The Pokljuka plateau and its peat bogs

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The Goreljek Peat Bog Nature Trail gives the visitors a detailed presentation of the features of Pokljuka and raised
bogs. The trail is circular, spans about one kilometre and
has five educational stops equipped with information
boards. A surfaced path around the bog, supplemented
by an occasional floating floor or a bridge, ensures safe
walking. The trail welcomes visitors of all age groups.
Guided tours of the trail can be arranged with the Triglav
National Park Authority.
TH
p.
si
T + 386(0)4 57 80 200 E [email protected]
ww
w.
tn
recently, the pokljuka plateau has been under
considerable pressure. in addition to traditional activities, pokljuka is used for an increasing number of recreational activities
which adversely affect the area's biodiversity.
other changes are climate-induced. extraordinary weather phenomena such as storms,
floods, droughts and wind-throws, pest occurrence, changes in ecosystems and changed
in the biorhythms are among the challenges
which we will need to face in the future. in
turn, this requires certain changes and adaptations of management practices at national
and european levels. in the framework of the
HABIT-CHANGE project the triglav national
park participated in the preparation of reports
on adaptive management in central europe.
E
IT P PO
S L K
PE A LJ
AT TE U
BO AU KA
G &
S
THE GORELJEK PEAT BOG
NATURE TRAIL
0
STARTING POINT
5
10 km
GPS
E 4 6˚2 0’ 9.67”
N 1 3˚58’ 3.00”
VEGETATION ON THE BOG
FAUNA ON THE BOG
ANT- HILL
The leaflet was implemented through the habit-change project
which is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund
(central europe Programme).
tex t Tanja Menegalija,
Urška Smukavec
photogr aphs Aleš Zdešar,
Tanja Menegalija, Luka Markež,
Andreja Papež-Kristanc, Drago Videmšek,
Jure Kočan, Urška Smukavec
cartogr aphy Miha Marolt
l anguage editing Mojca Zemljak
tr ansl ation Darja Pretnar
design Idejološka ordinacija,
Silvija Černe
printed by Tiskarna knjigoveznica
Radovljica
number of copies 10.000
published by Triglav National Park,
May 2013
HUMAN ACTIVITY
BOG FACT FILE
0
75
Source: si Public Info, smars, dof (2011).
Cartography: jz tnp, 2013.
150 m
N
in fo leaflet tnp
THE POKLJUKA PLATEAU
& ITS PEAT BOGS
P
okljuka is the largest of the highland plateaus in
the Julian Alps. It stretches at an altitude of 1200 to
1500 meters, at the eastern edge of the Triglav National Park. To the south, the plateau descends towards
the Sava Bohinjka Valley, to the north-east it slopes towards the Radovna Valley, and in the north-west it extends as far as the mountain ridge above the valley of
Natural bridge Krma. Although Pokljuka’s even relief resembles that of
dinaric karst plateaus, glacier activity and pastoral economy have given it a distinct alpine appearance. Karst formations found on Pokljuka include shallow depressions
(konte), pits and caves. Retreating glaciers deposited
ground moraines on which hummocky meadows were
gradually formed.
Fresh surface water is scarce due to limestone bedrock;
most water sinks rapidly into the ground, flowing unseen
along the vast underground systems. At the foot of the
Lipnik spring plateau, hitting upon impermeable rock, ground water
bubbles to the surface in numerous karst springs. The
only surface water body on Pokljuka is the area of bogs,
former glacial lakes created by receding glaciers.
A number of archaeological sites recall the rich history of
Pokljuka. Surface bowl-shaped depressions resembling
lunar craters were long believed to be geological formations. However, it was later discovered that these were
actually opencast pits for bog iron, which was melted in
foundries to produce pig iron.
Bog iron
Forests are the most important natural resource of
Pokljuka. As nearly all available beech was cut to make
charcoal for the iron industry, spruce is now the predominating tree species. Due to site characteristics and
short vegetation period the spruce wood from Pokljuka
has specific resonating qualities (resonant wood). Today, beech wood is primarily used as fuel wood, while
spruce is used as timber.
Norway spruce
wood for timber
industry
Bohinj Cika cattle
Alpine dairy farming has a long-standing tradition on
the Pokljuka plateau. Today most cattle stay on Pokljuka
throughout the grazing season but in the past they only
grazed on the plateau for a short period of time before
they were herded to high-altitude pastures. Pokljuka
pasturelands are also a grazing grounds for an autochthonous cattle breed, the Bohinj cika. The reddish cattle with a typical white spot are known for their adaptability, long life period, excellent maternal instincts, and
stubborness. In summertime shepherds use cow milk to
make delicious Bohinj cheese.
The floral and faunal diversity of Pokljuka is also impressive. Large forests are home to countless inhabitants. The
undergrowth is thick with species which prefer the acidic
soil of spruce forests. Stag's-horn clubmoss, cranberries,
blueberries, wood sorrel and greater wood rush are just
several of the plants thriving in the shadow of spruce trees.
The diversity and abundance of mushroom species is most
evident in years when rain is plentiful. The variety of ecosystems and bounty of food attract many animals. Tree
canopies host a myriad of birds, including treecreepers,
ring ouzels, chaffinches, boreal owls, hazel grouses, capercaillies and several representatives of the Paridae family.
Red and roe deer graze in the open grasslands and forest
Most animals observed in a bog may otherwise be residents of other wetlands, nearby forests or meadows.
Permanent bog residents include several species of
dragonflies, true bugs, butterflies, water beetles, and
mosquito larvae.
clearings. Puddles and wet patches are home to several
amphibian species. In the group of large predators, the
wolf and brown bear are occasional visitors.
Extensive forests conceal a special ecosystem typical of
Pokljuka – peat bogs. Bogs are areas of stagnant water,
covered with a layer of peat ranging in size from several
Capercaillie decimeters to several metres and overgrown with bog
mosses.
The process of bog creation began after the last glacial
period. Glaciers receded, leaving small lakelets behind.
Throughout the millennia, these filled with organic debris of aquatic plants populating the lakes. Increasingly
acidic water promoted the growth and development
of certain plants. The area was settled by bog mosses
which are still the predominating species overgrowing
the bog surface. Bog mosses take roots in the upper
Common frog layers, and carbonise in lower layers. The surface grows
upwards steadily, creating a typical dome-shaped form
of a raised bog.
Apart from acidic soil, peat bogs are also characterized
by low nutrient supply and high differences in temperature between day and night. During evolution, plants
have developed different methods to adapt to these
conditions. Several species have developed the ability
to trap and eat animals, others obtain nutrients through
their partnership with fungi. Plants store water in storage
Shrubby lichen flasks, in tissue or in specially adapted organs. In order
to minimize water loss, several plants have developed
thick waxy leaf surfaces or extensive root systems.
Peat moss
Round-leaved
sundew
Peatbog
mushroom
Peat bogs are a very rare habitat in Slovenia, and can
only be found in their pristine form on the plateaus
Jelovica and Pokljuka and in the Pohorje mountain range.
At lower altitudes peat bogs were dried up to obtain
farmland or for peat production. A highly sensitive ecosystem, peat bogs are protected under the EU legislation
and included in the NATURA 2000 network.
Outstanding natural assets of Pokljuka give the plateau
an important role in establishing a permanent balance
between nature and man in the Triglav National Park
and wider, in Slovenia and Europe. •
White-faced darter
in fo leaflet tnp
THE POKLJUKA PLATEAU
& ITS PEAT BOGS
P
okljuka is the largest of the highland plateaus in
the Julian Alps. It stretches at an altitude of 1200 to
1500 meters, at the eastern edge of the Triglav National Park. To the south, the plateau descends towards
the Sava Bohinjka Valley, to the north-east it slopes towards the Radovna Valley, and in the north-west it extends as far as the mountain ridge above the valley of
Natural bridge Krma. Although Pokljuka’s even relief resembles that of
dinaric karst plateaus, glacier activity and pastoral economy have given it a distinct alpine appearance. Karst formations found on Pokljuka include shallow depressions
(konte), pits and caves. Retreating glaciers deposited
ground moraines on which hummocky meadows were
gradually formed.
Fresh surface water is scarce due to limestone bedrock;
most water sinks rapidly into the ground, flowing unseen
along the vast underground systems. At the foot of the
Lipnik spring plateau, hitting upon impermeable rock, ground water
bubbles to the surface in numerous karst springs. The
only surface water body on Pokljuka is the area of bogs,
former glacial lakes created by receding glaciers.
A number of archaeological sites recall the rich history of
Pokljuka. Surface bowl-shaped depressions resembling
lunar craters were long believed to be geological formations. However, it was later discovered that these were
actually opencast pits for bog iron, which was melted in
foundries to produce pig iron.
Bog iron
Forests are the most important natural resource of
Pokljuka. As nearly all available beech was cut to make
charcoal for the iron industry, spruce is now the predominating tree species. Due to site characteristics and
short vegetation period the spruce wood from Pokljuka
has specific resonating qualities (resonant wood). Today, beech wood is primarily used as fuel wood, while
spruce is used as timber.
Norway spruce
wood for timber
industry
Bohinj Cika cattle
Alpine dairy farming has a long-standing tradition on
the Pokljuka plateau. Today most cattle stay on Pokljuka
throughout the grazing season but in the past they only
grazed on the plateau for a short period of time before
they were herded to high-altitude pastures. Pokljuka
pasturelands are also a grazing grounds for an autochthonous cattle breed, the Bohinj cika. The reddish cattle with a typical white spot are known for their adaptability, long life period, excellent maternal instincts, and
stubborness. In summertime shepherds use cow milk to
make delicious Bohinj cheese.
The floral and faunal diversity of Pokljuka is also impressive. Large forests are home to countless inhabitants. The
undergrowth is thick with species which prefer the acidic
soil of spruce forests. Stag's-horn clubmoss, cranberries,
blueberries, wood sorrel and greater wood rush are just
several of the plants thriving in the shadow of spruce trees.
The diversity and abundance of mushroom species is most
evident in years when rain is plentiful. The variety of ecosystems and bounty of food attract many animals. Tree
canopies host a myriad of birds, including treecreepers,
ring ouzels, chaffinches, boreal owls, hazel grouses, capercaillies and several representatives of the Paridae family.
Red and roe deer graze in the open grasslands and forest
Most animals observed in a bog may otherwise be residents of other wetlands, nearby forests or meadows.
Permanent bog residents include several species of
dragonflies, true bugs, butterflies, water beetles, and
mosquito larvae.
clearings. Puddles and wet patches are home to several
amphibian species. In the group of large predators, the
wolf and brown bear are occasional visitors.
Extensive forests conceal a special ecosystem typical of
Pokljuka – peat bogs. Bogs are areas of stagnant water,
covered with a layer of peat ranging in size from several
Capercaillie decimeters to several metres and overgrown with bog
mosses.
The process of bog creation began after the last glacial
period. Glaciers receded, leaving small lakelets behind.
Throughout the millennia, these filled with organic debris of aquatic plants populating the lakes. Increasingly
acidic water promoted the growth and development
of certain plants. The area was settled by bog mosses
which are still the predominating species overgrowing
the bog surface. Bog mosses take roots in the upper
Common frog layers, and carbonise in lower layers. The surface grows
upwards steadily, creating a typical dome-shaped form
of a raised bog.
Apart from acidic soil, peat bogs are also characterized
by low nutrient supply and high differences in temperature between day and night. During evolution, plants
have developed different methods to adapt to these
conditions. Several species have developed the ability
to trap and eat animals, others obtain nutrients through
their partnership with fungi. Plants store water in storage
Shrubby lichen flasks, in tissue or in specially adapted organs. In order
to minimize water loss, several plants have developed
thick waxy leaf surfaces or extensive root systems.
Peat moss
Round-leaved
sundew
Peatbog
mushroom
Peat bogs are a very rare habitat in Slovenia, and can
only be found in their pristine form on the plateaus
Jelovica and Pokljuka and in the Pohorje mountain range.
At lower altitudes peat bogs were dried up to obtain
farmland or for peat production. A highly sensitive ecosystem, peat bogs are protected under the EU legislation
and included in the NATURA 2000 network.
Outstanding natural assets of Pokljuka give the plateau
an important role in establishing a permanent balance
between nature and man in the Triglav National Park
and wider, in Slovenia and Europe. •
White-faced darter
The Goreljek Peat Bog Nature Trail gives the visitors a detailed presentation of the features of Pokljuka and raised
bogs. The trail is circular, spans about one kilometre and
has five educational stops equipped with information
boards. A surfaced path around the bog, supplemented
by an occasional floating floor or a bridge, ensures safe
walking. The trail welcomes visitors of all age groups.
Guided tours of the trail can be arranged with the Triglav
National Park Authority.
TH
p.
si
T + 386(0)4 57 80 200 E [email protected]
ww
w.
tn
recently, the pokljuka plateau has been under
considerable pressure. in addition to traditional activities, pokljuka is used for an increasing number of recreational activities
which adversely affect the area's biodiversity.
other changes are climate-induced. extraordinary weather phenomena such as storms,
floods, droughts and wind-throws, pest occurrence, changes in ecosystems and changed
in the biorhythms are among the challenges
which we will need to face in the future. in
turn, this requires certain changes and adaptations of management practices at national
and european levels. in the framework of the
HABIT-CHANGE project the triglav national
park participated in the preparation of reports
on adaptive management in central europe.
E
IT P PO
S L K
PE A LJ
AT TE U
BO AU KA
G &
S
THE GORELJEK PEAT BOG
NATURE TRAIL
0
STARTING POINT
5
10 km
GPS
E 4 6˚2 0’ 9.67”
N 1 3˚58’ 3.00”
VEGETATION ON THE BOG
FAUNA ON THE BOG
ANT- HILL
The leaflet was implemented through the habit-change project
which is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund
(central europe Programme).
tex t Tanja Menegalija,
Urška Smukavec
photogr aphs Aleš Zdešar,
Tanja Menegalija, Luka Markež,
Andreja Papež-Kristanc, Drago Videmšek,
Jure Kočan, Urška Smukavec
cartogr aphy Miha Marolt
l anguage editing Mojca Zemljak
tr ansl ation Darja Pretnar
design Idejološka ordinacija,
Silvija Černe
printed by Tiskarna knjigoveznica
Radovljica
number of copies 10.000
published by Triglav National Park,
May 2013
HUMAN ACTIVITY
BOG FACT FILE
0
75
Source: si Public Info, smars, dof (2011).
Cartography: jz tnp, 2013.
150 m
N
The Goreljek Peat Bog Nature Trail gives the visitors a detailed presentation of the features of Pokljuka and raised
bogs. The trail is circular, spans about one kilometre and
has five educational stops equipped with information
boards. A surfaced path around the bog, supplemented
by an occasional floating floor or a bridge, ensures safe
walking. The trail welcomes visitors of all age groups.
Guided tours of the trail can be arranged with the Triglav
National Park Authority.
TH
p.
si
T + 386(0)4 57 80 200 E [email protected]
ww
w.
tn
recently, the pokljuka plateau has been under
considerable pressure. in addition to traditional activities, pokljuka is used for an increasing number of recreational activities
which adversely affect the area's biodiversity.
other changes are climate-induced. extraordinary weather phenomena such as storms,
floods, droughts and wind-throws, pest occurrence, changes in ecosystems and changed
in the biorhythms are among the challenges
which we will need to face in the future. in
turn, this requires certain changes and adaptations of management practices at national
and european levels. in the framework of the
HABIT-CHANGE project the triglav national
park participated in the preparation of reports
on adaptive management in central europe.
E
IT P PO
S L K
PE A LJ
AT TE U
BO AU KA
G &
S
THE GORELJEK PEAT BOG
NATURE TRAIL
0
STARTING POINT
5
10 km
GPS
E 4 6˚2 0’ 9.67”
N 1 3˚58’ 3.00”
VEGETATION ON THE BOG
FAUNA ON THE BOG
ANT- HILL
The leaflet was implemented through the habit-change project
which is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund
(central europe Programme).
tex t Tanja Menegalija,
Urška Smukavec
photogr aphs Aleš Zdešar,
Tanja Menegalija, Luka Markež,
Andreja Papež-Kristanc, Drago Videmšek,
Jure Kočan, Urška Smukavec
cartogr aphy Miha Marolt
l anguage editing Mojca Zemljak
tr ansl ation Darja Pretnar
design Idejološka ordinacija,
Silvija Černe
printed by Tiskarna knjigoveznica
Radovljica
number of copies 10.000
published by Triglav National Park,
May 2013
HUMAN ACTIVITY
BOG FACT FILE
0
75
Source: si Public Info, smars, dof (2011).
Cartography: jz tnp, 2013.
150 m
N

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