KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY

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Final Draft
KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY
Environmental Protection Agency
Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Forestry, Environment & Wildlife
Department
June 2016
Table of Contents
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………….i
1.GOAL.............................................................................................................................. 1
2. POLICY OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 1
3. INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE ........................................................................... 2
4. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA ............................................... 4
4.1. KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA – AN ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION .......................................................... 4
4.2. CLIMATE HAZARDS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA .......................................................................... 6
i.
Floods ................................................................................................................... 9
ii. Droughts .............................................................................................................. 10
iii.
Earthquakes ...................................................................................................... 11
4.3 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ............................................................................................ 12
5. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION .................................................................................. 15
5.1 AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK ........................................................................................... 15
5.2 FORESTRY ................................................................................................................... 17
5.3 HUMAN HEALTH............................................................................................................. 19
5.4 WATER RESOURCES ........................................................................................................ 20
5.5 BIODIVERSITY .............................................................................................................. 22
5.6 LAND AND VULNERABLE ECO-SYSTEMS (MOUNTAIN AREAS, PASTURES, ARID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS, WETLANDS)
.................................................................................................................................... 25
5.7 DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ................................................................................................ 26
5.8 SOCIO-ECONOMIC MEASURES (POVERTY AND GENDER) ............................................................... 27
5.8.1 POVERTY ................................................................................................................. 27
5.8.2 GENDER .................................................................................................................. 27
6. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION ................................................................................... 29
6.1 ENERGY ..................................................................................................................... 29
6.2 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY CONSERVATION ..................................................................... 31
6.3 TRANSPORT ................................................................................................................. 32
6.4 WASTE ...................................................................................................................... 34
6.5 INDUSTRIES ................................................................................................................ 35
6.6 URBAN PLANNING .......................................................................................................... 36
6.7 CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND FORESTRY ............................................................................... 37
6.8 AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK ........................................................................................... 38
7. CAPACITY BUILDING ................................................................................................... 39
8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ............................................................................................. 41
9. IMPLEMENTATION....................................................................................................... 43
10. TOWARDS GREEN GROWTH AND CLIMATE COMPATIBLE DEVELOPMENT .................... 44
11. FINANCE……………………………………………………………………………..…………………………. 47
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 49
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: KEY ASPECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY ......................................................... 3
TABLE 2: AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF KP WITH DISTRICTS .............................................. 4
TABLE 3: KP PROVINCE DISTRICT-WISE NATURAL HAZARDS VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT BY
NDMA2 ........................................................................................................................... 9
TABLE 4: SUMMARY TABLE OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS, CLIMATE HAZARDS AND PRONE SECTORS
FOR KP ........................................................................................................................ 14
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF KP ..................................................................... 5
FIGURE 2: MULTI-HAZARD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF 25 DISTRICTS IN KHYBER
PAKHTUNKHWA .............................................................................................................. 8
FIGURE 3: RIVER SYSTEMS IN PAKISTAN…………………………………………………………………13
FIGURE 4: MAP REPRESENTING THE RED ZONES FOR EARTHQUAKES OF SOUTH ASIA .......... 11
FIGURE 5: PROTECTED AREAS OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT KHYBER
PAKHTUNKHWA ............................................................................................................ 23
FIGURE 6: CLIMATE COMPATIBLE DEVELOPMENT .............................................................. 44
FIGURE 7: POTENTIAL TARGET OUTCOMES FOR A 'GREEN ECONOMY' ................................ 45
FIGURE 8: GREEN GROWTH INITIATIVE AT A GLANCE ....................................................... 46
Foreword
Based on Scientific evidences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KP) is assessed to be
one of the most vulnerable provinces of Pakistan to the negative impacts of Climate
Change. Looking into the extreme vulnerability of the Province to the negative impacts
of Climate Change, the present Govt of KP decided the formulation of Provincial
Climate Change Policy of the Province. For this purpose a Project was launched titled
―Establishment of Climate Change & Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
Cell‖ under the supervision of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To give
recommendations and way forward, on the issue of Climate Change and challenges to
the KP Province, an Advisory Committee was constituted under the Chairmanship of
Director General EPA. The Committee was further supervised by Secretary Forestry,
Environment and Wildlife Department Govt of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The task of formulation was assigned to Lead-Pakistan Consultants Islamabad. The
current Provincial Policy (2016) is the result of many months of hard work by
consultants, the staff of EPA and the focal persons from Govt Line Departments who
directly or indirectly contributed in the formulation of the Policy.
To formulate the Policy, focal persons from all relevant Line Departments were
involved to help the consultants and staff of Climate Change Cell (EPA) and to share
the ideas on the issue of Climate Change. The current Provincial Climate Change Policy
(PCCP) of KP is in line with the National Climate Change Policy of Pakistan (2012) but
is more specific and focused to the ecosystems of the Province. For this purpose,
secondary data from all relevant Departments pertaining to Climate Change was
collected in collaboration with Govt Line Departments. The Policy is focused on the
challenges of KP and to overcome these challenges, two approaches i.e. adaptation
and mitigation in relevant sectors, are adopted.
One of the basic purposes of
formulation of Provincial Climate Change Policy is to support the national and global
efforts against Climate Change phenomenon.
Ishtiaque Urmar
Provincial Minister for Environment
Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Acknowledgements
Formulation of Provincial Climate Change Policy (PCCP) is a milestone in the history of
KP environment sector. For this holy task, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
acknowledges the efforts by the staff of LEAD Pakistan Consultants, that of the
Environmental Protection Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, especially its Climate
Change Cell, various other government departments and all those experts which
participated in this exercise with a keen interest in climate action.
Special thanks to Chief knowledge officer (Mr. Hasan Akhtar Rizvi) at Lead-Pakistan for
his proactive help, support and participation in the whole process of developing the
Policy. Thanks to the members of Advisory Committee who spared their time for
perusal of the policy and providing recommendations and way forward in every
Seminar that were held during the formulation process. We acknowledge each and
every Department who shared their data with EPA on Climate Change phenomenon.
We also appreciate the role of academia by providing invaluable critique and feedback
in reefing this Policy document. We cannot ignore the efforts of Dr. Muhammad Bashir
Khan (Director General) and Dr. Hussain Ahmad (Director) Environmental Protection
Agency who supervised the whole task and managed the work well in time.
We also thank to Dr. Qamar uz Zaman Chaudhry, lead author, National Climate
Change Policy, Dr. Bushra Chairperson of Environmental Sciences Department
University of Peshawar, Dr. Seeme Malick, another author of the National Climate
Change Policy, and Syed Nasir Mehmood, IG Forests, Ministry of Climate Change,
Government of Pakistan for their indirectly support, input and feedback helping bring
the document to its current shape.
Jamil Ahmad
Secretary to Govt. of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Forestry, Environment & Wildlife Department
Preamble
As the effects of Climate Change are becoming more visible around the world,
vulnerable countries including Pakistan, are trying to understand the treats they will
face in future. Pakistan has drafted its National Climate Change Policy in 2012.
However, after the 18th amendment in the constitution of Pakistan, the subject of
Environment was devolved to the Provinces. Looking in view and high degree of
vulnerability of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province to the visible impacts of Climate
Change, the Govt of KP decided to formulate a Provincial Climate Change Policy in
consultation with Govt line Departments to be more specific, target oriented and also
in line with National Climate Change Policy of Pakistan 2012 - thus a Provincial Climate
Change Policy was formulated for the first time in June, 2016, to the specific needs of
the Province.
This Policy document provides two kinds of approaches, adaptation and mitigation to
be adopted in the most relevant sectors prone to the impacts of Climate Change. The
Policy was formulated in consultation with Govt Line Departments such as Forestry,
Wildlife, Irrigation, Agriculture, Livestock, Food Department etc. For this purpose, an
Advisory Committee, comprising of 17 members from different Line Departments and
academia and headed by Director General Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was
constituted in order to make a Policy acceptable to all stakeholders.
The Policy highlights sectors that need mitigation measures such as energy, transport,
wastes, industries, urban planning etc. The Policy has also described measures
regarding capacity building and trainings of Govt line departments for development. It
also gives emphasis, to streamline Climate Change in different sectors of the economy
and developmental projects in the Province to make a sustainable development and
create resilience to natural disasters. Successful implementation of the Policy in
relevant sectors like agriculture, water resources, forestry, wildlife etc will help in
achieving targets pertaining to Climate Change resilience.
Director General
Environmental Protection Agency
List of Abbreviations
AR5
Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC
CCD
Climate Compatible Development
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
CIP II
Community Infrastructure Programme Phase 2
CSOs
Civil Society Organizations
DRR
Disaster Risk Reduction
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
GGI
Green Growth Initiative
GGV
Green Growth Vision
GLOF
Glacial Lake Outburst Flood
GHG
Greenhouse Gases
Govt of KP
Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Ha
Hectares
HLZ
Holdridge Life Zone
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
KP
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
NDMA
National Disaster Management Authority
NGOs
Non-Governmental Organizations
NTFP
Non Timber Forests Produce
NUDP
National Urban Development Policy
OECD
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
PDMA
Provincial Disaster Management Authority
PRS
Poverty Reduction Strategy
PV
Photovoltaic
REDD+
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
RWSSP
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project
UNEP
United Nations Environment Program
UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
i
1. Goal1
To ensure that climate action is mainstreamed in the development planning and especially in
the economically and socially vulnerable sectors of the economy; and to steer Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa towards green growth2 and climate compatible development3.
2. Policy Objectives

Formulate a more nuanced province specific policy that is line with National Climate
Change Policy

Enhance awareness of the impacts of climate change among all stakeholders for
necessary appropriate measures to combat and minimize these impacts

Mainstream climate change in long term development planning as a vehicle for the
implementation of the provincial Green Growth Strategy

Integrate adaptation and mitigation measures into key relevant sectors‘ policies,
strategies, and plans

Facilitate action in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on climate adaptation and mitigation, while
promoting long term sustainability

Enhance interdepartmental coordination and cooperation for effective climate action.

Ensure water, food and energy security for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in the face of
a changing climate

Address climate change risks particularly those arising from climate induced disasters.

Ensure interests of vulnerable groups and gender aspects are adequately addressed in
climate development strategies and planning

Develop bases to secure sufficient financial and technological support, and strengthen
institutional and human resource capacities to achieve policy objectives; and to be able
to tap financial and technological opportunities available internationally
1
This policy goal has been stated so as to be completely in line with the National Climate Change Policy.
As envisioned by the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. See chapter 10 for elaboration and details.
3
Climate compatible development: While climate resilient development increases adaptive capacity against climate
impacts it does not necessarily cater to the mitigation aspects. Climate compatible development, on the other hand, is a
holistic approach that minimizes the harm caused by climate impacts, while maximizing human development
opportunities presented by a low emission and resilient future. See chapter 10 for more comprehensive explanation.
2
1
3. Introduction to Climate Change
The Earth‘s climate has changed frequently over long
periods of geological time in responses to changes in the
strength of the sun, the shape and tilt of the earth‘s orbit
around the sun, the position and shape of the continents
and the composition of the atmosphere. There is strong
evidence that Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission from
human activities are now raising the earth‘s temperature
and causing other changes in climate. Emissions are
projected to rise significantly over the next few decades
leading to significant increase in global temperatures with
profound risks for the natural environment and human
society worldwide.
According to the latest report from the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate change (IPCC), average global
temperatures are likely to rise by another 0.3 to 4.8
degree centigrade by 2100. If we take aggressive action to
reduce emissions, the temperature change could be
modest. If we continue on our present course, however,
the amount of change will be substantial. Most experts
agree that the changes are anthropogenic — caused by
humans — largely from emissions of heat-trapping gases
released to the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most significant of these
gases; CO2 levels are at their highest in 650,000 years.
Climatic variations play a pivotal role in the development
and survival of natural ecosystems and of human societies.
Human activities place additional stresses on natural
systems and climate change is now considered a
significant factor in these increases4. Climate change is
one of the major challenges that the world is facing in the
21st century and is adversely affecting sustainable
development and communities – people‘s livelihoods,
health, shelters and in some cases, even lives.
Impacts of the changing climate are likely to include
increased air and sea temperatures, progressive rises in
sea-level,
greater
variability
and
seasonality
in
precipitation, and changes in the frequency and strength
of floods, storms, cyclones and hurricanes. Within the last
What is the
Greenhouse Effect?
The atmosphere is
composed of nitrogen
(78%), oxygen (21%),
carbon dioxide (0.04%),
argon (0.9%), water
vapours (0-4%) and
trace gases such as
argon, xenon, neon,
krypton and helium.
Carbon dioxide and other
gases such as methane
and nitrous oxide trap the
infra-red radiation from
the sun and prevent it
from escaping by a
natural process called
―the greenhouse effect‖.
This phenomenon
maintains the
temperature of the earth
allowing living things to
survive.
Excessive burning of
fossil fuels for
anthropogenic activities
releases additional
CO2which builds up and
traps additional heat
which would otherwise
escape. This humancaused blanket effect
leads to warming of the
planet, disrupting the
atmospheric balance that
keeps the climate stable.
4
Trends of stresses on several natural systems and ecosystems due to Climate change have been observed, recorded
and debated upon by international organizations: UNESCO, IFAD, World Watch Institute, FAO, WHO, OECD, WWF &
UNEP. Detailed information on climate-induced stresses is available on: http://www.igbp.net.
2
decade, Asia has witnessed the most natural and weather-related disasters in the world,
suffering 27.5% of global economic loss (IPCC, 2014a). Pakistan experienced damages worth
an estimated 10 billion US dollars as a result of the floods of 2010 (World Bank and Asian
Development Bank, 2010). Not only have such recurring weather events become more
frequent, their impacts on human health, livelihoods and economic development have stretched
in magnitude and extent.
Responses to climate change can be divided into two aspects:
Mitigation — the term used to describe the process of reducing GHG emissions that contribute
to climate change. It includes strategies to reduce GHG emissions and enhance GHG sinks.
Adaptation — is a process, or set of initiatives and measures, to reduce the vulnerability of
natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects. Adaptation can
also be thought of as learning how to live with the consequences of climate change.
Climate change adaptation and mitigation are often considered as policy fields. The key aspects
of International and National climate change policy instruments are summarized in Table 1
below.
Policy Response
United Nation
Framework
Convention on
Climate
Change (UNFCCC)
UNFCCC’s Kyoto
Protocol
Objectives and Targets
UNFCCC seeks to reduce international GHG emissions by setting
National level targets based on the concept of ‗common but
differentiated responsibility‘. This means that nations which
emit majority of GHGs need to reduce GHGs at a greater rate.
National Climate
Change Policy 2012
It supports the shift to a resource-efficient, low-carbon
economy to achieve sustainable growth. It provides a long-term
framework for action to factor in resource efficiency in a
balanced manner in many policy areas, including climate
change, energy, transport, industry, agriculture, biodiversity
and regional development.
Under the UNFCCC‘s Kyoto Protocol, developed countries
agreed to reduce their overall emissions of a basket of GHG by
5.2 percent below 1990 levels over the period 2008-2012.
Table 1: Key aspects of climate change policy
3
4. Climate Change Impacts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), a topographically diverse province of Pakistan, is situated in the
northwest region of the country. The land of KP is an abode to Hindukush, Himalayan and
Karakoram mountain ranges predominantly in the Northern, North West and Eastern parts of
the province. In contrast, southern parts of KP are dominated by central valley plains
comprising agricultural land and rangelands.
Extreme climate conditions range throughout the province. The northern region of KP
experiences extremely cold and snowy winters, with heavy rainfall and pleasant summers,
whereas the southern parts of KP experience fairly less severe winters, moderate rainfall and
hotter summers. Chitral, the highest district of KP experiences the lowest temperatures in
winter; hence many glaciers are found in this district. D.I Khan, the southernmost district of
KP, experiences milder winters and therefore is dominated by agricultural and rangelands due
to optimum climate conditions for agriculture.
4.1. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa – an Ecological Classification
KP is divided into four agro-ecological zones5 based on climate, rainfall, temperature, altitude
and topography in the Environmental Profile of KP developed by the Environmental Protection
Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This Zonal distribution has been used in this text to allow
convenience in identifying potential future impacts from external forces such as climate change
(Ahmad D. , 2012).
ZONE
DESCRIPTION
A
Higher northern mountains,
northern mountains
B
Sub humid eastern mountains
and wet mountains
C
Central Valley Plain
D
Piedmont plain, Suleiman
piedmont
Districts
Buner, Shangla,
Dir/Lower and Upper,
Swat and Chitral
Haripur, Batagram,
Mansehra, Abbottabad,
Kohistan, Torghar
Peshawar, Mardan,
Charsadda, Nowshera,
Swabi, Kohat, Hangu
Bannu, Karak,
LakkiMarwat, Tank,
D.I. Khan
Table 2: Agro-ecological zones of KP with districts
5
We have used the conventional system of agro-ecological zones as applied to the province in the available literature.
However, recently, a new system based on bio-climatic zoning has been proposed for Pakistan which is more pertinent
to monitoring and catering to the impacts of climate change. See:
Nasir, S. M.; Afrasiyab M.; Athar M.: Application of Holdridge Life Zones (HLZ) in Pakistan; Pak. J. Bot., 47(SI): 359366, 2015.
4
Figure 1: Agro-ecological zones of KP(Ahmad,2012)
In order to identify the types of impacts which each zone is prone to, it is important to identify
the land cover and land use in each zone. The land cover of KP has varying characteristics from
north to south, therefore has different usage. 40% of Pakistan‘s forests are located in KP. 17%
of KP is covered with forests, primarily the Hindukush Himalayan Region, 28% of land in KP is
rangelands, 8% is dedicated to agricultural practices and 13% is covered with snow and
glaciers (Ahmad, 2012). Although KP has been divided into four agro-ecological zones, each
zone can have cross cutting sectors, such as forests, agriculture, water and biodiversity. A
description of these sectors and the zones in which they are most common is given below.
Forests
According to zonal distribution, north of the province forms Zone A. This is comprised mainly of
snowcapped high northern mountains and forests. The high northern mountains of Chitral,
Hazara and Swat above 4000m have low vegetative cover. Alpine zone forests are found
between 3350-3360m. Dry temperate coniferous are present in the dry ranges of Himalayas;
Himalayan moist temperate forests are found in Hazara district (Kohistan, southern parts of
Palas Valley, Lower Kaghan Valley) at an elevation of 1525-3660m. There is a narrow zone of
subtropical forests between 900-2000m in the Southern parts of the Himalayan Mountains of
Hazara and Swat Valley (Ahmad & Khan, n.d.).
5
Agriculture
Zone C and D comprising of Central Valley Plains and Piedmonts are used for agriculture and
livestock grazing purposes. Livelihood is majorly based on agriculture and livestock in KP, with
over 80% of the population dependent on agriculture for income. The agriculture sector also
contributes to 20% of the provincial GDP and employs 44% of the labor force (Ahmad, 2012).
Major crops include wheat, rice and sugarcane. Livestock contributes approximately 50% to
agriculture.
Water
With the province heavily dependent on agriculture for livelihood, water plays an important role
in the sustenance of the population. The Indus River and its tributaries are the main source of
water for the province. The province has many lakes which contribute aesthetically to the
region providing tourist attractions as well as freshwater. These lakes, such as Lake Saif-ulmalook, Lake Dodipat Sar, Lake Lolosar, Lake Shandur, Broghal Lake, etc. also come under
protected wetland sites under the Ramsar Convention (Ramsar Site: Tanda, Kohat District &
Thaneidarwala, Lakki Marwat District) .
Glaciers are important reservoirs for KP. They feed into the Indus River and its tributaries and
provide freshwater for agriculture and domestic use, moreover, they are important reservoirs
for the future and indicators of climate change. The Karakoram-Himalayan ranges are
snowbound throughout the year and have the greatest ice and snow cover in any mountainous
system outside the Polar Regions. Their significance for the future and present of KP and
Pakistan is immense.
Biodiversity
The topographic variety of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa makes the province diverse in species. The
Himalayan forests are the habitats for many mammal and bird species. Out of 188 species of
mammals that occur in Pakistan, 98 mammal species are found in KP. Amongst these 98
species found in KP, the mammal species which are also included in endangered species are the
Snow Leopard, Brown Bear, Ibex and Lion-eared bat. 456 species of birds, 48 species of
reptiles and approximately 4500 species of plants are found in KP (Ahmad, 2012).
4.2. Climate Hazards in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The impacts of climate change are evident in many parts of the world. In the latest report by
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 5 (AR5) 2014, the
linkage between climate change and its impacts on natural and human systems has been given
strong recognition. Moreover, there is more strong evidence that climate change is responsible
for the disruption of weather patterns catalyzing melting of glaciers, alterations in hydrological
systems, species diversity by changes in migration pathways, changes to crop production and
yield threatening existing food production patterns. The report states that the frequency of heat
waves in Asia is expected to increase and stay for longer periods of time. The number of cold
6
days and nights will decrease and warm days and nights will increase. Therefore, irrespective of
what is causing climate change, there are evidences from past events all over the world that
climate change is threatening the natural balance of nature and proving the dependence and
sensitivity of human on nature(IPCC, 2014) (IPCC, 2014a).
Over the past decade, impacts of climate change have been experienced in the form of
warming of the atmosphere and ocean, rise in sea level and increase in concentration of
greenhouse gases. Therefore, there is no ambiguity related to the evidence that climate change
is happening. Impacts of climate change also make the destruction caused by natural hazards
even worse. When events of heavy precipitation increase and with rise in average surface
temperature of the earth altering the natural weather patterns, natural hazards become more
intense and dangerous to communities especially in vulnerable areas. Natural hazards are
defined as naturally occurring events which are potentially dangerous to communities in difficult
and disaster prone terrains. Earthquakes, landslides, floods, droughts, hurricanes and volcanic
eruptions can be classified as naturally occurring hazards. Without proper risk reduction,
mitigation and adaptation methods, these natural hazards can turn into catastrophic disasters.
7
Figure 2: Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment of 25 Districts in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is most likely prone to climate change impacts stated above. Figure 2
shows vulnerability of districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to climate hazards based on National
Disaster Management Authority‘s (NDMA) multi-hazard vulnerability assessment6. The detailed
assessment is illustrated in Table 3.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is located in the mid-latitude region on the globe. In the fifth annual
report of the IPCC, 2014, mid latitude regions have been warned of extreme weather pattern.
Monsoon rainfall has been predicted to increase and go further up North due to warmer
temperatures. Wet regions (such as the sub humid wet mountains of Zone B) will get more
precipitation and dry regions (Central Valley and Piedmont Plains of Zone C and D) will receive
less precipitation than before. These heavy precipitation patterns will accelerate glacial melting
resulting in flash flooding and less precipitation in dry regions will contribute to droughts.
District
Abbottabad
Bannu
Batagram
Buner
Charsadda
Flood
M
H
M
VH
VH
Landslide Avalanche Drought
VH
L
H
H
M
VH
VL
H
H
VL
GLOF
Multi-hazard
-
M
M
H
H
M
VL
L
L
L
L
6
NDMA, 2015. National Monsoon Contingency Response Directive 2015. Accessed from
<http://www.ndma.gov.pk/PDF/Directive_2015.pdf>
8
Chitral
D.I.Khan
Hangu
Haripur
Karak
Kohat
Kohistan
Lakki Marwat
Lower Dir
Malakand
Mansehra
Mardan
Nowshera
Peshawar
Shangla
Swabi
Swat
Tank
Torghar
Upper Dir
H
H
M
M
L
M
M
M
H
H
H
H
VH
VH
H
VH
VH
H
H
H
H
VL
M
VH
L
L
H
VL
H
M
VH
L
L
H
H
L
H
VL
VH
VH
H
VL
VL
H
VL
VL
H
VL
H
M
H
VL
VL
VL
H
VL
H
VL
H
H
VL
L
L
VL
VL
L
VL
VL
VL
VL
VL
VL
VL
VL
L
L
L
L
VL
L
H
-
M
L
L
M
L
L
M
L
H
M
H
L
L
M
H
M
H
M
H
H
Table 3: KP Province District-wise Natural Hazards Vulnerability Assessment by
NDMA2
VH: Very High; H: High; M: Medium; L: Low; VL: Very Low
The natural hazards that are most likely to occur in the province in the coming years are
discussed below in detail.
i.
Floods
KP has an intricate river system, with many smaller rivers draining into the Indus River running
through the province. The major rivers that cross the region are Kabul River, Swat River,
Kurram River, Gomal River and Zhob River. The Indus River and its tributaries have a capacity
of 154 MAF of water annually, which includes 145 MAF from North Western Rivers (Indus,
Jhelum, Chenab, Kabul and their adjoining smaller rivers) and 9 MAF from eastern rivers
(essentially Ravi and Sutlej) (Ahmad, 2012).
9
Figure 3: River systems in Pakistan(Shabir, 2013)
Due to these river systems, the region is prone to flash flooding during heavy monsoon season.
Flooding has increased in frequency in the KP region in the past few years. Almost every year,
the region is flooded due to heavy precipitation. In 2007, Kohistan was badly flooded due to
torrential rain and glacial melting in July and August. KP experienced even worse flooding in
2010 – the worst in recent history - resulting in displacement of hundreds of thousands of
people. The following years - 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 - saw a repetition in the
pattern, admittedly though, with less intensity. The repetitive flooding over the years with
rehabilitation from previous floods still underway made conditions even more challenging and
costly. In the flood of 2010, according to data collected by OCHA, 4,725,695 people were
affected in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The flood of 2015 was one of the biggest GLOF events which
affected 321, 644 people in Chitral and destroyed 1200 acres of standing crops (PDMA, 2015).
The main regions of KP which are expected to continue having flood hazards are the Himalayan
moist temperature forests between 1525-3660m. It is highly likely that this region will
experience intense precipitation especially in lower Kaghan Valley, Galiat and southern parts of
Kohistan. Therefore, Zone A and Zone B of KP are at high risk of flooding and strategic actions
to mitigate and adapt to these weather events is of great importance.
ii.
Droughts
Droughts in the southern parts of KP (zone C and D) are more common as compared to the
North (Zone A and B). The central valley plain, Piedmont plain and Suleiman Piedmont, Zone C
and D are areas dedicated mostly to agriculture. Although agriculture is practiced throughout
the province, if a comparison is drawn Zone C and Zone D together have a cultivated area of
1,115,000 ha, whereas Zone A and B have a cultivable area of 626,000 ha (Ahmad, 2012).
These numbers signify the magnitude of impact of a drought on food security in the province.
With rising temperatures and decrease of rainfall in dry regions, Zones C and D are most likely
going to be water stressed region in the coming years. The climate ranges from warm and subhumid in Zone C to hot and arid in Zone D. Dera Ismail Khan is the area which will be most
10
prone to droughts. Although, drought is a less common hazard compared to floods, the
implications on food security cannot be ignored.
Zone C and D of the province receive less rainfall and higher temperatures in the summer and
drier winters. Climate forecasts predict that dry regions will get drier and wet regions will get
wetter. As these zones are drier especially during the winter and hot during the summers there
is an expected increase in average temperatures in the summer. These high temperatures may
be optimal for some crops to cultivate but high temperatures will increase evapotranspiration
which in turn increases the demand of crops for water. Therefore, the quantity and availability
of groundwater and irrigation water will be vital in determining water stress in the area.
iii.
Earthquakes
Although earthquakes are not caused by climate change, they have severe impacts on
communities and can alter natural ecosystems. Moreover, they can be the cause of many other
natural hazards such as landslides, floods (due to cracks in dams, altering of river pathways),
infrastructure damage which can pose as a challenge for rehabilitation efforts .
Figure 4: Map representing the red zones for earthquakes of South Asia(GSHAP, 2000)
Pakistan is located on two major tectonic plates, Eurasian and Indian Plate. This makes
Pakistan at high risk from high magnitude earthquakes. This is evident by the red to orange
color given to Northern part of Pakistan in the map above. The Northern regions, especially KP
11
are at higher risk compared to the other parts of the country and have experienced devastating
earthquakes before. The Hindukush and Himalayan range are usually determined as the
epicenters of earthquakes which affect this region. Therefore, disaster risk reduction and
climate compatible development is of utmost importance in KP to prevent loss of lives and
infrastructure and create communities which are able to reduce as much damage as they can
through safe buildings and better preparation through capacity building and access to rescue
equipment.
4.3 Impacts of Climate Change
Natural hazards are not the only impacts of climate change which will be experienced by KP. In
fact, there are other impacts as well which give rise to many development challenges. These
impacts will be experienced across the four agro-ecological zones of KP.
Increase in surface temperature-The IPCC AR5 has reported that almost the entire globe
has experienced surface warming. This will result in hotter, longer summers and shorter and
milder winters having significant impacts on cropping patterns of KP. Higher temperatures will
also mean that monsoon rainfall will be more severe creating risks of flooding and induce glacial
melting at a faster rate in zone A and B, which are the hub of glaciers and sub humid forests.
Increase in precipitation- More intense rainfall over a shorter period of time will cause flash
flooding in the mountainous regions (zone A and B), while the floodplains - the main centers
(zone C and D, i.e. central valley plain and piedmont plain) of population and agricultural
activity due to alluvial soil – will be affected by massive riverine floods. Intense rainfall can
cause soil erosion and strips soil of nutrients. Moreover, shortage of rainfall in drier areas in
higher parts of zone C and D will result in drought effecting crop yield.
Changes in food production- This impact is most significant to zone C and D where majority
of the agricultural activity occurs. As weather patterns shift, temperatures fluctuate and rainfall
becomes more erratic, therefore, changes in the type of crop and amount of crop produced will
also change. Farmers will have to struggle with depleting water supplies and extreme
temperatures unsuitable for a healthy crop. Moreover, they will have to deal with frequent
insect infestation due to favorable warmer humid climate for insects. In the north with an
increase in temperature, more crops will be able to be cultivated, such as cotton, wheat, maize,
rice etc., whereas the Central Valley Plain, which is currently the main region for agriculture,
and also the Southern Piedmont region, will face water shortage due to decrease in rainfall,
causing a decrease in crop production. These changes along with natural hazards such as
floods(which completely destroy agricultural fields and ready to harvest crops) and droughts
will cause food security issues in the province.
Shifting weather patterns- Changing weather patterns such as higher temperatures and
more rainfall can have serious impacts on flora, fauna and people living in the province of KP.
Higher temperatures and shorter winters allow insect forests to thrive thus weakening trees.
Droughts can have the same weakening effects. Higher temperatures also provide more
bacteria and viruses to thrive and can cause health issues to people, especially those who
consume contaminate water. Moreover, flooding and droughts can cause shortage of potable
drinking water.
12
Glacial melting- The Hindu Kush Himalayan range (in zone A) is dominated mostly by glaciers
throughout the year. Glacial Lake Outburst Floods or GLOFs are one of the main natural
hazards that affect all zones of the province. Due to longer summers and higher temperatures,
glaciers melt at a higher rate (IPCC, 2014a). Spring season, where temperatures are cool to
moderate are favorable for the freezing process of glaciers, which protects them from the
summers. However, due to higher temperatures and almost nonexistent spring season, glaciers
do not get enough time to freeze and therefore melt at a faster rate on the advent of summers.
Glaciers are natural reserves of freshwater, which take hundreds of years to accumulate (Din,
Rasul, Mahmood, & Tariq, 2014). Without these, freshwater crisis is expected to exacerbate.
Loss of species diversity- Climate change is a threat to species diversity. In Pakistan, about
100 species are endemic and 90% of them occur in KP. The Himalayan range and the semi
moist forests of KP, predominately zone A and B are the habitats of mammal species,
moreover, seven bird species and 12 internationally endangered endemic and migratory birds
are also found in this zone. Therefore, the biodiversity in zone A and B are most threatened by
climate change (Ahmad, 2012). Changes in temperature and precipitation are the basis for
changes in ecosystems which are abode to many mammal, bird, forest and insect species. Most
plant species cannot shift their geographic ranges or adapt to the rapid changes in climate.
Mammals and other species will not be able to do either. Moreover, changes in ecosystems
means changes in feeding patterns which can weaken animal species and lead to their
extinction (IPCC, 2014).
People and society- Climate change and its implication on society means that people will
have to change the way they live. They will have to adopt techniques which can help minimize
impacts of climate change and the rate of climate change itself. Extreme weather patterns
caused by the changing climate will cause a stress on human health, infrastructure, livelihoods
and culture. Climate change will increase the displacement and the need for resettlement of
people who are subjected to extreme weather patterns.
Zone
Potential Impacts
Potential natural
hazards
Vulnerable/sensitive
sectors
A
Increase in rainfall, increase
in temperatures,
rapid glacial melting,
loss of species diversity
Floods
Glaciers, forests,
biodiversity
B
Increase in rainfall, increase
in temperatures
Floods
Forests, biodiversity,
agriculture
Increase in crop production
-
Agriculture
Increase in insect infestation
-
Agriculture, biodiversity
Decrease in rainfall, increase
in temperatures
Droughts
Agriculture, biodiversity,
water
C
13
D
Decrease in crop production
-
Agriculture, water
Increase in insect infestation
-
Agriculture, biodiversity
Decrease in rainfall, increase
in temperatures
Droughts
Agriculture, water
Decrease in crop production
-
Agriculture, water
Table 4: Summary table of potential impacts, climate hazards and vulnerable sectors
for KP
The Need for
Pakhtunkhwa
a
Provincial
Climate
Change
Policy
for
Khyber
So far, the National Climate Change Policy has served as the guiding framework in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province on mitigation measures. A provincial policy is now required for the
following reasons:
 Formulate overall climate change positions/objectives for KP Province.
 Provide guidance to sector strategies from climate perspectives.
 Identify policy priorities, guidelines, policy instruments and measures to address climate
change as applicable and relevant to KP Province.
 Provide a KP-specific concise and accessible tool for policy makers for coordination of
climate change activities as prescribed by the National Climate Change Policy 2012
(including technical assistance).
The Policy will provide an overarching (umbrella/high level) guidance for the Govt of KP to
implement the major climate change objectives of national and provincial priority related to
adaptation and mitigation of GHG emissions.
14
5. Climate Change Adaptation
Around 75% of the population of KP is dependent on agriculture and livestock as a source of
income and livelihood. Dependence on agriculture as a source of livelihood is significantly
higher in rural areas than in urban areas. By value, crops constitute about 70% of the
agricultural produce whereas livestock rearing is around 30% of it (Planning and Development
Department, 2010). Majority of the land owners are small farmers which depend on hill torrents
for cultivation of crops. Land for cultivation is irrigated through a network of canals and streams
and also through rain. KP major crops include wheat, maize, sugarcane and tobacco etc. KP has
a significant advantage in production of fruits namely water melon, apricot, dates etc. In KP
livestock rearing is practiced mainly for meat, wool, dairy products, as farm help and eggs from
poultry. Cows, buffalo, goat and sheep etc. are some of the common livestock animals reared in
KP.
Unpredictable weather due to change in climate is threatening the agriculture and livestock
sector of KP. Climate variations affect growth duration, soil moisture, nutrient levels and water
availability for crops. These can increase the chance of reduced yields or even crop failure. Heat
waves can increase animal mortality, increase prevalence of pathogens, threaten pasture and
feed supplies.
5.1 Agriculture and Livestock
Agriculture sector of KP faces a number of problems. One-fifth of the land is cultivatable and is
owned by small farmers. The pressure on natural resources is mounting due to inefficiency of
existing irrigation structures, fragility of uncultivated land and urbanization. There is high
dependence on imported products mostly from other provinces, such as wheat. Productivity is
low as seed and fertilizer quality is poor. Nearly 20% of cultivable land is unused while an
increasing amount of this land is being lost to land degradation (water logging and salinity),
inefficient use of water and urbanization. In order to improve yields the use of fertilizers and
pesticides is rampant. Due to lack of awareness and regulation farmers tend to exceed
prescribed limits or even in some cases use chemicals which are banned in the international
markets. The institutional capacity of Govt of KP departments and research is limited. Poor
market structures, lack of financial and economic incentive to farmers and herders are also
some of the problems faced by the agricultural sector of KP. Political unrest in some parts of the
KP has adversely affected the produce from agriculture and livestock in the recent years.
Recommended Policy Measures
7

Revisit agriculture and livestock related legislations, policies and plans to incorporate
climate change considerations.(H)7

Strengthen regulatory and monitoring mechanisms to reduce the usage of
harmful/banned fertilizers and pesticides while incentivizing usage of organic farming
techniques, and conservation of water and soil. (H)
H= High priority, M = Medium priority and L = Low priority
15

Streamline agriculture extension services especially to include climate change adaptation
for better productivity and enhance the use of capacity building instruments like farmer
field schools. (M)

Develop research on climate smart agriculture and livestock sector, exploring impacts of
climate change on productivity of the two sectors, and ways these can be addressed and
reduced. (H)
Encourage measures to increase productivity including use of soil management
techniques, organic farming land resource management, artificial insemination and
livestock feed enrichment techniques.(H)


Assess, manage and reduce risks to crops by developing risk management systems for
extreme temperatures and extreme weather events, water conservation strategies,
desert cultivation and crop insurance.(H)

Assess, manage and reduce risks to livestock by developing risk management systems
for extreme temperatures and extreme weather events, livestock disease monitoring
and surveillance system, livestock health units.(H)

Strengthen capacities of relevant stakeholders including farming communities on
sustainable farming techniques. (H)

Monitor land-use and land-cover for KP, and develop land use planning to manage and
plan for agricultural activities using remote sensing techniques. (M)

Develop and propagate low cost food preservation and storage technologies. (M)
16
5.2 Forestry
About 40% of the forest cover in Pakistan (Planning and Development Department, 2010) and
forests are a source of livelihood for the communities. This is a labor intensive sector and has
huge potential for poverty reduction and income generation. Forests also are home to a diverse
variety of species.
Forests are directly and indirectly impacted by climate change. Climate change not only affects
growth and productivity of forests but can also increase the number of forest disturbances.
Productivity of forests can be affected by changes in temperature, precipitation and the amount
of carbon dioxide in the air. Forest disturbances such as weakened health of trees, droughts
and storms can reduce forest productivity and change the distribution of tree species. In
absence of preventative measures to improve forest health valuable goods and services
provided by forest ecosystem could be lost. Non timber Forests Produce (NTFP) is an important
source of revenue for forests dwellers and are a source of medicinal plants, fodders, gums,
resins, Mazri leaves and honey.
Climate Change andover-exploitation of forests has negatively impacted the forest cover of KP
province. Rehabilitation of degraded natural forests, pasturelands and watershed sources is a
priority issue for the KP government. Moreover, promotion of NTFP is imperative in reducing
poverty and improving the livelihood of people dependent on it.
Recommended Policy Measures

Conduct research and gather data and information necessary to understand and
adequately address impacts of climate change on forestry. To this end, employ the latest
knowledge on bioclimatic zoning for forest management, especially the application of
Holdridge Life Zones (HLZ) in Pakistan8. (H)

Develop mechanisms to ensure sustainable management of all types of forests by
developing forest management plans and through collaborative management
agreements with local communities, conservation incentives and equitable sharing of
benefits. (H)

Streamline legislation – if necessary - and undertake concerted legal action against the
timber mafia to prevent poaching of forest timber.(M)

Maintain and enhance ecological and environmental values of forests that include but are
not limited to water yield, carbon sink, land stabilization, and biodiversity conservation.
(M)
8
Nasir, S. M.; Afrasiyab M.; Athar M.: Application of Holdridge Life Zones (HLZ) in Pakistan; Pak. J. Bot., 47(SI): 359366, 2015.
17

Develop capacities for assessment, planning and monitoring of the forest resources, to
remove threats to deforestation and loss of biodiversity so that adverse changes that
may arise can be detected and redressed through revised codes and management plans.
(H)

Ensure forest land is not transferred to any government institution or private entity for
purposes other than preserving and enhancing the forest value.(M)

Establish a network of forest protected areas, buffer zones and ecological corridors,
where possible, to conserve biodiversity, particularly in unique types of forests. (H)

Promote urban forestry, agro-forestry and on farm tree plantations - in the cities as well
as irrigated lands. (H)

Develop non-timber forest products – under a sustainable use practice - to improve
livelihoods of poor people inhabiting forest zones. (H)

Increase awareness of public and private sector on benefits of conservation and
protection of existing forests, and benefits of afforestation. (H)
18
5.3 Human Health
Vulnerability of human health to climate change depends on exposure, sensitivity and coping
capacity. With increase in temperatures and frequency of natural disasters, disease prevalence
is likely to rise particularly of water-borne illnesses (like dengue) and diseases vectors including
diarrhea (IPCC, 2014b). Heat strokes, gastrointestinal problems, respiratory diseases, skin
diseases, eye infections, malaria and mortality due to extreme weather events are likely to
increase in severity, frequency and intensity. Storms, floods and droughts, caused by climate
change, can force people to migrate to urban centers of the province. This can have spill-over
effects such as lack of housing facilities, water and sanitation problems and an increase in
transfer of diseases in high population density areas of KP. KP already suffers from high
mortality rates for infants, children and women, and inadequacy of public health facilities and
service, which are likely to be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change if not addressed
effectively.
Recommended Policy Measures

Conduct research to assess impacts of climate change on human health and health sector
in KP Province, assessing risk of conditions, symptoms and diseases likely to affect human
health in KP. (H)

Develop plans and strategies to forecast, monitor and address impacts of climate change
(extreme temperatures, extreme weather events and resulting effects) on health through
both preventive - such as building more healthcare facilities in both urban and rural areas,
providing vaccines, improving access to clean drinking water -and curative measures such
as medications. (H)

Identify the vulnerable communities of the province, improve their access to and upgrade
quality of health services and build their knowledge and capacities to reduce their health
vulnerability to climate change. (H)

Inform, sensitize, educate and train health professionals and the public about climate
change related health issues, especially for women and children. (H)
19
5.4 Water Resources
KP water resources are used by agriculture, domestic households, industries and power
generation. Tarbela, Warsak and Dargai-Jaban dams, situated in KP, are vital for hydro-electric
power generation. In KP, surface water is found in the form of springs, precipitation, lakes
streams and rivers. Ground water can be found as aquifers and alluvial deposits.
In KP water stress has been exacerbated by reckless dumping of chemical waste into surfacewater bodies, exploitation of underground water and water intensive manufacturing processes,
with increasing pressure generated by population growth, agriculture, deforestation and
impacts of climate change. With losses to storage capacity of water and increasing water stress
per capita, surface water availability in KP is likely to fall.
Climate change is likely to increase water demand for cultivation and other uses, shrink water
supplies and untreated waste dumped into the rivers can reduce water quality. Climate change
induced shifts in snowfall and precipitation patterns are likely to increase the stress on existing
water resources. Changes in the hydrology are likely to impact the intensity, frequency and cost
of extreme events. Flooding and droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe.
Water stress will disproportionately impact agriculture and food security. KP represents
7.67% of the total cultivated area of Pakistan. Nearly half of the cultivatable land of the
province is dependent on rain fed for agriculture (Planning and Development Department,
2010).A reduction in the supply of water from KP can have severe spill-over effects on KP and
the neighboring provinces. This can have negative impacts on agriculture, livestock, industrial
and domestic spheres, which may result in income losses and induce migration. Improved
management of water resources can increase income from agricultural land and water scarcity
mitigation.
Recommended Policy Measures
Water Storage and Quality

Assess and address the needs for additional water storages and distribution infrastructure,
and the quantity and sources of water available in the province. (H)

Establish and enforce quality management systems and surveillance for water resources.
(H)
Water Conservation Strategies

Encourage water conservation by promoting rain harvesting techniques, sustainable ground
water exploitation, recycling of wastewater through proper treatment and its reuse.(H)

Develop contingency plans for short term measures to adapt to water shortages that could
help to mitigate droughts and floods.(H)
20

Minimize water losses by rehabilitating the drains, removing sedimentation and constructing
breeches.(M)
Integrated Water Resource Management

Protect groundwater through management and technical measures like regulatory
frameworks, water licensing, slow action dams, artificial recharge especially for threatened
aquifers, and adopt integrated water resources management concepts and practices.(H)

Introduce environment-friendly pesticides and fertilizers to reduce run-off of toxic
compounds into sources of over ground and underground water.(M)
Legislative Framework

Legislate and enforce industrial and domestic waste management practices to protect water
resources from further degradation.(M)

Enact and enforce
management.(H)
laws
and
regulations
required
for
efficient
water
resource
Enhancing Capacity

Increase investment in research in the water sector to minimize water losses and encourage
conservation practices and introduce financial mechanisms in the form of subsidies and tax
exemptions.(H)

Strengthen capacities of all relevant
conservation of water resources.(H)
stakeholders
for
monitoring,
protection
and
Increasing Awareness
Promote awareness on the importance of conservation and sustainable use of water
resources.(H)
21
5.5 Biodiversity
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa‘s biodiversity includes a diverse array of ecosystems and species, and
provides for a wide range of ecosystem services, such as providing fresh water, regulating the
climate, inhibiting soil erosion, regulating surface runoff and providing bio-resources.
Apart from climate change, the biodiversity in KP Province faces major threats like
deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, salinity and water logging, non-sustainable agricultural
practices and hunting. It is predicted, however, that, in future, climate change will be the single
biggest driver of biodiversity loss next to land-use change9.Climate change affects a range of
environmental factors such as temperature and moisture, which in turn affect species habitat
and health. Some species are more adaptive, but, for others, a changing environment is a
threat to their ability to survive and therefore threatens their existence.
Efforts so far to address threats to biodiversity have mainly been in terms of management of
protected areas for the preservation of flora and fauna in their natural state. The protected
areas (Figure 5) including wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves spanning over 1.05 million
hectares attract vast varieties of migratory species every year and they face similar threats to
their survival including climate change. There are six national parks, three wildlife sanctuaries,
38 game reserves, 22 private game reserves,84 community game reserves, two wildlife refuges
and eight wildlife parks in KP Province10.
According to the Wildlife Department in KP Province 11, impacts of climate change are being
observed which affect both migratory and indigenous flora and fauna. These include:

Land degradation due to extreme weather events, natural hazards, and soil erosion that
causes loss of soil fertility and agricultural productivity.

Changes in water quality and quantity in inland freshwaters.

Degradation of vegetation in watersheds due to climate change.

Changes in terrestrial, inland, wetland and fisheries systems, their species and
ecosystem services, due to changes in rainfall regimes, rising temperatures and natural
hazards such as earthquakes and floods.

Changes in growth rates, reproduction and geographic ranges of species and penology of
plants due to climatic changes.
9
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Synthesis Report
Information received from KP Wildlife Department as part of the consultative process adopted for development of this
policy
11
Information received from Wildlife Department as part of consultation process for development of this policy
10
22
Figure 5: Protected Areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Source: Wildlife Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Recommended Policy Measures:

Establish and manage protected areas, and increase their resilience for sustainable
benefits of present and future generations, ensuring complementary schemes to
mitigate adverse impacts on livelihoods of local communities. (H)

Develop mechanisms to incentivize local communities to forego certain uses of land to
be protected and to contribute to protection of such land. (H)

Negotiate and agree on proper management of the protected areas and revise trophy
hunting rules to further improve the transparency, governance and equitable sharing of
resources among the communities. (H)

Establish nature reserves, botanical gardens and gene banks in all the districts for
recreational needs and educational purposes, and increase awareness and strengthen
23
capacities of relevant institutions, NGOs, CSOs, communities and nature conservationists
for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.(M)

Improve understanding of the climate change impacts on biodiversity and monitor the
impact on biodiversity due to the changing climate.(H)

Facilitate ecosystem based adaptation12 of biodiversity to climate change by increasing –
in particular – the resilience of the protected areas and of fisheries. (H)
12
Ecosystem based adaptation provides a cost-effective strategy that can be undertaken by parties, and is especially
effective at local levels with community involvement. Ecosystem-based adaptation may also contribute to climate
change mitigation through the preservation or sequestration of carbon
24
5.6 Land and Vulnerable Eco-systems (Mountain Areas, Pastures,
Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Wetlands)
Ecosystems provide valuable goods and environmental services for social and economic
wellbeing. KP's natural ecosystems are experiencing degradation due to anthropogenic
pressures and aggravation in the impacts of the climate change manifested by increase in
extreme weather events and glacial melt, resulting in flash floods.
The agro-biodiversity has suffered seriously due to introduction of high-yield varieties of food
and cash crops, and use of agrochemicals. The major threats to terrestrial ecosystems are from
overgrazing and deforestation due to increasing population pressure and poverty.
Recommended Policy Measures

Identify vulnerable ecosystems in KP Province and take measures to increase their resilience
to changing climate while encouraging sustainable use of such ecosystems. (H)

Promote eco-tourism as opposed to traditional forms of tourism restricting commercial
activities to ensure assimilative capacities of vulnerable ecosystems are maintained and
improved. (H)

Establish coordination between relevant and appropriate stakeholders particularly forest,
wildlife, irrigation and livestock departments for efficient management of ecosystems
including rangelands, wetlands and other resources while ensuring the rights of the
indigenous people.(H)

Revive threatened ecosystems such as rangelands and enhance ecosystems by creating
artificial wetlands wherever secondary water resources are available or rain harvesting is
possible and by increasing grasslands in waterlogged zones.(H)

Recognize the role played by wetlands in natural disaster protection and ensure controlled
conversion of wetlands and their immediate surroundings for agriculture and grazing
purposes. (M)
25
5.7 Disaster Preparedness
KP is prone to multiple and frequent disasters of various types, predominantly floods, due to its
geographical and topographical conditions, and droughts in some areas. Climate change is
making extreme climate events more frequent. The magnitude of the calamity can be gauged
from data compiled by the Federal Flood Commission, which states the combined flow of rivers
Swat and Kabul touched a new historical height of 400,000 as opposed to the previous figure of
250,000 cusecs recorded in 1929.
The increase in frequency of flash floods and floods are expected to cause river bank cuttings,
surface runoff, soil erosion, avalanches, and landslides, damaging houses, agriculture lands,
roads and properties.
Recommended Policy Measures

Chalk out a Provincial DRR policy with a special emphasis on climate induced extreme
events and disasters. (H)

Clearly define roles and responsibilities of each concerned department, highlighting
supervisory roles for public servants and representatives (local and provincial levels)during
natural disasters to strengthen coordination and build their capacities to adequately plan for
and address the impacts of extreme weather events. (H)

Undertake hazard and risk mapping of existing infrastructure for telecommunication, power,
utilities, transport, irrigation and agriculture and ensure their resilience against climate
related hazards.(H)

Strengthen forecasting, monitoring, early warning systems and evacuation planning for
extreme weather events, for both humans and biodiversity (including livestock and
fisheries), giving due focus to planning for vulnerable human population: old, children,
disabled and women; ensuring community participation in the development process of such
plans. (H)

Maintain accurate records of seasonal patterns, temperature and precipitation for each agroecological zone and use this data and information to project climate change scenarios. (M)

Develop an ‗assessment and compensation mechanism‘ including insurance of losses and
damages in the aftermath of disasters and measures for rehabilitation. (M)

Plan, design, construct and strengthen appropriate flood embankments, dykes, protective
bunds to protect flood plains and populations in view of likely floods. (H)

Design, construct and upgrade disaster resilient multi-purpose buildings in relatively safer
areas to use as shelter during natural calamities. (H)

Ensure storm drainage system in major cities for intense rainfall events. (H)
26
5.8 Socio-economic Measures (Poverty and Gender)
5.8.1 Poverty
The rate and pattern of economic growth is a critical element in poverty eradication, and
climatic factors can have a powerful bearing on both. Rapidly growing population, poverty and
climate change impacts are some of the key drivers that lead the process of desertification and
land degradation causing significant threats to food and economic security.
The percentage of people living below the poverty line in KP is estimated to be 39%, much
higher than the national level. Poverty is concentrated in rural areas where more than 80% of
KP‘s population lives. A large proportion of the population lives on or slightly above the poverty
line, and the vulnerability of this group worsens in the event of a natural disaster. An internal or
external crisis including impacts of changing climate may push these people deeper below the
poverty line.
Recommended Policy Measures

Mainstream climate-poverty nexus in provincial planning, such as in Poverty Reduction
Strategies (PRS),provincial population planning strategies and programs, and annual
budgetary planning. (H)

Conduct research to analyze the impact of climate change on poverty and on the
development potential of province.(H)

Improve governance, policy and decision making processes, which can have a critical
bearing on the way in which policies and institutions respond to the impact of climatic
factors on the poor. (M)

Improve awareness of and access of poor communities to appropriate technologies for
climate smart agriculture, energy and industrial development.(M)

Share knowledge of local agricultural practices, yields, landholding size and other relevant
information with departments responsible for social welfare, safety nets and poverty
alleviation, to make poor agricultural households more resilient. (H)

Investigate, plan for and implement measures on climate induced migration as it primarily
affects populations in the low income group. (M)
5.8.2 Gender
While a large number of poor, rural women depend on climate sensitive resources for survival
and their livelihoods, they are also less likely to have the education, opportunities, inclusion in
decision-making process and access to resources they need to adapt to the changing climate.
Women‘s vulnerability to climate change differs from men and climate change interventions
that are not gender-responsive often result in deepening the existing gender divide. There has
been little progress toward bridging the gender gap in recent years.
27
Nonetheless, Govt of KP and its leadership have expressed a commitment to gender equity and
women‘s empowerment (Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2014). To this effect, the
government has set up the Provincial Commission on the Status of Women and revived the
Women‘s Parliamentarians Caucus.
Recommended Policy Measures

Incorporate gender perspective in development, climate adaptation and mitigation planning.
(H)

Ensure to reduce the vulnerability of women to climate change impacts, particularly in
relation to their critical roles in community. (H)

Ensure equitable participation of women during every stage of decision making process on
climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives, using the local and indigenous
knowledge of women to improve their welfare. (H)

Develop gender-sensitive indicators related to adaptation to evaluate and monitor
vulnerability of women to climate impacts and to address it accordingly. (M)

Establish coherence among the institutions dealing with issues of climate change, gender,
human rights, population planning and health policy. (H)
28
6. Climate Change Mitigation
6.1 Energy
The energy sector in KP Province holds great importance in terms of electricity supply for the
entire country due to its hydel power stations. The other provinces in Pakistan have rather
limited primary energy resources, particularly potential sites for hydel power generation, and
depend to a large extent on the energy produced in KP Province. Because of continued and
rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrialization in recent years, the demand for
electricity has increased more than its production resulting in a serious energy crisis. Due to
economic growth, rising demand of air conditioning and increasing population, electricity
demand is further expected to rise in Pakistan to 40,000 MW by 202013. This will put further
pressure on the province to cater to additional energy needs of the country.
Energy generation is the most significant contributor to GHGs emissions with vast majority of
these emissions coming from the combustion of fossil fuel (oil, gas, coal), while energy
consumption is a reliable indicator of economic development. Planning for energy is required in
order to overcome energy shortages, to develop indigenous energy resources for sustainable
and affordable energy, and to reduce GHG emissions.
Recommended Policy Measures

Develop a provincial energy policy on the use of indigenous renewable energy resources to
reduce dependency on imported fossil fuels, which can include hydropower, solar, wind,
geothermal energy, waste to energy, bio-energy, indigenously produced natural gas and
possibly nuclear. (H)

Provide an enabling political, regulatory and financial environment for uptake of renewable
energy, particularly for off-grid populations. (H)

Assess GHG emissions resulting from proposed and adopted energy strategies and plans,
and integrate this information in future energy planning. (H)

Promote the use of solar water heating technologies to replace traditional natural gas
fueled water heating systems, in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. (M)

Capitalize on the opportunities presented by engaging private sector on renewable energy
production and uptake. (M)

Promote research on low carbon and renewable energy sources, technologies, and on the
feasibility and cost-effectiveness of available sources. (H)
13
Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) cited in Economic Survey 2014-2015 by Ministry of
Finance.
29

Increase the effectiveness of existing financial support mechanisms, and provide further
incentives such as carbon taxes, subsidies, feed-in-tariffs and tax reforms for switching to
renewable energy. (M)

Promote zero emission building designs such as Passivhaus14 especially for public sector
that have minimal non-renewable energy requirements. (M)

Develop capacities and knowledge of relevant stakeholders, including government
departments, and local technicians for adoption, smooth operations and maintenance of
renewable energy technologies. (M)

Promote and improve access to technology for Waste Heat Recovery, Co-generation and
Combined Cycle Power Generation. (M)
14
The term passive house (Passivhaus in German) refers to a rigorous, voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a
building, reducing its ecological footprint. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space
heating or cooling.
30
6.2 Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation
Energy efficiency has a large potential to reduce GHG emissions at low cost and to reduce the
demand for energy ensuring sufficient energy supply is diverted to achieving economic
development goals. Economically efficient use of energy causes less environmental impacts
required for electricity generation, better health from improved heating or cooling and energy
security protecting access to energy resources.
Recommended Policy Measures

Promote uptake of energy efficiency technologies and measures particularly for industries
and strengthen the strategic and legal framework necessary for energy efficiency
improvement in energy end-use sectors. (H)

Dovetail the energy efficiency and conservation concept within the existing legislative
regime especially exploring the possibility of integration with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Environmental Protection Act (2014) and building codes, and enact new legislation as
necessary for energy efficiency and conservation. (H)

Conduct research and energy audits to identify energy use by different sectors
(commercial, industrial, residential) within KP and their relevant conservation potential.
(H)

Raise awareness on energy saving options including maximum use of natural day light,
better insulation and use of energy efficient lighting and appliances and promote energy
conservation through mass awareness campaigns. (M)

Improve access to financing and provide financial incentives for energy efficiency practices
and projects by coordination within government and with the financial sector. (M)

Develop and implement energy efficiency standards for devices and appliances. (M)
31
6.3 Transport
The transport sector is a key economic sector, as well as a large and growing GHG emitter. The
sector constitutes 10% of country's gross domestic product and provides 11 percent of the
economic activity in the province (Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2009). An efficient
transport system with modern infrastructure will further improve the economic factor of
production. Govt of KP has created an independent transport department to develop the sector
and to implement the Comprehensive Development Strategy 2010 - 2017.
Globally the transport sector contributes to a quarter of GHG emissions originating from energy
consumption. Most of the sector emissions originate from road transportation. These emissions
from road transportation are expected to increase to 90.17 Giga-tons of CO2 by 2030 (SanchezTriana, 2013). In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa over 96% of passengers and 90% of freight travels by
road. Demand for road transport has been expanding at a rate much greater than economic
development as a whole. On the other hand, majority of the population does not use private
transport and have to use the existing public transport which is not easily accessible, reliable or
safe.
Shifting investments to other alternate forms of transportation and strengthening the existing
transport sector would complement efforts of the Govt of KP for achievement of public service
delivery improvement, socio- economic growth and, poverty and GHG emissions reduction.
Recommended Policy Measures

Factor in climate change impacts in transport sector related planning. (H)

Develop and adopt strategies promoting clean energy mix, low carbon transport
technologies, and low carbon transportation modes including mass transit systems and
hybrid cars, non-motorized modes such as bicycling and walking.(H)

Develop and enforce vehicle emission standards. In particular, encourage use of energy
efficient transportation to reduce GHG emissions using principles such as vehicle fitness
testing. (H)

Provide financial, political and infrastructural enabling environment for energy efficient
and low-carbon transport. (H)

Conduct research to increase knowledge on current transport activity and related GHG
emissions, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of low carbon technologies and
transportation modes. (H)

Strengthen capacities in the province for improvement of transport efficiency,
assessment of sustainability of transport modes and application of transport mitigation
methodologies. (M)

Explore opportunities and platforms for accessing domestic and international finance
available for sustainable and low-carbon transport via carbon markets, climate funds,
and interested donors. (M)
32

Explore the feasibility for use of clean fuels such as bio-fuel and compressed/liquefied
natural gas in the transport sector. (H)

Explore and conduct feasibility studies to develop use of inland waterways transport. (M)
33
6.4 Waste
Solid waste comprises of municipal, industrial, hazardous, construction, packaging, agricultural
and electrical and electronic equipment waste. In KP, municipal solid waste is estimated to be
between 0.4 and 0.6 kilograms per day per capita. Nearly 40% of the waste generated is not
disposed of properly and ends up in streets and public spaces (Environmental Protection
Agency, 2009). This creates a host of problems including environmental degradation, pollution
of water and soil, exposure of humans and animals to toxins and air pollution.
Poor sanitation is a serious environmental health risk in KP. Waste water from households,
rural and urban, is discharged untreated into the open. The untreated waste water pollutes the
soil and underground water. This problem is particularly deleterious with respect to health and
environment in rural areas where open defecation increases the exposure to human excretions
(Planning and Development Department, 2010).
Lack of effective waste management systems is one of the biggest challenges being faced by
the Government of KP at the moment. Weak waste management systems and increasing urban
sprawl have exacerbated the waste management issues already faced by KP. Solid waste
collection and disposal practices across the province need attention, especially in tourist
districts of Hazara (Planning and Development Department, 2011).
Recommended Policy Measures

Develop provincial solid waste standards for waste storage, collection, transport,
treatment and disposal, in line with air and water standards, and ensure their
implementation by all sub-sectors of the economy including any commercial activity,
construction, industry and agriculture. (H)

Develop proper collection, storage, transport and disposal system for municipal waste
and wastewater and involve private sector in implementation of the system. (H)

Ensure treatment of solid waste and waste water. (H)

Formulate certified waste management systems for solid, hazardous and e-waste. (M)

Identify industries and sectors producing hazardous waste and e-waste, and monitor
implementation of waste management systems for waste production, transportation and
disposal. (M)

Raise awareness about hazardous waste and inform all stakeholders of its toxic nature
and impacts. (M)

Conduct feasibility for waste-to-energy projects and promote the use of agricultural
waste as industrial fuel. (H)
34
6.5 Industries
Industries in KP Province have a significant contribution to economic growth. The sector
contributes 13.5% to provincial GDP15, generates employment, and supplies some of the basic
necessities through a competitive manufacturing sector.
KP has an extensive agriculture based industry that produces various products including tea,
tobacco, match boxes, vegetable ghee and sugar. About 78% of national marble production,
27% of cement production and 20% of mining activities take place in KP province. There are
approximately 12000 small, medium and large industrial units in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa out of
which, 1821 are functioning and registered with the Directorate of Industries, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa16.
The industrial sector is faced with many challenges which include shortage of electricity and
lack of infrastructure. Changing climate and its impacts render additional set of challenges on
industries when faced with extreme temperatures and climate induced temperatures
particularly those that affect production or supply of raw materials.
Recommended Policy Measures:
15
16

Mainstream climate change considerations in KP Industrial policy 2016 to ensure a
climate resilient and compatible industrial sector is developed. (H)

Provide evidence and information on GHG production, and GHG reduction potential in
industrial sector. (H)

Design incentives (financial and non-financial) to encourage GHG reduction, lowering
energy intensity as well as renewable-energy based energy production systems in
industries. (H)

Conduct energy audits and promote energy efficiency measures in industries. (H)

Promote and improve access to GHG emission reduction and capture technologies such
as Coal Bed Methane Capture and Carbon Capture and Storage. (M)

Encourage cleaner production and propagate ‗circular economy‘ concept for efficient use
of resources based on UNEP‘s Sustainable Consumption and Production guidelines. (M)
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Board of Investment and Trade [Investment Guide]. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the Unrevealed Story
Bureau of Statistics (2015). Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Figures 2015.
35
6.6 Urban Planning
Govt of KP wants to improve the access of public services in 22 urban areas of the province.
These services include water, sanitation, drainage, streets and public infrastructure. Urban
planning is of paramount importance to KP as the rate of migration, both rural to urban and
urban to urban, is expected to rise. Spatial planning and management of urban land can help
reduce the number of environmental problems. Water supply, sewage and sanitation, drainage,
vehicular emissions and solid waste management are amongst the top priority measures for
urban planning for Govt of KP. Unplanned urban development is likely to increase the
environmental degradation in urban centers. It can increase water scarcity, exacerbate energy
crisis, increase air pollution and produce social issues like crime and violence. Moreover,
environmental impact assessments need to be conducted before the construction of road
networks, spatial planning and management of urban land.
For the fulfillment of these purposes Govt of KP has initiated Community Infrastructure
Programme (CIP II), the provincial Urban Development Project (see National Urban
Development Policy - NUDP) and the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (RWSSP).
Water conservation is a priority in urban planning since poor maintenance and construction
results in high water losses.
Recommended Policy Measures

Develop laws and regulations to manage urbanization and to prohibit conversion of land
from one particular use to another. (H)

Promote vertical growth, mixed land use, development of open spaces, efficient
transport system, horticulture and landscaping and installation of energy efficient street
lighting systems. (H)

Develop and strengthen urban policy and planning institutions including city
development agencies for improved urban planning, land use planning for commercial,
residential and industrial activities, and resource mobilization. (H)

Ensure provision of education, health, waste management, water and sanitation, and
hygiene facilities particularly in urban slums. (H)

Upgrade areas with high cultural, social and economic value in cities including historical
architecture, slums, parks etc. (M)

Develop, revise and update master plans for major cities to prepare for contingencies
like climate-induced migration, and reduce risks from extreme temperatures, minimizing
the heat island effect, where possible, in new settlements. (H)

Ensure all urban planning is informed by appropriate disaster risk reduction.(H)
36
6.7 Carbon Sequestration and Forestry
Forests can act as carbon sinks and help reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere by
absorbing carbon dioxide. Removing forests can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide
sequestered. Forests contain substantial carbon in the soil, trees, and other vegetation and are
a key component in maintaining the GHG balance. KP province has great mitigation potential to
sequester carbon via afforestation and reforestation as highlighted by its provincial initiatives17.
Recommended Policy Measures

Limit deforestation and reduce GHG emissions associated with forestry operations. (H)

Create more forests through afforestation, re-forestation and establish new forests on
abandoned agricultural land or other non-forested areas using indigenous species and
avoiding foreign and invasive species. (H)

Minimize disturbance to trees during harvesting activities and help trees get reestablished faster after harvest. (M)

Improve monitoring and policing of forests to curb incidence of forest fires and to
reduce the role of timber mafia in illegal felling and clearing of forest cover. (H)

Promote urban forestry to adapt to extreme temperatures and to increase carbon sinks
in cities. (M)

Adopt agro-forestry practices to provide secondary carbon sinks and alternative
sources of livelihood, fuel, timber and food. (H)

Develop programmes to provide alternate fuel and livelihood options to forest
dependent communities. (H)

Explore international avenues to gain voluntary carbon credits from afforestation and
reforestation measures like REDD+. (M)
17
Billion Trees Tsunami Afforestation Project managed by the Department of Forestry, Environment and Wildlife in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province
37
6.8 Agriculture and Livestock
Agricultural activities such as cultivation of crops and livestock contribute about 39% to
national GHG emissions18. About83% of the population in KP is dependent on agriculture and
livestock for their income and livelihood (Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2014).
Management of various agricultural activities can help reduce GHG emissions and contribute
towards mitigating climate change impacts.
Recommended Policy Measures

Encourage agronomic practices that generate higher carbon residue and carbon storage
in soil, such as crop rotation, re-vegetation, retaining crop residues for enhanced
decomposition in soil, avoiding row crops and deep ploughing. (H)

Adopt tillage management practices for minimal soil disturbance and reduced erosion.
(H)

Improve agro-forestry systems to increase carbon storage and reduce soil carbon losses
stemming from erosion by combining crops with trees for timber, firewood, fodder and
other products, and establishing shelter belts and riparian zones/buffer strips with
woody species. (H)

Employ integrated nutrient management techniques to reduce emissions on-site by
reducing leaching and volatile losses, improving nitrogen use efficiency through precision
farming and improving fertilizer application timing. (M)

Improve water management through soil and water conservation by discouraging water
drainage and encouraging shallower water table to increase water available in root zone
(Freibauer et al. 2004); to enhance biomass production, increase the amount of aboveground and the root biomass returned to the soil. (M)

Improve grassland and grazing management by controlling intensity and timing of
grazing (e.g. stocking rate management, rotational grazing, and enclosure of grassland
from livestock grazing). (H)

Develop and propagate technologies for biogas production from agriculture/ livestock
wastes. (H)

Develop and adopt new breeds of cattle which are more productive in terms of milk and
meat with lower methane production from enteric fermentation. (M)

Encourage farmers to use appropriate feed mixes and additives to reduce methane
production from enteric fermentation/ digestion in cattle. (H)
Manage water in rice paddies to control releases of methane from agricultural soil and
introduce low water delta rice varieties and fish/rice farming (M)

18
National Climate Change Policy 2012
38
7. Capacity Building
Capacity building is essential for development. It is a process of understanding obstacles that
may inhibit communities, government, international organizations and non-government
organizations from accomplishing their development goals. Policy implementation depends
essentially on the ability of various stakeholders to understand the necessity of the policy and
how to overcome hurdles in implementation. That can only be achieved by institutional
development, including community participation, human resource development, strengthening
of management systems and creating an enabling environment for appropriate policy
implementation. The policy measures recommended below are an attempt to create an
enabling environment for effective policy implementation.
Recommended Policy Measures
Institutional Enhancement

Assess capacity needs that require capacity building to engage stakeholders in
institutional capacity development. (H)

Conduct baseline studies to assess capacity needs for conservation and resource
management of important forest species, biodiversity, wetlands, agro-ecological zones.
(M)

Carry out capacity building of relevant organizations in the area on natural resource
management, conservation of biodiversity, forests, water resources, sensitive
ecosystems, risk reduction strategies and disaster preparedness. (H)

Improve capacity of government departments to develop, implement and manage
projects which increase climate resilience in vulnerable population and result in
mitigation of and/or adaptation to changing climate. (M)

Conduct training of government officials and stakeholders through workshops on climate
change mitigation and adaptation; this could be technical or non-technical depending on
requirements and the audience involved. (H)

Forge partnership with training institutions and universities for regular training
workshops for various capacity building exercises. (H)

Engage stakeholders conducting projects within the region for assessing process and
outcomes of environmental friendly development. (M)

Streamline Climate Change in provincial policy documents and development projects.
(H)

Establish and maintain weather forecasting centers for research. (M)
39
Awareness Raising and Education

Introduce concepts of climate change mitigation, adaptation and natural resources
management in academic curriculums at all levels of education. (H)

Mobilize and encourage young scientists and researchers to study climate change
impacts and risk reduction strategies as human resource development to strengthen
institutions research and academic institutions. (H)

Establish and strengthen climate change science related
universities through financial and technical support. (M)

Ensure an institutional mechanism – like formation of the climate change cell - to
conduct research and educate the public at large through campaigns and programmes
about climate change impacts, mitigation and adaptation strategies. (H)

Provide platforms and participate in knowledge and information sharing forums on
climate change. (H)

Provide necessary training and support to government officials and relevant departments
regarding climate change impacts and development issues. (H)

Support and encourage media and other relevant stakeholders in raising awareness
campaigns including the use of social media. (H)
departments including
40
8. Technology Transfer
Technology transfer plays a critical role in facing the challenges of climate change. Although it
is mostly associated with climate change mitigation strategies it is equally important for climate
change adaptation. Technology transfer in mitigation strategies is usually restricted to specific
sectors such as energy and industries, in which reduction in carbon emissions can be measured.
However, in adaptation, technology transfer and techniques are relevant for a wide range of
sectors, such as agriculture, water, health etc. Technology transfer is not restricted to exchange
of machinery which reduces carbon emissions. It also includes indigenous coping techniques
which are important for adaptation. Moreover, adaptation techniques are less capital intensive.
Where technology pertaining to mitigation strategies can be used across countries, such as
solar powered lights, adaptation techniques are environment and region specific(UNEP, 2011).
Transfer of technology is usually from developed to developing countries as a result of
international climate negotiations which stipulate developed (industrialized) countries to assist
developing (usually poor) countries in reducing emissions, in switching to alternate energy and
adapting to climate change impacts. Developing countries with the help of national and
international support can adopt environmentally friendly strategies and practices. Successful
strategies practiced in other parts of the country can be adopted in other regions, whereas,
exchange of technology within provinces would also help strengthen ties and pave the way for
development at a national level. Technology is vital in ensuring effective implementation of
policy recommendations for both climate mitigation and adaptation.
Recommended Policy Measures

Determine technological needs in the province for climate mitigation and adaptation by
conducting technology needs assessment. (H)

Maintain records of progress/changes in technological needs. (M)

Identify potential indigenous and international technologies for alternate energy sources
such as solar, water and wind energy and promote uptake of this technology for use. (H)

Identify appropriate energy efficient technologies including efficient household
appliances, solar water heaters, energy efficient chillers and lights for domestic and
commercial buildings. (H)

Identify potential technologies for energy efficient transportation and energy generation
systems for domestic and commercial use. (H)

Develop and introduce coping techniques and technology to aid sustainable agriculture
practices and irrigation methods for water stressed conditions. (H)

Promote partnership between international and national organizations whose climate
change adaptation technologies in agriculture, energy, transport, forestry and water can
be used in KP province. (M)
41

Identify opportunities for uptake of low GHG emitting technologies such as photovoltaic
power generation, natural gas turbines, biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle
generation, and on-grid PV power production. (H)

Promote research on GHG reduction and adaptation related technologies in universities
and in other research institutes. (H)

Encourage investments from domestic and international, private and public players to
pilot projects on climate change mitigation and adaptation. (M)
42
9. Implementation
To guide implementation of recommended measures given in this policy for climate mitigation
and adaptation, implementation strategies and action plans relevant to each sector and sub
sectors need to be devised. Moreover, the successful implementation of the provincial Climate
Change Policy depends significantly on governance, planning, risk management, resources,
communication and monitoring. Some of the elements required for successful policy
implementation are:







Strong executive level support for delivery processes of the policy, which may even
include making a provincial taskforce for policy implementation;
Well established stakeholders engagement and communication plans for all
departments;
Supportive legal and financial services;
Implementation road map/plan for the policy defining roles and responsibilities of
relevant departments;
Risk assessment and management;
Effective and timely reporting, monitoring and performance evaluation; and
Gap analysis of data to ensure accurate predictions for the future (for example in the
case of weather data).
As per the National Climate Change Policy, to ensure effective implementation of the KP Climate
Change Policy, a ―Provincial Climate Change Policy Implementation Committee‖ needs to be set
up whose task will be to meet at least bi-annually to discuss strategic plans for implementation.
The provincial policy is completely aligned with the national policy with some additional
province-specific priorities and actions; therefore a single committee can be charged with the
responsibility of overseeing the implementation of both. As in the original scheme of things, the
provincial committee will report to the National Committee, which in turn reports to the Prime
Minister‘s Committee on Climate Change.
The composition as put forth in National Climate Change Policy for the Provincial Climate
Change Policy Implementation Committee is as below19:
1. Provincial Minister for Environment (Chairperson)
2. Chairman/Additional Chief Secretary Planning and Development Department;
3. Secretaries Environment/ Agriculture/ Forest/ Irrigation/ Local Government/ Public Health
Departments;
4. DG PDMA;
5. Three representatives from corporate sector/Chambers of Commerce and industries;
6. Three representatives from Civil Society Organizations;
7. Three eminent experts from the field;
8. Director General Environmental Protection Agency, member/ Secretary
19
The implementation of this provincial policy is under discussion with KP government and will be finalized based on
these consultations
43
10. Towards Green Growth and Climate Compatible Development
Owing to its geographical location and topography, KP, even as compared to other provinces of
Pakistan, is extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. KP Government, however,
has been fairly proactive in at least expressing its resolve to address the impacts and reducing
their effects. KP has been a front runner in initiating steps to ‗greening‘ the growth of the
province through the Green Growth Vision and Initiative (Khan, 2013). However, would this be
sufficient to achieve the goal of Climate Compatible Development (see Figure 1).20
What is Climate Compatible Development?
Climate Compatible Development ensures
development that minimizes the harm caused
by climate impacts without compromising
development goals. Growth that is fed through
emission reductions and increasing climate
resilience can increase opportunities and
minimize
threats.
CCD
helps
integrate
development goals and strategies into climate
strategies.
Climate Compatible Development (CCD)
is an emerging concept which takes
climate-centric approach to development
as opposed to the economic development
approach which forms the basis of Green
Growth. Rather than focusing only on
economic growth and climate change
impacts, CCD relies more heavily on
adaptation, mitigation, and development
strategies and the synergies between
these three main pillars required to
address the climate change impacts. CCD
is a way of addressing the fundamental
questions posed by climate change to
policy makers. As the need to adapt,
mitigate, and develop increases, a new
development landscape will emerge as
new markets and opportunities will be
created. CCD provides a more holistic
approach for policy-makers to tap on
these opportunities21.
Background
The Green Growth Vision (GGV) of the
provincial government provides a threestep strategy for a roadmap to enabling
green growth in the province. The vision
addresses environmental challenges and
Figure 6: Climate Compatible Development
http://www.cdkn.org
solutions
pertaining to key sectors of the province.
The Government of KP (Govt of KP) aims to provide
political ownership to GGV by integrating it into the policy. By creating Green Employment
opportunities the Government of KP wants the GGI to appeal to all political parties and
stakeholders. Green Growth Initiative (GGI) comprises a set of policy measures initiated by
Govt of KP in order to fulfill the objectives of this Vision. The GGI aims at fulfilling the
economic, social, and environmental objectives of green growth. The Government of KP set up
a two-layered institutional structure to provide the GGV with buy-in from political parties. This
20
21
http://cdkn.org
http://cdkn.org
44
institutional structure consists of Inter-Ministerial Committee on Green Growth and is supported
by an Expert Task Force on Green
Growth (Khan, 2013).
Green Growth
GGI looks at the environmental issues
According to the OECD, green growth means
faced by six focal sectors of the
―fostering economic growth and development,
province, four priority areas, and
while ensuring that natural assets continue to
provides
thirteen
quantifiable
and
provide the resources and environmental
measureable targets for the next five
services on which our well-being relies. To do
years. The thirteen targets identified
this, it must catalyze investment and innovation
will
be
met
by
kick-starting
which will underpin sustained growth and give
initiatives/projects in these four priority
rise to new economic opportunities‖.
areas. This process has been described
in the Figure 7 below.
Way Forward: Linking GGI to CCD
Through the priority areas identified and
the initiatives undertaken, Govt of KP‘s
GGI seems to be supported by the key
pillars of CCD. The co-benefits derived
from adaptation and mitigation potential
of these initiatives feed into the key
sectors of CCD, namely development
strategies, low carbon development,
Source: http://cdkn.org
and climate resilience. Apart from
meeting the targets set out by the GGI,
Figure 7: Potential Target outcomes for a
these initiatives can also help increase
'green economy'
low carbon and climate resilient
development.
KP contains nearly 40% of the forest
cover of the country and is a major livelihood source for the people living in the province.
Therefore the focus GGI places on Forestry and Protected Areas is neccesary to achieve green
growth, and the targets set out by the initiative, are well-placed. The afforestation drive
presents opportunities and enhances co-beneits through adaptation and mitigation measures.
Developing and protecting national parks adds to these co-beneifts by preseving biodiversity of
the province, promotion of ecotourism, and job creation. The targets related to valuing the
forests and treating them as natural capital can help in preserving and promoting afforestation
drives. These initiatives and targets are already geared towards meeting the adaptation,
mitigation, and development strategy related objectives of the CCD.
In order to target low carbon development the ‗Clean Energy‘ initiative taken by the province
increases emphasis on mitigation and development strategies, which are at the heart of CCD.
45
Figure 8: Green Growth Initiative at a Glance
Focus Areas
•Forestry*
•Protected
areas/national parks*
•Clean energy*
•Climate resilience*
•Water/sanitation,
•Waste management
*Priority Areas
Initiative
•‗Billion Tree Tsunami‘
•‗KP National Parks‘
•'Combating Climate
Change'
•‗365 Community Microhydel’
Targets
•Forestry cover increase
•Billion tree Tsunami
•REDD+ operationalization
•Nature Valuation Bill
•Double National Parks
•Establish National Park Management Authority
•Wildlife Park in each district
•Natural Forest – Protected areas
•Renewable Energy reliance to increase to 80%
•365 Community Micro-hydel Projects
•Green Mass Transit
•Climate Resilient Growth
•Zero Carbon
46
This initiative creates employment opportunities, provides off-grid energy, and increases
opporunities for public-private partnerships, which in turn enhances the resilience of the
province to climate change impacts. Furthermore the KP government has taken an initiative to
combat climate change by introducing policy measures which reduce the vulnerabilities of
affected populations to the impacts of climate change.Vulnerability mapping and climate
proofing the provinces infrastructure by integrating it into the planing process is a way through
which the KP government is increasing the resilience of the province to climate induced
disasters (Khan, 2014). These measures feed into the CCD development stratgies and climate
resilient development.
The targets identified by the GGI can be linked to the main pillars of CCD. Targets to increase
forest cover, protecting and increasing of national parks can help in adaptation, mitigation, and
promoting low carbon development. Targets to increase the share of renewable energy in the
energy mix of the province will help in mitigating the GHG release into the atmosphere.
Through micro-hydel, and solar energy the access of general public to decentralized and off
the-grid supply of energy will help increase the sustainability of the policy measures in the long
run. Green mass transit will help reduce GHG emissions from transport and help improve the
urban planning measures to reduce the climate change impacts.
Although the targets identify climate resilient growth, and zero carbon development but in
order to translate into actionable steps they need to be more clearly defined. Green Growth
indicators include social and economic aspects to address climate change impacts, GGI
struggles to address the length and breadth of these issues.
11.
Finance
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is following Federal Govt of Pakistan and has formulated its own
specific Climate Change Policy and its actual goal is to strengthen the efforts of Federal Govt on
the common issue of Climate Change and further to contribute to the efforts of the global
community on combating Climate Change. Adaptation in relevant sectors requires ample
resources which are beyond the scope of fragile economy of KP. Therefore Provincial Govt looks
to the Federal Govt and International community like UNDP, World Bank, Green Climate Fund
etc for financing to take necessary measures like adaptations and mitigation.
Way Forward: Linking GGI to the Climate Change Policy of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The Climate Change Policy for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, through its proposed measures on
adaptation and mitigation, can help actualize the Green Growth Vision (GGV) that drives the
Green Growth Initiative (GGI). Through its proposed policy measures the Climate Change Policy
would also be addressing the challenges in focus areas identified by the GGI, particularly
forestry, protected areas, clean energy, water, waste management; and enhance the resilience
of the province to climate change impacts. Successful implementation of the Policy will thus
help meet the targets set out by GGI and will generate spill-over benefits feeding into other
sectors. Implementation of the Climate Change Policywill help achieve targets pertaining to
climate resilience, clean energy, and renewable energy. As such the Policy becomes an
47
instrument for implementation of GGI and can be used for tracking progress on it. The two
instruments working hand-in-hand and complementing each other – for which we need to have
an integrated implementation mechanism - can seed the process of green growth and put the
province on the road to Climate Compatible Development with its attendant social and
economic benefits to the people.
48
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