PS Chapter 16 - NPHSPhysicalScience

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Pretest
Chapter 16
1. True or False: Degrees Celsius and Kelvin are units of
temperature.
2. What kind of energy is released when bonds between atoms are
broken?
3. True or False: Thermal energy is the total potential and kinetic
energy of the microscopic particles in an object.
4. The change of state from liquid to gas is called _____________.
Go to section
Pretest (continued)
Chapter 16
5. Which of the following is the energy of a moving object?
a.
b.
c.
d.
mechanical energy
chemical energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
6. The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed is
known as the law of _______________________.
Go to section
Pretest (continued)
Chapter 16
7. Work is a _________________.
8. If the input work for a simple machine is 21.0 J, and the
output work is 7.0 J, the efficiency of the engine
is ____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Go to section
3.0%
0.33%
33%
30%
Interest Grabber
Section 16.1
Heat Transfer
Rub sandpaper on a metal bolt. CAUTION: Stop rubbing before
the bolt becomes too hot to handle. Dip the bolt in a cup of cool
water. Note how this affects the bolt’s temperature.
1. Describe the work that you did to add energy to the bolt.
2. What type of energy did this work produce in the bolt?
3. What happened to the
temperature of the bolt after
it was dipped in water?
4. What do you think would
happen to the water
temperature if you repeated
the procedure many times?
Go to section
Reading Strategy
Section 16.1
Previewing
Sample answers:
a. A pitcher of juice
b. Why did Rumford conclude that heat is not a form of matter? (Fig. 1)
c. The brass was hot enough to make water boil only during drilling, so the
heat must be related to the motion of the drill.
d. In which liquid do the particles move faster? (Fig. 2)
e. In the tea
Go to section
Specific Heat
Go to section
Figure 3
Specific Heat
Go to section
Section 16.1
Specific Heat
Go to section
Section 16.1
Specific Heat
Go to section
Section 16.1
Specific Heat
Go to section
Section 16.1
A Calorimeter
Go to section
Figure 3
Interest Grabber
Section 16.2
Temperature and Air Pressure
Blow up a balloon and tie off the end. Fill half a bucket with
ice water. Dip the balloon into the ice water and hold it there
for several minutes. Observe what happens. Remove the
balloon from the bucket and let it sit for several minutes.
Observe what happens.
1. What happened when you
dipped the balloon into the
ice water? Explain why.
2. What happened after the
balloon was removed from
the ice water? Explain why.
Go to section
Reading Strategy
Section 16.2
Building Vocabulary
a. The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of
particles in a fluid
b. Hot air circulates in an oven.
c. The transfer of energy by waves moving through space
d. Heating coil of an electric stove glows.
Go to section
Interest Grabber
Section 16.3
Cooling by Evaporation
When you step out of a swimming pool, you often feel very
cool, even on a warm day. The evaporating water transfers
thermal energy from your skin to the surrounding
environment. Evaporation cools you down while it warms up
your surroundings.
You can feel this by holding your index finger close to your
mouth and blowing on it gently. Then, wet your finger and
blow on it again.
1. How does wetting your finger change the way it feels
when your blow on it?
2. Is there really a difference in the temperature of a wet
and a dry finger when your blow on it? Explain.
Go to section
Reading Strategy
Section 16.3
Sequencing
a. Piston compresses the fuel-air mixture.
b. Ignited mixture expands and pushes the piston.
c. Exhaust gases leave the cylinder.
Go to section
An External Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 11
An External Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 11
An External Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 11
An Internal Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 12
An Internal Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 12
An Internal Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 12
An Internal Combustion
Engine
Go to section
Figure 12
A Hot-Water Heating
System
Go to section
Figure 13
A Hot-Water Heating
System
Go to section
Figure 13
A Hot-Water Heating
System
Go to section
Figure 13
A Forced-Air Heating
System
Go to section
Figure 14
A Forced-Air Heating
System
Go to section
Figure 14
A Forced-Air Heating
System
Go to section
Figure 14
An Air Conditioner
Go to section
Figure 16
An Air Conditioner
Go to section
Figure 16
An Air Conditioner
Go to section
Figure 16
Pretest Answers
Chapter 16
1. True or False: Degrees Celsius and Kelvin are units of
temperature.
2. What kind of energy is released when bonds between atoms are
broken?
chemical energy
3. True or False: Thermal energy is the total potential and kinetic
energy of the microscopic particles in an object.
vaporization
4. The change of state from liquid to gas is called _____________.
Click the mouse button to display the answers.
Pretest Answers
Chapter 16
(continued)
5. Which of the following is the energy of a moving object?
a.
b.
c.
d.
mechanical energy
chemical energy
potential energy
kinetic energy
6. The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed is
known as the law of _______________________.
conservation of energy
Click the mouse button to display the answers.
Pretest Answers
Chapter 16
(continued)
7. Work is a _________________.
transfer of energy
8. If the input work for a simple machine is 21.0 J, and the
output work is 7.0 J, the efficiency of the engine
is ____.
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.0%
0.33%
33%
30%
Click the mouse button to display the answers.
Interest Grabber
Section 16.1
Answers
1. Describe the work that you did to add energy to the bolt.
Energy was added to the bolt by doing work to move the
sandpaper back and forth.
2. What type of energy did this work produce in the bolt?
thermal energy
3. What happened to the temperature of the bolt after it was
dipped in water?
The temperature of the bolt decreased.
4. What do you think would happen to the water temperature if
you repeated the procedure many times?
The water should heat up because thermal energy from the
bolt is transferred to the water.
Interest Grabber
Section 16.2
Answers
1. What happened when you dipped the balloon into the
ice water? Explain why.
The balloon contracted because the lower temperature
decreased the air pressure inside the balloon.
2. What happened after the balloon was removed from
the ice water? Explain why.
The balloon expands back to its original shape because the
temperature has risen, causing the air pressure to increase.
Interest Grabber
Section 16.3
Answers
1. How does wetting your finger change the way it feels when your
blow on it?
A wet finger feels cooler than a dry finger when you blow on it.
2. Is there really a difference in the temperature of a wet and a dry
finger when your blow on it? Explain.
Yes, a wet finger is cooler when your blow on it because the
evaporation of the water transfers thermal energy away from
your finger.
Chapter 16
Go Online
Self-grading assessment
Articles on heat
For links on specific heat, go to www.SciLinks.org and
enter the Web Code as follows: ccn-2161.
For links on thermodynamics, go to www.SciLinks.org
and enter the Web Code as follows: ccn-2162.
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