Palm-Based Animal Feed and MPOB`s Energy and Protein Centre

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Palm-Based Animal Feed and MPOB’s Energy and Protein Centre
Palm-Based Animal Feed
and MPOB’s Energy and
Protein Centre
Osman Atil*
INTRODUCTION
Malaysia imported well over 2 million tonnes per annum of energy feed
as corn in the last three years and another 1 million tonnes of protein
supplement, mainly soyabean and fish meal. Well over 200 000 t of
crude palm oil (CPO) were used in livestock feed. These feeds are
essential items in the formulation of compound feed or ration for
commercial livestock. Oil palm and palm oil industries provide several
products and by-products which are suitable to be used as animal feed.
They are available from the plantation, milling, crushing and refining.
Livestock feed from palm products presents an excellent opportunity for
replacing imported feed. Also it can be exported to regional and
international markets.
FEEDS FROM THE PLANTATION
The plantation sector provides
feeds that are high in fibre.
Pruned oil palm fronds (OPF), oil
palm trunks at replanting and
forage growing under the oil
palm provide cheap sources of
energy to ruminant animals and,
most importantly, these resources
are renewable. In 2003, the total
planted area in Malaysia was
3.802 million hectares of which
3.303 million hectares were
mature and 0.499 million hectares
immature oil palm (MPOB, 2004).
Thus, the supply and availability
of roughage from the oil palm
and undergrowth in oil palm
plantations are plentiful. They are
available throughout the year,
especially the palm fronds pruned
during harvesting of the fruit
bunches. Oil palm roughage from
palm trunks and fronds are also
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.
E-mail: [email protected]
available in large quantities during
replanting. Under normal practice,
two fronds are pruned per palm
every month. This practice yields
24 fronds palm-1 yr-1. There are
136 palms ha-1. As such, 3264
pruned fronds are available per
year per hectare. They can be
freshly chopped and preserved as
frond silage (Abu Hassan and
Ishida, 1991) or chopped, dried
and pelleted (Abu Hassan, 1996).
They are most suitable for
feeding beef and dairy cattle,
sheep, goats, and even ostrich
and deer. Other nutrients should
be properly balanced in the
formulation of a complete ration
using palm fronds. Supplementation
with other nutrients will ensure
best performance in the
production of beef or milk.
Preliminary data show that Anglo
Brahman feeder cattle fed on a
ration containing 40% fresh
chopped palm fronds gained 1 kg
of live weight per day. The group
fed with a ration containing 80%
green chopped palm fronds
gained 0.5 kg day-1.
Palm leaf pellet is another
valuable feed item, which
furnishes quality fibre for equine
feed. Abu Hassan (1996) reported
that OPF pellets produced at the
Malaysian Agricultural Research
and Development Institute
(MARDI) were utilized by the
Malaysian Racing Association to
replace oat chaff in horse ration.
It also contains a significant
quantity of vitamin E, which is
known as an antioxidant and
increases the male fertility, and
female reproductive performance
of equine animals.
FEEDS FROM PALM OIL MILL
The palm oil mill provides, among
other products, empty fruit
bunches (EFB) and CPO. About
2.9 million tonnes/year of EFB dry
matter were available in 20012003 (Kamaruddin et al., 1997).
However, the EFB has limited use
in ruminant feed as it has to be
used with other feed ingredients
to provide adequate and balanced
nutrients to livestock. As a rule of
thumb, the product is limited to
30% of the total ration of cattle.
Slightly higher amounts may be
used after treatment.
Another major product from
the palm oil mill, which is most
suitable for animal feed and an
established feed ingredient in local
poultry and pig rations, is CPO.
The supply of CPO is plentiful
(13.4 million tonnes in 2003 –
MPOB) but only a small
percentage is used as added fat
in poultry and pig rations.
1
Palm Oil Developments 40
Addition of up to 3% CPO in
poultry and pig rations is a wellknown practice among feed
millers. Some may use slightly
more if the price of CPO is
competitive relative to other
energy feeds. At higher than 3%
CPO, the formulated feed is
difficult to pelletise, especially at
5%-6% CPO. Thus, the room to
use more CPO in livestock ration
is limited due to this technical
factor.
Annually, Malaysian livestock
producers use about 123 000 t of
CPO to produce 4.1 million
tonnes of poultry and pig rations.
Though feed millers use CPO as
an energy source, it also contains
significant amounts of natural
antioxidants such as carotenes
and vitamin E which help the
feed quality from deteriorating
during storage. Furthermore,
carotenes enhances the skin
colour of broilers while vitamin E
increases the fertility and
enhances the reproductive
performance in chicken and pig
for breeding. Adding fat to the
ration also helps reduce the
dustiness of the feed.
30% corn + 15% soyabean meal
+ 3% fish meal + 2% vitamin
and mineral premix fed to
Fresian-Sahiwal dairy cows at 4
and 8 kg head-1 day-1. The
average daily milk yield increased
with the concentrate use to
1192 kg and 1396 kg/120 days/
lactation respectively.
Research is now focussing on
using PKC in poultry feed.
Unfortunately, the galacto-mannan
is difficult for monogastric animals
to digest. Mannan per se has low
digestibility. Daud et al. (1997)
treated PKC with an enzyme to
increase its energy and protein
bioavailability to poultry and pigs.
Yeong et al. (1991) and
Raghavan (1997) carried out
several trials using PKC in starter
and finisher rations at 10%-40%.
Broiler performance in daily
weight gain and feed efficiency
was comparable to that from a
straight corn-soya ration as the
control. PKC is a sound feed for
inclusion in broiler or layer ration
and can be a cheap source of
feed ingredient to livestock
producers.
FEEDS FROM REFINING
FEEDS FROM CRUSHING PLANTS
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a
popular ingredient for animal
feed. It contains 16% crude
protein and all the nine essential
amino acids for monogastric
animals. The availability of those
amino acids is high and
comparable to that of rice bran.
The major fibre component of
PKC is galacto-mannan (Daud et
al., 1997). PKC is most suitable
as beef and dairy feed.
Malaysia produced 1.91 million
tonnes of PKC in 2003 of which
more than 90% was exported to
Germany, Netherlands and other
countries in the European Union.
In Germany and Netherlands, PKC
is used as one of common
ingredients in dairy ration (about
10%). Malaysian dairy farmers
use more than 50% PKC in their
ration. Shamsudin et al. (1997)
formulated a supplemental
concentrate with 50% PKC +
2
Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)
and palm kernel fatty acids
distillate (PKFAD) are the major
animal feed products from
refining. The latter is less available
since the volume of palm kernel
oil (PKO) produced is small.
Production of Malaysian PFAD
is directly related to the refining
of CPO. On an average, the free
fatty acid (FFA) content of
Malaysian CPO is 3.7%.
Therefore, the annual production
of Malaysian PFAD should not be
far from 3.7% of the total
production of CPO. In 2003, the
production of PFAD was 501 862 t.
Three feed products are
available from PFAD. They are
raw PFAD (RPFAD), calcium soap
of PFAD (CSPFAD) and
hydrogenated PFAD (HPFAD).
RPFAD is an excellent source of
energy and is included in poultry
ration. Feed pellets are sprayed
with liquid PFAD on exit from the
extruder. Malaysia and Southeast
Asian feed millers are
increasingly using straight PFAD
to totally replace CPO in poultry
ration. This is an intelligent effort
as CPO is more expensive.
The calcium soap of PFAD is a
high energy feed and a most
popular supplement to high
producing dairy cows (Palmquist
and Jenkins, 1980). It is the
most effective energy supplement.
PFAD has to be processed and
converted to CSPFAD. The
commercial process is patented
and available from the patent
holder. Limited numbers of
manufacturers produce and
market this product.
HPFAD is a new generation of
high energy feed supplement
produced by Malaysian
manufacturers. The product comes
in flake or other forms. The size
and looseness of the product are
the most significant factors
determining its feeding value. A
smaller and very loose or friable
product enhances exposure to the
digestive system, hence improving
digestion. A compact and bigger
size product tends to be less
digestible and has a lower feeding
value. Currently, several refineries
produce HPFAD as high energy
feed supplement for livestock.
ENERGY AND PROTEIN CENTRE
To further harness the potential
of palm-based feeds, MPOB has
established the Energy and
Protein Centre (EPC). The centre
is entrusted to find a technical
solution, formula and feasible
practice for utilizing and
incorporating more total palm fat
energy in commercial livestock
feed, which would enhance the
competitiveness of Malaysian
palm oil and complement
Malaysian livestock production. A
higher fat energy would reduce
heat stress and improve feed
efficiency and growth
performance of broiler chicken,
especially in humid tropical
climates. EPC is equipped with
the current technology for
rearing chicken.
Palm-Based Animal Feed and MPOB’s Energy and Protein Centre
Energy and Protein Laboratory
The EPC laboratory (Figure 1)
is fully equipped with the latest
analytical equipment and efforts
are being made to certify the
laboratory with ISO 9000 and
accredit it for feed analysis. EPC
adopts chemical-free analyses
wherever possible. The analytical
services available at this
laboratory are for proximate
composition, amino acids, fatty
acids, simple sugars, gross energy,
acid detergent fibre and neutral
detergent fibre, total fibre, minor
and major elements. Crude
protein and other extract analysis
is done via a chemical-free
technique. The laboratory is
equipped with among other
things, a Waters 1525 Binary
HPLC Pump with 2475 Multi
Fluoresence Detector and 2414
Refrective Index Detector, GC,
IKA C5000 Bomb Calorimeter to
carry the analyses. EPC is
planning to purchase a dedicated
amino acids analyses at a later
stage.
Climates Control Houses (CCH)
The CCH are especially
dedicated to commercial feeding
trials of palm products as energy
and protein supplements for
broiler and layer chicken. These
houses are fully automated to
regulate and stabilize the
temperature, lighting, feeding
time and feeding sequence, and
record the feed and water
consumption, weight gain and air
flow. They are fully fitted with
CCTV, accessible to the operators
and researchers through a PC at
the main office and a modem at
MPOB Headquarters in Bandar
Baru Bangi.
CCH Broiler
Broilers are kept in a cage
system of three tiers and three
rows. In every tier, there are 18
cages, each capable of
accommodating a total of 30
birds with a maximum weight of
Figure 1. EPC laboratory.
60 kg. The birds are fed by a
mobile feeder auger system.
Loading of the feed and feeding
frequency are pre-determined by
input through a computer. The
system will regulate the optimum
feeding time and frequency for
the best growth. There are 18
cages per tier and three tiers per
row and three rows per CCH.
Each CCH can accommodate
4860 birds. The EPC has two
CCH for broiler feeding trials. The
capacity of the two CCH is 9720
birds.
Feeding trials in the CCH for
broilers can evaluate three types
of diets/rations. There are three
silos with a holding capacity of 3
t of feed per silo (Figure 2). The
feed is transported to every tier
of the cages via a spiral auger in
a fully automatic feeding system.
The amount of feed transported,
feeding timing and amount of
feed consumed are fully
monitored via a management
feeding programme set by the
manufacturer. The system allows
up-to-date close monitoring of
the feed and water consumption.
The feeding management
programme and CCH programme
adopted are the best tools
available at EPC-MPOB to
effectively evaluate the trial of
any feed or ration to broilers as
starters and finishers.
At a later stage, the EPC may
allow others to use the facilities
for evaluating other products, like
vitamins, antibiotic-free additives,
new types of feed and others at
CCH broiler.
CCH Layer
There are two houses in the
CCH for layers. In each house,
there are two rows and two tiers
of laying batteries. Individual
cages are located on every tier
with the cages separated by an
air duct for drying the manure.
This system is adopted to prevent
the accumulation of wet manure.
It prevents excessive ammonia gas
release, which is known to be
detrimental to the health of
laying birds and workers.
There are six hopper feeders
per row. Every tier has two
hopper feeders to the left and
right sides of the cages. The
system allows six different feeds
to be tested in any feeding trial.
The feeds are stored and
transported from six silos which
hold 3 t of feed each. The eggs
from laying birds from the left
and right sides of the tier are
collected from an egg belt, which
brings the eggs to the collection
station. The eggs are collected
3
Palm Oil Developments 40
DAUD, M J; SAMAD, N and
RASOL, M (1997). Specific
commercial enzymes for nutritive
value improvement of palm kernel
cake for poultry diets. Proc. of the
19th Malaysian Society of Animal
Production Annual Conference. 810 September 1997. Johor Bahru,
Johor, Malaysia.
KAMARUDDIN HASSAN; HUSIN,
M; DAMS, A and J SUKAIMI
(1997). An estimated availability of
oil palm biomass in Malaysia.
PORIM Occasional Paper No. 37:
100 pp.
MPOB (2004). Malaysian Oil Palm
Statistics 2003. MPOB, Bangi. 181
pp.
Figure 2. Feed silos.
and counted manually. The
environment temperature, air
movement, feeding and water
consumption are monitored via a
management programme
software.
disinfection. This is to ensure
that the vehicles are clean from
any pathogenic bacteria or fungi
that may spread diseases to the
birds.
REFERENCES
Quarantine House
The CCH are fully isolated with
perimeter fencing. Access to the
CCH is via the quarantine house.
The system is designed as a
preventive measure to reduce the
risk of spreading diseases from
human or transport to the
experimental chickens.
Spray House
Prior to entering the CCH
compound, vehicles have to pass
through a spray house for
4
ABU HASSAN, O (1996). Oil
palm as feed resource. Proc. of
the 8th AAAP Animal Science
Congress Vo1.3. p. 30-42.
ABU HASSAN, O and ISHIDA, M
(1991). Effects of water molasses
and urea addition on oil palm
frond silage quality-fermentation
characteristics and palatability to
Kedah-Kelantan bulls. Proc. of the
3rd International Symposium on
the Nutrition of Herbivores. Pulau
Pinang. p. 94.
PALMQUIST, D L and JENKINS, T E
(1980). Fat in lactation rations:
review. J. Dairy Sci. Vo1.63 No.1:114.
RAGHAVAN (1997). Unpublished
data.
SHAMSUDIN, A B; AZHAR, I and
ZULKIFLI, M L (1997). Milk yield
response of Sahiwal-Fresian fed
two levels of formulated
concentrate. Proc. of the 19th
Malaysian Society of Animal
Production Annual Conference.
8-10 September 1997. Johor Bahru,
Johor, Malaysia.
YEONG, S W; MUKHERJEE, T K
and HUTAGALUNG, R I (1983).
Proc. of the Nat. Workshop on Oil
Palm By-Product Utilization. Kuala
Lumpur. p.100.
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