Chapter 8 Student Notesheet

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Chapter 8
Cell Reproduction
Table of Contents
Section 1 Chromosomes
Section 2 Cell Division
Section 3 Meiosis
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Objectives
• Describe the structure of a chromosome.
• Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic
chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes.
• Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species.
• Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and
autosomes.
• Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells.
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome Structure
• Chromosomes are
• In eukaryotes, DNA wraps around proteins called
_________________ to help maintain the compact
structure of chromosomes.
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome Structure
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome Structure, continued
• Chromosomes in _____________________ are
simpler in structure than chromosomes in
________________.
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome Numbers
• Each species has a characteristic number of
chromosomes in each cell.
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome
Numbers of
Various
Organisms
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome Numbers, continued
• Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes
– Sex chromosomes are
– All of the other chromosomes in an organism are
_______________________.
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Chapter 8
Section 1 Chromosomes
Chromosome Numbers, continued
• Diploid and Haploid Cells
– Cells having two sets of chromosomes are
_______________________.
– _____________________ cells (1n) have only
one set of chromosomes.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Objectives
• Describe the events of cell division in prokaryotes.
• Name the two parts of the cell that are equally divided during
cell division in eukaryotes.
• Summarize the events of interphase.
• Describe the stages of mitosis.
• Compare cytokinesis in animal cells with cytokinesis in plant
cells.
• Explain how cell division is controlled.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Cell Division in Prokaryotes
• Cell division is the
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Cell Division in Prokaryotes, continued
• Binary fission is the process of cell division in
prokaryotes.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Cell Division in Eukaryotes
• Cell Cycle
– The cell cycle is the
–
–
–
–
The cell cycle consists of ___________________
and _______________________.
Cell division in eukaryotes includes nuclear
division, called __________________, and the
division of cytoplasm, called _________________.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Cell Division in Eukaryotes, continued
• Interphase
– Interphase consists of
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Stages of Mitosis
• Mitosis is divided into stages:
• Mitosis results in
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Stages of Mitosis
Prophase –
• The nucleus and nuclear membrane
• Centrisomes –
• In animal cells these contain ________________.
• These move toward opposite poles of the cell.
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Stages of Mitosis
Spindle Fibers made of microtubles radiate from the
centrosomes (mitotic spindle).
• Two types of spindle fibers:
• 1. Kinetochore Fibers –
• 2. Polar Fibers –
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Stages of Mitosis
Metaphase –
• Chromosomes are easier to identify during
metaphase.
• Karyotypes are typically made from chromosomes
in metaphase.
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Stages of Mitosis
Anaphase –
• After the chromatids are separated, they are
considered individual chromosomes.
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Stages of Mitosis
Telophase –
• Spindle fibers disassemble.
• Chromosomes uncoil to chromatin state.
• Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reform in the
newly forming cells.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Stages of
Mitosis
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Cytokinesis
• During cytokinesis in animal cells, a
___________________________ pinches in and
eventually separates the dividing cell into two cells.
• In plant cells, a ________________________
separates the dividing cell into two cells.
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Control of Cell Division
• Cell division in eukaryotes is controlled by
• Control occurs at
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Control of Cell Division, continued
• When Control is Lost: Cancer
– Cancer may result if
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Objectives
• Compare the end products of meiosis with those of mitosis.
• Summarize the events of meiosis I.
• Explain crossing-over and how it contributes to the production
of unique individuals.
• Summarize the events of meiosis II.
• Compare spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
• Define sexual reproduction.
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Formation of Haploid Cells
• Meiosis is a process of nuclear division that
• Meiosis produces ____________________ gametes.
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Formation of Haploid Cells, continued
• Meiosis is a process of nuclear division that reduces
the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the
number in the original cell.
• Meiosis leads to
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Meiosis I
• Meiosis I includes
• ______________________________, which is when
portions of homologous chromosomes exchange
genetics material, occurs during prophase I and
results in _________________________________.
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Meiosis II
• Meiosis II includes
• Four new haploid cells result.
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Stages of Meiosis
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Stages of Meiosis, continued
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Development of Gametes
• _____________________________ is the process
by which sperm cells are produced.
• _____________________________ is the process
that produces mature egg cells.
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Meiosis in Male and Female Animals
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Chapter 8
Section 3 Meiosis
Sexual Reproduction
• Sexual reproduction is the formation of offspring
through
• Offspring produced by sexual reproduction are
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Chapter 8
Section 2 Cell Division
Cell Division in Prokaryotes
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