sesame cultivation

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SESAME CULTIVATION
PRESENTED BYAASTHA SINHA
ID NO. - 13001
ADVANTAGES OF GROWING SESAME
CROP
• One of the most water efficient crops.
• Fit almost any cropping system.
• Offers more potential return for less cost (less risk)
than other crops.
• Can be more profitable with limited resources than
other crops using the same level of resources.
• Excellent drought and heat tolerance, performs
where other crops fail.
• Common equipment used for other crops can be
used to produce sesame.
• Has shown excellent disease and insect tolerance
and has shown to grow well in cotton root rot
infested soils.
ADVANATAGES CONTINUED…
• Deep tap root may reach
and utilize nutrients and
moisture below the root
zone of other crops.
• As a non-host for root-knot
nematodes, rotation with
sesame has shown to
reduce nematode levels.
• Has worked well as a catch
crop option when wheat or
cotton crop failed.
YIELD AND MARKETING OF SESAME
•Yield of sesame is around 100-150kg/acre
•TNAU has adviced farmers to immediately sell sesame
after harvesting in may-june as price remains high
during this period and farmers can easily sell it for Rs8085/kg.
•Sesame oil price varies between Rs. 250-280/litre.
•Total sesame production in india = 7.25 lakh tonnes.
0.15 lakh tonnes used as seed, 3 lakh tonnes for export
and remaining for domestic consumption.
Variation in market price of
sesame
COMMODITY
MAXIMUM PRICE
(RS/QUINTAL)
MINIMUM PRICE
(RS/QUINTAL)
AVERAGE PRICE
(RS/QUINTAL)
BLACK SESAME
9214
5000
7100
RED SESAME
8649
4380
6500
BROWN SESAME
6075
4000
5000
WHITE SESAME
7819
4035
6000
Insect pests of sesame and their
symptoms
• 1- Leaf roller and capsule
borer- The young larvae
roll together a few top leaves
and feed on them. On
capsule formation, larvae
bore into capsule and feed on
developing seeds.
• 2- Aphids: - Crinkling and
curling of leaves. Leaves
appear shiny and sticky due
to honeydew excreted by the
insects.
• 3. Gall fly :
Asphondylia sesami
• Maggots feed inside the
floral bud
• Leading to formation of
gall like structure which do
not develop in to
flower/capsules.
• The affected buds wither
and drop.
• 4. Linseed gall fly:
• Fully grown larvae make a
hole in the bud and damage
the flower.
•5. Hawk or Dead head moth
(Sphinx caterpillar):
•The young larvae roll together a few
top leaves and feed them.
•In the early stage of infestation, the
plant dies without producing any
branch or shoot.
•In later stage of attack, infested shoots
stop growing.
•At flowering, larvae feed inside the
flowers and on capsule formation,
larvae bore into capsule and feed on
developing seeds.
Diseases of sesame
• 1. Phyllody• All floral parts are transformed
into green leafy structures
followed by abundant vein
clearing in different flower parts.
• 2. Dry root rot• The fungus attacks young
seedling, their stems become
water soaked soft and incapable
of supporting the seedling which
falls over and dies.
• 3. Phytophthora blight
Disease can occur at all stages of the
plant.
SYMPTOMS•Initial symptom is water soaked spots
on leaves and stems.
•The spots are chestnut brown in the
beginning later turn to black.
•Premature leaf fall occurs.
•Diseased plants produce shriveled seeds
and gives blighted appearance.
• 4. Alternaria blight
DISEASE SYMPTOMS:
The pathogen attacks all parts of
the plant at all stages.
•Small, dark brown water soaked,
round to irregular lesions, with
concentric rings appear on the
leaves.
•The lesions may also appear on the
midrib and veins of the leaves.
•Milder attacks cause only
defoliation, in severe cases the
plant may die.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
STRATEGIES
1.CULTURAL PRACTICES
•Deep ploughing to reduce population of soil
harbouring insect pests and nematodes.
•Timely sowing and thinning operation should
be done.
•Keep the crop weed free for upto 45 days after
sowing by hand weeding at 20 and 35 days after
sowing.
•Intercropping with green gram, red gram and
pearlmillet is beneficial.
•Grow resistant varieties as under:
NAME OF VARIETY
TOLERANT AGAINST
TKG-21
Bacterial and cercospora leaf spot
TKG-22
Phytophthora blight
B- 67
Phyllody
Krishna
Alternaria leaf spot
vinayak
Leaf spots
Gujarat til 2
Bacterial blight, wilt and phyllody
Haryana til 1
phyllody
2. MECHANICAL PRACTICES
•Collection and destruction of larvae of hawk
moth, leaf roller/capsule borer and hairy
caterpillar
•Uproot phyllody affected plants.
•Mechanically remove the roots of previously
harvested crops as they harbour nematodes.
3. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
• seed treatment with Trichoderma viride
(20g/5kg seeds) helps in controlling root rot.
4. Chemical control
•INSECT PEST
•To control defoliators, capsule borer and gall midge,
spray 2 rounds of neem oil 2% at interval of 7 days.
•Spray any of the following chemicals ( Dust
formulation- 10kg/acre, liquid- 500ml/100L)
chemical
formulation
Endosulfan
0.07%
Carbaryl
0.15%
Quinalphos
0.05%
Dimethoate
0.03%
Malathion
5% D
Endosulfan
4% D
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF DISEASES
•Dryroot rot, alternaria leaf spot and phytophthora
blight can be treated by mancozeb spray 0.25 – 0.5kg /
acre in 300 l of water at 10 days interval.
•Phyllody can be treated by 2-3 foliar spray of
Dimethoate 30 EC (1 ml/lit of water).
WEED CONTROL
•Alachlor or Thiobencarb can be used as PRE spray for
effective control of weeds
•Use of PRE herbicides followed by one hand weeding
around 30 DAS is the most appropriate way of weed
management in sesame.
DO’s and DONT’s in sesame IPM
DO’s
DONT’s
•Grow resistant and
tolerant varieties.
•Adopt crop rotation.
•Use organic manure,
FYM, neem cake and
bio-fertilizers.
•Adopt synchronised
sowing.
•Discourage
susceptible varieties.
•Avoid monocropping.
•Discourage excessive
use of chemical
fertilizers.
•Avoid staggered
sowing
Basic precautions in pesticide
usage
•Always cover nose, eyes, mouth and use hand
gloves, face masks and cap.
•Avoid carrying bulk pesticides on
shoulder/head/back.
•Always read container before preparing
solution and don’t use defective equipments.
•Don’t apply on strong windy days or against the
direction of wind.
•Avoid entry of workers and animals in the field
immediately after spraying.
TYPES OF SESAME SEEDS
• Brown Seeds- Known for their
high content of oil around 45-50%
and are used for extraction of oil.
• White Seeds- known for their
nutty flavor and it is mostly found
sprinkled over buns and cakes.
• Black Seeds- The black seeds are
rich in flavor and are mostly used
as a seasoning in salads and also
for medicinal purposes.
• Red Sesame Seeds-The red
seeds are rich in aroma so they are
mainly used in dishes to enhance
the taste.
VARIETIES AND CROP ROTATION
• White seeded
varieties- Rajeswari,
Swetha, Pratap
• Black seeded
varieties- Krishna,
Soma
• Reddish brown
variety - Rama.
• High yielding
varieties of UP are
Pragati and
shekhar
• Rice / Potato – Sesame.
• Cotton – Sesame – Wheat.
• Sesame – Groundnut /
Cotton / Maize
• INTER CROPPING:Sesame + Greengram (1:1)
Sesame + Pigeonpea (2:1)
Sesame + Soybean (2:1)
Requirements
• SOIL
It is highly sensitive to water logging.
Very sandy and alkaline soils are not suitable. In case of
alkaline soil add gypsum (5kg/300 square meter area) to
reduce pH.
• CLIMATE
Generally, it requires fairly hot conditions during growth for
optimum yield. Ideal optimum temperature for growth is
25-270 C and most suitable time is rainy season (JulySeptember). Sowing is done in june-july.
Seed rate, spacing and treatment
• SEED RATE:
Under broadcasting – 5-6(Kg/Ha)
Row seeding – 4-5(Kg/Ha)
Mixed (or) Intercropping - 1
Kg/Ha
• SPACING:30 X 10 Cm (all seasons)
45 X 15 Cm is also recommended.
• SEED TREATMENT:Seed treatment with Thiram
(3g/kg) is effective against seed
borne diseases. Seed treatment
with azospirillum (25g/5kg
seeds)is also beneficial.
Methods of sowing
• 1. BROADCASTING Broad casting is usually most
widely used in all situations. Seed
is mixed with sand in equal
quantities to facilitate uniform
distribution of yield. After sowing,
seed is covered by shallow
ploughing and planting by
cultivators
and harrowers.
• 2. LINE SOWING (or) ROW
SEEDING –
it is generally done with seed drills
to promote higher yields.
Optimum depth of sowing is 2-3
cm.
Integrated Nutrient management
• Integrated nutrient management consists of seed
treatment with azospirillum (1 packet or 200g for
10kg seeds)
• Application of 5 t/acre of FYM
• 4 packets of Azospirillum (800 g/acre) and 4 packets
(800 g/acre) of Phosphobacteria or 8 packets of
Azophos(1600 g/acre)as soil application.
• Spray 1% DAP (1KG in 100 litres of water) at the time of
first flowering and again 10 days after first spray.
• METHOD OF APPLICATION :Placement of fertilizer at seeding using seed drills is
more effective than broadcast application.
Irrigation schedule
• Sesame is a drought tolerant plant and can grow in soil which
has retained moisture from last rainfall.
• 1st irrigation - at sowing
• 2nd irrigation - 3 Weeks After Sowing
• 3rd irrigation - 6 WAS
• 4th irrigation - 8 WAS
• 5th irrigation - 9 WAS
• CRITICAL STAGES- Flower initiation and capsule filling
stages are most sensitive to water deficits.
Harvesting
• Depending on the variety,
sesame crop takes 80- 150
days for maturity.
• The crop is harvested when
the leaves, stems and capsules
begin to turn yellow and the
lower leaves start shedding.
• The ripe plants are cut at the
ground level carried to
threshing yard, stacked for a
week in the sun with the cut
ends upwards.
Processing of sesame
•Manual processing and oil
extraction can be done by
ghani process(large sized
mortar and pestle are used)
or using small level
expeller.
Small processing equipments
•Small level expellers are used.
•manual oil extraction
machines or screw press oil
extraction machines are used.
Mechanical processing of sesame
• The Plant covers the
complete process from Pre
Cleaning, De hulling, Post
Cleaning & Colour Sorting to
give seeds that are; Clean &
Color Sorted as per required
purity.
• The cleaned seeds are used
for confectionary or
production of value added
products like Tahinia,
Halwa, Turkish delight, etc.
USES OF SESAME
• Primary use of sesame is as a cooking
oil. Sesame contains natural oil-soluble
and water-soluble antioxidants.
• Foods fried in sesame oil have longer
shelf-life.
• As with other vegetable oils, sesame oil
has been used to make soap and
margarine.
• The oil is used in many intra-muscular
injections as a carrier to spread the
medicine faster.
• Many insecticides use sesame oil as a
synergist for the active agent.
USES OF SESAME CONTINUED….
• Sesame paste is mixed with peanut butter to
enhance the flavor and the extend the shelf-life.
• In the Middle East sesame is made into a sweet
known as halva, which is considered as a high
energy food. Similarly, sesame is used in many
sweets throughout Asia.
• In the western world sesame is primarily used as
a confectionary. The seed is dehulled and placed
on top of buns and breads.
• The seeds are incorporated into crackers, food
products and items such as sesame sticks.
•
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Full of protein.
Helps prevent diabetes.
Reduces blood pressure.
Lowers cholesterol.
Prevents cancer.
Helps in digestion.
Good for the health of skin.
Helps lessen anxiety.
THANK YOU
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