movement of water in a tree. (CUES: adhesion,
cohesion, polar, hydrogen bonds)
2. What is electronegativity? What would be the effect on the properties of the water molecule if oxygen and
hydrogen had equal electronegativity? Why? (CUES: attraction, polar, non-polar)
3. Water striders have legs that are coated with a hydrophobic substance. What might be the benefit? What
would happen if the substance were hydrophilic?
4. Explain the saying “It’s not the heat, it’s the humidity.” (CUES: evaporative cooling)
5. How can the freezing of water crack boulders? (CUES: hydrogen bonds, density)
6. Compared with a basic solution at pH 10, the same volume of an acidic solution at pH 2 has ___ times
as many protons (H+)? Show your work.
7. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) can act as a buffer, similar to carbonic acid. Write the dissociation,
identifying the acid, base, H+ acceptor, & H+ donor.
Learning Log Chapter 4
1. How do the properties of carbon allow it to be the basis of most life forms on Earth? Explain in detail. (CUES:
bonds, valence electrons, variation, isomers)
2. Review cell membrane structure on p. 125 & p. 127. How are fatty substances & cell membranes chemically
similar? How do these properties allow fatty substances to pass readily through most cellular membranes? (CUES:
3. In what ways does a methyl group differ chemically from the other 6 functional groups?
4. Draw the 6 functional groups and state the common name for each. Also, indicate whether each is polar or nonpolar & list at least one biological compound (found in living things!) that contains each functional group. (CUES:
cysteine, ATP, cholesterol, histamine, lactic acid, ribose)
5. Suppose you had an organic molecule such as glycine (see figure 4.10) and you chemically removed the
–NH2 group and replaced it with the –COOH group. How would this change the chemical properties of the molecule?
(CUES: proton, acceptor, donor, acid, base)
6. What chemical change occurs to ATP when it reacts with water & releases energy? (CUES: phosphate group,
Learning Log Chapter 5
Compare & contrast the 4 main classes of macromolecules. Include a labeled drawing of their monomers, 3
examples of each polymer & the polymers’ roles in organisms. Be thorough!
2. The basic formula for a carbohydrate is CH2O. Why, then, does glucose (C6H12O6) follow this formula but
sucrose (C12H22O11) does not? Explain. (CUES: water molecule, bond formation, dehydration synthesis)
3. After a cow is given antibiotics to treat an infection, the vet gives the animal a drink of “gut culture”
containing various prokaryotes. Why is this necessary & what would happen if the cow did not drink the “gut
culture”? (CUES: hydrolysis, cellulose, energy)
Compare & contrast saturated, unsaturated & trans fats. Why are unsaturated fats better for your
Describe the 4 levels of protein structure using Figure 5.20 to explain each level.
Draw the two amino acids, glutamic acid and lysine. Which as two carboxyl groups? (circle and label.) Which
has two amino groups? (circle and label) Also, draw a dipeptide made up of lysine and glutamic acid bound
together by a peptide bond. Identify the peptide bond with an arrow.
Suppose you have placed a protein in an aqueous environment. After consulting Figure 5.17, where would you
expect to find a region that is rich in the amino acids leucine, isoleucine & valine? Why? A region rich in serine,
threonine & glutamine? Why? (CUES: polar, non-polar, interior, exterior)
Use Figure 5.23 to explain how chaperonins help proteins fold into their proper shape.
Why is it beneficial for certain species of hot springs bacteria to have a higher proportion of G-C base pairs
and a lower proportion of A-T base pairs within their DNA?
Can Credit Question
Suppose you are eating a serving of chicken. What reactions must occur (& why) for the chicken protein to be
converted to protein in your body? (CUES: dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, bonds, polymers, monomers)