Radiation Noise Reduction Effect using Capacitor with

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EMC’09/Kyoto
21Q2-1
Radiation Noise Reduction Effect using Capacitor
with Resistor on Double-Layer Board
Takeshi Hakoda*1, Takashi Sakusabe#2, Takehiro Takahashi#3,Noboru Schibuya#4
#
Graduate school of Electronics and Information Engineering,
Takushoku University, Tokyo, Japan
1
[email protected]
*
Department of Computer Science, Takushoku University, Tokyo, Japan
{2sakusabe, 3take, 4schibuya}@cs.takushoku-u.ac.jp
Abstract— The purpose of this study is to estimate the radiation
noise reduction effect by using the capacitor with resistoron a
Double-Layer board. In the most application the power
distribution of the multi-layer printed circuit board is realised by
double-layer board. In many cases, the radiation peaks are
radiated from the power-ground layer appears at the layer
resonance frequencies. As one of the methods to suppress such
radiation, the capacitor with series resistor was investigated in
this study. The resistor is able to dump the resonance, however, it
makes the impedance higher. From some experiments, it is
known that the capacitors with resistor which one mounted at
the corners of the board reduce the resonance and also suppress
the radiation from the Double-Layer board. And it is also known
that the reduction effect of the radiation is related to the number
of the capacitors.
Key words: decoupling capacitor with resistor, radiated noise
reduction, power ground plane, mult-layer printed circuit board
I. INTRODUCTION
Since the radiation noise from the electronic equipment is
regulated in many countries, the effective techniques of
radiated noise reduction is needed in the design and
manufacturing fields of the equipment. It is well known that
the radiated emission from the electronic equipment is often
dominated by the radiation from the power-ground line or
plane. In many cases the power-ground plane is oscillated by
the rush current flow or voltage fluctuation by the IC
switching, and the oscillation yields the radiation from the
plane especially at the resonant frequencies of the plane. The
well-known counter measure is to attach a decoupling
capacitor (bypass capacitor) between power and ground plane
close to the IC. The decoupling capacitor reduces the voltage
fluctuation and noise current which are sources of the
radiation.
One of the alternative reduction methods for radiated noise
is to reduce the radiant efficiency of the power ground plane.
Because the resistive device is effective to reduce the radiant
efficiency, the lossy inductor such as ferrite bead or ferrite
sheet is often used. Authors are studying the radiated noise
reduction effect using decoupling capacitor with resistor. The
technique to insert the resistance serial to capacitance is
designed to decrease the anti-resonant peak [1]-[3]. From
some experiments under micro-strip line as a power-ground
line, though attaching the resistor to the capacitor makes the
impedance increase, the radiation from the line was reduced.
In this paper, the radiated noise suppression effect of the
capacitor with resistor used in Double-Layer board is
investigated.
II.
CAPACITOR WITH RESISTOR ON THE POWER
GROUND LINE
The capacitor is often used to reduce and decouple the
power-ground switching noise by mean of its low impedance.
As is well-known like in Fig.1 (a), the capacitor has the small
lead inductance that increases the impedance as the frequency
increases. This inductance and other reactance circuit such as
a power-ground line make resonances which causes the
increase of radiation noise.
(a)
(b)
Fig.1 Equivalent circuits of capacitor and capacitor with resistor.
In this case it is expected that the resistor attached to the
capacitor, as shown Fig.1 (b), YQWNFsuppress the resonance
and radiation of the power-ground line. In the previous work,
it is known that the radiation peek was reduced by attaching
the resistor to the decoupling capacitor mounted on the microstrip line as a power-ground line.
The radiation from the power-ground line was reduced by
capacitor with resistor, however, the impedance of the
capacitor with resistor was increased. The high impedance
decoupling capacitor induces malfunction of the IC because
the enough current supply to the IC is not guaranteed.
In order to supply current enough to the IC and to suppress
the line resonance the decoupling capacitor was mounted near
the noise source and the capacitor with resistor was mounted
at the terminal of the line because the maximum voltage
Copyright © 2009 IEICE
89
EMC’09/Kyoto
21Q2-1
presents at the line terminal. From some experiments it is
known that the radiation from the line can be reduced by the
capacitor with resistor. [4]-[5]
These results were studied by using the line model,
however, a parallel planes are often used as a power-ground
line in multi layer printed circuit board. Thus the reduction
effect of the radiation from Double-Layer board by using
capacitor with resistor was investigated in this study.
III. MODEL
A. Double-Layer Board
A rectangle shape two layers board was used. The
photograph of the board is shown Fig.2. The geometries are
250 (length) x 200 (width) x 1.6 (thickness) mm. The bulk
capacitance of the board is about 1.4 nF. The insulator of the
board is glass epoxy with relative permittivity 4.7.
A SMA connector for signal input as a noise source was
mounted at the center of the short side of the board. This
position is chosen to reduce the resonance mode to make
analysis be easy.
SMA
2
connector
4
0
IV. MEASUREMENT
A. Capacitor with series resister alternative to decoupling
capacitor
Generally the decoupling capacitor is mounted near the
noise source to reduce the power-ground noise or radiation. In
this case a capacitor or the capacitor with resistor was
mounted between two layers of the model board near the
signal input which plays a roll of power-ground noise source,
and the input impedance and the radiation was measured. The
capacitance of the all capacitors is 0.1 PF and a resistor 1, 4.7,
10 or 22 : was attached to the capacitor in series. The input
impedance and the radiation are shown Fig.3 and Fig.4
respectively.
In Fig.3, the input impedance of the board with decoupling
capacitor or the capacitor with small value of resistor (1 or 4.7
:) has a main resonance at 5 MHz due to the capacitor and
lead inductance, while the cases of without capacitor or the
capacitor with large resistor (10 or 22 :) the resonance due to
the capacitor did not appear. From this result it is understand
that large value of resistor prevents the current flow of the
capacitor and effect of the resistor is not expected.
Above this main resonant frequency, the impedance
increases as depending on the frequency increases, and the
sets of peak and dip have appeared at resonant frequencies of
Double-Layer board.
1000
1
Without Decoupling Capacitor
Decoupling Capacitor (Cd)
Cd with 1ȍ Resistor
Cd with 4.7ȍ Resistor
Cd with 10ȍ Resistor
Cd with 22ȍ Resistor
3
B. Position of the Capacitor
The radiated noise suppression effect was investigated in
the cases of (1) a capacitor with series resistor is mounted near
the signal input (Fig.2, position 0) and (2) some capacitors
with series resistor are mounted at the corners of the board
(Fig.2, position 1 to 4). In the case (1) the noise suppression
effect of the capacitor with resistor as a decoupling capacitor
against the normal decoupling capacitor is investigated. And
in the case (2) the suppression effect of the board resonance
by the capacitor with resistor is studied. The mount points of
the capacitors are selected at the corners because the anti node
of the standing wave on the board appears there.
C. Measurement Method
The input impedance and the radiation were measured and
evaluated. The input impedance was measured from the SMA
connector. The scattering parameter S11 was measured by
network analyzer Anritsu MS2024A and transformed to the
input impedance.
The sinusoidal wave of the signal generator was inputted to
the board through the SMA connector and the far field
radiation was measured in 3m anechoic chamber.The board
was stand on its longer edge on the table and horizontal
polarized radiation was measured by bi-log antenna.
Copyright © 2009 IEICE
90
10
1
0.1
0.01
10
100
1000
Frequency(MHz)
Fig. 3 Frequency dependence of input impedance of double-layer boardwith
decoupling capacitor mounted near the signal input
70
Without Decoupling Capacitor
Decoupling Capacitor (Cd)
Cd with 1ȍ Resistor
Cd with 4.7ȍ Resistor
Cd with 10ȍResistor
Cd with 22ȍ Resistor
65
60
55
Radiation (dBȝV/m)
Fig.2 The double-layer board.
Impedance(ȍ)
100
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
10
100
Frequency (MHz)
Fig.4 The radiation spectrumof double-layer boardwith decoupling
capacitor mounted near the signal input
1000
EMC’09/Kyoto
21Q2-1
1000
Decoupling䇭Capacitor (Cd)
Cd & position1
Cd & position2
Impedance(ȍ)
From a comparison of Fig.3 and 4, the large radiation peaks
appear at about 300 MHz and higher frequencies. These are
the resonance modes of the board. In this model the
characteristic impedance is small to the signal source. Thus
the peak of the radiation is observed at the frequency
according to the peak of the input impedance.
The radiations from the board with capacitor with different
value of resistor are not so different each other without 30 –
50 MHz. It is considered that the radiation from the board is
dominated of the resonance of the board because the board has
wide area and low impedance. In this case the suppression of
the resonance of the board may be effective.
Cd & position3
100
Cd & position4
10
1
100
1000
Frequency(MHz)
Fig.6 The input impedance of the board with a capacitor with resistor
Radiation (dBȝV/m)
B. Capacitor with resistor mounted on the corner of the
board
70
Decoupling Capacitor (Cd)
65
Cd & position1
Noise reduction effect can not be expected so much on
Cd & position2
60
Double-Layer board by capacitor with series resistor
Cd & position3
55
alternative to the decoupling capacitor near the noise source.
Cd & position4
50
Furthermore the impedance of the decoupling capacitor
45
expected to be as low as possible to guarantee the IC
40
operation.
35
Thus the capacitor with resistor was employed to suppress
30
the board resonance in this case. A decoupling capacitor was
25
mounted near the signal input and the capacitor with resistor
20
was added at the corner of the board. The corner of the board
100
1000
Frequency (MHz)
was chosen because the anti node of the resonance of all
modes appears at the corner. It is convenience for suppress the
Fig.7 The radiation from the board with a capacitor with resistor
resonance of the board.
Next, for the case (b) two capacitors with resistor were
In order to evaluate the effect of the capacitor with resistor,
mounted
at a pair of 4 positions, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 2-3, 2-4 and 3-4
the number and position were changed as following cases.
as
shown
in Fig.8. The input impedance and the radiation in
(a) A capacitor with resistor at each corner (indicated as
this
case
are
shown in Fig.9 and 10, respectively.
position 1, 2, 3 or 4 in Fig.2).
(b) Two capacitors with resistor at a pair of positions.
SMA
(c) Four capacitors with resistor at all positions.
connecter
A 0.1 PF chip capacitor and a 4.7 : chip resistor were used
for all capacitors and attached resistor.
Decoupling Capacitor
First, the case (a) was investigated. A capacitor with
resistor was mounted on one of the 4 corners as shown in
Fig.5. The input impedance and the radiation in this case are
shown in Fig.6 and 7, respectively.
In Fig.6 and 7, the input impedance is reduced at 300MHz
Capacitor with Resistor
(board resonance) and radiation peak is also reduced 3.5dB in
the case of with the capacitor with resistor. In the higher
Fig.8 The board with two capacitors with resistorat position 1 and 2.
modes of the resonance, such as 570MHz or 870MHz, the
radiation peak is not reduced so much.
1000
Decoupling Capacitor
2
1
4
Impedance (ȍ)
SMA
connecter
3
Decoupling Capacitor (Cd)
Cd & position1,2
Cd & position1,3
Cd & position1,4
Cd & position2,3
Cd & position2,4
Cd & position3,4
100
10
1
100
Capacitor with Resistor
1000
Frequency (MHz)
Fig.5 The board with a capacitor resistorat one of the corners
Fig.9 The input impedance of the board with two capacitors with resistor
Copyright © 2009 IEICE
91
EMC’09/Kyoto
70
V. DISCUSSION
In order to examine the suppression effect of the resonance
by the capacitor with series resistor at the corner of the board,
the voltage of the each corner was measured by oscilloscope.
In the each case of (a), (b) and (c), the mean value of the
measured voltage was calculated.
The mean voltage and the average of radiation reduction
effect of each case are shown in Fig. 13. From the comparison,
mean value of voltage reduction of four corners and the
suppression of the radiation agree well. Thus the capacitor
with series resistor is effective to dump the resonance of the
board and suppress the radiation from the double-layer board.
Decoupling Capacitor (Cd)
Cd & position1,2
Cd & position1,3
Cd & position1,4
Cd & position2,3
Cd & position2,4
Cd & position3,4
60
Radiation (dBȝV/m)
21Q2-1
50
40
30
20
10
0
100
1000
Frequency (MHz)
Reduction Effect of the Corner
Voltage and the Radiation (dB)
Fig.10 The radiation from the board with two capacitors with resistor
From Fig.9 and 10, input impedance is reduced at 300MHz
and radiation peak is reduced about 7dB. The radiation peak at
570MHz is also reduced.
Finally, for the case (c) four capacitors with resistor was
mounted at all corners of the board. Input impedance and
radiation are shown in Fig.11 and 12.
1000
Impedance(ȍ)
Decupling Capacitor (Cd)
Radiation
Fig.13 Reduction effect of the corner voltage and the radiation.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
From some experimental results, by using the capacitors
with series resistor mounted on the corner of the double-layer
board, the resonance and the radiation of the board is reduced
according to the number of capacitors with resistor. This
technique method is economic and easy to realize for many
applications.
In the further works the appropriate value and mount
position of the capacitor with resistor for effective noise
suppression will be examined.
10
1
100
Voltage(dB)
1
2
4
Number of Capacitor with 4.7ȍ Resistor
Cd & all positions
100
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1000
Frequency (MHz)
Fig.11 The input impedance of the board with fouT capacitors with resistor
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REFERENCES
[1]
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[3]
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[4]
Fig.12 The radiation from the board with four capacitors with resistor
From Fig12, the radiation peak at 300MHz is reduced about
13dB. In addition radiation peak at 570MHz and 870MHz
were also reduced.
[5]
Copyright © 2009 IEICE
92
Takehiro Takahashi , Noboru Schibuya , kenichi Ito,Tomokazu
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