Elements of Communication

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Elements of Communication
Chapter 2 – pages 24-49
Key Terms
 Channel
 Nonverbal messages
 Connotative meaning  Perception
 Context
 Denotative meaning
 Feedback
 Noise
 Slang
 Verbal messages
Essential Elements of Communication
1. Verbal messages
2. Nonverbal messages
3. Perception
4. Channel
5. Feedback
6. Context
Verbal messages
 Messages that use words
 Spoken or written
 Includes choice of words and order of
 “Can you tell me how to get to the
movie theater?”
 “The AMC, where do I find it?”
Verbal Messages (cont)
 To communicate effectively, a person
must select the most precise words to
get his or her ideas across.
Who’s on first?
Listen to the following Abbot and Costello comedy
sketch, and see if you can identify the names of
the baseball players for the following positions 1st Base
 Left Field
 Catcher
 2nd Base
 Center field
 Shortstop
 3rd base
 Pitcher
SEPT 12 2011
 Chapter 2 notes – Day 2
 Chapter 1, Chapter 2 and Communication Model
Test = Monday, SEPT 19th
 Current Event Speeches = Tomorrow
Verbal Messages (cont)
 When choosing which words to use,
a speaker must consider the
denotative meaning and
connotative meaning.
 Denotative = dictionary definition
 Connotative = emotional response to
words (usually positive or negative)
Connotative Meanings
 Some connotative meanings are
shared by a culture or society
 Capitalism and democracy from
American perspective
 Capitalism and democracy from
Chinese perspective
Connotative Meanings (cont)
 Some connotative meanings vary by individuals
 How do the connotative meanings of the word
rose vary in these examples?
 When Marissa was young, her father worked
nights and rarely could make it to her dance
recitals. When he could attend, he always
bought her a bouquet of roses and took her to
dinner to celebrate. These are some of her
favorite childhood memories of her father.
Connotative Meanings (cont)
 How do the connotative meanings of the word
rose vary in these examples?
 When Arianna was 8, she was in the hospital
because of a head concussion. The doctors
gave her many shots, and put her in many
terrifying machines during the three days she
was there. Many of her family members sent
her roses and get-well cards. Now, when she
sees a rose, she thinks about the shots and the
machines in the hospital.
Language Evolves
 Language changes over time
 Clepe – to call
 Score – twenty
 Slang is informal language unique to a
 Slang changes frequently
 Most difficult for non-members to
Language Evolves (cont)
 New speakers bring elements of old
language and add to the new
 (Semi-) common words added to American
English-also called loanwords
 Zombie (African)
 Tsunami (Japanese)
 Attorney (French)
 Literature (French)
 Ghetto (Italian)
Information from http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words/loanwords.html
Nonverbal messages
 Messages without words
 How do you create messages without
 Appearance
 Facial expressions
 Eye contact, posture
 Gestures
 Voice
Individual Perceptions
 Perception – process of giving
meaning to information you learn
through your five senses
 2 steps
 Something affects your senses
 You interpret and explain sensation
Individual Perceptions
 You hear a friend say, “It’s about time
you showed up.”
 He sounds like he is growling
 You interpret – _________
 You hear a friend say, “It’s about time
you showed up.”
 He smiles as he says it
 You interpret – ___________
Individual Perceptions
 Each person perceives differently –
that dress is “phat” or _______
 Person A hears a joke
 Person B hears an insult
 Three major factors influence
 Physical differences
 Past Experiences
 Present situation
Individual Perceptions
 Physical differences
 People’s senses differ
 Near-sighted/far-sighted, difficulty hearing
 Past experiences
 Cultural knowledge, things that you have done
or experienced in your life, interests
 Present situation
 How you feel mentally and physically at the
time of the communication
Channels of Communication
 Channel – the way that a message is
 You say something (sound)
 Your facial expressions (sight)
 Your smell (smell) {Did you remember
your deodorant today? People receive
messages from this}
 Giving someone a hug (touch)
 We rarely use taste to communicate – so
don’t go licking strangers!
Channels of Communication
 People often place greater emphasis
on one channel over another
 When we have trouble understanding
a message, the difficulty is the result
of noise
 Noise – anything that interferes with a
listener’s ability to receive a message
Channels of Communication
 Examples of noise (Internal vs.
 Daydreaming
 Actual noise from TV, radio, etc
 Reading/writing a text while someone is
 A headache
 Boredom
 Uncomfortable environment
 Feedback = the messages that a
listener sends a speaker about how
the communication is being perceived
 Feedback is verbal and nonverbal
 Feedback can be positive or negative
 Positive feedback
 Tells the speaker that the message is
being communicated clearly
 Smile, nodding head, laugh, “Yeah!,” “That
makes sense”
 Negative feedback
 Tells speaker that the message is unclear
 Frown, raised eyebrow, questioning look,
“What?,” “I don’t get it”
 Effective communicators respond and adapt
to the feedback they receive
 Positive feedback -> explain less, move
through material more quickly
 Negative feedback -> explain more, slow
down, find different ways to say/explain
 Feedback differs by culture
 Some cultures find it rude to make eye
contact, for example
 Self-Feedback
 Being aware of your behavior, and
adjusting your actions and
communication accordingly
 Examples: Feel like you’re talking too
much, or not enough; feel like you’re
getting silly/angry/etc and monitoring
 The setting and people that surround a message
 Helps reveal message’s real meaning
 Setting – how does the time, location, and
occasion affect the message?
 Dad has been working late this week, and not getting
enough sleep. He comes home really late one night
and yells at your younger brother for not tying his
shoes, even though your brother doesn’t know how
to tie his shoes. The time and the occasion help you
to understand that Dad is upset because it’s late and
he’s tired, not because he’s really mad at your
 People are part of context
 Who you are talking to, and who is
around when you are talking, will
influence what you say and how you
say it
 3 activity ideas…
 Puppy, hot potato, balloon, baby, heavy box -
Perception - only use body language
 Personal space - change seating to awkward places
- discussion on reactions and feelings
 Pantomime - Catching a fish, preparing eggs - only
using nonverbal
 Slang words you hear?
 Situations where actions speak louder than words?

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