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UNIT: RHETORIC
ANCHOR TEXT
“What Is Rhetoric?,” Brigham Young University (Informational)
RELATED TEXTS
Literary Texts (Fiction)
• Chapter 14 of The Jungle, Upton Sinclair
Informational Texts (Nonfiction)
• “The Most Dangerous Job” from Fast Food Nation, Eric
Schlosser
• “Address to Congress on Women’s Suffrage,” Carrie
Chapman Catt
• “Thoughts on the Present State of American Affairs,”
from Common Sense, Thomas Paine
• “A Fable for Tomorrow” from Silent Spring, Rachel Carson
• “Speech to the Second Virginia Convention,” Patrick
Henry
• “Does Great Literature Make Us Better?,” Gregory Currie
• “Reading Literature Makes Us Smarter and Nicer,” Annie
Murphy Paul
• “The Matthew Effect” from Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell
• “It’s Not Talent; It’s Just Work,” Annie Dillard
Nonprint Texts (e.g., Media, Website, Video, Film, Music, Art,
Graphics)
• “Ethos, Pathos, Logos,” Krista Price (Video)
• “Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring,” PBS (Video)
• “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation,” Franklin D.
Roosevelt (Audio)
• World War II Propaganda Posters
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
UNIT FOCUS
Students engage with texts that have persuasive power and examine how argument is
created. The variety of texts allows students to evaluate the impact of occasion and
audience upon the use of rhetorical appeals in a variety of media. Through this set,
students will come to understand the immeasurable power of words and language
and develop an understanding of the subtle yet important differences between
argument, persuasion, and propaganda.
Text Use: Examine how argument is created and evaluate the impact of occasion and
audience upon the use of rhetorical appeals in a variety of texts and media
Reading: RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2, RL.9-10.4, RL.9-10.10, RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3,
RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6, RI.9-10.7, RI.9-10.8, RI.9-10.9, RI.9-10.10
Writing: W.9-10.1a-e, W.9-10.2a-f, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5, W.9-10.6, W.9-10.7, W.910.8, W.9-10.9, W.9-10.10
Speaking and Listening: SL.9-10.1a-d, SL.9-10.2, SL.9-10.3, SL.9-10.4, SL.9-10.5, SL.910.6
Language: L.9-10.1a-b, L.9-10.2a-c, L.9-10.3, L.9-10.4a, L.9-10.5a-b, L.9-10.6
CONTENTS
Page 151: Text Set and Unit Focus
Page 152: “What Is Rhetoric?” Unit Overview
Page 153-156: Sample Unit Assessment Tasks: Culminating Writing Task, Cold-Read
Task, and Extension Task
Page 157: Instructional Framework
Pages 158-169: Text Sequence and Sample Whole-Class Tasks
151
“What Is Rhetoric?” Unit Overview
Unit Focus
•
•
•
Topic: Rhetoric
Themes: Examine the power
of words and language and
develop an understanding of
the subtle yet important
differences between
argument, persuasion, and
propaganda
Text Use: Examine how
argument is created and
evaluate the impact of
occasion and audience upon
the use of rhetorical appeals in
a variety of texts and media
Daily Tasks
Summative Unit Assessments
A culminating writing task:
•
•
Determine author’s purpose
Evaluate the effectiveness of
language choices, devices, and
rhetoric in achieving determined
purpose
A cold-read task:
•
•
Read and understand grade-level
texts
Write in response to a text
Daily instruction helps students read and understand text
and express that understanding.
•
•
•
•
An extension task:
•
•
Conduct topical research
Write and deliver an
argumentative speech to advance
a position using rhetorical device
and appeals
•
•
•
•
•
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
Lesson 1: “What is Rhetoric?” “Ethos, Pathos, Logos”
(sample tasks)
Lesson 2: “The Most Dangerous Job” from Fast Food
Nation and “Chapter 14” from The Jungle (sample
tasks)
Lesson 3: “Thoughts on the Present State of American
Affairs” from Common Sense and “Address to Congress
on Women’s Suffrage” (sample tasks)
Lesson 4: Silent Spring, “A Fable for Tomorrow” from
Silent Spring, and “Speech to the Second Virginia
Convention” (sample tasks)
Lesson 5: “Does Great Literature Make Us Better?” and
“Reading Literature Makes Us Smarter and Nicer”
Lesson 6: “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation,”
Annotated Typewritten Copy, and WWII Propaganda
Posters (sample tasks)
Lesson 7: Various texts for independent research
(extension task)
Lesson 8: “It’s Not Just Talent, It’s Work,” “The
Matthew Effect” from Outliers (cold-read task)
Lesson 9: “What is Rhetoric?” (culminating writing task)
152
SUMMATIVE UNIT ASSESSMENTS
CULMINATING WRITING TASK 1
In “What Is Rhetoric?,” the author says, “How one says something conveys meaning as much as what one says.” Consider the texts in this unit and determine
which text most effectively employs the resources of language to achieve a desired effect on the intended audience. Write an essay that analyzes how the
author uses rhetoric to advance a point of view or achieve a purpose. Discuss as part of the analysis how the author unfolds the series of ideas or events and the
effect of specific word choices on meaning and tone. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support the analysis. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.910.4, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6, W.9-10.1, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5, W.9-10.9b, W.9-10.10)
Teacher Note: The completed writing should use grade-appropriate words and phrases, as well as a variety of sentence patterns, and language that expresses
ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. It should also demonstrate command of proper grammar and usage,
punctuation, and spelling. (L.9-10.1, L.9-10.2, L.9-10.3a, L.9-10.6) Use peer and teacher conferencing, as well as small-group work that targets student
weaknesses in writing to improve student writing ability (e.g., using appropriate organization and style or correct grammar and punctuation). (W.9-10.4, W.910.5)
UNIT FOCUS
What should students learn from the texts?
• Topic: Rhetoric
• Themes: Examine the power of words and
language and develop an understanding of
the subtle yet important differences
between argument, persuasion, and
propaganda
• Text Use: Examine how argument is
created and evaluate the impact of
occasion and audience upon the use of
rhetorical appeals in a variety of texts and
media
1
UNIT ASSESSMENT
DAILY TASKS
What shows students have learned it?
This task assesses:
Which tasks help students learn it?
Read and understand text:
•
•
•
•
Determining author’s purpose
Evaluating the effectiveness of language
choices, devices, and rhetoric in achieving
determined purpose
Lesson 1 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 3 (sample tasks included)
Express understanding of text:
•
•
Lesson 2 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 9 (use this task)
Culminating Writing Task: Students express their final understanding of the anchor text and demonstrate meeting the expectations of the standards through a written essay.
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
153
COLD-READ TASK 2
Read “It’s Not Talent; It’s Just Work” 3 by Annie Dillard and “The Matthew Effect” 4 by Malcolm Gladwell independently, and then answer a combination of
multiple-choice and constructed-response questions 5 about the text and in comparison to the other texts in the unit, using evidence for all answers. Sample
questions include:
1. In “It’s Not Talent; It’s Just Work,” Dillard uses a variety of techniques to grab the reader’s attention (e.g., humor, idioms). Identify two examples and
discuss the impact of their use in the development of Dillard’s central idea. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.6)
2. In “The Matthew Effect,” Gladwell discusses the “accumulative advantage.” How does Gladwell develop this idea throughout the chapter in sentences,
paragraphs, or larger sections? (RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5) Does his development effectively support his claims? Why or why not? (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.8)
3. Based on the texts studied throughout the unit, classify each of these texts as argument, persuasion, or propaganda and explain your reasoning, citing
strong and thorough evidence to support your explanation. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.6, RI.9-10.8, W.9-10.1, W.9-10.9b, W.9-10.10)
UNIT FOCUS
What should students learn from the texts?
• Topic: Rhetoric
• Themes: Examine the power of words and
language and develop an understanding of
the subtle yet important differences
between argument, persuasion, and
propaganda
• Text Use: Examine how argument is
created and evaluate the impact of
occasion and audience upon the use of
rhetorical appeals in a variety of texts and
media
2
UNIT ASSESSMENT
DAILY TASKS
What shows students have learned it?
This task focuses on:
Which tasks help students learn it?
Read and understand text:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reading and understanding grade-level
texts
Writing in response to a text
Lesson 1 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 3 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 4 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 6 (sample tasks included)
Express understanding of text:
•
•
Lesson 2 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 8 (use this task)
Cold-Read Task: Students read a text or texts independently and answer a series of multiple-choice and constructed-response questions. While the text(s) relate to the unit focus, the text(s) have
not been taught during the unit. Additional assessment guidance is available at http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/end-of-yearassessments.
3
http://stonecentral.weebly.com/uploads/8/3/3/4/8334408/talent_work_reading.pdf
http://blogs.ausd.net/users/thearchofthesky2010/uploads/thearchofthesky2010/OutliersRedux.pdf
5
Ensure that students have access to the complete texts as they are testing.
4
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
154
EXTENSION TASK6
Thoroughly research a self-selected topic and use your findings to develop an argumentative speech that advances a position. (W.9-10.7, W.9-10.8) Compose a
speech that appropriately and effectively uses language, content, and structure modeled after texts read in this unit. (W.9-10.1a-e, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.9b, W.910.10, SL.9-10.2, SL.9-10.4) Create a multimedia presentation to accompany your speech to achieve a variety of logical and emotional appeals to the intended
audience and to convince them of your argument. (RI.9-10.6, W.9-10.6, SL.9-10.5) Deliver the speech to the class. (SL.9-10.6)
Guidance for Teachers:
1. Have students select a topic to research and generate multiple lines of inquiry to guide their research. Teachers may want to limit the scope of topics to
something related to topics in another class, the time of year, or key issues happening in the community. (W.9-10.7) BEGIN IN LESSON 1.
2. Allow opportunities for students to conduct research on their selected topics in order to gather relevant information from multiple sources, assessing
the usefulness and credibility of each source. (W.9-10.7, W.9-10.8) BEGIN IN LESSON 1.
3. Have students draft their speeches, integrating information from multiple sources. (SL.9-10.2) Students should articulate strategies they are using from
the texts in the unit. BEGIN IN LESSON 2.
4. Prompt students to refine their speeches in multiple drafts throughout the unit as they read the texts and study the authors’ use of rhetorical appeals,
integrating techniques that support the purpose, audience, and task. (RI.9-10.6, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.10, SL.9-10.4) BEGIN IN LESSON 4.
5. Provide multiple rounds of feedback on students’ speeches from the teacher and from peers. (W.9-10.5) Feedback should focus on (1) the quality and
accuracy of the overall argument and use of research to validate the argument, (2) strong use of strategies of argument gleaned from the unit, and (3)
appropriate and grade-specific use of language, vocabulary, and sentence structure. (W.9-10.1b, SL.9-10.3, L.9-10.1a-b, L.9-10.2a-c, L.9-10.6) BEGIN IN
LESSON 4.
6. Have students deliver their final speeches and multimedia presentations. BEGIN IN LESSON 6.
7. During each speech, have students use a class-generated rubric 7 to evaluate each speaker’s content, presentation style, and point of view, including
evaluating the credibility and accuracy of the information and identifying any fallacious reasoning or distorted evidence. (SL.9-10.3) Following each
speech, prompt students to ask questions and engage in discussion about the various issues. (SL.9-10.1 c-d, SL.9-10.6) BEGIN IN LESSON 6.
6
Extension Task: Students connect and extend their knowledge learned through texts in the unit to engage in research or writing. The research extension task extends the concepts studied in the
set so students can gain more information about concepts or topics that interest them. The writing extension task either connects several of the texts together or is a narrative task related to the
unit focus.
7
Sample: http://bie.org/object/document/9_12_presentation_rubric_ccss_aligned
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
155
UNIT FOCUS
What should students learn from the texts?
• Topic: Rhetoric
• Themes: Examine the power of words and
language and develop an understanding of
the subtle yet important differences
between argument, persuasion, and
propaganda
• Text Use: Examine how argument is
created and evaluate the impact of
occasion and audience upon the use of
rhetorical appeals in a variety of texts and
media
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
UNIT ASSESSMENT
What shows students have learned it?
This task focuses on:
•
•
Conducting topical research
Writing and delivering an argumentative
speech to advance a position using
rhetorical devices and appeals
DAILY TASKS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Which tasks help students learn it?
Lesson 1 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 3 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 4 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 5 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 6 (sample tasks included)
Lesson 7 (use this task)
156
INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK
In English language arts (ELA), students must learn to read, understand, and write and speak about grade-level texts independently. To do this, teachers must select
appropriate texts and use those texts so students meet the standards, as demonstrated through ongoing assessments. To support students in developing independence
with reading and communicating about complex texts, teachers should incorporate the following interconnected components into their instruction.
Click here 8 to locate additional information about this interactive framework.
Whole-Class Instruction
This time is for grade-level instruction. Regardless of a student’s reading level, exposure to grade-level
texts supports language and comprehension development necessary for continual reading growth. This
plan presents sample whole-class tasks to represent how standards might be met at this grade level.
Small-Group Reading
This time is for supporting student needs that cannot be met during whole-class instruction. Teachers
might provide:
1. intervention for students below grade level using texts at their reading level;
2. instruction for different learners using grade-level texts to support whole-class instruction;
3. extension for advanced readers using challenging texts.
Small-Group Writing
Most writing instruction is likely to occur during whole-class time. This time is for supporting student
needs that cannot be met during whole-class instruction. Teachers might provide:
1. intervention for students below grade level;
2. instruction for different learners to support whole-class instruction and meet grade-level writing
standards;
3. extension for advanced writers.
Independent Reading
This time is for increasing the volume and range of reading that cannot be achieved through other instruction but is necessary for student growth. Teachers can:
1. support growing reading ability by allowing students to read books at their reading level;
2. encourage reading enjoyment and build reading stamina and perseverance by allowing students to select their own texts in addition to teacher-selected texts.
8
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
157
TEXT SEQUENCE AND SAMPLE WHOLE-CLASS TASKS
TEXT SEQUENCE
LESSON 1:9
“What Is Rhetoric?,” Brigham
Young University
“Ethos, Pathos, Logos,” Krista
Price
TEXT USE
TEXT DESCRIPTION: The essay presents a conceptual overview of rhetoric (e.g., how method and meaning combine to achieve
an effect on an audience) while the multimedia presentation provides specific examples of rhetorical appeals and their
application throughout history.
TEXT FOCUS: The digital texts (a brief essay and a multimedia presentation) provide background knowledge for students to
understand rhetoric, how it is created, and how it can affect audiences and influence thinking and behavior.
MODEL TASKS
LESSON OVERVIEW: Students read and demonstrate understanding of rhetoric and how it is achieved through the
manipulation of resources of language and multimedia in preparation for studying the texts of the unit and crafting their own
rhetorical appeals to achieve a purpose in an argumentative speech.
READ AND UNDERSTAND THE TEXT:
•
Have students read “What Is Rhetoric?” independently and write a summary. (RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.10)
•
Discuss with students the definition of rhetoric (i.e., the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing achieved
through the use of devices and strategies). When attempting to affect change, writers must consider the context in
which they are writing. This context is based on the audience to whom they are speaking and the occasion for which
they are writing. (L.9-10.6)
•
Watch “Ethos, Pathos, Logos” as a class. Have students create a graphic organizer before watching the video. The
graphic organizer should have three columns with each appeal in a column: (1) ethos, (2) pathos, and (3) logos. Then
have students put “introductory video” in the first row. Show the video for students. Stop after each appeal (ethos,
pathos, and logos) is presented. Have students write a summary in each column for each appeal based on the
information in the video. (RI.9-10.2) Students will come back to these notes throughout the unit.
EXPRESS UNDERSTANDING:
•
9
Have students write a summary that integrates the information gleaned from both the anchor text and the video.
Students must include the following: a description of what rhetoric is and how it is used, a one-sentence summary of
what each appeal is, an example of an advertisement that uses each appeal, and English words derived from the
Greek word for each appeal. (W.9-10.2a-f, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.9b, W.9-10.10)
Note: One lesson does not equal one day. Teachers should determine how long to take on a given lesson. This will depend on each unique class.
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
158
TEXT SEQUENCE
•
LESSON 2:
“The Most Dangerous Job”
from Fast Food Nation, Eric
Schlosser
Chapter 14 of The Jungle,
Upton Sinclair
TEXT USE
Extension Task Preparation: Have students begin to prepare for the extension task. Have students:
o
Select a topic to research and generate multiple lines of inquiry to guide their research. As noted in the
extension task, teachers may want to limit the scope of topics to something related to topics in another class,
the time of year, or key issues happening in the community. (W.9-10.7)
o
Begin their research by identifying multiple authoritative print and digital sources that help them narrow or
broaden their inquiries to begin drafting their arguments. (W.9-10.8)
TEXT DESCRIPTION: Both of these texts provide descriptions of the practices used in meat-packing plants. In “The Most
Dangerous Job,” Eric Schlosser describes his firsthand experience of visiting a meat-packing plant; Upton Sinclair’s
commentary is provided in a novel through characters who work in the plants.
TEXT FOCUS: Although both pieces intend to inform the public of the issues in the meat-packing industry, one is an
informational text and the other is a novel. Consider how the authors’ choices in how to present their claims (e.g., medium,
perspective) impact the overall effectiveness of their arguments. (RI.9-10.8, RI.9-10.9) Pay special attention to the ethos 10 and
pathos 11 of the texts. (RI.9-10.6)
MODEL TASKS
LESSON OVERVIEW: Students examine the ethos and pathos in each of these texts while considering the different context,
audience, and purpose of each.
READ THE TEXT:
•
Have students read “The Most Dangerous Job” and Chapter 14 of The Jungle independently and summarize 12 both
texts. (RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.10)
•
Prompt students to go back to the three-column graphic organizer begun in Lesson 1 and have them include examples
of any of the three appeals at play in the excerpt and in the chapter from The Jungle. (RI.9-10.6) Students should cite
examples with pages as a part of their explanation.
10
http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%20Appeals/Ethos.htm
http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%20Appeals/Pathos.htm
12
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources/whole-class
11
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
159
TEXT SEQUENCE
UNDERSTAND THE TEXT:
TEXT USE
•
Divide the class into two groups. Assign one group “The Most Dangerous Job” and the other Chapter 14 of The Jungle.
Give each group yellow and green highlighters. Ask each group to highlight words, phrases, or sentences that create
trust for the author in yellow, and highlight words, phrases, or sentences that elicit an emotional response in green.
(RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.4, RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.6, SL.9-10.1a-b, SL.9-10.3) Prompt students to use their notes from
Lesson 1 to support this activity.
•
Prompt students to analyze their assigned text using the SOAPSTone strategy 13 and graphic organizer 14 to identify
and discuss the rhetorical devices used in their assigned text. (RL.9-10.2, RL.9-10.4, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5,
RI.9-10.6) Ensure students cite evidence from the text to support the rhetorical devices identified. (RL.9-10.1, RI.910.1)
•
Instruct each group to determine the credibility of their text based on the ethos and pathos used and prepare to
defend it in a debate between the groups. (SL.9-10.2) Students should cite examples to support their argument.
•
Have students conduct a debate on the credibility of each source in order to argue that their assigned text is the more
credible, citing evidence from their sources. Direct members from the opposite group to pose questions and call into
question evidence used. (SL.9-10.3) This allows the students to practice verbal argument and to develop and refine
their understanding of ethos and pathos. (SL.9-10.1, SL.9-10.4, SL.9-10.6)
Express Understanding:
13
14
•
Prompt students to return to their graphic organizer to make updates. They should revise or add examples and
associated explanations for how each appeal is used in both texts, citing examples and page numbers from each text.
As needed, have students work with a partner to complete this task. (W.9-10.5)
•
Have students write an essay in response to the following prompt: When commenting on The Jungle, the social
commentator Randolph Bourne described the American time period in which Sinclair wrote as a period when “a
whole people” woke up “into a modern day which they had overslept. . .they had become acutely aware of the evils
of the society in which they had slumbered and they snatched at one after the other idea, programme, movement,
ideal, to uplift them out of the slough in which they had slept.” Sinclair’s novel The Jungle had powerful political
effects, resulting in the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Explain how graphic depictions like those found in Chapter
14 impact an audience and achieve a purpose, such as changes to law. Cite specific and thorough textual evidence to
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources/whole-class
https://d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net/MOI1HRmZ1DPqGpN3dVzvIkcdUv59a5aaiGxwiDUN8UevkzSc.pdf
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
160
TEXT SEQUENCE
TEXT USE
support your explanation. (RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2, W.9-10.2a-f, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.9a, W.9-10.10, L.9-10.5, L.9-10.6)
•
LESSON 3:
“Thoughts on the Present
State of American Affairs”
from Common Sense, Thomas
Paine
“Address to Congress on
Women’s Suffrage,” Carrie
Chapman Catt
Extension Task Preparation: Have students begin to prepare for the extension task. Have students:
o
Go back to their initial research and find examples to use in their argument. Have students continue
researching to find additional information to support their argument. (W.9-10.7, W.9-10.8)
o
Direct students to draft the introduction for their speech, incorporating ethical and emotional appeals to
build ethos and pathos, modeling from the texts they read in this lesson. (RI.9-10.6, SL.9-10.3) Students use
their SOAPSTone graphic organizers 15 to identify model rhetorical techniques to imitate in their
introductions. (W.9-10.1a, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5)
TEXT DESCRIPTION: Both texts are seminal US documents. Paine’s piece states his argument for American independence, and
Catt’s speech is an address to Congress in support of women’s suffrage.
TEXT FOCUS: Both texts make effective use of logos 16 and ethos 17 to establish and develop their central arguments. (RI.910.6)
MODEL TASKS
LESSON OVERVIEW: Students consider the occasion and audience for each of these texts and how effective use of facts,
historical precedent, analogies, etc. advances each author’s argument. Students consider the following questions: Which text
is more convincing? What rhetorical devices are present? How does the logos of each argument emerge through the
rhetorical devices?
READ AND UNDERSTAND THE TEXT:
•
Read the “Address to Congress on Women’s Suffrage” aloud to students one time while students read along. Read the
text a second time and ask students to identify and mark the words or phrases that reveal the overall structure of the
texts (e.g., three distinct causes made it inevitable, first, second, and third). (RI.9-10.3, L.9-10.4a, L.9-10.6)
•
In pairs, students identify the major claims of the text by underlining them, and then write a concise summary of each
claim that Catt makes. Direct students to join with another partner group to form a group of four, and review and
provide feedback on each other’s summaries. The group of four refines and revises to generate one set of concise,
objective summaries. (RI.9-10.2, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5, SL.9-10.1a-b, SL.9-10.4)
15
https://d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net/MOI1HRmZ1DPqGpN3dVzvIkcdUv59a5aaiGxwiDUN8UevkzSc.pdf
http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%20Appeals/Logos.htm
17
http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%20Appeals/Ethos.htm
16
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
161
TEXT SEQUENCE
•
TEXT USE
Facilitate a whole-class discussion that explores how the claims connect to one another, including how the second and
third claims logically arise from the development of prior claims. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5)
•
Students return to their groups of four and use a blue highlighter to highlight all of the words, phrases, sentences, or
paragraphs that present logical support for each claim and a yellow highlighter to highlight all of the words, phrases,
sentences, or paragraphs that build credibility. Then, in annotations or in a dialectical journal, students explain how
the highlighted text supports their understanding of the logic of each claim and builds Catt’s credibility as a speaker.
(RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6)
•
Have students go back to their graphic organizer from Lesson 1. Have students include an explanation in the
column(s) that are most appropriate for this article. Students should include examples from the text to explain their
rationale, citing appropriate page numbers.
•
Read the excerpt from Common Sense aloud to students one time while students read along. Read the text a second
time and ask students to identify and mark the words or phrases that reveal the overall structure of the texts. (RI.910.3)
•
In pairs, students identify the major claims of the text by underlining them, and then write a concise summary of each
claim that Paine makes. Direct students to join with another partner group to form a group of four and review and
provide feedback on each other’s summaries. The group of four refines and revises to generate one set of concise,
objective summaries. (RI.9-10.2, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5)
•
Facilitate a whole-class discussion that explores how the claims connect to one another, including how the second and
third claims logically arise from the development of prior claims. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5)
•
Students return to groups of four and use a blue highlighter to highlight all of the words, phrases, sentences, or
paragraphs that present logical support for each claim and a yellow highlighter to highlight all of the words, phrases,
sentences, or paragraphs that build credibility. Then, in annotations or in a dialectical journal, students explain how
the highlighted text supports their understanding of the logic of each claim and builds Paine’s credibility. (RI.9-10.1,
RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.6)
•
Have students go back to their graphic organizer from Lesson 1. Have students include an explanation in the
column(s) that are most appropriate for this article. Students should include examples from the text to explain their
rationale, citing appropriate page numbers.
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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TEXT SEQUENCE
EXPRESS UNDERSTANDING:
•
TEXT USE
Conduct a fishbowl discussion 18 prompting students to focus on both Paine and Catt’s use of rhetorical devices to
develop their arguments. (RI.9-10.6) Possible discussion questions include:
o
Who is the audience, and what is the occasion for each of the texts?
o
Which rhetorical appeals are present? Which rhetorical devices are employed? (RI.9-10.6)
o
What words does Paine use to suggest that the distinction between king and subject is unnatural? (RI.9-10.4)
o
Who does Paine say would want to reconcile with England? What does his language tell you about how he
feels about these people? What questions does he have for these people? (RI.9-10.4)
o
Why might Catt have chosen to focus on the appeal to logos rather than the appeal to pathos? How does this
build her credibility and help her to achieve her purpose? (RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.6)
o
What do the texts help you understand about how to build credibility and logical appeal into your speech?
What specific techniques would you like to try?
Have students form two circles, one partner from each pair on the inner circle and the other partner from each pair
on the outer circle. Then have the inner circle discuss their answers to the questions for eight minutes using
accountable talk 19 and providing evidence for their ideas. (SL.9-10.1a-b, SL.9-10.4) While the inner circle discusses,
students in the outer circle evaluate the point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence of a student in the inner circle.
(SL.9-10.3) Have students in the outer circle record their thoughts using a platform like TodaysMeet. 20 (W.9-10.6)
After the eight-minute discussion, swap the inner and outer circles and repeat the process.
•
Extension Task Preparation: Have students continue to work on their extension task. Have students:
o
Go back to their initial research and find examples to use in their argument. Have students continue
researching to find additional information to support their argument. (W.9-10.7, W.9-10.8)
o
Direct students to revise their introduction and begin drafting the claims of their speech to incorporate ethical
and logical appeals to build ethos and logos, modeling from the texts they read in this lesson. (RI.9-10.6, SL.910.3) For each claim, ensure that students identify the evidence they will use and the rhetorical devices and
18
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources/whole-class
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources/whole-class
20
https://todaysmeet.com/
19
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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TEXT SEQUENCE
LESSON 4:
“Rachel Carson’s Silent
Spring,” PBS
“A Fable for Tomorrow” from
Silent Spring, Rachel Carson
“Speech to the Second
Virginia Convention,” Patrick
Henry
TEXT USE
appeals they will incorporate to build their argument. (W.9-10.1b-d) Students use their SOAPSTone graphic
organizers 21 to identify model rhetorical techniques to imitate in their essay. (W.9-10.1a-d, W.9-10.4, W.910.5)
TEXT DESCRIPTION: Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was written to inform people of the dangers associated with the use of
pesticides and other chemicals. This excerpt describes a hypothetical town impacted by excessive chemical use, provides an
overview of how the use of chemicals has expanded over time, and proposes a possible course of action. Patrick Henry’s
speech presents a call to action to arm the Virginia militia to fight against the British in the American Revolution.
TEXT FOCUS: As they read the excerpt, students should pay special attention to how Carson develops her argument and the
rhetorical devices she employs to achieve her goal. Henry’s speech addresses the topic of American colonies establishing their
own country separate from Britain. Consider the occasion and audience for each of these texts and the impact on the
arguments, paying special attention to each author’s appeal to pathos 22 in addition to analyzing how each author builds
credibility and appeals to logic (ethos and logos). (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6, RI.9-10.8, RI.9-10.9,
RI.9-10.10)
MODEL TASKS
LESSON OVERVIEW: Students consider the occasion and audience for each of these texts and the impact on the arguments,
considering which is more convincing and the effects of the rhetorical devices that are present. Finally, students explore how
the pathos of each text affects the audience and refine their drafts to integrate effective, judicious use of emotional appeals
to achieve a purpose.
READ THE TEXT:
21
22
•
Have students view the video as a class. They should view this prior to reading the excerpt from Silent Spring to
provide necessary historical context.
•
Each text is appropriately complex, so direct students to read each independently for comprehension. (RI.9-10.10)
•
Have students write an objective summary of each text. (RI.9-10.2)
https://d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net/MOI1HRmZ1DPqGpN3dVzvIkcdUv59a5aaiGxwiDUN8UevkzSc.pdf
http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%20Appeals/Pathos.htm
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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TEXT SEQUENCE
23
24
UNDERSTAND THE TEXT:
TEXT USE
•
Working in pairs or small groups, prompt students to analyze each text using the SOAPSTone strategy 23 and graphic
organizer. 24 (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6)
•
Have students go back to the graphic organizer from Lesson 1 (used in all previous lessons) and have them include
examples of each text’s use of ethos, logos, and pathos. Students should use examples from each text to support their
rationale, including noting page numbers. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.6, RI.9-10.8, RI.9-10.9)
•
Have students work in small groups to discuss each author’s use of rhetorical devices to elicit powerful emotions that
move an audience to action. Ensure students cite evidence from the texts to support their discussion. (SL.9-10.1a-d)
Possible discussion questions include:
o
Who is the audience, and what is the occasion for each of the texts? (RI.9-10.2)
o
Which rhetorical appeals are present? Which rhetorical devices are employed? Which devices are most
effective in each text? (RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.6, SL.9-10.3, L.9-10.5a)
o
How does Henry structure and pace his speech? What impact does his structure and pace have on his key
ideas?
o
What is Henry’s argument (his position, his evidence, etc.)? (RI.9-10.3) How does Henry respond to the
opposing argument? Evaluate Henry’s argument: Where is his reasoning logical and his evidence sufficient?
Identify any fallacious reasoning or missing or irrelevant evidence. (RI.9-10.8, SL.9-10.3)
o
What were Carson’s goals in writing the text? What was her ultimate purpose? (RI.9-10.2)
o
What is the tone? How is it established in the piece? (RI.9-10.4)
o
How did the author attempt to move her audience to take action against pesticides? (RI.9-10.6)
o
Why do the authors use different techniques to achieve their purposes? Evaluate whether their choices are
appropriate given their individual purposes. (RI.9-10.6, SL.9-10.3)
•
Engage the full class in a conversation about the above discussion questions following the small-group conversations.
•
Following the conversations, have students return to their graphic organizers to refine their examples.
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources/whole-class
https://d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net/MOI1HRmZ1DPqGpN3dVzvIkcdUv59a5aaiGxwiDUN8UevkzSc.pdf
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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TEXT SEQUENCE
EXPRESS UNDERSTANDING:
•
LESSON 5:
“Does Great Literature Make
Us Better?,” Gregory Currie
“Reading Literature Makes Us
Smarter and Nicer,” Annie
Murphy Paul
25
TEXT USE
Extension Task Preparation: Have students continue to work on their extension task. Have students:
o
Complete a full draft of their essay. (W.9-10.1a-e)
o
Share the drafts in a writers workshop format in groups of two or three. Ask peers to provide targeted
feedback on: (1) the quality and accuracy of the overall argument and use of research to validate the
argument, (2) strong use of strategies of argument gleaned from the unit, and (3) appropriate and gradespecific use of language, vocabulary, and sentence structure. (W.9-10.1b, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5, SL.9-10.3, L.910.1a-b, L.9-10.2a-c, L.9-10.6)
o
Revise and rewrite their arguments based on peer feedback. (W.9-10.10)
o
Meet with students in their groups to discuss their arguments and their targeted revisions. Ask students what
changes they made based on peer feedback and how those changes improved the effectiveness of their
writing. If necessary, prompt students within the group to ask questions, suggest revisions, or offer
constructive feedback so that the group meetings are fully interactive. (SL.9-10.1a-d)
TEXT DESCRIPTION: These articles present contrasting arguments in exploration of the idea that reading literature impacts
people emotionally and may even impact their moral development.
TEXT FOCUS: The use of argument and counterargument provides a model for students as they work to strengthen their
writing. These articles can support students in using counterargument to build credibility and logical reasoning in their writing.
(RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.8) A sample task for supporting student’s argument development is available here25.
•
Extension Task Preparation: Have students continue to work on their extension task. Have students:
o
Strengthen their final drafts by further developing a counterargument and pointing out its limitations using
evidence from their research. (W.9-10.1b)
o
Share the drafts in a writer’s workshop format in groups of two or three. Ask peers to provide targeted
feedback on: (1) the quality and accuracy of the overall argument and use of research to validate the
argument, (2) strong use of strategies of argument gleaned from the unit, and (3) appropriate and gradespecific use of language, vocabulary, and sentence structure. (W.9-10.1b, W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5, SL.9-10.3, L.910.1a-b, L.9-10.2a-c, L.9-10.6)
http://www.mesd.k12.or.us/si/Pennys_PortaPortal_Docs/ArgumentvsPersuasiveWriting.pdf
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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TEXT SEQUENCE
o
o
LESSON 6:
“Pearl Harbor Address to the
Nation,” Franklin D. Roosevelt
(audio)
Annotated Typewritten Copy,
Franklin D. Roosevelt
World War II Propaganda
Posters
TEXT USE
Revise and rewrite their arguments based on peer feedback. (W.9-10.10)
Meet with students in their groups to discuss their arguments and their targeted revisions. Ask students what
changes they made based on peer feedback and how those changes improved the effectiveness of their
writing. If necessary, prompt students within the group to ask questions, suggest revisions, or offer
constructive feedback so that the group meetings are fully interactive. (SL.9-10.1a-d)
TEXT DESCRIPTION: Franklin Roosevelt’s speech was given to gain support for retaliating against the Japanese after the attack
on Pearl Harbor. Many of the World War II posters were also created to gain and maintain support for the military leading into
and throughout the course of the war.
TEXT FOCUS: As this lesson will lead into the extension task, students should pay special attention to not only the rhetorical
devices employed in FDR’s speech, but also to choices made in his delivery. It may also be helpful to students to examine
FDR’s edits of the first draft of the speech to see the changes that were made. Also consider whether the propaganda posters
reinforce or counter the sentiments conveyed by FDR.
MODEL TASKS
LESSON OVERVIEW: Students combine their knowledge of all three rhetorical appeals to gain a deeper understanding of FDR’s
speech as well as explore the differences between argument, persuasion, and propaganda as they analyze various media in
order to craft their own multimedia support for their speeches.
READ THE TEXT:
•
Listen to the audio recording 26 of the speech while students follow along with a printed copy.
•
Have students read the speech independently and objectively summarize the text. (RI.9-10.2)
•
Have students update their graphic organizer from Lesson 1, pulling examples from the text to support their argument
about which appeal(s) is used in the text. (RI.9-10.6)
UNDERSTAND THE TEXT:
•
26
27
Working in pairs or small groups, have students to annotate 27 FDR’s speech. Prompt students to use the anchor text
and their notes from lesson 1 as a guide. Students should note rhetorical devices and their effects on FDR’s credibility,
logic, and emotion. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.4, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6, RI.9-10.8)
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm
http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/classroom-support-toolbox/teacher-support-toolbox/lesson-assessment-planning-resources/whole-class
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
167
TEXT SEQUENCE
•
•
•
TEXT USE
Compare the written versions of FDR’s speech to the delivery of the speech. (RI.9-10.7) Ask students to examine the
typewritten, edited copy of the speech’s draft to help illustrate the choices made by FDR. Then have students
evaluate FDR’s intonation and use of pauses to emphasize key points and engage audience interest. (SL.9-10.4)
As a whole class, conduct a discussion prompting students to focus on FDR’s use of rhetorical devices to develop his
argument. (RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.8, RI.9-10.9, L.9-10.5, SL.9-10.1) Possible discussion questions
include:
o
Who is the audience, and what is the occasion/context for the speech? (RI.9-10.2)
o
What rhetorical devices are employed? What is the intended effect of those devices on an audience? (RI.910.6, SL.9-10.3)
o
How do the patterns of word choice establish a tone in the speech? (RI.9-10.4)
o
What can you take away from this speech to influence your own speech? What does FDR do that might work
for you and your purpose?
Provide students with access to the World War II propaganda posters to examine as a whole group. (Full lesson plan
available here 28.)
EXPRESS UNDERSTANDING:
•
28
Extension Task Preparation: Have students continue to work on their extension task. Have students:
o
If final edits needed, meet with students in their groups to discuss their arguments and their targeted
revisions. Ask students what changes they made based on peer feedback and how those changes improved
the effectiveness of their speeches. If necessary, prompt students within the group to ask questions, suggest
revisions, or offer constructive feedback so that the group meetings are fully interactive. (SL.9-10.1a-d)
o
Have students draft the multimedia component of their argumentative speech (e.g., PowerPoint, Prezi,
poster, pamphlet), drawing on the logical, ethical, and emotional appeals. For example, students who
incorporate anecdotes might include supporting images to reinforce their claims. (SL.9-10.5)
o
In their writers workshop groups, have students practice their delivery incorporating the multimedia
component and receive feedback on the effectiveness. Then provide students with ample time to revise and
refine their drafts. (SL.9-10.1a-d, SL.9-10.3, SL.9-10.4, SL.9-10.5, SL.9-10.6)
http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/argument-persuasion-propaganda-analyzing-829.html
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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TEXT SEQUENCE
LESSON 7:
Various texts for
independent research
TEXT USE
MODEL TASK
SAMPLE SUMMATIVE TASK: Extension Task
LESSON 8:
“It’s Not Talent; It’s Just
Work,” Annie Dillard
“The Matthew Effect” from
Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell
LESSON 9:
“What Is Rhetoric?,” Brigham
Young University
MODEL TASK
SAMPLE SUMMATIVE TASK: Cold-Read Task
MODEL TASK
SAMPLE SUMMATIVE TASK: Culminating Writing Task
English Language Arts, Grade 10: Rhetoric
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