Inorganic Exam 3 Name: Chm 451 1 December

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Inorganic Exam 3
Chm 451
1 December 2009
Name:
Instructions. Always show your work for full credit.
Chapter 9. Structures and Isomers
1a. (6 pts) Sketch all possible isomers of Co(NH3)2(H2O)2Cl2. You may use A, B, and C to represent the
ligands if you wish. I have provide more axes than you will actually need. (You may use models: The
easiest way to make a model of an octahedron is to use toothpicks (labeled) and something to stick them in
as a central metal. You might use a grape or a chunk of potato or a marshmallow.)
1b. (2 pts) Two of the isomers you drew above are enantiomeric. Circle them.
2. (5 pts) Sketch all possible isomers of Re(dien)Br2Cl. Dien is the tridentate ligand
NH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2. On your structures, sketch the dien as:
more axes than you will actually need.
Again, I have provide
3. (6 pts) What is the oxidation state, coordination number and d-electron configuration of the metal ion in
each of these compounds? Note: en = NH2CH2CH2NH2
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4
K4[Mn(CN)6]
Cr(H2O)3BrClI
[Co(en)2(CN)2]NO3
Oxid. State:
Coord. Number:
d-electron config
Chapter 10. Bonding
4. (5 pts) Only one member of each pair actually is known. Circle your choice for the most likely to exist.
a. [Ti(NH3)4]+2
or
[Zn(NH3)4]+2
b. low spin FeCl6-3
or
low spin RuCl6-3
or
paramagnetic Co(CN)6-3
or
[Ni(PPh3)6]+2 Ph = phenyl, C6H5-
or
square planar [Cu(NH3)4]+2
c.
diamagnetic Co(CN)6-3
d. [Ni(NH3)6]+2
e.
square planar [Pd(NH3)4]+2
5. (5 pts) Predict the number of unpaired electrons in each of the following situations:
a tetrahedral d6 ion
an octahedral low-spin d6 ion
an octahedral high-spin d6 ion
[Co(H2O)6](ClO4)2
K3[Fe(CN)6]
6a. (5 pts) Predict the crystal field splitting pattern for a square planar compound. Label the orbitals.
6b. (2 pts) Populate the above diagram for [Pt(NH3)4]SO4, given that the compound is diamagnetic.
7. (5 pts) Sketch the crystal field splitting pattern for a metal ion in an octahedral field. Label Δoct. Populate
the diagram for high-spin d4. Repeat with another drawing of the splitting pattern, but alter Δoct so that
one would predict low-spin. Populate the diagram for d4, low-spin.
8. The Td character table and MO diagram for σ-only bonding for a tetrahedral complex such as FeCl4- are
both given below. Answer the questions that follow about this MO diagram.
Td
E
A1
A2
1
1
2
3
3
E
T1
T2
8 C3 3 C2 6 S4 6 σd
1
1
-1
0
0
1
1
2
-1
-1
1
-1
0
1
-1
1
-1
0
-1
1
x2 + y2 + z2
(x2 - y2, z2)
(Rx, Ry, Rz)
(x, y, z)
(xz, yz, xy)
8a. (2 pts) Populate the MO diagram for the complex FeCl4-.
8b. (2 pts) Draw a box around the region that corresponds to the splitting predicted by crystal field theory.
8c. (2 pts) How many unpaired electrons are there in the complex?
8d. (2 pts) Why are there three sets of triply degenerate t2 molecular orbitals?
8e. (2 pts) Add the label Δt.
8f. (2 pts) What are the non-bonding orbitals labeled ‘e (n)’?
8g. (2 pts) Recall that a tetrahedron can be represented as alternating corners of a cube. Use the template
below, sketch the a1 bonding molecular orbital.
Chapter 11. Electronic Spectra
8h. (2 pts) Are d-d electronic transitions spin-allowed for tetrahedral FeCl4-?
8i. (2 pts) What is the ground state free ion (no tetrahedral field) term symbol for Fe+3?
9. (4 pts) Another complex ion similar to FeCl4- is FeCl4-2. The sketch below is for a d1 configuration split in
an octahedral field. Create a similar diagram for the d-electrons in FeCl -2, including a sketch of a typical
4
microstate for each of the situations.
2
E
E
2D
2T
Increasing octahedral field strength
10. The familiar purple permanganate ion, MnO4- is an example of a tetrahedral complex ion. It is easily
reduced to MnO4-2, which is also tetrahedral.
10a. (3 pts) The complex MnO4-2 is d1 tetrahedral. The Tanabe-Sugano The Tanabe-Sugano diagram for d1
is not given at the end of the exam. What would you expect it to look like? Sketch it here.
10b. (3 pts) How many absorbance bands would you expect to see?
10c. (2 pts) The complex MnO4-2 is a very pretty green. Given that there is only one absorbance band in the
visible region, what is the approximate wavelength of the absorbance band?
Circle one: 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm
11. In class we learned that some d configurations give rise to three spin-allowed d-d transitions. The
octahedral d3 complex is an example of such a configuration. In the case of d3, the spectrum is fairly easy
to interpret, because one of the bands corresponds directly to Δo.
11a. (3 pts) Suppose an octahedral Mo+3 complex exhibits three bands at 12000 cm-1, 17500 cm-1, and 28000
cm-1. Which of these is Δo?
11b. (2 pts) What is the transition that corresponds to υ1? Format of answer must be like: 2E  2D
11c. (2 pts) What makes obtaining Δo for an octahedral d2 complex more difficult that doing so for a d3
complex?
11d. (2 pts) What other octahedral high spin d-configuration would be similar to d3 in terms of having three
absorbance bands, one of which is directly related to Δo.
12. (2 pts) How many spin-allowed d-d absorbance bands are expected for an octahedral high-spin d7
complex?
13. (3 pts) Jahn-Teller distortions are not expected for all d electron configurations. Which of these
configurations, all in octahedral crystal fields, would not be expected to exhibit a Jahn-Teller distortion?
Circle all that apply.
d0
d1
d2
d3
d4 hs
d4 ls
d5 hs
d6 hs
d6 ls
d7 hs
d7 ls
d8
d9
d10
d5 ls
Chapter 12. Reactions and mechanisms
14. Octahedral Cr+2 complexes are d4 and can be either high-spin or low-spin. The complex
[Cr(H2O) 6]+2 is high-spin and readily undergoes substitution. Low-spin [Cr(CN) 6]-4 is inert to
substitution.
a. (4 pts) Determine the CFSE for both complexes (you can ignore the pairing energy)
b. (3 pts) Why is the low-spin complex kinetically slow to substitute, while ligand substitution for the highspin complex is kinetically fast?
15. The neutral complex fac-Co(NH3)3(Cl)3 undergoes substitution with cyanide to yield Co(NH3)3(Cl)2CN.
The reaction proceeds by a dissociative mechanism.
a. (2 pts) Write the two steps of the reaction mechanism.
b. (3 pts) After the first step, ligand scrambling is a possibility. What sort of products would we expect to find
if ligand scrambling is faster (or slower) than the addition of cyanide?
c. (3 pts) Ligand exchange (substitution) is also possible in square planar complexes. The trans series which
in part is CN- > Cl- > NH3, Starting with cis-Pt(NH3)2(Cl)2, what product is expected if we added one
equivalent of cyanide? Be specific — designate cis or trans and the product — or sketch the structure.
What product is expected if we added a second equivalent of cyanide? Again, be specific.
Answers
Chapter 9. Structures and Isomers
1a. There are six of them.
One is where the As are trans, Bs are trans and Cs are trans.
There are three similar ones:
one has the As are trans and the Bs and Cs are cis;
one has the Bs are trans and the As and Cs are cis;
and one has the Cs are trans and the As and Bs are cis.
The fifth one has all three types of ligands cis. (As cis, Bs cis and Cs cis). This last one is chiral.
1b. Two of the isomers you drew above are enantiomeric. Circle them.
2. There are actually six of them that are theoretically possible. (Recall our test to eliminate candidates for
chirality: If there is an internal mirror plane or rotation axis (such as a C2), it is not chiral.)
The dien theoretically can take the fac or mer positions. Starting with the mer:
The middle nitrogen can be trans to a Cl.
The middle nitrogen can be trans to a Br. (This arrangement is chiral due to the hydrogen
on the middle nitrogen (looking down the middle N-to-Co-to-Br bond, the hydrogen on N
can be directed on the same “side” as the other Br or on the same side as Cl.)
Dien in a fac arrangement:
The middle nitrogen can be trans to a Cl.
The middle nitrogen can be trans to a Br. This one is chiral.
3.
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4
Oxid. State:
Coord. Number:
d-electron config
+2
4
d9
K4[Mn(CN)6]
+2
6
d5
Cr(H2O)3BrClI
+3
6
d3
[Co(en)2(CN)2]NO3
+3
6
d6
Chapter 10. Bonding
4.
a. [Zn(NH3)4]+2
b. low spin RuCl6-3
c.
diamagnetic Co(CN)6-3
d. [Ni(NH3)6]+2
e.
square planar [Pd(NH3)4]+2
5. 4 upe, 0 upe, 4 upe, 3 upe, 1 upe
6a. I was looking for you to conclude that dx2-y2 was the highest in energy. Next I was looking for you to
conclude that dxz and dyz are degenerate in energy. The other two orbitals are not degenerate by
inspection. (One interesting way to think about the square plane is to start with a John-Teller distortion
(elongation) and then just keep going. In the limit that the z-axis ligands are removed and you have a
square plane.)
6b. Given that the compound is diamagnetic, all orbitals except the dx2-y2 are filled.
7. I was looking for the familiar octahedral t2g and eg orbitals. There should be one electron in each of the
t2g orbitals and one in the eg orbitals. I looked for Δoct to be labeled. For the low-spin configuration, I
was looking for a convincingly larger Δoct. The four electrons would all be in the t2g orbitals.
8.
8a and b. See diagram above
8c. five (tetrahedral complexes are always high spin due to the relatively small Δt)
8d. There are three sets of triply degenerate t2 molecular orbitals: they are dxz, dyz, and dxy.
8e. See diagram above.
8f. dx2-y2 and dz2
8g.
Chapter 11. Electronic Spectra
8h. No
8i. 6S
9.
10a.
10b. one (also shoulder due to JT)
10c. 700 nm
11a. 12000 cm-1
11b. 4A  4T2
11c. None of the absorbances directly give Δo due to “mixing” between T1(F) and T1(P) states. The ground
state is T1(F) which is distorted due to the mixing and cannot be used to determine Δo. We can use 4 T1 
4A minus 4T  4 T in order to calculate Δ . This corresponds to either υ - υ or υ - υ , depending on
1
2
o
2
1
3
1
4
4
the relative position of T1 (P) and A.
11d. d8
12. three as per Tanabe-Sugano diagram
13. d0 d3
d5 hs
d6 ls
d8
d10
Chapter 12. Reactions and mechanisms
14a. d4 high-spin: CFSE = 0.6 Δo; d4 low-spin: CFSE = 1.6 Δo
b. The low-spin complex is lower in energy than the high-spin complex due to the CFSE calculated above.
That means that Eact is larger for the low-spin complex making it kinetically slower than the high-spin
complex.
15a. Step 1. fac-Co(NH3)3(Cl)3  fac-Co(NH3)3(Cl)2+ + ClStep 2. fac-Co(NH3)3(Cl)2+ + CN- fac-Co(NH3)3(Cl)2CN
b. If no scrambling takes place, one isomer is expected for a product. If the intermediate, facCo(NH3)3(Cl)2+, rearranges before Step 2 can take place, more than one product, all isomers of
Co(NH3)3(Cl)2CN is expected.
c. cis-Pt(NH3)(CN)(Cl)2, trans-Pt(NH3)(Cl)(CN)2,
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