The purpose of this report is to summarize
in broad outline the mission accomplishments
and the management
of Santa Fe Operations
during the period from
July 1, 1950, through December
31, 1953. The report is not intended to record the full
it is intended to provide
which will serve as a background for understanding
the complex weapons operation.
The body of the report covers three full fiscal years,
to July 1, 1953. The first
the full report and additionally
the major actions of the
next six months to January 1, 1954. To provide
a better perspective,
the 1947-1950 period is included where essential.
It was considered
include a section on management
beyond January 1, 1954, although such projections are indicated where they benefit understanding.
SFO’s first three years of stewardship,
to the programmatic
at Los Alamos.
of weapons activity,
in Los Alamos.
the key importance
during that period of the
of the Los Alamos community.
The present report records
the major expansion of development,
after July 1, 1950. It covers the full period of the Korean
War and almost the full period of the thermonuclear
the full period of continental tests.
expansion of the contractor structure
and the development
of Santa Fe Operations
Office as an operations-wide
and field activity.
In broad outline it covers the period of SF0 building and
expansion and terminates
with a new period of consolidation
and, in some respects,
based on changed national requirements
to a considerable
from SF0 accomplishment.
ration of the report.
and key contractors
to the prepaIn particular,
and printing having been accomplished
by its Document Department.
I -- SUMMARY OF SF0 PROGRESS,
1947 TO 1954
July 1947 to July 1950
July 1950 to July 1953
July 1953 to January 1954
II -- THE WEAPONS MANUFACTURING
Into Field Management
Santa Fe Operations
Development of the Organization Plans for Weapons Operations;
Nuclear Component, High Explosive,
Gun-Type, Missile Warhead
of the Total SF0 Organization
of Field Office,
and Plant Structure
and Storage Achievement
The Nature of LASL Development
Nuclear Field Test Operations
IV -- COMMUNITY
V -- STAFF
in the Sandia Area
AND NATURE OF MISSION PROGRAMS
III -- ACHIEVEMENTS
OF CONTENTS (cant)
Safety and Fire Protection
Qf SF0 Progress,
1947 I0 1954
Santa Fe Operations
its mission assignments
for the period July 1947 to
and utility were develJanuary 1954. Atomic weapons of required
oped, produced and placed in stockpile
New weapons of greater
and approved schedules.
and of at least equal variety
and utility were in development
A major store of other
or were clearly
as a result of research.
such as military
knowledge of great value to other national programs,
was obtained through SF0 or SFO-related
the six and one-half year period encompassed
the A-bomb or fission stage and concluded well beyond the threshold
of the H-bomb or thermonuclear
may refer to the period by its weapons,
of SF0 management
it may well be characterized
as the building period.
extended from the beginning to the essential
of the job of building the organization,
plant, and the basic programs
the final six months,
July 1 through December
1953, were a period of transition.
As of July 1, management
the phase of major stress on organizing
and building to one of major stress on consoliMidway in the period the direction
dating and tidying-up
of the implosion
from added expansion
to major retrenchAs the
ment when the Military
slashed its requirements
for training and for stockpile.
plans for one new high explosives
plant and projected
in facilities at two others had been cancelled and studies were under way to determine
gree of need for the remaining
cutback on implosion
weapons was a military
on thermonuclear weapons.
As the period closed,
plans were under way for achieving
the scheduled production,
durAs in weapons,
the final six months also brought major
was well under way at
in other phases of Santa Fe Operations.
the close of the period to adjust to the changes involved in bringing
Operations Office and the Livermore
into SFO, and to those involved
in concentrating on development
Because of the tremendous
gains made in the past six and one-half
of a large development
SF0 had never before been so ready to meet expanded and urgent national rewithout adequate tools to perform
Starting almost from scratch,
sion, it had forged its tools and at the same time achieved its atomic weapons mission.
Today its organizational
and large plant complex is at once basically
enough to stand the load of increased
and new requirements,
enough to adapt
to changed circumstances.
JULY 1947 TO JULY 1950
Atomic Energy Commission took over responsibility
atomic energy program on January 1, 1947. On July 2 the Offide of Santa Fe Directed
Operations (nowsanta Fe Operations Office) was established to administer the atomic
weapons field program.
Two weeks later, the present Manager of SF00 arrived at Los
Alamos to be the first civilian manager of the project.
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory,
assisted by a small Sandia Branch,
was carrying the major weight of weapons manufacture.
There was some production of
mechanical components at the Army’s Rock Island (Ill. ) Arsenal.
The Salt Wells Pilot
Plant of Naval Ordnance Test Station, Inyokern, California,
was producing high explosives.
There was little participation by private industry.
Two weapons types were
being produced in extremely limited quantity. Units going into stockpile were laboratory-fabricated.
The limited production chain had only one source for each major comThree major modifications
of one Mark weapon were in early development,
The SF00 assignment at the beginning of its operations represented a tremendous
It was required to build the mandatory physical plant and organization,
while at the same time assuring continuous production of weapons, and maintaining basic
and applied research for development of more powerful, more varied, or more efficient
The scope and priority of initial assignment were direct reflections
To build and develop at Los Alamos, the heart of the program,
a community that would be adequate to obtain and to retain the type of personnel
This meant rebuilding and expanding the community.
To provide a climate in which LASL could proceed with its job of basic
nuclear research and development,
and to provide a Technical Area physical
plant adequate for the job.
To organize and supervise an ordnance development,
relieving LASL of these responsibilities.
To expand production and facilities
a continuous flow of component parts.
To evolve an organization
at other sites,
two and one-half peacetime years provided a relatively secure periduring which programs could be adequately
od unhampered by wartime expediencies,
planned and activated.
The value of time for orderly development of a basic SF0 strucIn
ture was underwritten by national and international events near the end of the period.
the Autumnof 1949 Russia tested an atomic weapon,
period into one of increased mission urgency and of “crash” programs.
This was intensified in early 1950 with the decision to go all out on thermonuclear
It was further intensified three days before the end of the reporting period
by the outbreak of the Korean War.
the 1947 to 1950 Period
SF00 planned and began building a vastly expanded plant and organizational
structure large enough to enable Santa Fe Operations
to meet its weapon stockpile
requirements during the period,
enough to provide
for still further expansion
was made an attractive
place to live and a favorable
in which scientists
could work resultfully.
breadth of SF0
was extended from New Mexico to the Atlantic
Coast and westward
to the Marshall
plant was expanded materially,
being costed on July 1, 1950, at
Salton Sea Test Base,
A new plant was built at Burlington,
added to a structure
leased in Kansas City, Missouri;
Atoll was developed
as a permanent
was expanded and modernized;
at Sandia Base; and housing was provided
at Salton Sea, Inyokern,
camp was established.
The large White Rock,
and two were added.
The SF0 field organization
The number of key, operating
was doubled with addition of: Sandia Corporation,
Kansas City; Silas-Mason
(through an Army Ordnance contract),
to build and maintain
to support tests.
Under a new
at Army Ordnance’s
Kansas City, and Los Angeles,
and Rock Island equivalent
to field offices.
were in Los Alamos,
by 1948 and its general
to staff the expanding
was a feature
380 to 1,368,
of whom 1,115
41 at other places,
and 212 in SF00
and design) increased
In order for LASL to concentrate
to Sandia Laboratory
and other LASL responsibilities
duality of source
and to lessen
load on LASL,
and high explosive
for in other AEC and
parts was undertaken
by General Electric
uranium parts by Carbide
nators were fabricated
at Rock Island and at Picatinny
at Kansas City.
and product acceptance
of nuclear and high explosive
components, and carried
heavy test responsibilities.
and product acceptance
of inert components,
and a heavy program
of liaison and training work with. the Military.
of mission operations
in Los Alamos and the key importance of stabilizing
and building the Los Alamos activity,
a major proportion
staff attention was devoted to Los Alamos
throughout the period.
Supervision and contract administration,
outside of Los Alamos,
was conducted almost exclusively
by SF00 Field Offices.
The Office of Production
1948, was the first staff supervisory
to be truly operations-wide.
Two operating functions,
in nature, were also assigned to this office:
and custody of stockpiled
Near the end of the period,
was effected to provide more resources
for Los Alamos
Status of Mission
In many respects
the period was one of
plant and organization-with
the full capacity
in the subsequent three years.
ments for training and War Reserve
of the new resources
as well as supporting
to be felt most strongly
in supporting mission achievement
was the building and
of Los Alamos
community to a point where LASL could obtain and retain
was made toward giving Los Alamos
and helping them to achieve a considerable
of $4,403, 000 to community
was reduced to $1,883,000
A feature of the period was the conduct, as a ship-based
of the first full-scale
nuclear field test series
under the AEC.
in this series
were being reflected
pointing the way to development
of other more flexible
small amount of knowledge obtained from this series
were so immediate that LASL recommended
proving grounds at Eniwetok.
The general and extensive
expansion of production-utilizing
LASL of some production
so that it could concentrate
also in changing weapons production
from a custom-built,
of Sandia Laboratory
to an industrial
to 1947-1950 results but was a major factor in providing
a broad and flexible’basis
for meeting the very heavy requirements
7jle4s‘eardh was continuin&n’~hermonucleai
weapons and, in response%
LASL had activated a “crash” development program in March 1950. New types
projected to meet military desires included a nuclear shell for an artillery rifle.
JULY 1950 TO JULY 1953
During the first three years a basic structure of mission and supporting programs
was built. This preparation paid off heavily during the second three years
when factors such as the Korean War and Russia’s first nuclear tests greatly stimulated
for numbers and varieties of weapons, and when scientific and
in turn presented new possibilities
and brought new requirements.
The need for more capacity to meet approved production schedules and the need for reserve capacity if possible to meet any hot war buildup combined with other necessitysuch as that for new resources
to support the thermonuclear
SF0 amply fulfilled its increased’astremendous expansion and internal development.
signments in weapons manufacture,
enlarged its development and
production plant system; reorganized,
relocated and expanded its management structure; and effected improvements
and operating techniques,
and in costs of supporting and community programs.
During the 1950 to 1953 Period
In reviewing the progress made during the period, it will be helpful to bear in
mind that the field operating structure,
aside from that for weapons development,
built over the years to meet requirements
of implosion weapons manufacture.
The advent of gun-type and of mismanufacture was fully an AEC -SF0 responsibility.
sile warhead programs inserted new factors such as assignment of some development
and of much component production responsibility
to the Military and its direct contractors.
Planners also had to anticipate the probability of success in thermonuclear
development and to consider that manufacturing
would be added on top of requirements for other types and that there would be added variations in the extent of responsibility assigned to AEC or to the Military.
Expansion of the physical plant by $297,000,000
brought the completed investment
Three new research
as of July 1953 to $471,000,000
work in progress.
Rocky Flats between Denver
and production plants were added: Pantex near Amarillo,
Following an exand Boulder, and a Cryogenics Engineering Laboratory at Boulder.
tended site survey, construction
was ready to begin on a Spoon River plant near Macomb,’
had been given to another plant for high explosives production to
round out facilities needed, based on established military requirements.
Six War ReFollowserve storage sites were built and construction of two others was being planned.
ing an extended site survey, the Nevada Proving Grounds was activated and minimum
The Pacific Proving Grounds’ Eniwetok facilities were enlarged and
Bikini Atoll was incorporated
to provide more real estate.
as subsequently modified, for building technical and community facilities were completed or
moved far toward completion at Los Alamos and Sandia. Additional facilities were
built at Kansas City, Burlington, Salton Sea, Inyokern, and Picatinny Arsenal.
Simms Girl’s School building and site in Albuquerque were taken over from Sandia
Laboratory and slightly enlarged for the use of SF00 headquarters.
The SF00 field and contractor organizations grew extensively.
The number of
key, operating contractors
doubled with addition of: Procter & Gamble,
under Army Ordnance contract, to operate Pantex; Dow Chemical Company, to operate
Rocky Flats; Thompson Products Company, to operate Spoon River; Reynolds Electric
at Nevada Proving Grounds;
& Engineering Company, to perform various support services
and the following as part of thermonuclear
National Bureau of Standards,
to operate a research and production facility at Cryogenics
to develop, assemble and test dewar equipment; and American
Car & Foundry, to do production engineering and production at new Albuquerque faciliThe Rock Island project was deactivated,
cancelling this contract with Army Ordties.
nance. SFOOField Offices were established at Burlington (to replace a representative
office), Los Alamos,
Rocky Flats, Pantex, Eniwetok, Las Vegas, and Spoon River.
field office at Los Angeles was replaced by a Branch security office and the representative
were stationed in New
office at Rock Island was deactivated.
The headquarters of SF00 remained in Los Alamos until the Summer of 1951 and
during the period was reorganized
into an operations-wide
staff with assignment of the
-The headquarters was transferred
Los Alamos responsibilities
to a new field office.
to Albuquerque as of June 18, 1951, following survey of various cities located near the
The Ofwith transfer being completed by mid-autumn.
center of Santa Fe Operations,
fice of Test Operations was established and a patent attorney added to the staff.
and physical separation of SF00 headquarters office from Los Alamos
resulted in improved SFO-wide planning, greater coordination
Los Alamos problems,
and more effective staff
SFOO-AEC employees increased from mid-1950’s
1,368 to only 1,624, of whom
352 were in the Albuquerque headquarters office, 144 were assigned to “other places”,
Contract personnel (including operations,
and 1, 128 were in field offices.
maintenance and service,
Los Alamos Constructors,
contract employees at Pantex and Burlington but excluding design and engineering)
Plan for Mission
The 1947 objective of relieving LASL of all.operations
not directly associated
development and testing of the active weapons system was largely accomplished.
LASL retained facilities which could be used for stockpile production of nuclear and high
but was using them only for developmental
and prototype producDetonators were still being shipped from Picatinny
been reached for concluding this practice.
By mid-1952, plans had been completed for a nuclear component organization with
These plans were being activated as the reporting
a sound division of responsibilities.
period ended, timing being largely dependent on activation of operations at Rocky Flats.
The organization centered in LASL as the developmental laboratory and in Rocky Flats
as the production agency, with fabrication continuing at other AEC installations.
Efforts were made in mid-1952 to plan and to activate a system which would divest Sandia Laboratory of production functions and make it primarily an inert component development and design control center, and which would provide a sound centralized control and division of responsibilities
for inert and high explosives production.
Production Agency was to be established with direct operating control over Kansas City,
for inert components,
and what became Spoon River, for high explosives.
high explosives fabrication,
and assembly were to be-centered in the new
The general plan was developed in separate studies by Sandia Corporation,
Bendix, and by an Industry Advisory Panel of top-level industrialists.
of certain functions from Sandia and centralizing inert component production in Kansas
City were being activated in mid-1953.
of the high explosives organizaAs it was being developed,
Kansas City Plant was becoming
tion had not progressed.
the Production Agency for inert component procurement,
The proposal for a centralized agency over both inert and HE production had been
Inyokern remained to some extent the production engineering and prototype
production center, although these functions were scheduled for eventual transfer to the
new Spoon River plant. Inyokern, Burlington, and Pantex would continue to fabricate
HE and have assembly responsibilities.
Much of the relief of Sandia Laboratory
being obtained through the buildup of Kansas City. As the period closed, Sandia was
primarily responsible for research,
design control, and testing of inert
components for which the AEC had responsibility.
The organization built for thermonuclear
development was wholly within SFO.
LASL held responsibility
for the full explosive system and case.
American Car &
Foundry was added to assist LASL with engineering and to produce developmental
Cambridge Corporation and National Bureau of Standards at Boulder
and production of specialized
were added to perform research,
while Herrick Johnston was added as a LASL sub-contractor
build and operate a liquefaction plant at Pacific Proving Grounds.
DevelopA different total organization was developed for gun-type manufacture.
ment of a bomb type was centered in LASL and Sandia, with the Navy participating.
Development of an atomic cannon nuclear shell was a joint LASL-Sandia activity, with
As of July 1, 1953, non-nuclear
design and all nonPicatinny Arsenal participating.
nuclear production were to be transferred to the Armed Forces.
Another and different organizational arrangement was developed for missile
The primary problem peculiar to SF00 was adaptation of existwarhead installations.
ing nuclear weapons as warheads, and this was undertaken by Sandia. After the first
four atomic warhead installations,
for fuzing and arming was transferred
a responsito the Military.
Development of the vehicles,
SFOrs nuclear, HE and inert component debility of the Military and its contractors.
to manufacture the atomic warvelopment and production system continued, of course,
The development of organizations for the conduct of full-scale
nuclear field tests
Following the pattern for 1948’s Sandstone
was largely perfected during the period.
certain planning and preparation
of SFO, with control during the operational
period passing to a military
as executive agent for DOD and AEC.
The task group charged with mission--or
phases of operations for both series was headed by the Director,
and was staffed by SF0 laboratories
and tp some extent by other AEC headquarters
Three other task groups represented
A fifth is to be added for Operation Castle,
for the support given by SF00 and contractor
on the other hand, been commanded
by the Manager,
the very keen
for safe as well as successful
conduct from which the AEC could not be
The Manager in his capacity as Test Manager has been executive
for the AEC, DOD, and other participating
The Test Organization
stages before it reached apparent maturity
in the structure
Spring 1953 series,
many of the changes reflecting
there are Deputy Managers
As now organized,
and Support Operations
defined areas of responsibility.
As indicated previously,
the major development
was the physical
from direct handling of Los Alamos community
with consequent development
toward an operations-wide,
more truly staff type of
of defining and of refining headquarters
and field office programs
continued during the period.
There was constant effort to separate
staff (both headfrom such activity
and field office) from “doing the job” by withdrawal
by SF00 was
dictated in certain instances by responsibility
which might not be delegated,
that for control and custody of fissionable
and in other instances by security
or policy controls,
such as for some phases of public information
which did not incorporate provision
below the Operations
towhich are strict protection
of classiward the dual objectives
Security and Information
lagged then with too much protection
being given to nonDuring the past three years,
(in the broad sense of all data).
has been achieved of the four programs’
duality of mission
The result has been a sharper
and a narintegration
of attitude and effort.
rower total area requiring
and the result has
also been a much broader
area of information
the costs and effort of protection and which could be made publicly available.
It was estimated
that SF0 originated
each year 15,000, 000 classified
More than 1, 500 formal,
were made by the SF0 Classification
staffed the overseas
Joint Task Forces
during the three years.
and the Nevada Test Organization;
assisted in revision
of guides for the weapons
gaining Armed Forces
and AEC approval;
guides for contractors
consisting largely of SF0 contractor personnel,
made two major recommendations inthe interest of reduced security costs without weakening national security: (1) Recognition that no security is involved in approximate yield of nuclear
detonations in Nevada; and, (2) application of the reactor field’s “black box” idea to
those items of nuclear weapons which are clearly of a military and not AEC nature.
A field classification
board was established at Sandia in addition to the one at LASL.
highly centralized and is performed for SF0 by
an Assistant Director,
LASL, advised by Senior and Responsible Reviewers (the latter
at LASL and Sandia) and by field classification
The normal tendency to overclassify has been materially reduced and a continuing program to review classified
material for downgrading or declassification
has been continued.
Formal declassification was accomplished
during the three years on 585 items from LASL and 16 from
Sandia. Publication of “The Effects of Atomic Weapons” and release of information
in the Rosenberg-Greenglass
cases opened a fairly large field of information which
could be considered for declassification.
program stabilization was achieved while planning and activating
“crash” basis expansion.
To provide coordinated service over a wide geographic area,
security offices were established in New York and in Los Angeles.
As of July 1953,
SF00 had security responsibility
in 423 security facilities,
25 per cent of the entire
A key achievement was segregation of staff and operating functions,
with the Office of Security providing over-all direction and with SF00 Field Offices
tending more toward local administration and less toward operations.
installation guarding was being performed by contractor employees (or the Military)
at all points except Los Alamos.
Particular SF00 emphasis was placed on continuous
review, evaluation, and coordination of security programs and measures throughout
SFO. Careful analysis and action made possible a reduction of more than 50 per cent
in ratip of guards to total Q-cleared
work force at major SF0 installations,
figure having been one to seven and the mid-1953 figure one to seventeen.
in size of limited access areas and institution of various personnel security safeguards
permitted a 3,750 reduction in number of Q-clearances
in fiscal 1953 as
compared with 1952. Two permanent panels of Personnel Security Board members
were set up in 1950 to assist in administrative review of personnel clearance cases.
Document control measures were intensified.
Classified documents on hand June 30,
1953, totaled 53,000,OOO with unaccounted-for
documents totaling 840.
There was a heavy, continuing output of classified reports,
primarily by LASL
and Sandia, with efforts being made to prepare them in a form not containing critical
weapon data and so permitting wider classified distribution.
LASL formed a Weapons
Test Report section to replace special groups previously organized for each test series
and to provide centralized and uniform handling, with 275 such reports issued prior to
In addition to the requirement for technical reports,
Sandia also had a
heavy requirement for preparation of training manuals for the
LASL and Sandia issued 493 formal, nonclassified
reports on scientific and techThere was a continuing flow of unclassified
renological subjects during the period.
from UCLA’s medical school.
The AEC Industrial Information sub-program
activated in 1952 was only partially
activated within SFO, although there was a continuing stream of information actually
falling in this category,
particularly from Sandia, LASL, and some from Holmes and
Narver . This program is essentially a part of scientific
and technical information,
but stresses digging out and facilitating dissemination of data with possible interest
to U. S. technology and to industrial management.
One SF00 and two contractor representatives served on the AEC Industrial Information Committee.
Public information prior to mid-1950 was almost exclusively
a Los Alamos project and a community relations activity.
Local Los Alamos management decision during a reduction-in-force
in mid-1952 cancelled all LAFO information positions, necessarily curtailing the previous effective and planned program to inform the community
of management actions.
A heavy planning and work load was assigned SF00 Information
in late December 1950, with advent of continental tests and subsequent direction,
staffing and operation of the multiple-agency
Test Information Office.
The period’s assignments included planning and conducting the announcement of all new major installations
and developing limited information activity for former installations which were publicly
acknowledged as AEC facilities.
Public information was characterized
during the period by: (1) Very major expansion of activity without any addition to personnel; (2) full
protection of classification
while releasing a greatly-increased
total of nonclassified
information; and (3) developing the information function as an integral part of SF00
ters which are
Attorney was added to the SF00 headquarters staff in mid-1952 with
except for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory matassigned to a Los Alamos Patent Group. A Sandia Patent Group was
During the period, SF00 opened 162 patent dockets on proband filed 49 patent applications.
A wide range of activity was -conducted during the period reflecting the legal
problems arising from SF0 expansion of its physical plant and its contractor organization. A procedure was developed and authorization obtained for prompt investigation
and payment of limited claims resulting from continental tests, and a statute drafted
under which there would be unquestioned authority to pay such claims up to $5,000.
act of the California Legislature was obtained returning to Sandia employees $399,751.49
paid by the AJX through the University of California to the California State Employees
Thirty lump-sum contractor appeals totaling more than $500,000
were handled for SFOO, and 20 others totaling more than $200,000 were pending.
problems related to the failure of construction contractors
The expanded scope and increased pace of-full-scale
field testing put an extremely
heavy burden on various headquarters offices and on J-Division of LASL during 1951.
A staff office was activated early in 1952 to administer AEX-SF00
including various contracts and inter-agency
memoranda of agreement,
and to coordiOffice personnel also participated actively
nate participation by DOD and other agencies.
in the management of two subsequent continental and one overseas series.
of the office embraced a wide range of staff programming
and control functions and, in storage,
an active field operation
119 of the office’s
Its various activities
of weapons manufacture
in technical studies, procurement
and planning of objectives;
budgets; and control and supervision
source and fissionable
added in 1952 to plan and direct negotiation
and to assist in administration
of prime operating contracts.
SF0 in mid-1952
and found a “tremendous improvement”
in five years.
of field operations
effected during the period,
of the staff program
as one for planning, educating,
injury and disease rates decreased by more than 54 per cent during the three-year
SF0 are now believed
immune to fire disaster.
fire loss record experience
for the last three years was $0.0011 as compared
with the national
of $0.15 per $100 evaluation.
Supply and Procurement
These two functions were consolidated
under one staff division in mid-1951.
of the Contract Review Board with a fulltime
in an effective
for adequate negotiations
in all negotiators,
of contract files,
in contract terminology
and in basic provisions,
a point for discerning
for later crystallization
in SF00 contract policy.
added in April 1952, performed
of SF0 cost-type
and of direct AEC operations.
was placed on development
of sound and comprehensive procedures
to examine effectively
and disposal operations
of those responsible
for the care and
Results have included a considerable
advance in concustody of government
trol of materials,
of excess stocks available
for surplus sale, and more efficient
During the Korean War a special
group was formed to expedite scarce material
and no essential
activity in SF0 was prevented
because of inability to obtain required
was greatly accelerated
ment, or supplies.
continuing stress on ample protection
of AEC interests
but with parallel
stress on destruction of administrative
with no enduring value.
This was a very major SF0 program
throughout the first six years as shown by the
With the peak of construction
well past there
on physical plant buildup.
in stress for
was a decline in stress on engineering
and field offices
not only to construction but also to real estate,
budget staffs have been strengthened
since 1950 and noticeable
improvement in budget submissions
Major effort was devoted to budget methods and
A major future requirement
is to develop more meaningful
standards and reports.
was expanded to include a production
or unit cost system making it possible for the first time to determine
cost of weapons and weapon components
and to bill AFSWP
with a reasonably
It also provided
a basis for comparing
costs of contractors
work and for supporting budget requests.
The audit procedure
was greatly improved,
substituted for detail examinations.
Better audits at reduced man-hour
to SF0 increased
from the fiscal year 1948 low of $117,000,000
a fiscal 1952 peak of $335,000,000.
through fiscal 1953 were
$1, 402,629, 986.
of making operational
and expense controls
economy the basic determinant
was put on definition of those supervisory
of the staff from field
was refined to assure employees
was continued experimentation
and study of the utility of objective
Emphasis was put on realistic
hiring plans, correcting
and to be too optimistic
on early hiring dates.
SF00 initiated the idea of a job evaluation
system based on factor analysis and
activity to develop the present AEC system,
undertook the first trial application
of the tentative system.
to the new job
of 1,539 posievaluation
system was accomplished
by June 21, 1953, following
tions of which 83 were revised
upward in grade and 471 revised
A major problem during the period was to determine
the grades of inspectors
on the Los Alamos Protective Force and then to achieve a majority’s
to help those who were not
to find other jobs, and to act on a large number of individual
sought to halt the downgrading
by appeals to national officials
and to the
public featuring charges
that Los Alamos security
and AEC field investigations
All questions raised by other inspectors
As the reporting
sonnel; and (3) develop
period ended, studies or other actions were in pro
and develop key perresponsibilities
to field offices;
review approach to evaluation
was by Sandia Corporation
having been transferred
on June 30, 1950.
were to be increased
33.5 per cent August 1. There were an estimated
July 1, 1953.
This was changed
into an excess
over cost the next year and for fiscal
1953 the community
grew from 1947’s 7,150 to 12, 700, with some 13,000 projected as the eventual
1948 was completed
except for replacement
housing which was to begin in
of $1, 883, 000 into a net return to the government
of $127, 700 for 1953.
had been considered
as the three-year
Housing rental rates were adjusted,
5 per cent increase,
rates were revised.
The Scurry Panel reported
and home ownership
would not be possible
in the foreseeable
future at Los Alamos,
but should be considered
as ultimate goals.
was one of very major mission
had always been wide ranges in yield and in size-and-weight
to permit the Military
to select bombs appropriate
to the target and to the available
vehicle, with reduction
to the hlilitary
of using a wide variety
to carry bombs and of gaining greater
range of action
through load reduction.
prior to mid-1953.
in use of fissionable
and at the
same time provided
a very great flexibility.
-.- - __
by direct AEC employees
at all SF0 final assembly
than Rocky Flats.
team, with three atomic
As of July
1953, 41 new weapons
were under way.
had been made on atomic missiles
by an AECinstallations
the stage of production
and 6 major
of the full period
was, of course,
test in the
began in March 1950.
of 1951 determined
that a fission
weapon would produce
enough heat to initiate a
At an Ivy test in the Autumn of 1952 a
The progress made in development and in stockpiled weapons during the period
would have been impossible
without the rate of full-scale
nuclear testing maintained from
1951 through the Spring of 1953. Four series,
totaling 31 detonations,
were held in Nevada.
totaling 6 shots, were held in the Pacific.
JULY 1953 TO JANUARY
This was a period of accelerated
transition from the six-year organizing and building
phase toward a tidied-up,
controlled manufacturing operation.
It proved also to be a period
of major transition in weapons requirements
from implosion to thermonuclear
with resulting impact on Santa Fe Operations.
Decisions were reached or actions were taken which
materially affected various phases of the operation.
The major developments of the period
are summarized here.
Operation of five high explosives production facilities at three locations had been
planned to meet implosion weapon requirements.
By July 1, 1953, this had been “firmed
up”, and it was planned to complete Spoon River and to expand Pantex and Burlington.
August future production directive made it fairly clear that it would be necessary
to complete Spoon River or expand Burlington and Pantex materially.
SF00 defended completion
of Spoon River both for strategic dispersion and for providing desirable excess capacity
for wartime production.
In early November the Commission
cancelled Spoon River, and
it was explained that expenditure of $6,000,000
for expansion at Burlington and Pantex
would provide sufficient capacity and save perhaps $32,000, 000 at Spoon River.
In December it was made known that military requirements
for implosion weapon production
had been cut drastically
in anticipation of thermonuclear
These decisions reversed the constant expansion since 1947 of the implosion production system
and major readjustments
and analysis of military requirements
reduced still further
As a result a study was in progress
at year end
the figures for high explosives production.
to determine the need for Inyokern, Burlington, and Pantex with a very real possibility
that only one plant (or low production at two plants) would be needed.
There was no change in the established requirement
for meeting only approximately
The schedule had provided,
This was subsequently increased to two-thirds,
third of the 100 per cent figure.
paralleling the high explosives
was placed at 100 per cent.
in the thermonuclear
field was, of course,
Spoon River Plant
The former site of Camp Ellis had been selected.
Recalling the impact on their communities of the quick buildup and quick deactivation of Ellis, the Illinois region was lukeAssured that the plant would bring the same advantages
warm or cold to the AEC project.
as a major industrial plant and that as far as could be foreseen it would be fairly permanent, the nearby communities swung around to full support.
The decision to cancel was
fortunately taken before. there had been major community investments,
but it was nonetheless a serious blow to a depressed region.
Residents and their leaders accepted the
AEC explanation that cancellation was dictated by technical developments
making it possible to avoid a multimillion-dollar
outlay of Federal funds, Bnd there was only minor continuing criticism.
After the most extensive selection procedure in SFOci history, Thompson
Products Company of Cleveland had been selected as the operator.
Cancellation was a serious disappointment to Thompson management and to the personnel selected or in process
of being selected for assignment to Illinois.
The Management Plan proposal of mid-1952 had drawn attention to the position of
Army Ordnance as a management middleman in the Burlington and Pantex pictures,
distinguished from Ordnance’s position as a producer at Picatinny (Army) and Inyokern
During the planning stages of Spoon River, this question of AEC, of AEC-throughOrdnance, or of Ordnance contract management was discussed on numerous occasions.
The AEC decision was that Spoon River would be a direct AEC operation,
but no final decision as to Burlington and Pantex was made known. Partially as a result of the changes
in weapons requirements
late in the year, it was determined that a new agreement would
be negotiated with Army Ordnance providing for a reduction in on-the- site, SFOO-AEC
management and contract administration and an increase in Ordnance responsibilities.
As this agreement was shaping up, it would provide that AEC would retain responsibility
for funding, scheduling,
and product inspection, with Ordnance conforming otherwise to
AEC policies and procedures
such as those on security and on information.
Planning went forward for the transitio; from thermonuclear
development to development-and-production.
The organization plan developed during the 1950-1953 period to
support LASL development provided the essentials for the future.
As the year ended,
developplanning foresaw the outlines of the organization as being: LASL and Livermore,
ment of the full explosive system; Sandia, development of case and fuzing, with related
operations; American Car & Foundry, somewhat as a Production Agency for heavy case
components and supported by various sub-contractors;
research and production of materials; and Cambridge Corporation,
engineering and production in the dewar field.
of Los Alamos
Initiated as a program even prior to 1947, this objective was almost entirely attained
during the six months with the full activation of Rocky Flats.
The only function in this
category still being performed at LASL as the year ended was on-site receipt and inspection of Picatinny detonators.
Rocky Flats Plant
Construction was started July 28, 1951, and completed September 25, 1953, final
estimated completion cost being $43,419,000
with the original cost estimate
The plant went into operation as various facilities
were completed but
i’s considered to have gone into full operation in the Autumnof 1953. Dow Chemical ComField office personnel totaled 22 December
31, and Dow employees
pany is the operator.
totaled 1, 063.
of San Francisco
The AEC established in June 1952, a weapons laboratory on the site of a former Navy
facility at Livermore,
contracting with University of California for its operation. The site was also utilized for non-weapons developmental work under contract with
the California Research and Development Company, a subsidiary of Standard Oil Company
employment approximated Q500 at year end. On September 15,
1952, the AEC activated an Operations Office in San Francisco
(replacing an Area Office)
to administer weapons, biology and medicine, reactor development,
and physical science
contracts with the University of California and its Radiation Laboratory,
Research and Development,
and with others.
Late in December it was determined that,
effective January 1, 1954, San Francisco Operations Office would be transferred
becoming a field office to administer weapons dontracts for SF00 and other contracts.
As of December 31, 1953, San Francisco Operations Office had a total of 123 personnel.
The Spring 1953 test series was accompanied by new levels of radioactive
nearby communities and by considerable public outcry resulting primarily from fear of
fallout rather than fact and from a mistaken belief that Nevada tests caused bad weather.
Inclusion of the eleventh shot in the series also made it possible to postpone a series
scheduled for the Fall of 1953.
As a result, it was determined that the.AEC would not proceed with construction
at NPG or with planning for further NPG utilization until the Commission had re-examined
the question of public hazard and determined whether continental
tests would be continued.
in its members and advisors the various agencies which
participate and the more critical fields such as radiation and weather, was activated in
It determined that its assignment was to review the full experience of four series;
to re-evaluate the values and economies of continental testing; to establish future requirements if weapons progress
were to continue; and to arrive, in short, at whether tests of
value to the national weapons-related
programs could be conducted while assuring an
adequate level of public safety.
The Committee was able by October to file an interim report recommending
continental site be continued in use: Its studies continued throughout the Autumn with further
exploration of improvements
believed possible in obtaining pre-shot knowledge of post- shot
By January 1, the final report was being coordinated prior to being forwarded to the
In its final form the report recommended
the standards and actions required
to support and to permit continental operation of major value to weapons programs
assuring what it believed to be an adequate level of safety.
During this period,
tion in 1951.
NPG was almost fully inactive
for the first time since its activa0
Near the close of the Spring 1953 series it was reported that horses,
number of cattle, and large numbers of sheep has been damaged or killed by radiation exIt was soon deterExtended field and laboratory investigations
mined that horses grazing very close to NPG had suffered beta burns and settlement for
ownersl losses was reached.
It was also determined
that cattle had perhaps suffered from
drouth but had received
only minor radiation exposure if any.
Late in the year the investigation had reached a point where it was concluded that radiation exposure
had not contributed to the deaths of she’ep.
interest for future test operations
was the negotiation
ment under which the United States Public Health Service
up to some 300 miles from NPG.
of an agreeheavily in off-
During the Committee’s
it was brought out that permitting
public groups to visit the site during non-operating
would advance public relations
SF00 was advised that public individuals
could be shown the site
and this authorization
was extended by SF00 to include small groups whose visit would be
As a result of these developments,
SF00 later reported
that it was feasiof direct value.
ble to permit one-day-a-week
public tours at very small cost in money or effort,
to be Released
of a previous
with the Military
with the intent of early relief of SFOO-AEC
from its assigned
safety and security
of the Trinity
site used in 1945.
plant, including equipment,
$39, 320, 000.
work in progress
as the year
on July 1 to
179 in other’places,
and 1, 057 in field
31, 1953, divided 336 in headOperating
A section of Chapter V reports the activation
by the Los Alamos
in June of an employer
to reach conclusions
on the necessity
for continued access controls on the Los Alamos
and on permitting
Dr. Ralph Carlisle
Chief, AEC Community
C. King, LAFO counsel;
and H. Frank Brown, vice president
of the Zia Company.
In its report to the Field Manager,
it included the following:
basis for closing the community
has changed radically
a. The security
and of the Technical
and is disappearing.
Area is being maintained
despite the adjacent location of 13, 000 community
100,000 business and social visitors
of access controls is expensive,
a nuisance to-the private lives of residents
and the business operations
to a “normal”
Although some residents
may enjoy the privacy,accompanying
this does not justify continuance
of such controls.
d. Control over access should be removed
the need for time to plan and introduce
routing and regulations,
fected by the absence of controls.
as soon as possible,
rechanges in community
which will be af-
2, 1953, SF00 forwarded
the full report to AEC and recommended
decision to remove access controls
some time within fiscal year 1955 but no later than
June 30, 1955. The action would remove restrictions
into and out of the
such as requirements
for resident and visitor
passes and the system of seThere would be no relaxation
curity checks on all highways and at the airport.
over access to, or of other procedures
the Los Alamos Scientific
No decision was reached on provision
of a portion of land for sale to or longterm
or to business concessionaires
Study of the desirability of such action was to continue.
from the field of authority for taking information
action to support
field mission operations,
which had been progressive
since 1950, was accelerated
the six months by two limiting
and a series
of AEC staff supplements
The impact on SF0 contractor-field
the one-time philosophy
of fullest possible
Of key importance
was the determination
and that action on nonclassified
does not permit public release,
must be reviewed’at
the Washington level for sensitivity
and policy before it may be used
In addition to the negotiation
of an operating
which was well under way when the Spoon River plant was cancelled,
conducted or participated
in other major contract negotiations
during the six months.
fee formula was negotiated
with Dow Chemical
Company for Rocky Flats operation.
of a three-year
extension to the Bendix contract for operation
of the Kansas City
plant was well under way by January 1.
The Sandia Corporation
contract for operation
of Sandia Laboratory
was to expire
31, but was extended four months to permit further negotiation.
cussion was by Sandia Corporation
and SF00 with further negotiation
was conducted on a
and AEC- Washington officials.
Car & Foundry covering
work at the Albuquerque
It had been estimated
that SF0 originated
each year 15,000,OOO classified documents and that the total number existing as of mid-1953 approximated
15, 1953, eliminating
the lowest classification
It was estimated
had a major effect in reducing these’totals.
in 1953 that the total of classified
documents in SF0 approximated
18, OOb, 000 and that approximately
4, 000, 000 were being produced annually.
Status of Mission
By the year’s
end only implosion
weapons were being produced for stockpile,
of gun-type weapons had fulfilled
with national directives.
prior to December
31. There were no programs
formal weapons programs
way for major modifications
were under way.
* The Weapons
its primary missions of adding to the store of knowledge on the use
of atomic energy for weapons and of delivering finished atomic weapons to stockpile,
operates in five broad areas:
research and development,
Two broad categories
of components make up the final
The explosive system (fissile and conventional)
and the inert system (fuzing and
Prior to July 1953, two general types of weapons were manufactured for stockpile:
Implosion and gun, with the thermonuclear
type still in the pre-stockpile-production
The technical and operating functions are performed almost wholly by contractors.
extensive organization of key, operating contractors
is in turn supported by thousands of
contracts with governmental,
and private enterprise agencies which furnish
Government support and superscientific,
and supply services.
vision are provided by a direct AEC organization in headquarters
and field offices.
The initial three years of AEC stewardship were described as a period of building a
and physical structure to match the developing programs.
During the next three years the structure
1947, Los Alamos was the weapons organization.
at Los Alamos was revised and strengthened,
were established elsewhere.
In July 1950, it was projected that the basic structure was
that only minor future expansion would be required.
and the changes in program requirements
which developed after that
date, the three years from 1950 to 1953 were in fact marked by major changes and expansions in the Santa Fe Operations organization-headquarters,
field, and contractor-and
in the physical plant.
This section presents an oversimplified
picture of the development of philosophy,
and plan of operations during six years from mid-1947 to mid-1953.
It presents.the key details of office and contractor location, physical plant, missions,
In order to show the full scope, a summary of the related Armed Forces
organization is also presented.
ENTERING INTO FIELD MANAGEMENT
The mission assignment of SF0 has remained unchanged, including research,
development, testing, production,
and custody of nuclear weapons.
The scope has been materially
expanded, for instance requiring organizational variations to cover implosion-type.
guntype, and thermonuclear
A development in June 1952, was activation of Livermore
Branch, University of- California Radiation Laboratory,
as a weapons development installation reporting to a new Operations Office at San Francisco.
The new laboratory uses SF0
those at LASL, Sandia, Inyokern, and the two proving grounds, and
with Los Alamos and with Santa Fe Operations
but it reports to-AEC staff divisions
Full field responsibility
of mission assignments
continues to rest
with the Manager,
full field authority
in 1947, in keeping with
the original philosophy
of full decentralization,
has been progressively
with an apparent swing toward a philosophy
have not been expressed
in a redefinition
after late 1950.
but in a series of actions each of which removed
the control of some aspect of day-to-day
and placed it with a Washington
There have been two major changes since 1947 affecting
the line of command through
which the Commission
directs the field program.
In 194’7, the Manager,
the General Manager,
the chief executive
with the Division
in the position of a staff division;
1948, the General
the swing to centralization
of SF0 to the Director,
became apparent in 1950 there has been an intensification
of direct control exercised
staff offices over counterpart
phases of field operation,
not through the command channel but directly
philosophy of AEC operation
being that the
maximum degree of operations
and supply will be performed
through contract with private
of the philosophy
in SF0 has been reviewed
with regard to the Zia and the University
Los Alamos and on occasion with regard to operation
by the Military.
In keeping with this philosophy,
SFOO’s plan of management
has been to retain final field
policy and regulatory
are assigned by SF00 to its contractors
to utilize to the fullest extent possible
To the fullest extent possible,
is also delegated
Staff functions are retained by the Operaby SF00 to its field offices and to its contractors.
functions Office headquarters
and field office organization.
tions are delegated.
Prior to 1947, the Manhattan Engineer
managed and operated the nuclear
From January 1,
weapons field organization
which was largely
in Los Alamos.
1947, when the newly-created
Atomic Energy Commission
took over responsibility
atomic energy program,
until July 1947 the Military
continued to provide
On July 2, the AEC established
the Office of Santa Fe Directed
(now known as Santa Fe Operations
Office) to conduct the weapons program.
the first direct AEC Manager.
L. Tyler arrived
at Los Alamos,
There have been numerous
reOne of his immediate
jobs was to organize
since, but the general outline of the staff formed by late 1948 has remained
Near the end of the first
constant, changes largely
new areas of key interest.
the Santa Fe Operations
start toward providing,
on the one hand, an operations-wide
and, on the
other, a more clearly-defined
of the Los Alamos
At the start of the present reporting period, July 1950, SF0 headquarters was still
It was then decided that reorganization
and physical separation of SF0
at Los Alamos.
headquarters office from Los Alamos to another geographic location was desirable for several reasons:
(a) ,Shortage of housing at Los Alamos; (b) rapid and widespread -addition of
SF0 facilities outside of Los Alamos; (c) increased demand on the SF00 staff for supervision
and coordination of programs extending beyond the Los Alamos area; and, (dl expansion in the
and stockpiling programs.
chosen as the location, and the former
Simms Girl’s School (then occupied by Sandia Laboratory personnel) was selected as the site.
Albuquerque was selected after a survey of several cities because residential facilities were
obtainable, major AEC and military installations were located there and contact with Los
Alamos would not be difficult, and there was fair transportation to other SF0 geographic
SF00 was formally established at the Albuquerque location on June 18, 1951, and
movement of approximately
300 employees was effected between August and October.
staff offices and divisions at Los Alamos were transferred to Albuquerque.
Also on June 18,
1951, the Los Alamos Field Office was created to take care of AEC interests at Los Alamos,
and to it was transferred
the Office of Community Management.
LAFO became administrator for all phases, except program assumptions or changes thereto, of the Los Alamos
‘Scientific Laboratory contract.
and physical separation of SF0 headquarters
office from Los
Alamos has resulted in improved SFO-wide planning, greater coordination and integration,
more concentrated attention on local Los Alamos problems,
and more effective staff utilization.
The development of the present SF00 headquarters and field staff is indicated in the
SF00 Organization Chart 1950-1953.”
It is not fully descriptive. As of July 1953, SF00 had personnel assigned to numerous stockpile locations; had
branch security offices in New York and in Los Angeles; had representatives
Inyokern, Salton Sea, and Picatinny Arsenal; and had resident auditors stationed in Kansas
City, Los Alamos, Los Angeles, and Rocky Flats.
The staff Office of Test Operations was established on December 26, 1951, reflecting
The Office of Patent
the need which had developed during 1951 and which would continue.
Attorney was established on June 15, 1952, with transfer of the SFO-wide responsibility
Not shown on the accompanying chart are several technical
from the LASL Patent Attorney.
staff functions, which have from the start been accomplished
by technical contractor perThe Director,
LASL, is in
sonnel as direct staff assistants to the Operations Manager.
effect technical staff officer and additionally head of the SF0 programs of classification
functions which he delegates to his Assistant Director for Classification
There have been continuing changes throughout the past three years in key staff perIn anticipation of the move to Albuquerque,
George P. Kraker, then Sandia Field
Present perManager, was transferred
to a new position as Deputy Operations Manager.
sonnel are noted in accompanying illustrations.
9lnw JunI so,1990
SECURIT’I bnctCn9 h
LOI [email protected] SaWl~, lbaxh,
SF00 Olhr. 0‘ SHwll”
TA FE OPERATIONS
Carroll L. Tyler
George P. Kraker
Chester G. Brim2
Assistant General counrre1
Richard 0. Elliott
Laddie W. Gtoski
Santa Fe Cqzrations
Organization & Personnel Division
Paul w. Ager
Dudley W. Kbq
Office of Production
Safety h Fire Protection
Office of Security
OffIce of Test Operations
Ralph C. Smith
SF0 FIELD OFFICE MANAGERS
E. W. Giles
Paul W. Spain
James C. Stowers
Burlington Field Office
Eniwetok Field Office
Kansas City Field Office
Seth R. Woodruff,
La.6Vegas Field Office
Gilbert C. Hoover
Rocky Flats Field Office
Frank C. MLuzio
Los Alamos Field Office
Daniel F. Worth,
Sandia Field Office
Pantex Field Office
Wtlliam A. Curtis
Spoon River Field Office
Following a detailed review of the SF00 management operation,
assisted by a committee of industrial experts, a plan for the manufacture of implosion-type
weapons was proAccompanying
posed by SF0 in September 1952. This is discussed in a following section.
it was a proposal that reorganization
of the SF00 headquarters staff be undertaken to reflect
more adequately the scope of 1952 operations and to anticipate requirements
It was projected that the reorganstaff services to match the projected program expansions.
ization would begin with assignment of three Assistant Managers,
one each for operations,.
for weapons development and production,
and for administration.
Most recently the addition of an Assistant Manager
the proposal have since been considered.
Various staff and field offices would report to
for storage operations has been proposed.
It was planned that Information,
Security, and the Assistant
each Assistant Manager.
The scope of the Santa Fe Operations
General Counsel would report directly to the Manager.
activity today will probably require activation of some form of the proposed plan.
A few contracts and several inter-agency
agreements are administered
SFOO. Two contracts are assigned to SF00 by Division of Biology and Medicine solely for
one being with the Lovelace Foundation for Medical Research and
and the other being with University of California in Los Angeles.
Office of Test Operations administers a contract with Edgerton,
and with Vitro Corporation
of America for test refor test-supporting
The test office and the Office of Production Coordination
lated (DBM) instrumentation.
The Carco contract for aircraft service is
administer various inter-agency
For all other operating contracts,
field office managers
handled through Supply Division.
are contract representatives.
EXPANSION OF THE TOTAL SF0 ORGANIZATION
The following comparisons
indicate the development of the field SF00 and contractor
organization and of the physical plant. Date columns are approximately
July 1 for the year
Univ. of California
The Zia Company
Army (Rock, Island)
Univ. of California
,The Zia Company
Army (Rock Island)
Bendix Aviation Corp.
Holmes & Narver
Not including architect, engineering,
nor Nevada service contracts.
Univ. of California
The Zia Company
Bendix Aviation Corp.
Dow Chemical Co.
Thompson Products Co.
American Car & Foundry
N. B. S. Cryogenics
Engineering Co. Inc.
t 454 Los Alamos
research and development;
design and engineering; and maintenance and service.
of tote1 --Includ,=d
In ,~bo~c borhcnd.
4 at Kansas
2 at Dayton,
2 at New York,
St Los Angeles,
4 at Los An~eles,
3 nt Chins Lake.
I6 nt Los An#cles,
Santa Fe Operetlons
OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL
LASL of Inert Development,
In 1947, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory was the developer,
tester, and producer of
atomic weapons with a very small total of inert component assembly being performed at its
Los Alamos was then performing a considerable
total of management functions, all technical functions, nearly all production functions, field testing, and was providing both quality assurance and stockpile surveillance.
An immediate objective was to stabilize and strengthen the Los Alamos activity, in
Los Alamos of all possible functions not associated directly with its essential mission of explosive system research and development.
this objective had
been almost entirely accomplished,
with transfers of responsibility
part by relieving
For nuclear component fabrication and assembly,
to a complex
AEC and SF0 installations ‘centering in Rocky Flats plant.
For high explosives
to other SF0 plants.
to a military
For inert component research,
testing, fabrication and
to SF0 and an industrial complex centering in Sandia Laboratory.
to Sandia Laboratory
For some phases of test responsibilities,
under LASL standards.
to Sandia, SF00
plans had been completed for a sound nuclear component organization
centering in Los Alamos as the developmental laboratory
and in Rocky Flats as the production agency.
These plans were activated as Rocky Flats became operational.
to meet implosion-type
the organization could serve equally for gun-type
I . 9,
It was obvious in late 1951 that other, non-nuclear
operations were not
Sandia Laboratory was-in much the same position as LASL had been a few
being so heavily loaded with production and production-related
that it could not concentrate on research and development.
Los Alamos was still
spending too much time on supervision and inspection of high explosives production.
most simplified chart of the production organization was a very complex maze of lines.
_ . _-
_ - .-. .~- . .. .___,_ .- --_____-_ __ --
- _ --
S&O is essentially an industrial manufacturing operation,
although unique in important
aspects such as the major stress on research and development.
Private industry was asked
to help make an objective appraisal.
An Industry Advisory Panel was formed early in 1952
including: 0. E. Hunt, retired executive vice president of General Motors; Frank Newbury,
retired vice president of Westinghouse;
and Theodore C. Gerber, -Manager of Wabash Ordnance plant for Olin Industries.
The Panel was given SFOG*s thoughts:
LASL has been divested of production operations,
and this has proved
A nuclear production organization,
with Rocky Flats as the agency,
is being activated.
The philosophy developed and now being activated is sound.
The basic framework is capable and flexible.
setup for field tests is largely
division of staff, technical,
and other functions.
adequate with satisfactory
Transfer of technical and production functions for inert components to
Sandia was a major step in promoting LASL efficiency,
but we now face at Sandia
much the same problem.
Sandia is carrying too big a responsibility
in the general field of production.
Today’s operations are proceeding adequately,
but this load raises serious questions of adaptability and flexibility for handling
known future assignments.
“Are we on the right track in proWe are unable to answer the question:
duction of high explosive and related components,
and of inert components?”
from the LASL-Rocky
Flats solution we incline
We feel we are not. Proceeding
of inert component production in a single agency.
The study determined that the structure for development and production of non-nuclear
weapons had one characteristic:
A high fence dividing organizations
working on HE systems
from organizations working on inert fuzing, firing, delivery,
and storage systems.
found, for instance, that man-month expenditures by LASL personnel at Inyokern, Burlington,
and Pantex working on production problems in getting two HE systems into production were
very high and much of this valuable time should have been devoted to new development.
There was similar diversion of development effort from Sandia to help Kansas City and the
HE plants get started on processing
two weapons’ components.
The Panel concluded
in August 1952, that:
SF0 is on the right track at Los Alamos
and in the nuclear-and-initiator
Sandia Laboratory will benefit equally by concentration
following divestment of production functions.
agency is indicated to manage and operate the nonnuclear implosion weapon production system, including fabrication and assembly,
The agency should
with use of available management and facilities if possible.
preferably have production-but
not staff nor technical--control
over all nonnuclear production
of Sandia Laboratory
and of the Kansas City Plant prepared
and DESIGN AGENCY
The Manager, SFO, presented a resulting “Management Plan for Implosion-type
Weapons” to the Commission
on September 22, 1952, explaining that the plan would set a
pattern for bringing additional production agencies into the program as developments
The plan as presented featured two points:
Divesting Sandia Laboratory progressively
of production functions,
it could concentrate on technical functions, applying to Sandia the same principle
which had proved resultful for LASL.
Concentrating production function responsibility
in a single contractor
agency, this principle having been approved as applied to the nuclear production
field, conforming with the Panel’s guidance, and having been recommended
Sandia and by Bendix.
The plan established that implementing action would begin immediately,
with transfer of
with an overlap of up to two years before a clear cut and comfunctions to be progressive,
plete division would be achieved.
The full details of the plan presented in September 1952, have not been accomplished.
There has been some divestment of non-developmental
functions from Sandia Laboratory,
Some production responsibilities
plans project accomplishment
of this phase.
transferred to the Kansas City plant. An Inter-plant Advisory Committee,
and SF00 personnel,
has been established as a monitoring activity for high
explosives fabrication and assembly.
Pattern of Operation
The operating philosophy thus proposed had been established for nuclear manufacture
It was uncertain whether it would be adopted for nonand for inert component development.
The pattern in effect in mid-1953 was as follows:
Los Alamos, as the research,
basic explosion system of all weapons;
and design agency for the
and design agency for the inert
Sandia, as the research,
system for all weapons to the extent that responsibility
rests with SFO, and for
as the production
agency for nuclear
Kansas City, becoming more and more
and electronic components;
and Spoon River
agency for mechanical
a clear picture
of the system.
was the nuclear development agency with
LASL, operated by University of California,
It had the technical
under AEC program approval and program controls.
AEC WEAPONS PROGRAM
. . , . PLowcI,0” CO”V.OL
1 l DElONA%R
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
KANSAS CITY- BENDIX
l l l l l l l
6 PRODUCTIUN E?lG\NEERlWG l
PROCESSING l nd ASSEWLY
. . ,
functions of: Research and development,
product design, test and evaluation, quality assurance, and preparation of standards for stockpile surveillance.
It performed only developmental and engineering production,
including fabrication and assembly of nuclear components.
Rocky Flats plant, operated by Dow Chemical Company; when fully operative would be
the nuclear production agency with full responsibility
subject to AEC controls and to LASL
probably for all weapons types.
It would have responsibility
Production (process) engineering; fabrication of uranium and plutonium units in its own plant,
and procurement from AEC fabrication plants; receipt, inspection,
and assembly of nuclear
and shipment to stockpile; other phases of final inspection and assembly; other
phases of nuclear production procurement;
and assisting Los Alamos in process engineering
during development by coordinating startup of ‘new production at the other installations.
Included in the production
for initiator fabrication (reports
for container fabrication;
Oak Ridge (OROO), Hanford (HOO), and Savannah (SROO) for
flowed from AEC *plants and from private industry to the production
agency; and final product flowed from the production agency to stockpile.
The High Explosive
LASL remained the development
technical functions only. It performed
(As of July
fabribation and assembly.
ducer to. LASL but agreement had been
agency for HE and detonator components,
only developmental or prototype production,
1, 1953, shipment of detonators was still from proreached to ship from producer to stockpile. 1
Inyokern (California) Salt Wells Pilot Plant, operated by Navy Ordnance, performed
tooling design, and pilot plant for new HE, other HE fabrication and
Burlington (Iowa) plant, contract with Army Ordnance for operation by Silas-Mason
Company, and Pantex (Texas) plant, contract with Army Ordnance for operation by Procter
& Gamble Defense Corporation,
performed HE production and weapon assembly.
Spoon River (Illinois) plant was under construction,
to be operated by Thompson
A second Project Plum was
Products Company, initially for HE production and assembly.
in view of existing requirements,
for HE production and weapon assembly,
perhaps through addition of production lines at Burlington and Pantex.
operated by Army Ordnance,
It was projected that over a period of years as Thompson Products developed a capability, responsibility
would be transferred
there for Inyokern’s process engineering,
toolSpoon River would thus become the leadoff plant on
ing design, and pilot plant operation.
production of new models and development and procurement for the entire high explosive
The Inert Component
operated by Sandia Corporation,
remained the development agency
for inert bomb and warhead installation components of all weapon types.
It would eventually
retain only technical functions, plus developmental or prototype fabrication and assembly.
Kansas City plant, operated by Bendix Aviation, was becoming
for mechanical and electronic components.
It might eventually have
ject to AEC controls and to Sandia technical supervision.
As of July
bility for: Some measure of process engineering; procurement from
support of HE plants; inert fabrication and assembly; and some base
The Pattern of Organization
the production agency
sub1, 1953, it had responsiprivate industry; logistic
for Other Weapons Types
During the three years prior to July 1953, SF0 developed and produced gun-type weapons
and missile warhead installations,
and conducted an extensive thermonuclear
operations dealt essentially with the organization for implosion-type
variations and there were responsibilities
assigned elsewhere as far as gun-type, missile
activities were concerned.
These are described
A penetration weapon program was operated jointly by SF0
Sand:a had responsibility
responsible for the nuclear phases.
testing, development of handling equipment, and certain technical
The Navy performed development and related production
and the Navy. LASL was
final design, environmental
studies of fuzing and weapon
of the gun mechanism and
Active work on development of an artillery-fired
atomic projectile began after midwith Picatinny Arsenal handling the bulk of the
1950. It was a joint LASL-Sandia program,
development work under SF0 guidance.
As of July 1, 1953, responsibility
for future gun-type work was divided: LASL and
Rocky Flats, nuclear development and production; and Armed Forces (Army and Navy), nonnuclear design and production.
has been engaged actively in the development of atomic warhead
installations for missiles,
both guided and free ballistic,
since October 1950. Inasmuch as
the basic explosive system is in general identical with other implosion-type
Sandia now acting as the LASL agent in
has not needed to conduct developmental programs,
Future developments may bring LASL directly into the picture, as for antithis respect.
work, the Military Liaison Co
in November 1950 that atomic warheads be developed for a number of specified missiles.
immediately apparent that in addition to problems associated with the basic warhead, integration of the missile guidance system and the warhead arming and fuzing system
would constitute a major ‘area of investigation and development;
and that, aside from technical questions, division of development and production responsibilities
between SF0 and DOD
would require resolution.
of DOD and AEC, the Special Weapons Development Board was designated late in 1950 as the agency to determine division of arming and fuzing responsibilities.
The Board did allocate and set up some Ad Hoc Working Groups.
Subsequently, it was agreed that after the first four atomic warhead installations,
would assume the arming and fuzing responsibilities.
As a consqquence,
the Ad Hoc Working
Groups are now in the process of reconstitution into Joint Project Groups reporting to: the
CG, FC, AFSWP; President,
and the designated DOD agency as principals.
Because of the large number of missiles designated to carry atomic warhead installations, it was evident that a high degree of standardization would be required.
progress has been made in the direction of interchangeable
warheads, not only between several missiles but also between a warhead and the associated free-fall
This has resulted in the so-called “Maximum Bomb Availability Plan” whereby all warheads are to be
stockpiled with their fuzes in bomb configurations
until the bomb requirements
conversion components and complements (analogous to fuzes) will also be
stockpiled to provide the conversion capability to missile warhead installations when desired.
development effort has been devoted toward simplification
of the bombto-warhead conversion process.
Employment of standardized weapon components (i. e.,
radars, etc. 1, test equipment, and handling equipment has resulted in significant savings in both bomb and missile warhead installation programs.
Since an intensified research and development program was directed in January 1950,
has rested with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
During development an organizational framework was developed which included American Car &Foundry
Company, and extensive cryogenics
assistance from National Bureau of Standards,
It may be assumed that the developmental
and Herrick Johnston.
organization will point the way for the production organization.
Future production will require the resources
of the nuclear, high explosive,
and inert production system.
this will probably be the ACF, Cambridge,
and NBS facilities to meet unique requirements.
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory originally carried almost all of the SF0 responsibility
for nuclear field tests.
LASL still carries very heavy responsibilities
but by mid-1953 the
was being shared by Sandia Laboratory and to some extent by
and a considerable
measure of administrative responsibility
had been transferred to SFOO, and, in certain respects,
to military participants.
All overseas tests, beginning with Bikini in 1946, have been conducted by a joint task
force commanded by a military officer and with responsibility
for the scientific and technical
construction and other support phases,
phases and, beginning in 1948, many maintenance,
resting with SF00 and its key contractors.
Executive agent responsibility
has been rotated between the military departments with
the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, being agent for Sandstone; the Chief of Staff, U;S. Air Force,
agent for Greenhouse; and the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, agent for Ivy and Castle.
the JTF Commander’s
limmd to planning
and coordination of preparations
for the operation,
form of transportation,w communication,
and to providing
support in the
OF PLANNED FUNCTIONS,
June 30, 1950, June 30, 1953, and Next Three
Pantex Field Office
(Pantex Ordnance Plant)
Next Three Years
Pilot TN Fabrication
-- -_ -_ _- _- -- _- _-- __ -- -- -- _- _- &_
-- __ -_ -_ -- -- _- -Pilot TN Fabrlcatlon
Pilot TN Fabrication(Non-nuclear)
Base Spares Procurement
Weapon Asa’y (reduced)
Pilot TN Fabrication
Base Spares Procurement
__ -- -_ -- -- -- -- -Pilot
__ -_ -_ -_ --
-- -_ --
Pilot Plant for new HE
Pilot Plant for new HE
Support of HE Plants
--_- __ -- _-_ -_ __ -- -- -_-
---- __ -- __
Pilot HE Fabrication
-_ -_ --- -- -- -- -Technical
as of June
Support of HE Plants
Base Spares Procurement
-- -- -- _- .---Detonator
Support of HE Plants
Base Spares Procurement
SF00 and its Eniwetok Field Office have had continuing responsibility
for AEC administration, support, control of funds, and inspection of the Commission’s
concerned with tests.
Control and direction of the scientific program has been assigned
with major participation by LASL and other scientific contractors.
At the time agreed for beginning of the operational period, the Commission
the JTF Commander as its spe’cial representative,
and grants him full authority to act for
the Commission in all matters which concern the successful execution of the approved plan.
This authority is operational in nature, and does not transfer any of the continuing administrative responsibilities
of the SF0 Field Manager, Eniwetok Field Office, or the normal responsibilities
for technical direction of laboratory components participating in the tests.
During past operations the JTF comprised four task groups: Scientific,
The AEC organization responsible
support, and operation
and Air Force.
At conclusion of Operation Ivy,
activities functioned as a part of the Scientific Task Group.
the desirability of separating the direct AEC functions from the scientific activities was
accepted, and for Operation Castle an additional AEC Base Facilities Task Group was formed
and operation funcwith responsibility
for performing the AEC administrative,
The Scientific Task Group has been commanded by a person selected by the scientific
approved by AEC, and acceptable to the Joint Task Force Commander.
staff has been made up principally of members of the staff of J-Division,
supplemented by military personnel on detail to the Laboratory.
The AEC Base Facilities
Task Group will be staffed by personnel of SF00 and its
Eniwetok Field Office, supplemented by other AEC personnel as required.
The Task Group
Commander will be selected by the Manager, SFO, approved by the Commission,
and acceptable to the JTF Commander.
support, and operation functions have been accomplished through SFO-AEC contract.
The original concept of such tests was that they would be held solely to support weapons
Because of this purpose and even more essentially because the AEC cannot be
from final responsibility
for nuclear tests conducted inside continental United
States, full field responsibility
has been assigned to an AEC representative
as Test Manager,
acting as Executive Agent for all participating Agencies and Departments.
Continental tests have been conducted by a multiple-agency
group generally known as
Participants have included:
LASL, UCRL, and Sandia Laboratory;
the Test Organization.
DOD and all branches of the Armed Forces; AEC’s Divisions of Biology and Medicine, DMA,
and Information; the Federal Civil Defense Administration,
the U.S. Weather
U.S. Public Health Service,
and other Agencies.
The Test Organization for each of the four series was headed by the Manager, SFO, as
As finally developed for UpshotTest Manager, responsible
for over-all conduct of the tests.
Knothole, the organization included Deputies for Scientific Operations,
The Deputy for Scientific Operations has been the Director,
Jand Support Operations.
Division, LASL, and his organization has been divided into three groups:
Weapons Developengineering design,
ment, Weapons Effects, -and Civil Effects.
operation of camp and test facilities,
and security servicehas been provided through the Deputy for Support Operations,
who has been the Manager,
L& Vegas Field Office.
The Deputy for Military Operations has been the Director,
Directorate of Weapons Effects Tests, Field Command, AFSWP, who has coordinated all military
participation and support.
The SF0 Organization
for Storage Operations
The following summary analysis of the comprehensive
stockpile operations gives a
general idea of how SF0 is organized to do the job, how SF0 is preparing to meet changing
conditions, and the nature and extent of working relationships with DOD agencies on all aspects of stockpile operations:
Product design preparation for stockpiling is a joint AEC-DOD responsibility
the AEC contractor-operated
weapon design organizations
at Los Alamos and Sandia seek to
incorporate in each complete weapon system design such packaging concepts and field test
and handling equipment systems as are compatible with diverse shipping and storage
ments and military concepts of optimized stockpile-to-target
The AEC product
and custodial organizations
review these product design preparations only to the extent deemed necessary in fulfilling their assigned functions as described
.Facility preparation for stockpiling is also a joint AEC-DOD responsibility
the storage site planning and design agencies of the DOD at Sandia and elsewhere seek to
provide facilities in which to store and maintain the growing atomic weapons stockpile under
conditions which are acceptable to the AEC design, custodial,
and security organizations.
As mentioned, new storage concepts to minimize the cost of additional storage capacity and
the requirement for stockpiling several new weapons of unusual design have tended to increase the complexity of this phase of the comprehensive
storage operations program.
Product acceptance for stockpiling is an AEC responsibility
which is now conducted
by direct employees of the Commission
at all SF0 final assembly installations other than
At Rocky Flats the final inspection and assembly of nuclear products is performed by an autonomous branch of the contractor’s
organization subject to design controls
maintained by LASL and to custodial and security controls maintained by the AEC Field
.* At the beginning of the period there was a great amount of material being shipped
from source to Sandia Laboratory for final inspection,
then being transshipped to storage
sites or to the DOD at Sandia Base for distribution to the using service.
This led to
a study of traffic pattern and a study of feasibility of making direct shipment.
better and more economical
utilization of transport and couriers,
and a marked reduction in
time from source to the ultimate user.
Product distribution for stockpile in accord with joint AEC-DOD distribution schedules
as formulated each month is an AEC responsibility
which is planned and conducted by direct
employees of the Commission
with such assistance from contractor organizations
DOD as can be provided at the various loading and unloading points or by actual transport
in cases where the use of military aircraft is warranted by the value of the products being
moved to or from stockpile.
DIVISION OF MILITARY APPLICATION
........... .. . .. . . .. ... .... . . .. .. . . . . . . ..
SPOOIN RIVER PLANT
LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LAB.
University of Colifornia
American Cor e Foundry
NBS Loborotorv. Boulder
1OTHER OFFICES #FACILITIES
. . . . . .. .
NEW YORK OFFICE
OF FIELD OFFICE,
AND PLANT STRUCTURE
The 1947-1950 Report of the Manager, SFO, sufficiently described management’s
efforts and achievements
in stabilizing and revitalizing the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory,
in building and developing a satisfactory
supporting community, and in transferring
phases of weapons manufacture to other installations in order for the Laboratory to concentrate on weapons research and development.
of Los Alamos
high explosive and
component research and development for all types of nuclear
for technical aspects of active component testing; nuclear,
developmental and pilot production; and nuclear and high
The Los Alamos Field Office was activated on June 18, 1951, when Santa Fe Operations
with a personnel strength of 862 which had been reduced
by July 1, 1953, to 760.
and the nearby
AEC contract administration applies to: Technical Area, community,
White Rock construction
camp operation; to assisting and supporting some aspects of corn.
munity and of county government; and to installations elsewhere which support weapons
This is accomplished
by administering various types of contracts including
Contrary to practice at other installations,
the Laboratory is not operated and staffed
entirely by the contractor.
The Zia Company participates by providing extensive custodial,
maintenance, and other specialized personnel and services; and direct employees of the AEC
provide fire fighting and all phases of security services including guard force, physical
Also, contrary to practice elsewhere,
security, personnel security,
and security education.
AEC employees provide fire fighters and police for the community.
The value of the physical plant in Los Alamos County owned by the AEC is $213,200,000.
Los Alamos County consists of 108 square miles and coincides with the project boundary.
The great majority of land is assigned the AEC under special use permit from the Forest
On March 18, 1948, the Laboratory Technical Board concurred with an SF0 decision to
In August 1948, the AEC authorized road
rebuild, and expand the Technical Area.
As of midand utility construction
as an initial phase of a projected $121,000,000
Addii953 there had been various changes, andbudgetsprojected
a total of $118,500,000.
tional facilities now projected will bring the total back to slightly less than the original estimate. On June 30, - 1953, $98,000,000
or 83 per cent of the total program had been
obligated and $94,100,000
or 79 per cent had been accomplished.
As the new facilities on
South Mesa or at outlying sites were occupied, the vacated structures were converted to
other use or were considered for demolition or disposal.
A five-year $65,500,000
program to completely modernize
and to expand Los Alamos’
community was announced on March 12, 1948. The community plant then visualized has
been completed, except for replacement of temporary-type
housing which was scheduled to
begin in fiscal year 1951 but was delayed until fiscal year 1954 because of the Korean emergency.
Los Alamos had 7,500 residents in mid-1947;
10,620 in mid-1950;
and 12,700 in
White Rock Construction
In order to bring more contractors’into
the Los Alamos construction picture, a temporary (five year) camp was built at White Rock, eight-miles south of Los Alamos, prior to
December 1949. Cost was $4,500,000.
Occupancy was near maximum, 2,352, in July
1950. As the peak of Los Alamos construction passed, use of White Rock declined.
Occupancy for calendar year 1952 was less than 50 per cent and as of June 30,1953, less than
20 per cent. In the light of this situation, 250 of the 413 dwelling units and 6 dormitories
were declared surplus in May 1953 to the General Services Administration.
houses were to be used until no longer required for construction workers.
anticipate transfer of some used White Rock buildings to NPG.
for Los Alamos
University of California -- For operation of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
five year contract continuing until June 30, 1957. Provision is made for University of
California overhead, but there is no fee. Direct employees totaled 2,971 in mid-1953 as
compared to 2,488 in 1950. In addition the University of California has subcontracted for
off-site work in fields of research,
manufactured items and supplies.
. The Zia Company -- For maintenance and other support of LASL, and for community
94 contracts with community concessionaires.
Zia has a threeyear contract which continues until June 30, 1954. Zia personnel totaled 1,778 in 1950 and
1,380 in 1953. In February 1953, the construction work previously performed by Zia was
contracted for with Los Alamos Constructors,
Inc. (LACI) in order to comply with the Baconinstruction,
the fee for
’ Davis Act. LACI personnel totaled 75 in 1953. By Congressional
For fiscal year 1954, effective July 1, 1953, the
such work may not exceed $90,000 a year.
$90,000 limitation was allocated $72,000 to Zia and $18,000 to LACI.
The Los Alamos Medical Center, Inc. -- Hospital facilities and services and professional
medical and dental services
for the community of Los Alamos are provided under a contract
with a non-profit corporation
composed of nine Los Alamos residents who serve as Trustees
entered into in February 1950, and
of the Los Alamos Medical Center, Inc. The contract,
effective at the end of that month, under present terms will run until June 30, 1957. The
but the Commission provides funds as
corporation receives no fee for the work performed,
needed to pay the cost of the work in excess of the revenues derived.
at the end of June 1953 numbered 118 full-time and 4 part-time employees.
County Board of Educational
-- The school
at Los Alamos
under State law, by a statutory
the Los Alamos
County Board of Educa;
with the Commission,
this Board uses the a’
school plant and related
by the Commission
jointly for school and general
public use, as agent for the ComFinancial
for the support of the work carried
on by the-Board
for in the contracts.
The Board has no responsibility
except to operate the county educational
with State law
and manage the civic auditorium
and, of course,
to take reasonable
care of the Governmentowned property
There is no contract
into for each fiscal year through 1953; the contract
for the next period,
the fiscal years
1954 and 1955.
In June 1953, the Board of
had 198 full-time
and 8 part-time
Mesa Public Library
-- The community
is managed by a non-profit
of five Los Alamos
entered into in January
1951, is for a term of five years.
There is no contract
Funds are provided
by the Commission
as needed to pay the cost of the work in excess
of the insignificant
amount of miscellaneous
fines and charges
for the lending of phonograph
staff in June 1953,
of 5 full-time
plus 6 part-time
time of l-1/2
-- One of the community
the golf course
by the Los Alamos
under a contract
and has been extended to run through the calendar
There is no contract
makes no payments
to the Golf Association.
employs three persons
their work with part-time
labor on a seasonal
LAFO also administers
Car & Foundry
-- For engineering
in support of which the American
uses parts of other ACF plants such as the Buffalo
1, 1952, and continues
Total fee provision
-- For operation
of the Cryogenics
tory at Boulder,
and basic engineering
studies of the characteristics
of various materials,
Since early in 1953,
is on an indefinite
the National Bureau’of
and AEC have been administered
The Los Alamos
Field Office has had the security
by SFGG, Albuquerque.
by the memoThe Los Alamos
randum of understanding,
by the AEC on
to the National
Bureau of Standards
in three phases between
May 1, 1951, and December
Plant is valued at $3,800,000.
nitrogen and hydrogen liquefaction equipment.
rcB” BuiIding provides offices,
and machine shops for the cryogenic work. Both of these phases are operated by the National
Bureau of Standards under memorandum of understanding with the AEC.
“C” Building is
.dperated by the Cambridge Corporation and provides space for the assembly and testing of
refrigerated transport dewars and the testing of cryogenic parts of TN 2-stage weapons.
-- For design, production of refrigerated
and cryogenic support services related to thermonuclear
program handling equipment on
continent and forward area with facilities at Boulder,
MassaIn addition, the Cambridge Corporation designed, tested, and produced cryogenic
The present contract continues until January 1, 1955. Total
parts of TN a-stage weapons.
Employees total 236.
LASL established a small assembly operation at Sandia Base, Albuquerque,
July 1947. In March 1948, it became a formal branch.of LASL: the Sandia Laboratory to
LASL asked in contract negotiations in 1948
perform ordnance engineering and assembly.
study and negotiation the AEC obtained Bell System agreeWestern Electric formed a wholly-owned
ment to operate Sandia Laboratory.
signed the contract under which Sandia took over
operation on November 1, 1949, with 1,700 University of California employees transferring
to its payroll.
The contract provides a maximum of contractor authority and a minimum of
It provides full reimbursement
for all expenses but includes no fee.
Mission of Sandia Laboratory
-- By mid-1950,
Sandia was more a factory than a laboratory, much of its resources
being devoted to non-nuclear weapon production,
and related procurement.
In mid-1952, the emphasis was reversed,
in the interest of mak),
As of mid-1953,
Sandia was responsible
ing Sandia more a laboratory and less a factory.
for the inert system, or ordnance phases, of atomic weapons.
Its functions included:
Studies of the feasibility of new weapons and components,
studies of weapons effects;
development testing and evaluation of weapons, training military teams, exchange of information
with the Armed Forces,
and stockpile and inert component quality assurance and surveillance.
Sandia Field Office -- Was activiated as an Area Office November 24, 1947, and
established as a Field Office on March 29, 1949. It administers a major contract with
Sandia Corporation for operation of Sandia Laboratory
and related facilities elsewhere,
which became operative November 1, 1949. It also supervises engineering and construction and contacts with the Military.
The Field Manager is responsible
and contract activities; for planning and
and other project
1953. The mid-1953
for all matters relating to performance
executing a comprehensive
program for the design,
of weapon components; and for construction
assigned to Sandia in 1947 totaled 4; 119 in 1950; and 175 on July 1,
staff structure included:
and property management,
18 perbranch, 38; operations branch, 48; and security,
Physical Plant -- The Laboratory and its supporting community occupy 3420.7 acres
Virtually completed by mid-1953 was
encompassed within Sandia Base but owned by AEC.
a Technical Area, $24,467,112
a community construction,
BY TYPE OF WORK
End of Fiscal Year 1950, 1951, 1952, and 1953
MAINTENANCE & SERVICE
The Zia Company
The Nevada Company
CONSTRUCTION & DESIGN
Holmes & Narver
R. E. McKee
R. J. Daum. Construction Company
The Austin Company
Reynolds Electric & Engineering
Los Alamos Constructors,
OPERATIONS, RESEARCH %
University of California (except Gen-12)
Bendix Aviation Corporation
Procter & Gamble
American Car & Foundry
University of California,
aEmployees on Ordnance contracts,
AEC-251 report, beginning
not normally shown on AEC-251 report, included
Feb. 1953, included Ordnance employees
program; and a program for construction of facilities for AFSWP, zosting
in AEC funds. Sandia construction as presently planned will be practically
pleted in April 1954. Value of the total AEC Sandia physical plant is $41,699,760.
(Details of housing area and of joint &EC-AFSWP
in Chapter IV.)
Other facilities operated by Sandia Corporation include: Salton Sea’Test Base,
The Base was constructed originally by the Navy as a seaplane
It was taken over by the AEC in December 1947, for testing free-fall
order to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics
and behavior from maximum altitude to the
Salton Sea level of 237.2 feet below mean sea level. Priortomid-1950,
Area program and a $1,373,0%0 program for administrative
and community facilities were
Between July 1950 and July 1953, a total of $432,680 was spent for new construction, including a new airstrip, and relocation of facilities caused by a rising sea level.
Housing facilities are now adequate for 35 permanent employees and up to 75 scientists,
Total plant value is
and military personnel required during test periods.
Sandia Laboratory operates and maintains the Base through a resident manager.
1950 to September 11, 1953, the Sandia Field Office had two AEC representatives
Base, but their functions have now been absorbed by the field office staff.
The continuing rise of the sea level, which has partially inundated the old airstrip,
will require protective works around the administration and housing areas and relocation
The rise is attributed to increased irrigation
of some buildings and instrument stations.
Techwith resultant drainage, and is continuing at a rate of approximately
one foot a year.
nical studies indicate the rise will continue over a period of years.
Sandia Contract -- The present contract will expire on December 31, 1953.
present contract provides for full reimbursement
totaled 5,406 in mid-1953.
Project Royal (now the Kansas City Plant) was established in February 1949, as a
prime facility for production and assembly of electrical
and mechanical components,
fuzing units. Operations are in a portion of the Naval Industrial Reserve Aircraft Plant,
Kansas City Division, Bendix Aviation Corporation,
south of Kansas City, Missouri.
Mission of the Installation -- Logistic support of high explosives
and base spares procurement.
Kansas City Field Office -- It was activated in February 1949. Personnel totaled 30
in mid-1950 and 69 in mid-1953.
The staff structure at that time included:
office, 4; administration,
5; production control, 7; quality control,
800,000 square feet for
Physical Plant -- The installation now utilizes approximately
125,000 square feet for offices,
plus 225,000 square feet of yard area subleased from Westinghouse,
another occupant of the Naval plant. AEC plant value is .
of costs and a fee.
Contract -- The present contract provides for full reimbursement
Total employment varies with workloads but as of mid-1953 there were 3,800 employees
(2,600 hourly and 1,200 salary) as compared with 1,451 in mid-1950.
Project Sugar (now Burlington plant) was activated in late 1947 to manufacture high
explosive charges and to assemble mechanical components.
modification and construction of existing facilities began in October 1947, and first production of
high explosive charges was on September 20, 1948. It is located at the Iowa Ordnance Plant,
and is operated for the AEC by Army Ordnance by contract with SilasMason Company.
-- High explosives
Burlington Field Office -- Was activated as a representative
office on November 15,
1949, and as a field office on September 9, 1952. Personnel totaled 3 in 1950 and 17 in mid1953. The staff structure included:
10; production control, 2; and
Several studies have been- conducted during the past two years as to the position of
Army Ordnance as a middleman between the AEC and the operating contractor,
duplicated Bt Pantex.
As of mid-1953,
the question had not been resolved.
SFOG and Army Ordnance had sought to develop staffs which would complement each other
and not establish, in effect, two duplicating management levels.
Physical Plant -- Total initial expenditure by the AEC .for technical and housing facilities was valued at $13,000,000.
Total plant value by mid-1953 was $25,900,000
expansion of HE production facilities in 1950 and 1951. The plant is now
Ordnance owned, as is the land. The equipment is AEC property.
The AEC had contributed $394,000 toward housing for Silas-Mason employees,
with community operation by
Contract -- AEC operates with Army Ordnance by a memorandum of understanding.
Company contract continues through September 30, 1954,
provides for full reimbursement
of costs and a fixed fee to Silas-Mason of $189,600 for
Army Ordnance had 10 persons assigned to the AEC operation in mid-1953,
Silas-Mason had 1,249.
Project Orange (now Pantex Plant) was activated on October 1, 1951, as an HE proIt is located on approximately 4,275 acres of the Pantex
duction and assembly facility.
It is operaOrdnance Plant 17 miles east of the Amarillo city limits in the Texas Panhandle.
ted for the AEC by Army Ordnance by contract with Procter & Gamble Defense Corporation.
-- HE production
Pantex Field Office -- Was activated on October 1, 1951. Personnel totaled 23 in
The staff structure included:
Field manager’s office, ‘2; administrative,
10; and security,
It was intended originally that SFGG, through Pantex Field Office, would operate this
facility and SFGG selected Procter & Gamble as operator and negotiated the initial contract.
Prior to start of operations it was determined that operation would be through an agreement
with Army Ordnance.
Physical Plant -- The acreage utilized was recaptured from Texas Tech in the name
Construction was started April 3, 1951, and completed August 1, 1952.
of Army Ordnance.
The budget estimate was $29,500,000
but the completed plant as of mid-1953 was valued at
Final cost will approximate $21,000,000.
Contract -- The present agreement with Army Ordnance continues until September 30,
1954, and provides for full reimbursement
of costs, including the costs of Procter & Gamble
plus a fee. Army Ordnance had 9 personnel assigned to the project in mid-1953,
& Gamble had 937.
Project Apple (now Rocky Flats Plant) was activated on March 31, 1951. It is located
on 2,545 acres of formerly private land 20 miles northwest of Denver and 12 miles from
Operation is by Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division.
Mission -- Nuclear component production including:
fabrication of nuclear components,
final acceptance inspection of all capsule components,
assembly of all new capsule production,
and limited training of military personnel.
Many of these production-related - functions
.formerly performed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
Rocky Flats Field Office -- Was activated on July 1, 1952. Personnel totaled 23 in
The staff structure included:
Manager’s office, 3; administration,
4; security, 6; shipment and custodial,
Physical Plant -- The site was selected following extensive surveys.
began on July 28, 1951, and was 98 per cent complete by mid-1953.
Project was budgeted
with estimated completion cost to be $43,800,000.
Plant was valued at
on July 1, 1953.
-- It continues until June 30, 1954, providing for full reimbursement
Contractor personnel totaled 928 in mid-1953.
- and a fee negotiated
In order to
in January 1953.
of Cleveland was
meet future projections
of DOD stockpile requirements
Plum-A (now the Spoon River Plant) was activated with final site selection
Following an extensive selection procedure,
Thompson Products Company
chosen as operator.
-- HE production
Spoon River Field Office
and weapon assembly.
-- Was activated January 1, 1953, and had a staff of 14 in
Project Pepper was activated in 1948 for the sole purpose of manufacturing detonators,
relieving LASL of a portion of its workload.
Pepper is located at Picatinny Arsenal, Dover,
The facilities are owned by Army Ordnance and are operated under agreement
with Army Ordnance.
expansion of production facilities
was started in February
was 38 per cent complete in mid-1953 with completion
scheduled for December
has two inspectors
to the Picatinny
Project Eye, the Salt Wells Pilot Plant of the Naval Ordnance Test Station, performs
HE production and pilot production for new HE. It was activated prior to July 1947.
Management of the operation, including its community,
is the responsibility
construction of community facilities,
up to June 30, 1950. Total AEC investment as of mid-1953 was
The Los Angeles Procurement
Office was originally responsible
for procurement and
the Salton Sea Test Site. By mid-1950 procurement
technical, and other materials for the operations centering in Sandia Laboratory had been
Support of Salton Sea was transferred
to Sandia Corpotransferred to Sandia Corporation.
ration in March 1950.
The Los Angeles Procurement
Office was deactivated June 30, 1950, but a Branch
Its function is to provide security services in connection with
Security Office was continued.
West Coast contracts,
including Holmes & Narver, Engineers,
Inc. Security personnel on
duty there in mid-1953 totaled 20. The office also provides space for four auditors assigned
from SF00 Finance Division.
One security representative
has been station’ed in New York City to provide service
for the numerous SF0 contracts in that area which otherwise would have to be serviced by
from other SF00 stations.
As of July 1, 1953, storage sites were in operation at nine widely dispersed continental
and equipment of
locations with three other sites under construction.
sites is budgeted by Division of Military Application’with
funds turned over to the Army Corps
which performs construction through the Kansas City Area Engineer.
tion of sites is by DOD. They are all located on military reservations.
Once the site has been accepted for beneficial occupancy and after correction by the
of deficiency items, SF00 determines criteria,
budgets for and
funds additions to or modifications
of storage site facilities required because of new developments or concepts to fulfill AEC responsibilities.
A military group performs housekeeping,
There is a three-way operating organization.
supply, and all physical security.
A Sandia Laboratory group performs technical direction
for maintenance and modification of weapons, although the Military supplies the bulk of
AEC-SF0 personnel are weapons custodians.
is performed for SF00 by the Storage Operations Branch which is
to SF00 Office of Production Coordination
but which reports
A total of 36 persons
directly to the Operations Manager much in the nature of a field office.
three were asfrom this Branch was assigned in mid-1950 to storage sites.
and 101 were assigned to storage sites.
signed to Los Alamos as custodial representatives,
a continental test site was activated
In response to weapons development requirement,
January 1, 1951, on a 16 x 40 -mile tract of land transferred’to
the AEC by the USAF from its
Las Vegas Bombing and Gunnery Range some 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.
Subsequently, a supplemental adjoining tract of three square miles was withdrawn.from the
public domain as a site for Camp Mercury,
the base camp.
Mission -- To be a site for full-scale
nuclear field tests as required to support AEC
weapons development and the atomic weapons utilization and defense programs of other
Las Vegas Field Office -- Was activated June 22, 1951, to maintain NPG, to support
and to administer various NPG contracts.
It now occupies leased office
space in Las Vegas during interim periods and at Camp Mercury during tests.
The staff structure included:
Field manager’s office, 2; administotaled 25 in mid-1953.
trative, 7; communications,
7; and security,
Physical Plant -- In addition to the leased space in Las Vegas, the plant includes
Camp Mercury, a Control Point and two technical areas-Yucca
Basin and Frenchman
Flat--at NPG. There was only temporary construction for the Winter 1951 series.
Minimum permanent construction began in mid-1951 and was largely completed early in 1952.
As of mid-1953, the permanent plant, exclusive of reusable “expendable’
. The plant totaled here is exclusive
of NPG structures furnished by DOD, of the
Army’s Camp Desert Rock, and of the USAF’s Indian Springs AF Base.
including preparation of estimates and cost reports,
Contracts -- Test construction,
Such construction requires continuing administration
is a major function of the field office.
The principal operating and service
and construction contracts.
Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. -- Operates and maintains Proving
Grounds facilities except feeding, housing, security,
and permanent telephone plant; performs
construction of expendable test facilities for experimental projects;
and provides scientific
for this work in
program support to participating test agencies.
mid-1953 were 349. This contract was effective December
1, 1952, and expires on December
31, 1953, but provides for a year-to-year
It provides for full reimbursement of cost and a fee of approximately $100,000 for services to be rendered during
the initial contract period.
Silas-Mason Company -- Provides architect-engineer
-and field inspection) for all construction work, including both construction
test and permanent facilities;
provides engineering support services during test operations;
conducts special studies of Proving Grounds operation; and furnishes safety and sanitary
in mid-1953 were 56. The contract expired on June 30,
It is a cost reimbursable
1953, but had an annual extension provision which was exercised.
contract with a fee of $100,000 for fiscal year 1953.
Universal Food Service,
Inc. -- Operates feeding and housing facilities on a unit price
basis and Fire and Police Departments on a lump sum basis, with all concession-type
services, such as post exchange,
recreation hall, barber shop, laundry service,
This was an advertised comsnack bars, etc., operated on a percentage of gross sales.
petitive bid contract for one year, the expiration date being December
31, 1953, and the
contractor employed 113 people in mid-1953.
Inc. -- Provides security services which include operation of the
personnel were emProAng Grounds guard force and the pass and badge office.
This is a unit price per hour of security coverage contract, awarded
ployed in June 1953.
after competitive bidding, and covers a term of three years,
expiring on December
Bell Telephone Company of Nevada (Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company) -Installs and maintains all dial equipment and connecting cable plant to provide telephone and
telegraph facilities at the Nevada Proving Grounds.
Actual switchboard operation is performed by the Reynolds Electrical &Engineering Co., Inc. This is a continuing lump sum
and unit price contract.
Employment by this contractor is limited to a minimum of maintenance and installation personnel which fluctuates according to activity at the Proving
General Adjustment Bureau, Inc. -- Investigates and adjusts damage claims arising
from the operations of the Commission at the Nevada Proving Grounds.
with the amount of damage to be surveyed at any particular time.
This is a continuing contract and all services are rendered on a cost.basis with no allowance for profit or fee.
Various Lump Sum and/or Unit Price Construction Contracts -- The number of these
contracts will fluctuate with the amount of expendable test facilities required for any particular test operation.
Eniwetok Atoll was used first in 1948 as the site of a ship-based operation.
is in the Marshall Islands, some 5,500 miles west by south from continental United States.
United Nations concurrence
was obtained for entry and for use. Immediately after Operation
Sandstone, construction of permanent technical and support facilities was begun by Holmes &
Inc., under contract to AEC.
On September 11, 1952, the AEC approved
inclusion of Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Proving Grounds, such extension being necessary to Construction at Bikini was started in late 1952.
accommodate increased test requirements.
Operation and maintenance is an AEC responsibility
with administration assigned to SFOG
but with operational control assigned during tests to a Joint Task Force.
Mission -- To be a site for those full-scale
nuclear tests which are not admissible to
a continental site, as required to support AEC weapons development and the atomic weapons
utilization and defense programs of other national agencies.
Eniwetok Field Office -- Was activated November 15, 1951, to administer the contract
It occupies office space at SFOO,
and support at PPG.
during interim periods and additionally has a forward office at Parry Island,
Personnel totaled 16 in mid-1953.
Physical Plant -- Initial construction was started July 1949, on a $19,295, 265 program,
the remainder being for expendof which approximately
was for base facilities,
able test structures.
Permanent technical and support facilities at PPG were valued at
These totals do not include DOD facilities concentrated on
as of mid-1953.
Contract -- Holmes &Narver, Engineers,
Inc., performs engineering,
camp operation, and other support activities which are the responsibility
of the AEC, under
Scientific and specialized
services are provided by particiHolmes &Narver personnel fluctuates with
and other AEC contractors.
but as of mid-1953 totaled 1,565 as compared with 1,425 in mid-1950.
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
ATOMIC WEAPONS ORGANIZATION
The Armed Forces Special Weapons Project (AFSWP) has its headquarters in Washington and its Field Command at Sandia Base.
It coordinates all military assistance to AEC and
provides special services to the Army, Navy, and Air Force in the military application of
It was activated on January 29, 1947, to provide a jointly staffed Army-Navy
After passage of the National Security Act on July 29, 1947, the Air
Force was represented.
Since 1947, the assignments of AFSWP have multiplied steadily.
Its earliest functions
included military participation in research and development of‘atomic weapons in coordination with AEC, and coordination through established agencies of the radiological
measures of the Armed Services.
Both of these functions applied to the 1948 overseas
In 1949, AFSWP was assigned responsibility
in the field of effects
of atomic weapons and participated heavily in the overseas and continental tests of 19501953.
On August 1, 1952, Field Command-AFSWP
established a Directorate
Its Director is a Deputy Manager for continental tests.
AFSWP now functions in the over-all military application of atomic energy for the
Army, Navy, and Air Force by providing the following services:
specialized training; storage and surveillance in conjunction with AEC; planning of continental and overseas tests with
other affected agencies; determination of weapons effects; consolidation
of Armed Forces’
of atomic weapons other than War Reserve requirements;
in the development of atomic weapons; assembling of atomic weapons;
other technical services to the Armed Forces as required.
Air Force support of the Commission’s
atomic weapons program is a major factor in
many phases of the program.
Much of the responsibility,
in the testing phase,
rests upon the Air ,Force Special Weapons Center, headquarters Kirtland Field, Albuquerque.
The Air Force Special Weapons Center evolved from the Tactical and Technical Liaison Committee established at Kirtland AFB in 1947 through the activation of the Special
Weapons Command in December
1949, and the subsequent transfer of the Command to the
Air Research and Development Command.
It is now one of eight centers under the juris.
diction of the latter Command.
The mission of Air Force SWC includes development testing and operational suitability
testing of atomic and other special weapons; research as related to such tests; the development of associated equipme’nt for nuclear weapons; and planning, control, and operation
of special test facilities.
It provides support to the Commission
and its scientific contractors,
including .LASL and Sandia Laboratory.
During the last three yearsa the Commission’s
with the Military have beThe Department of Defense has entered the development
field as a co-equal collaborator
with AEC on numerous joint projects,
with prime responsiAs a result, it has
bility of its own in substantial areas of weapon development and design.
become necessary to establish special direct working relationships
with the individual services while being-careful
at the same time to insure that the values of AFSWP as an integrating agency are not lost.
AFSWP liaison officers continue on duty in many departments of Sandia_Corporation,
The Special Weapons Developand maintain liaison with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
ment Board, comprised of representatives
of AFSWP, LASL, and Sandia Corporation,
constitutes the official forum at which are developed formal recommendations
on the developGuidance of joint AEC-DOD programs rests
ment and standardization
of atomic weapons.
with Joint Project Groups whose membership comprises
of either LASL or
Sandia, carrying the technical interests of AEC; the “cognizant service”,
Army, Navy, or
Air Force, whichkarries
the technical responsibilities
for DOD; and AFSWP, which coordiAuthority of the Joint Project Groups
nates functions on behalf of all the Armed Services.
derives basically from general agreements between AEC and DOD.
of Mission Programs
By broad category,
Santa Fe Operations conducts programs of research,
and storage, the results of which are measured by the store of
knowledge valuable to military application and by the utility and numbers of weapons in
The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the mission achievements
and to sketch the nature and something of the extent of operations in the Los Alamos and
Sandia areas including nuclear field tests, and including with relation to stockpile production an indication of the extent of weapons inspection and scheduling activities.
In 1945, only two types of bomtind
only two bombs-were
available to the Military.
One of the most important fields of development for national defense was to provide wide
ranges both in yield and in size and weight in order to allow the Military to select bombs
appropriate to the target and to the available delivery vehicles.
Another important reason
for reduction in size and weight of bombs was to enable the Military to use a tide variety
of vehicles to carry atomic bombs and to gain greater range of action through reduction in
Made Since 1945 Through
varyf~om-30-‘to~60 inches, in weight from 1,600 to 8,000 pounds, and in yield up
including a smaller sized model in development; and (d) produced a system
geable cores and bombs so that yield and bomb size can be chosen
The advantages of flexibility indicated above are difficult to measure n
are certainly comparable
with advantages in increased efficiency of utilization of fissionable
The effects of the latter could have been accomplished
by very large expenditures
those of the former could not have
leading to increased production of fissionable
been attained except through research and development.
STATUS AND NUMBER OF WEAPON PROGRAMS, JULY 1950 and
(Status and Number-see
(e) Warhead InetallatSone
l(f) t 2(d)
Stage 1 tndicatee
inctdent to formutatton
are betng made.
Stage 2 indicates
design and development
Stage 3A indicates
or nearly completed,
and that action
been inttiated or completed,
but first unit has not come off the production
Stage 3B indicates
weapons have included:
Status of Thermonuclear
of these devices into managGible~&actical,
major developmental objective.
In planning its work for 1948, LASL noted that there were on-site activities in regard
reactions and that they would be somewhat reduced in keeping with necessity to “firm up” the then existing knowledge of fission weapons and in keeping with the
philosophy of a studied, scientific approach to developmental problems.
however, that thermonuclear
“work will continue on theoretical
and on experimental observations
of appropriate nuclear constants.”
The 1950 program,
nuclear weapon would be pushed.
and 22 categories
decision that development
of a thermoThe LASL
. . . appears to LASL to be almost the maximum
effort in the direction
and attaining thermonuclear
reactions and, at the same time, to maintain progress
in . . . fission weapons sufficient to play a real role in the short-range
position in this country . . . . It
must also be clear that the general nature and philosophy
of the thermonuclear
will differ from those heretofore
by Los Alamos in its study
of fission weapons.
Because of experimental
an attempt to gamble on the chance of maximum progress,
tests at Eniwetok
of sizable amounts of fissionable
the place of part of the heretofore
ex_tensive model testing and detailed theoretical calculation.
The more empirical
approach can, with great good luck, materially
shorten a development
period; on the other hand, the chance of failure
in such tests will be appreciably
higher than that under the old philosophy.”
In March 1950, LASL initiated an accelerated
worked a six-day
week through 1951.
By Spring 1951, LASL had perfected
if a fission bomb
would generate enough heat to initiate a thermonuclear
LASL began development
of an experiAlmost immediately
mental device for a large scale thermonuclear
detonation or reaction.
on the device itself by American
by three groups.
in the AEC-built
alrd produced materials
means of transporting
the liquids; and Herrick
plant on Parry
The device was tested in the Fallof
On the basis of Ivy results and other basic design determinations,
test there was initiated
In addition to the three weapons for early test and military
use, LASL was developing
(Other developin mid-1953 other experimental
devices to prove new concepts of design.
mental work was also underway after June 1952,. in the new Livermore
One of the primary
of all SF0 operations
ons in accord with broad directive
lated and issued from time to time by higher authority.
is the stockpiling
of atomic weaprequirements
as these are formu-
During the three years
ending in June 1950, the major events in SF0 stockpiling
were methods of identifying
in stockpiled units.
and acceptance procedures
and correcting design or manufacturing deficiencies
Military training, maneuvers,
and other related military activities placed
a heavy load on all custodial, technical, and logistic organizations,
toward the end of this period when inadequacies in the procurement
and distribution of spare parts became a major problem.
Planning for future stockpile operations assumed major proportions
the end of this period by virtue of instructions to minimize the capital cost of additional storage capacity and directives calling for the stockpiling of several new
weapons of unusual design.
The new types of weapons delivered
one missile warhead installation.
was being made in development
and, in some cases,
for the application
of five warheads to the designated
were in progress
the major SF0 responsibility.
on one warhead,
and three others were approaching
for stockpile increased
between July 1950 and July 1953, not only as
but also from delivery
of a single weapon type to delivery
of a complete
of weapon types.
This expansion created various major problems
other than development
of the field organization
as discussed previously.
created many new problems
of which gauging
standards and inspection
were among the more important.
The quality assurance
have been established
and are giving the intended results.
by Sandia Laboratory,
have been extended into all nonnuclear fields.
in being made in assuring parts interchangeability.
and quantity of base spares necessary
to support the ever-increasing
family of weapon types also created problems
which was adequate when there were few weapons,
and the Military,
and a new concept of “maintenance
study by SFO, its contractors,
cient parts to maintain a group of weapons and/or stockpile
for’s period of one
and, in addition,
to support strike assembly
for a group of weapons.
spares are scheduled concurrently
will assure an adedelivery
of the parent bomb, fuze or radar assembly.
quate supply of spare parts at storage sites to maintain the stockpile
and to guarantee that
when weapons are issued to the Military
they will be accompanied
by a year% supply of
The Mlue of complete
weapons in stockpile
is dependent upon the capability
To keep pace with the new types of weapons in stockpile,
to use them.
their training programs;
it was necessary
for the Military
for SF0 to accelerate
weapons with supporting
test and handling
to the Military
As the quantities
of War Reserve
and training weapons increased,
the need for complete weapons catalogs became more apparent,
and at the same time the Military
for the direct delivery
by the AEC of training weapons and materials
for adaption kits to support various missile
From these examples,
it may be seen that every increase
in any phase of the weapons
has an accompanying
impact upon some other phase of weapon production
of atomic weapons of all types involves
It is essentially
to apportion credit for progress
serves a separate function.
If the available
effort is divided judiciously
among them, results from all are combined for maximum progress.
depend upon these four activities
being related as the links in a chain at any given time.
If any one were to be discontinued
no large decrease
in the rate of progress
would be noticeable immediately.
As the interval
of no work in one activity
it is certain that
the rate of progress
would fall very rapidly,
not to three-quarters
of the previous
to a virtually
To those immersed
in technical development,
the law of supply and demand, as applied to pertinent technical
is a very strong factor governing
effort among the major activities.
in some fields gets ahead of that in others.
A demand for information
from those lagging behind then builds up to the point where it
obvious that a shift of effort,
with the corresponding
in dollar expenditure,
is both economically
sound and technically
keep the activities
of a laboratory
such as LASL in reasonable
the function of
to sense small imbalances
to adjust effort
so as to maintain a steady progress
in all necessary
It is most difficult
for one without an intimate and detailed understanding
each of these activities
plays and the relative
efforts being expended on each to judge
whether a given one is receiving
too much or too little attention at a given time.
way of judging if the distribution
of effort is good is to examine the over-all
if it is satisfactory
over an appreciable
so must have been the distribution
In the more distant past, full-scale
testing was not well-balanced
with other activiThe need for test information
at the time of Trinity
was so urgent and so obvious
ties.that a large fraction of the national stockpile
was used up during a
hot war in which it might have been put to direct military
to weapon development
and the growing demand for test-type
information again became determining
in 1947 leading to Sandstone.
Another high surge in the
demand for information
arose before Ranger.
The very great and sudden improvements
the national stockpile
after Sandstone and after Ranger are
not only of the value of full-scale
but also of the fact that testing activity
had been at too low a level compared
with the other activities.
Other fields were sufficiently
far ahead so that even a little information
from tests improved
One of the major activities
should never again be allowed to fall so far behind
in all other major lines for, if so, these activities
will soon reach the point of
LASL does not yet feel that the rate of testing is as rapid as the gendiminishing
eration of new ideas would warrant.
A new factor has recently
entered into the general problem
testing so as to match appropriately
in other facets of development.
of results from basic experiIn almost any fission
and component experiments--all
of which can be
at Los AlamosTan
of all pertinent physical
at the beginning of the explosion
This is not true of devices dependent upon newer
Not only are calculations
much more difficult
techniques for assembly
and uncertain for the assembly
phases of these newer devices,
but basic data are often less
checks of predicted
(if known at all) and, still worse,
Thus, where full-scale
cannot be made without a nuclear detonation.
clear detonations for fission weapon development
have been made with the primary
objective of obtaining information
about the explosive
plAases of the process,
tests are now required
to obtain information
of functhe assembly
and the disassembly
tion of a proposed
type of device
can easily lead to more than twice as much testing as
might be required
if only one phase were relatively
Another factor influencing
choice of the optimum amount of testing of thermonuclear,
involves the great difficulty
the deas compared
with pure fission,
sired quantities affecting
the newer techniques during their progress.
the new field, test experimentation
has become much more complicated
and costly in manpower and dollars.
This factor tends to hold down the number of such tests because the
of effort required
for a high rate of field testing would handicap other necessary
it is clear that relaactivities
to the point of impeding over-all
tively more tests are needed for thermonuclear
than for fission weapon
of the LASL effort is to obtain knowledge
areas as to utiThe area of nuclear characteristics,
lization of nuclear energy for explosive
of all materials
which are employed;
the area of physespecially
of these materials;
the area of mechanics and dynamics
of methods of initiating the nuclear energy release;
and the area of the
in which the energy generation
per unit volume is very
In a general
way each area corresponds
to an organizational
The orbeen no major changes in the internal structure’ of LASL during the three years.
includes the following:
of super(T) Division
-- Is involved in all areas,
which is understandably
less amenable to experimental
-- Is organizationally
for the area
on the exotic
used in arrangements
for producing a nuclear explosion,
of these materials
and for their adequate purification,
on a production
scale adequafe to insure continual improvement
-- Is responsible
of methods of initiating
design phases in the
-- Is concerned
with high speed assembly
as to methods of initiating
the nuclear energy release
and, in the field of explosives,
Weapons Test (J) Division
-- Is responsible
for nuclear and chemical
in tests of actual weapons,
and also has many other responsibilities
in the planning and
conduct of full-scale
lines are project types of operation,
which take ‘on the major programs
to be recommended
to SFOO, continuously
teams or committees
tees and boards required
to carry the program
take up individual phases of a program.
There are various
the joint LASL-Sandia
authority subject to concurrence
the weapon development
There are other
design and testing.
LASL is represented
on the Special Weapons Development
Board at Sandia, along with Sandia Laboratory and FC-AFSWP
on two gun committees,
which include the military
ordnance corps concerned
for SF0 the responsibilities
for the non-nuclear
Its functions as of mid-1953
studies of the feasibility
phases of nuclear weapons.
of new weapons and components;
studies of weapons effects;
of weapons; the training of military
teams; exchange of information
and quality assurance
and other agencies;
During the three-year
in emphasis with the introduetion
of new strategic
and the development
to this work increased
from 605 to
1,976 between 1950 and 1953.
Bldgs. & Equipment
objective of San&a Laboratory
is to contribute to the design
of weapons that basic understanding of weapons systems which will provide optimum miliMore specifically,
it is to understand thoroughly the effects of atomic bombs
and the methods of delivering them in order to determine the basic requirements
In .achieving such an understanding,
special emphasis is directed toward the fuzing system; toward knowledge of realistic requirements
of accuracy and reliability
will in turn permit an intelligent choice to be made between types of fuzing systems.
related factors have had a marked effect on all aspects of the research program:
the increased supply of nuclear material,
and the increased yield which can be obtained from a
Together they have made possible the economical use of
given size of nuclear system.
nuclear weapons in tactical applications and the employment of a wider variety of delivery
The scope of research problems is extensive as a consequence of the number of
tactical weapons involved.
One base for weapon design is an understanding of the destructive effects of atomic
These effects are far from being completely understood by physicists.
- being investigated by Sandia Laboratory
which supplies instrumentation
blast, heat, and nuclear radiation effects in full-scale
atomic weapon tests and analyzes
high explosive blasts at Coyote Canyon have contriresulting data. Studies of small-scale
buted additional data, and laboratory
shock tube studies have supplied information about the
involved in shock wave transmission
through the atmosphere.
‘The specific information obtained in weapons effects measurements has been interpreted by analytical groups to predict the reaction of various target complexes to atomic
bursts. The variation in effect on the target has been studied-as a function of bomb yield
and burst location, and these studies have provided information on the change in target
damage due to burst height and delivery errors.
To speed up these studies, which are
tedious in practice, the research group has developed analog computing devices, an example of which is the bombing evaluation computer.
An adequate theory of weapon effects will, when it is fully developed, permit an accurate prediction of the military damage achieved when a weapon is delivered under ideal
The degradation in actual use due to unreliability,
to enemy countermeasures,
and to delivery errors leads to a second major field ‘of study. Weapon analysis is a study
of the military worth of a weapon based on knowledge of weapon effects and of the several
factors which reduce the performance of a system below the ideal.
However, imhas been recognized from the start as an important factor in any system.
proved techniques have been developed for determining the reliability of systems and of
individual components, and have in turn pointed out areas for profitable improvement.
The dual motor IF1 is an example of such component improvements.
An important change during the past three years has been the increased realization
that evaluation of a system must also include a study of the human aspects of its expected
use. Human engineering studies and close liaison with the Military have led to more realistic requirements and, in turn, to systems of reduced complexity.
The development or improvement of components resulting both from the weapons
analysis studies already mentioned, and from engineering requirements,
also has been important. Creation of two departments with the direct responsibility in this area has resulted in increased contributions to the weapons program.
One department is responsible
for radar and test equipment development.
The other department concerns itseif with
The research organization also has given direct
mechanical and electrical components.
For example, an
support to the engineering groups in several fields of specialization.
aerodynamics group has been established with responsibility for specifying the shapes of
ballistic cases. Extensive use of wind tunnel testing, consultation with leading aerodynamic
institutions, and theoretical work has greatly reduced the time and expense necessary for
the design and testing of new ballistic weapon shapes.
Tests of Assemblies,
Components and Over-All
During the course of development and evaluation, many tests of a new weapon and its
For excomponents are made to determine and assure weapon suitability and reliability.
ample, the following tests were made of one typical free-fall bomb (Mk 5) and its components:
These include: Drop tests (25 weapon, complete with fuze but without live HE, were
dropped to acquire performance and reliability data; and 36 were dropped to acquire ballistic data); catapulting and arresting tests (one weapon complete with fuze was subjected to 17
catapultings, and 12 arrested landings); dynamic stress tests of bomb with fuze (1 tested);
temperature distribution tests (1 tested); aircraft compatibility tests (to determine bomb
bay clearance and separation characteristics
of bomb and 13 carriers).
These include: Wind-tunnel ballistic tests (case assembly);
static load tests; environmental tests (actual and simulated); vibration tests; climatic tests (arctic, tropic, desert);
stability tests (physical stability); functional tests; tool-made
Tests of warhead installations for missiles and rockets are analogous to those for
Complete installations and their components are flight tested with
the free-fall bombs.
the carriers for which they are being developed.
Some of the tests are made at widely separated places.
Warhead installation tests
are made at White Sands (New Mexico), Holloman AFB (New Mexico),
Point Mugu (California),
as well as at Salton Sea (California).
mental tests are made at locations in Minnesota, Florida, and Alaska.
Cornell in New York,
are made at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, Cal. Tech. in California,
and Langley Field, in Virginia; and tests of gun-type weapons were made at Aberdeen,
Most of the drop tests of free-fall
bombs are made at
Maryland, and Dahlgren, Virginia.
Salton Sea and at Muroc, California.
In carrying on their development operations and test activities,
both LASL and the
Sandia Corporation have been assisted appreciably by Bendix-Royal,
another member of
the SF0 family, and by other Government agencies such as the Bureau of Ordnance (Navy),
Office Chief of Ordnance (Army), AMC (USAF), NOL (Navy), National Bureau of Standards,
and the NACA.
The purchasing organization,
in addition to its current procurement
on July 1, 1950, for the completion of all open contracts and purchase
actions previously negotiated by the AEC procurement
offices at New York, Los Angeles,
and Santa Fe, for materials and services applying on Sandia Laboratory
research and development and production.
At the time the average number of purchase orders placed per month was 1,400 on
vendors and 80 on the AEC.
The monthly payments averaged $2,600,000
to vendors, and
transfers from the AEC amounted to $1, 100, 000.
With the rapid increase in the research and development and production programs in
the succeeding three years, heavy responsibilities
were placed on all organizations
to obBy June 1953, the volume of orders
tain the necessary
materials and services required.
and contracts placed per month was 3,500 on vendors and 164 on the AEC with monthly payThe number of recorded
ments to vendors of $7, 000, 000 and $2,500,000 for AEC transfers.
In placing this invendors increased from 4,200 to 5,700 during‘the three-year
was given to small businesses
creased volume of business,
A controlled material plan which provided for the allotment of
handle the Sandia work.
critical materials, both for the Corporation and its vendors,
was placed in operation and
as a result no serious delays were encountered due to the lack of materials.
weapons assembly_ shop.
of the Laboratory
were divided between the model
shop and the
6 2 2 3
Model shop manufacture
covered the production
and parts to
support the research
1951, it took’ over the additional responsibility
of TX and TU weapons.
model shop had 180 employees
on July 1, 1950, and was housed in scattered
areas of approximately
16,000 square feet with limited facilities.
into the new model fabricating
building in June 1951, and now occupies
97,000 square feet
of floor space.
have been provided
and there are now 600 trained employees.
With the increased
emphasis now being placed on research
and the transfer to other contractors
and gun-type weapons,
TX and TU units will be transferred
to the weapons assembly
shop, leaving the model shop
free to devote all of its efforts to the serving of the research
The weapons assembly
shop which assembles,
tests, and packages
some of each
Mark weapon, has similarly
grown from 250 to 550 employees,
and its floor space has
from 85,000 to 175,000 square feet.
It is housed in a new production
which was completed
and occupied in January 1951.
The value of production,
amounted to $23,664,000
for the fiscal year 1951;
for the fiscal year 1952; and $97, 700,000 for the fiscal year 1953. Substantially all major production
at Sandia were met during this three-year
With the transfer
of quantity production
and gun-type weapons
to other AEC contractors,
of this shop will be confined in the future to
of: a small number of free-fall
to prove weapon
and field test and handling equipment.
will also be available
during the past three years has been placed on: release
of designs based
on maximum possible
and ease .of manufacture,
with the manufacturers,
and adequate inspection
and quality control.
because of the greater
of weapons and the transfer
type weapons to other AEC contractors.
ization has been established
through uniform drafting methods,
and the increasing
and use of commercial
have been employed.
To the extent that they are available,
only have these recognized
standards been adopted, but by cooperation
such as the American
a definite contribution
to the standards
of this country.
with national standLaboratory
In addition to this, through a manufacturing
type of organization
the Sandia Corporation
and their contacts with the AEC manufacturing
manufacturing comments have been incorporated
into designs well in advance of design releases.
This early incorporation
comments plus the standardization
continue with the result that design specifications
will present the best professional
of a design that it is possible
This will result in more efficient
procurement of weapons and components
and will minimize
With the growth of the AEC manufacturing
liaison has been developed between the Corporation
and the non-nuclear
has been established
and continuing interchange
to expedite weapons production.
has designed and usualWith regard to inspection
and quality control,
ly has furnished to the non-nuclear
gauging and production
It has also developed
field and internecessary
to control function and interchangeability.
nal inspection agencies
control for all of its outside purchases
in addition to covering
been expanded to all major AEC weapons producers.
Weapons are checked by Sandia Laboratory
both before and after they enter stockpile.
In July 1950, Sandia Laboratory’s
was confined to testing
During the last three years a much more adesmall samples of its own finished product.
has been developed.
sampling plans were instituted,
of defect classifications
were made, and methods of presentation
were decided upon.
quality assurance program
later was extended to other major AEC weapon production
and defined well enough so that some vendors to the Laboratory
are, under Sandia LaboraEarly in 1952,
data on their own product for Sandia analysis.
the first tool-made
sample report was published,
an event which signalled
of a program
the degree of conformance
of the product to design intent.
Quality Survey Program,
which was designed to investigate
and rate vendor capabilities,
was begun in mid-1952.
have seen three major increases
since July 1950. One
of these changes results from a decision to do an increasingly
amount of repair
Costs of shipping weapons to
work at the sites rather than at some manufacturing
centers have, as a result,
Another area of activity
which has grown since 1950 is a calibration
begun about the middle of 1952.
in that five new sites have been
the scope of operation
built, a much greater
of weapon types as well as a constantly
of weapons have been produced,
and an increasing
on the payroll as of June 1, 1950, of whom 22 per cent
and-this ratio has remained
constant during the
past three years.
a rapid acceleration
a total of 5,447 employees
on a payroll as of June 30, 1953. No appreciable
this figure is anticipated
during the coming year.
to obtain the net increase
during the three-year
it was necessary
to hire 5,570 persons at
rate of 154 per month.
The average monthly separations
during this period
was 1.5 per cent per month, compared
with a national average
of 4 per cent per month.
The table below statistically
the major factors entering
cal phases of the research,
Cost of Research
Cost of Production
(other construction & elsewhere)
Cost of Own Production
less than 500
more than 500
(sq. ft. )
(sq. ft. )
(sq. ft. )
Number of Employees
at End of Year
into the techni-
to the success
of the technical
and benefits were
adopted to include a contributory
plan, a Corporation-finance
group life insurance plan, an insurance
service, and payment of a differential
allowance to employees
to make up for loss of income during the
period of adjustment to military
to review employees
was inauThe training program
included 50,000 student hours of instruction.
in March 1953, moved into a new modern
Awards of Honor of the
National Safety Council for Sandia’s outstanding safety record were received
for performance for each of the last two years.
and the severity rate for accidents has been kept below
those of other AEC contractors
and the national average for similar
field of accounting,
a major accomplishment
was the installation
of a cost control system
An auditing organization
was also established
for making internal audits
and for the auditing
tracts and contracts
subject to renegotiation.
cost type con-
with the unions have been good, and the number of grievances
was taken to arbitration
by the union,
During the three -year period,
right to discharge
supported the Corporation’s
IN THE SANDIA
The Sandia Field Office is responsible
of the weapons inspecThese assigntion program
and has other responsibilities
ments are in addition to a wide scope of security,
and contract administraA summary
tion functions resulting
from its association
with Sandia Laboratory.
here as it assists understandinspection,
ing not only of SFOOField
Office activity but also of the rather extensive
scope of productionrelated SF0 activity.
OF C OLLEGEGRADUATES
The Weapons Inspection
Inspection personnel utilized in the field office inspection program initiated April 1,
1950, were military officers and enlisted men assigned by AFSWP.
Prior to the AEC inspection activity, they served as AFSWP inspectors Po assure that’military
were met in products processed
and delivered by Sandia Corporation.
Subsequent to July
1950, civilian personnel were hired and trained to replace military inspectors;‘replacement being completed in June 1951. Concurrently,
a liaison section was formed by Field
Command to assist in inspection problems.
A site reacceptance
inspection program was activated in September 1950. AFSWP
with field office approval designated military officers at Sites Able, Baker, and Charlie to
serve as AEC Chief and Alternate Chief Inspectors in ZI site reacceptance
of bombs which
had been temporarily released from AEC custody for the purpose of functional surveillance
inspection by Sandia Corporation.
In September 1951, AEC reacceptance
similarly initiated at Site Dog.
In the period July-September
1952, AEC inspection at Sites Easy, Fox, and George
was instituted subsequent to agreements between AEC-SF00
inspection at Site How was initiated in April 1953. Inspection at Site Jig was initiated in July 1953,
after agreements were reached between AEC-SF0 and Navy-BuOrd.
Each site AEC inspection office has a chief and an alternate chief inspector responsible
to Sandia Field Office on all matters pertaining to AEC reacceptance
formulates policy and issues appropriate directives setting forth broad responsibilities
AEC site inspectors are drawn from the local military command for periods
wherein plant operations are performed on AEC materiel.
Site inspection groups vary in size depending upon capacity of facilities and equipment
and extent of plant operations; ranging from approximately
at Sites Able and
Baker to approximately
8 at Site Easy.
The AEC inspection programs,
within the field office and at the ZI sites, have been
directed toward a final product acceptance concept.
In addition to 100 per cent acceptance
inspection of delivered materiel,
monitoring of receiving and process inspection performed
by the contractor is achieved by means of “sampling checks” of material and review of contractor methods, facilities and equipment.
In 1952, a resident AEC inspector was established at Douglas Aircraft in El Segundo,
AEC acceptance inspection on mechanical components processed
This joint AEC-Sandia Corporation inspection activity at vendor
for Inyokern and Sandia.
eliminated need for shipment to Sandia prior to delivery to Inyokern and improved delivery
dates for stockpile.
Expiration of Douglas contracts with Sandia will allow recall of this
inspector in December 1953.
It was felt that considerable
savings might be realized by performing
at Motorola in Chicago with subsequent direct delivery of radars to stockpile.
a resident AEC inspector was established on a trial basis in May 1952. Technical analysis
of radars produced during the period May-August 1952 indicated, however,
utilizing Sandia facilities was still required; the resident inspector was therefore recalled_
Appreciable savings were realized in accomplishing
AEC inspection at Picatinny.
An AEC-Sandia inspector made frequent trips to Picatinny to inspect the Mark 9 shells
direct shipment to stockpile,
In June 1953, AEC-SF00
and direct shipment to stockpile
of detoall bombs.
He was also made responsible
of all Mark 9 shells pro_
was given in formulating
inspection manuals and in preparing
for SF00 approval and issuance.
has been successfully
in the past three years.
Sandia Field Office have eoordinated
with other field offices in continuing liaison capacities
to assure uniformity
in the AEC inspection
In the administration
of the rapidly
expanding site inspection
in addition to SF0 directives
involve detailed systems,
have been initiated.
and liaison channels,
and are originated
and instituted as required
and uniform site inspection
Manual I delegated
to Sandia in regard to liaison
in the AEC inspection interest
with other field offices.
was initiated in
the Summer of 1950 with Kansas City and Burlington,
and in 1952 with Pantex.
SF00 has arranged
and training of AEC inspectors.
In the assembly
of final products for War Reserve,
utilized consist basically
and test procedures, packaging procedures,
and marking and shipment specifications.
. In the modification and maintenance
in addition to the
above, include rework
and test procedures.
methods are in conformance
ranging from parts drawings and related
to final assembly
and testing specifications.
The AEC, however,
through such use, that products delivered
to AEC are functional,
utilized in the AEC interest
and parts lists for major assemblies
inspection methods instructions
and test procedures
for final assemblies
and certain subassemblies,
and packing sheets.
by Sandia Corporation except detailed
for high explosive
and “pit” assemblies
LASL design requirements
which are designed by LASL.
a single product
and control agency.
The staff of the field office has been expanded in the past three years to include engineering personnel
to review Sandia Corporation
and approve those
final product specifications
which are used as a basis of acceptance
of all engineering
is achieved by review
of such specifications,
and by formal approval of end
product and testing specifications,
those utilized in AEC inspection
and test; and revisions
prior to publication.
Review and approval of specifications
to: insure practicality and workability of such specifications;
assure proper function, interchangeability,
conform to approved systems
and achieve compatibility
for all affected delivering
In addition to review
and approval of specifications
which govern issue and release
drawing control systems,
parts numbering systems,
are approved or recommended
with the reviewing
and approval functions for specifications
the field office maintains liaison with engineering
and inspection personnel of other field offices,
control of specifications
and of use and uniformity
of inspection procedures.
It is considered
of prime importance
to AEC to insure uniformity
of producing agency.
For this reason there was initiated in September
1950, a monthly listing of AEC approved specifications
to govern AJ3C acceptance
of major assemblies.
This listing is distributed
to all affected delivering
agencies and ZI
The listing is divided into two sections;
the first showing which designated
at each agency and site, and the latter section providing listings of pertinent
to all acceptable
The scope of the AEC monthly specifications
used for final contractor
and testing by the AEC for acceptance
changes introduced in subsequent monthly listings are of a major class; i. e., controlled
basic design or major remedial
The monthly listing is applicable
rather than calendar rates of deliveries
In 1951, AEC-Sandia
inaugurated and placed into effect a
system for Sandia Corporation
by item to various military
and to War Reserve
on a monthly basis.
In late 1952, AEC-Sandia,
taking into cognizance
of new weapons
and the activation
of additional storage sites, both of which resulted in an attendant increase
in the complexity
of the modification
into effect a procedure
of these programs.
has resulted in considerable
as well as
keeping the AEC continuously
as to the latest status of all weapons at all sites.
Another benefit gained has been the expediting
of shipments of modification
sites for purposes
those weapons in the hands
of the Department
of Defense to the latest status.
sites have been used routinely
by LASL since 1943 for tests involving
for tests involving
As discussed in the previous
up to the point of disassembly
weapons could be
tested at Los Alamos’
With the advent of two-stage
outlying sites could no longer’ be used to acquire arsembly knowledge;
of both the assembly
fullscale field tests.
field tests is for exploration
of what takes place during assembly
and for nuclear
are held, however,
to check the functioning of various components
or of the full weapon.
Tests for these purposes
are utilized additionally
by other national programs,
and civil defense effects programs.
tests are scheduled almost entirely to meet military
but are then used additionally
From the viewpoint
of AEC programs,
are held for the
the adequacy of a device or weapon before it enters the national
a firm basis for undertaking the extensive
effort which must be expended in order to carry a preliminary
to the version satisfactory
for stockpile production.
the adequacy, ‘or inadequacy
in order that promising
avenues of development
exploited more fully or given lower priority
phenomena which can vitally affect the efficiency
of an atomic weapon, but which are not susceptible
to prior theoretical analysis of sufficient
a basis for choice among existing theoretical
in order to concentrate
attention along lines of the greatest practical
to the production
new and untried
entirely new information
pertinent to weapons development
Exarising as a by-product
has shown the significant
value of such incidental
in addition to specifically
7. Gain time in urgent development’programs
scale tests for a portion of a possible
in the laboratory.
by the substitution
as a by-product,
a part of the backlog of knowledge
obtained in the laboratory.
Tests thus contribute
to other major phases of weapons development.
of this type of information
lies in its use in the interpretation
studies of bomb debris
nated by other nations.
of the constitution
Nuclear field tests are thus important and integral
factors in the diagnostic
of the over-all
.They are also essential
Civil Defense Administration
with pertinent information
and for training purposes
of many kinds.
The actiand the progressing
vation of an overseas
and a continental proving grounds,
number of tests, are a direct reflection
of the rapid development
of atomic weapons during
During the pre-1947
the first nuclear device was detonated in July 1945,
on a remote section of the Alamogordo
conducted in July 1946 at Bikini Atoll in the
test was followed by Operation
of two tests made to determine
Islands of the Pacific.
As early as 1947, when the necessity
the effects of atomic weapons against naval vessels.
for more tests was apparent,
was given to selecting
a testing site within
the continental United States.
Due to several
was made to
continue using the Marshall
Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall
Islands was approved by the President
of the United States on December
2, 1947, as the site for an atomic proving
ground enIts isolated location and more usable
_‘trusted to the AEC for operation
were tested during Operation
real estate influenced
its choice over Bikini.
Sandstone in April 1948. As a result of the Sandstone tests, the efficiency
of atomic weapons were substantially
Eniwetok and Parry
Islands began immediately
after the operation,
and the Pacific
Grounds during the present period has served as the overseas
site for two series
of fullscale tests.
-- Was conducted during April and May 1951.
The series consisted of four tests:
the detonation of two nucIear weapons (bombs) and two experimental
The first shot, a weapon test, was detonated April 8 on a 300-foot tower on Runit
Island, Eniwetok Atoll.
The second shot, also a weapon test, was detonated April 21 on a
The third shot, a device test, was detonated May 9 on a
300-foot tower on Engebi Island.
shot, also a device,
fired on a 200-foot tower on Engebi Island, May 25.
a weapon of smaller
size and weight,
a weapon of higher yield and efficiency,
and to conduct explorations
in the thermonuclear
to study the effects of nuclear detonations
and animals were included for the benefit of DOD, AEC Division
Long range detection techniques
were further studied during th
Operation Ivy -- Planning was already under way when Greenhouse
The series was announced on October 1, 1951. The Ivy series
of the detonation
and a high yield nuclear weapon.
The first shot
of a very high yield thermonuclear
_was detonated on November
1, 1952, from a surface platform
The second shot was an air-dropped
weapon detonated at a height of 1,500 feet over Runit Island
The test contributed
to work in the thermonuclear
were also included in the Operation.
Eniman Camp - Bikini Atoll
from Lagoon Side
4500-foot Airstrip at Bikini Atoll
Constructed on Two Islands with
Bikini (on Enyu Island)
Zero, Site Elugelab and
-AI c: ^_
As early as 1947, LASL had proposed that AEC activate a continental
that continental operations
would pose difficult problems,
inIt was deeluding protection
and public reaction.
termined that Operation
Sandstone would be held overseas
and the question of a continental
site was postponed.
More frequent tests became essential
during 1949 and 1950.
A related test preliminary
at a rate which could not be satisfied
in 1950 and, with the outbreak of Korean hostilities,
LASL reStudies and site surveys had continued throughout
newed its request for a continental site.
It was generally
agreed that continental tests would be economical
It was finally agreed that, under feasible
tests of deAbandonment
vices of limited yield could be held with adequate assurance
of public safety.
Grounds was never considered,
although the possibility
that the overThe proseas area might be closed by the international
situation was a factor considered.
jected continental site was to be in addition to the overseas
14, 1950, a memorandum
of State, Secretary
notified them that the President
ance of the Department
one for early development
had been surveyed
and the results
An area in Nevada
from the National Security
Council to the
of the Atomic Energy Comdirected
with the assistsuitable continental
sites and to recommend
about 50 miles
Selection of these possible
of sites in Canada and Alaska;
sites along the northeastern
coast; and other sites along the southeastern
in the arid west seemed desirable
because they were sufficiently
remote from population,
and had sufficient
uninhabited areas to allow conduct of nuclear tests with adequate public safety.
Only the Las Vegas area met the criteria
for a continental
ready accessibility to Los Alamos Scientific
and Sandia Laboratory
by land and air, good
safety for small off -site population,
of economy of preparation
and operation; and sufficient
!4,& 0. .
13; 1950, the Chairman,
for use of
the Las Vegas Bombing and Gunnery Range as an atomic continental
test site to a Special
Nevada Proving Grounds
Nevada Proving Grounds
Nevada Proving Grounds
Injured by Radiological
NPG during Upshot -Knothole
Committee of the National Security Council for Atomic Energy Matters.
Five days later
Presidential approval was given, and preparations were made to activate the site which
subsequently became Nevada Proving Grounds.
The Nevada Proving Grounds was activated January 1, 1951, using temporary construction and the first nuclear test shot was detonated on January 27, 1951. During the current three-year period, four series of continental tests have been conducted:
Winter 1951 Series (Operation Ranger) -five
shots. All were experimental
devices tested by the air drop technique.
The tests were diagnostic in nature.
agnostic for the
air bursts, and
shots. Five were primarily dibenefit of LASL, and two were primarily of interest to DOD as
Shot 1 was a tower shot, the following four were
the last two were respectively
a surface and an underground burst.
Spring 1952 Series (Tumbler-Snapper&eight
They were equally
divided as to air bursts and tower shots; five were experimental devices of primary interest to LASL, and three were sponsored by DOD in connection with
weapons effects phenomena.
Spring 1953 Series (Upshot-Knothole&eleven
shots, including air, tower,
and the 280mm nuclear projectile shot. Nine shots were diagnostic in nature,
seven being of primary interest to LASL and two to UCRL; and two tests were of
primary concern to DOD, includingproof-testingof
the 280mm nuclear projectile.
The latter, however,
was of particular interest to LASL, and justification
the shot was a joint AEC-DOD responsibility.
During the last three series approximately
37,500 personnel of the Armed Forces,
including Army, Air Force,
and Marine Corps units, were indoctrinated in the principles
of atomic warfare through simulated combat maneuvers conducted in conjunction with the
Desert Rock” I-V, was conducted by the
Armed Forces participation,
Sixth Army from a headquarters
at Camp Desert Rock nearby.
Various groups of officer
volunteers during several shots were stationed in advance of the main body of troops at
Also exposed to detonation for Armed Forces effects information
the time of detonation.
were materiel and supplies, above- and below-ground
and items such as pine
trees and railroad equipment.
Air Force participation
for crew indoctrination and experimental test purposes as
well as for normal air support--such
as cloud tracking and sampling-was
During Shot 9 (1953 series) a maximum of 100 aircraft
in the last series.
Notable from a public relations viewpoint were the two “Open Shots” of April 22,
1952, and March 17, 1953, during which national news media representatives,
and Federal Civil Defense Administration representatives
to witness the detonations as uncleared observers.
The resecurity control conditions,
sulting wide coverage through all media--press,
radio, TV, and motion picture---provided
the public with opportunity to add to its understanding of Commission
Federal Civil Defense Administration
partiof Armed Forces activities and objectives.
cipation in effects experiments
was continued throughout the last series,
and was reportedly
of great value in the national defense effort.
Public safety is the primary factor limiting utilization of Nevada Proving Grounds,
and public reaction whether justified or unjustified by events is a major management concern.
As of July 1953, it had been proposed that a representative
committee be formed to
review all factors bearing on NPG utilization and public safety and a Committee To Study
Its report will present the details of NPG
Nevada Proving Grounds was being organized.
utilization, of the operating record of full public safety, of factors bearing on future utiThe report may be referred to for
lization, and arrive at conclusions as to the future.
further details of NPG operation.
housing, and some degree of community services are provided at
several SF0 installations.
There are, however, only two which are classified formally as
“community programs, n those at Los Alamos and at Sandia Base.
The Los Alamos and Sandia programs are detailed in this chapter.
activities of this general type include the following:
Salton Sea Test Base,
The other support
Limited but important all-year housing-community
facilities are provided with operaThe site is on the edge ‘of Salton Sea remote from any established
tion by Sandia Laboratory.
A few residences,
a lodge, and utilities were constructed prior to July 1950,
as part of a $1,373,000
and community facilities construction program.
Present housing is adequate to accommodate
35 permanent employees and up to
and military personnel during brief operational periods.
Recreational facilities include a swimming pool, the importance of which is enhanced by summer
as high as 125 degrees.
AEC contributed financially to facilities to house employees of the operating contractor,
Community management is a responsibility
of Army Ordnance, which
operates the Iowa Ordnance Plant at which the SF0 plant is located.
AEC contributed financially to construction of community facilities
Wells Pilot Plant of Naval Ordnance Test Station. Community operation
of Naval Ordnance.
supporting the Salt
is a responsibility
Camp Mercury is the camp which supports NPG, including housing and mess facilities
for the small interim population and for the relatively large operational period population.
Plans have been drawn for further construction to make Mercury capacity come closer to
including provision of additional barracks and of an assemblyoperating period requirements,
As of July 1953, these plans were being held in abeyance pending
review of future NPG utilization.
Permanent camp-type facilities are provided on Eniwetok Island for military personnel
both providing for population
and on Parry Island for AEC and contractor personnel,
During a test series buildup and operations,
expansion during operational periods.
support camp facilities are provided in the firing areas on other islands.
As of July 1953,
construction was in progress on such facilities at several locations on Bikini Atoll.
This supporting community, located on Sandia Base and in effect a joint AEC-AFSWP
has been an important factor in the growth of SandiaLaboratory.
of facilities by the AEC at Sandia started in the winter of 1947-1948,
The first contract
with the Corps of Engineers acting as AEC’s authorized representative.
was for erection of temporary housing for AEC and operating contractor employees.
housing was constructed on military land with the understanding that as soon as other AEC
The Corps of Engineers continued
housing was available it would be turned back to AFSWP.
community or technical,
until July 1950, when
to supervise all AEC -Sandia construction,
was assigned to the Sandia Field Office.
The community construction program was begun and largely completed during the previous three-year
period at a total cost of approximately $5, 935,000.
Included were housing
and 100 dormitory rooms), and the Coronado Club for
(235 single units, 136 apartments,
30 additional housing units for single occupancy,
and some street and utility construction has been completed,
at a cost of
An additional total of $6,421,000
of AEC funds was turned over to AFSWP for construction of community facilities,
some of which were joint projects with AEC.
In the period prior to June 30, 1950, the AEC housing area was administered by AECcollected rentals, utility paySandia through a housing office which controlled occupancy,
ments, and generally supervised operations in the area. By agreement with AFSWP, housing maintenance was performed by the Post Engineer, AFSWP, on request of the AEC HOUSing Office.
In the Spring of 1950, the AEC Housing Office was disbanded, and operation
and maintenance of the housing area was turned over to Sandia Corporation,
contractor for Sandia Laboratory.
In addition to the AEC housing on Sandia Base, AFSWP has a large housing area which
In 1951 there was
two and one-half times more units than that of AEC.
completed adjacent to the Base a Wherry Housing Area which was a joint project between
USAF SWC, Kirtland Field, and AFSWP, Sandia, with a provision that AEC personnel or
would have access to a limited number of units in this area if needed,
and if available after military requirements
had been fulfilled.
Effective August 1, 1953, and in conformance
with the requirements
of the Bureau of
the Budget Circular A-45, average rentals were increased by approximately
33.5 per cent.
The following table shows the record of community operation
Field Office from fiscal year 1949 through fiscal year 1953:
for the Sandia
Joint AEC -AFSWP
Contracts for electricity and natural gas to supply Sandia Base are under the jurisdiction
The AEC, by means of a contractual agreement with AFSWP, pays for its share
of the electrical power and natural gas on a metered basis or as.mutually agreed between
the parties to the contract.
Steam for heating and processing
on the Base is furnished from the AEC-owned steam
plant in accordance with the contract agreement described above.
AFSWP is charged for
steam furnished it on a metered basis at the actual cost of operation to AEC per thousand
pounds of steam produced.
The water supply system was constructed jointly by AEC and AFSWP.
AFSWP operates the system and AEC is charged 50 per cent of the direct labor and supervision cost of
running the water pumping plant.
Fire protection is provided under the contract agreement
ing 40 per cent of the direct labor cost of the Fire Department.
by AFSWP without charge
with AEC pay-
The change of Los Alamos from a makeshift community of 7,150 in July 1947, to a
and largely self-supporting
community of 12,700 populationthe eighth largest city in New Mexico--was
an outstanding achievement of the last six years.
Buildmg and developing Los Alamos community was a major management task during
The basic job was completed by mid-1950.
Further progress has been made
during the past three years in each phase of operations requisite to a modern city-adequate
provision of utilities, community operations,
etc. There have been definite accomplishments in each, contributing to the over-all achievement which is represented by today’s
The community of Los Alamos as envisaged at the time the community building program was initiated in fiscal year 1948 has been completed.
Housing units, schools,
hospital and related structures have been built and are operating as permanent parts of the community.
The housing emphasis has turned to replacing the approximately
585 substandard housing units located on the original Town site in the Eastern Area.
This was projected in the
original 1948 plan but had to be postponed because of the Korean emergency.
It is being
in phases over a period of years.
As now projected,
some 215 replacement
houses will be built and with existing housing will support a laboratory total of 3, 100 employees and provide for an ultimate community population of 13,000.
The first phase of
the replacement program,
consisting of 120 units, is scheduled for construction in fiscal
Related to replacement of housing is removal of the airport from its mesa-top location
It will be constructed in the Summer and Fall of 1954, including a
to a site at White Rock.
paved runway with a minimum length of 4,000 feet, an access road, control building, field
lighting, and other necessary appurtenances.
The report for 1947-1950 emphasized sufficiently the failures of water supply and
shortage of electricity,
of sewage treatment plants.
natural gas facilities,
For example, the original gas line placed Los Alamos on the far end of a gas transmission
Los Alamos was served after Santa Fe and Albuquerque had obtained
line of inadequate size.
their gas from the same line, This condition resulted in poor gas service at Los Alamos,
This is shown by the fact that in February 1951,
and was corrected by new construction.
the gas transmission
line which originally served this area ruptured between Albuquerque
such an accident would have
and Santa Fe. Prior to the Bloomfield gas line construction,
caused a serious gas shortage at Los Alamos, but with the new line in operation the gas
supply was adequate.
All such inadequate utility facilities have been reinforced by new construction with the
result that fear of failure, which would cause widespread distress to either the technical
Minor operating difficulties
programs or the community, has been practically eliminated.
have arisen, but serious trouble has become a thing of the past.
The major construction projects which have been completed and which have brought
about the adequacy of the present Los Alamos utility systems are: multiple-source
the TA-3 steam and power plant, the Bloomfield
gas line, and the Pueblo
Canyon sewage treatment plant. The adequacy of these plants has been proved by the fact that
they have met all increased demands caused by the growth of Los Alamos.
to the utilities systems, in order to keep pace with growth or changed conditions,
are all that
will be needed in the future.
Owing largely to these construction developments,
Los Alamos is now able to support
its present population of 12,700.
The table below shows the yearly population increase:
One of the first and primary objectives of SF00 was provision of a community at Los
Alamos which would fit all essential requirements
for agreeable living and which might beThe Manager, SFOO, projected
and, to some extent, self-supporting.
in 1948 his objective for the community to be eventually self-supporting
other than continuing
in the sense
Federal subsidies to the medical center and to the schools.
of no requirement for Federal subsidizing of community operations,
was not believed possible although it was a goal.
Such full self-support
achieved in fiscal year
The decline in deficit (difference between revenues and expenses) for community
operation, or in other words, the decrease in nsubsidyn and the conversion to a status of
and better, is indicated in the following table:
Many factors contributed to the change reported in the foregoing table.
services were discontinued entirely.
Other services formerly free were performed
charge to the residents.
At all times a much greater consciousness
of costs was generated
in all those who had a part in or control over the magnitude of the expenses.
Adjustments in Rental and Utility Rates -- There was also a slight adjustment in residential rental rates which could have caused an over-all increase of approximately
cent in revenue from that source.
However, in fiscal year 1953, the anticipated increase in
revenue was cancelled by increasing
vacancy in residential
real estate for reasons that
will be described later.
The other main source of revenue, namely, that from the commercial establishments,
has risen slightly.
The income from this source is mostly derived
from license agreements for the use of commercial
property which provide for the payment
of a percentage of gross sales as the monetary consideration
for the use of the space.
One of the early approaches to reducing subsidy was to inquire whether rents for
residential property were at a proper level.
The policy was established by the AEC that
residential rentals should be set at an amount which compared with rentals in this geographand that the rental scale at Los Alamos itself should be
ical area for similar premises,
such as to properly reflect the extreme differences
in the types of housing units available.
during several months by a local committee,
it was finally decided that
this problem might best be solved by hiring a residential real estate rental appraiser or
appraisers to survey Los Alamos and vicinity and make recommendations.
1950, the services of two appraisers_Treadwell
contracted for and
their report was submitted in December 1950. This was reviewed and a recommendation
made in January 1951, for the adoption of the appraisers’
report as a new rental scale to
be put into effect at Los Alamos.
During this same time, national policy on the subject
of rental rates for Federally-owned
housing was being formulated.
It was first announced
in Circular A-45 issued by the Bureau of the Budget under the date of June 9, 1951. The
new residential rental rates recommended
for Los Alamos were reviewed in the light of the
Directive A-45, were found to be in accord, and were put into effect on Janu
During the period covered by the foregoing,
intensive study was also being given to
the text of the family housing license agreement which had been in use since Army days at
and it was found that many changes and improvements
form of agreement was devised, following as much as possible normal real estate practice
and modified to take into account conditions at Los Alamos.
When the adjusted rents went
into effect on January 1, 1952, the new form of license agreement was put into effect for
a change in the charges for utilities at residential quarters was made in
order to conform with Bureau of the Budget Circular A-45 requirement for comparability
The study, research,
with local domestic rates for similar services.
that was necessary to comply with the intent as applied to the situation at Los Alamos took
Revised rates for utilities and revised monthly charges for
approximately six months.
utilities, where the consumption was not metered, were announced on May 1, 1953, and
were to be effective August 1, 1953.
Report of the Scurry Panel -- Another of the objectives of the Atomic Energy Commission has been the disposal of its communities to the residents if and when feasible.
To further that end, the Commissioners
appointed a “Panel on Community Operations”.
That committee was asked to express its opinion and make recommendations
on each of
What course of action should the AEC follow in the Oak Ridge, Richland,
and Los Alamos communities so that they will contribute most effectively to the
successful conduct of the atomic energy program?
What steps should the AEC take to (a) grant greater local autonomy and
to the residents of these communities,
and (b) reduce the cost to
Federal Government for the maintenance and operation of the communities?
Recognizing security requirements
and limitations on the possibility of the
communities becoming self-supporting,
what are the contractual,
other means by which the AEC may carry out Panel recommendations?
The report of the Panel, contrary to what it recommended
at Oak Ridge and Richland,
was that incorporation
and home ownership are not possible in the foreseeable
Los Alamos, but they should be considered as ultimate goals.
As a general conclusion,
the Panel stated that the town of Los Alamos was being competently and effectively
and that the prevailing policies and programs of the AEC Management were entirely acceptable until factors which made the ultimate goals unfeasible should change.
The report listed several obstacles to incorporation or private
this time and possibly in the future. .These included the followinff.
The fiscal requirements
of Los Alamos, because of its terrain and locaSelf-support
of municipal and
tion are higher than in ordinary communities.
utility services cannot be contemplated from usual sources,
such as the establishment of new industries.
A sizable Federal subsidy would be necessary if the
town were incorporated,
and real self-government
could not be achieved under
Few residents appear to favor more self-government
if the assumption of
Residents generally are satisfied with
is to be the price.
the present arrangements,
and have been unable to visualize a practical system of
of full self-government.
The nature of the real estate at Los Alamos is an obstacle to incorporation or property disposal.
Less than one-third of the present dwelling units are
Multi-family units presumably would be bought by investors
single -family units.
who would face little competition because of the difficulties of expanding the
As a result, rentals might reach inequitable levels.
If the government retained control over rents or occupancy,
the objective of local control
would not be reached.
The need for security in the form of close area control will remain in
This may delay or create a continuing obstacle to incorporation
and disposal of real estate.
A Long Range Planning Committee for the Community of Los Alamos,
was appointed by the Field Manager, June 17, 1953. In his letter to each member of the Committee,
the Field Manager outlinet the problems to be considered by the Committee in two paragraphs of his letter of June 17, 1953, which are quoted as follows:
“It has long been my intention to appoint a committee to tackle one of the
most complex problems which faces the Commission
at this level; that is, what
does the Los Alamos Field Office recommend as the long-range goal for the
community of Los Alamos with respect to ownership of property,
etc. It is very obvious from .the outset that this problem
is fraught with very complex,
legal and legislative
problems in that in the solution and planning of our long range goal for the
community of Los Alamos, due regard must be made of the responsibility
the Atomic Energy Commission owes to the Congress and to the taxpayer at
large, and further to give assurance that the Atomic Energy Commission project mission is carried out to advantage and that consistent with this, unwarranted obligations are not assumed by the Federal Government.
“These and many other factors present difficulties which require very
mature judgment in arriving at workable answers, and, in’ fact, the first step
may be to somehow outline the complex problem with all its many facets and then
The Committee has
set up a timetable for study and arriving at conclusions.
been intentionally set up as a small compact committee in order to avoid the
and further the committee appointed concreation of an unwieldy organization,
Quite simply, it could be stated that the purpose of the comtains balance.
mittee is to form a bridge between the rights and interests of individuals as
of the Atomic
residents and American citizens . . . . and the responsibilities
the project mission with full recognition
of AEC responsibilities
to the Congress and to the taxpayers of the nation as
a whole. n
The Committee has had several meetings and has considered the broad aspects of the
It has determined that problem No. 1 is the question of an open town, that is,
whether or not the use of passes and Security Guards in connection with the community of
Los Alamos should be discontinued.
of Housing on LASL Strength
1952, there began a noticeable
in the number of vacancies
which continued until the number of vacancies had doubled.
family housing at Los Alamos,
The condition was caused primarily by a steady decrease in the number of Zia Company and
During the same period the LASL personnel strength increased somewhat
the amount by which LASL
but not in the amount that had been anticipated.
did increase its personnel strength and consequently its occupancy of family housing was off__
set almost exactly by the amount that AEC decreased its payroll and its housing occupancy.
all of the losses in personnel strength sustained by the Zia Company and the
corollary decrease in family housing occupancy became a direct net increase in the number
The condition, which was looked upon with alarm for a short
of family housing units vacant.
time, was later recognized
as being of great advantage as Will be explained later.
Part of the difficulty encountered by LASL in building up its personnel strength has reportedly been lack of an adequate number of acceptable family-type
housing units. The latter
modern houses such as are being built for sale,
is defined as meaning single, one-story,
At Los Alamos there are many
and to a lesser extent for rent, elsewhere in the country.
apartment-type housing units (built for reasons of apparent economy) and there are also 585
substandard family housing units which were constructed during the war
Both the apartment and the temporary housing are
with a life expectancy of about five years.
shunned by most employees choosing a place to live at Los Alamos.
However, a great many
of the employees
who had arrived at Los Alamos earlier were housed in such type housing,
much to their displeasure,
and concerning which they have been vocal.
During that period new
employees were given their choice, within limits, of what was available out of the new houses
which were constructed in large numbers during the years from 1947 through 1950. If there
were any of those new houses not needed for new employees at the time that they were completed, older employees at Los Alamos who were housed in less desirable quarters were
permitted to move into them. Because of the large number of employees it was required to
house initially, only a small number of the new houses became available to older employees.
This matter became critical and in February 1952, the Housing Policy Board recom_
mended, and it was approved, that the so-called
nconveniencen moves, (namely, moves
of employees already at Los Alamos from one type of unit to another) should be considered
not only as desirable,
but necessary in the interest of personnel relations.
In short, the
Housing Policy Board, at the urging of IASL, expressed a preference
for pleasing an employee already in Los Alamos and trained, rather than favoring the new employees.
a definite program was undertaken to utilize the more desirable vacant housing units for
convenience moves and the new hires were in most instances offered only the less desirable
In August 1952, the Housing Policy Board considered the effect of its new policy.
LASL said that the program had removed the most desirable units from availability for new
There was detailed dishires, which had all but stopped the LASL recruitment program.
cussion of the experience
of LASL in trying, with practically no success,
to get new hires to
It was said that LASL could not expand under those circumtake less desirable housing.
Any change in the then
stances, and in fact could not even maintain its personnel strength.
existing procedure was opposed by LASL, however, because of the commitments which had
been made to people already at Los Alamos who desired to move.
for sufficient permanent housing to accommodate
the needs of the Laboratory
and the rest of
In September 1952, the Housing Policy Board recommended
that all of Los Alamos
Category I would include all single and duplex perhousing be divided into two categories.
This category was
manent housing and the one bedroom apartments in permanent buildings.
considered to be acceptable housing for the type of employee LASL was most anxious to retain
The Category Il housing was to include all temporary and semi-permanent
housing and all apartment-type
family housing units in permanent housing other than the one
This category was considered by LASL to be undesirable
which the temporary units should be replaced with modern permanent housing.
LASL proposed and it was approved that assignment
quarters would be as follows:
That all presently occupied family quarters be allocated
(address) for use by the employer of the present occupant,
That the Laboratory be allocated all of the-so-called
were vacant and unselected or uncommitted.
I units which
That the balance of the vacant housing units be distributed among the three
allotments (LASL, The Zia Company, and “AEC and Others”),
with the allotment balances.
That the Laboratory be allocated an additional 269 of such Category I units,
on a trade basis when such units become vacant in the future by attrition within
allotments of the other two employer groups.
That the major employing agencies (LASL, The Zia Company, and “AEC
and Others”) will, in the future, be responsible
for the assignment and utilization of the housing units allocated them in accordance with rules and regulations
recommended by the Housing Policy Board and approved by the Manager, LAFO.
The latter item meant that each of the three agencies would administer
allocated to it rather than having all the housing at Los Alamos administered
the AEC Housing Office.
a stop-gap proposal
and a first move.
LASL to maintain its present strength it
existing family housing units considered
as a pool by
revealed that LASL considered this to be only
of LASL stated that “in order for
would require all but approximately
500 of the
as ‘Category I’. n
By means of such measures it is hoped that the requisite type and quality of housing
will be made available in sufficient numbers to permit LASL to retain its trained employees
and to recruit additional ones pending the time when additional numbers of acceptable type
and quality of housing can be built.
An appropriation for replacement of temporary housing was first requested in the
fiscal year 1950 budget with the first phase of the replacement program as a part of Group
However, the appropriation received had to be diverted for the construction
of additional family housing to accommodate
an unforseen expansion of LASL.
appropriations in fiscal years 1951 and 1952 for Group 14 and Group 15 Housing, which were
originally planned as replacement housing, had to be used for additional housing.
mental request was made in fiscal year 1953, but funds were not made available.
1953, a Housing Program was planned for fiscal years 1954, 1955,
1956, and 1957 which envisaged the complete replacement of all of the temporary family
housing units and the building of 215 additional units to satisfy the requirements
by planned expansion at LASL.
LASL had not been able to expand its personnel as rapidly as had been previously
planned. That fact, together with others that have been mentioned, contributed to a growth
in the number of vacancies in family housing to a point permitting replacement of temporary
housing to be started by demolishing some of the temporary housing and rebuilding on the
same site. In this way it may be possible to avoid overbuilding inasmuch as the total number
of family housing units available will never be increased beyond what is available at the start
which is planned to be built in 1957. Each year beof the program until the last increment,
fore that time the housing requirements
can be restudied in the light of changes in the misIf changes occur which indicate a leveling off or reduction
sion or program at Los Alamos.
in employment at Los Alamos, the program of replacement of temporary housing can be
Likewise, by being able to build at least some of the replacement housing on the site
of the area occupied by the temporary housing, it will be possible to avoid having a “blight”
In line with the objective of reducing the “subsidyR for the operation of the community
and following the principle that “free”services
to individuals or small groups should be
eliminated insofar as possible,
charges were established for the use of space in public
It was felt that a nominal charge that might cover at least some, if not all, of the
expenses for janitorial services,
etc., would be equitable and that such charges
would not interfere unduly with the activities being carried on by the groups.
It had been the practice to allow the use of this space by these groups on verbal understandings.
This lax arrangement did not engender a feeling of obligation or responsibility
on the part of the using group and did not protect the Government in the event of an accident.
A license agreement form was devised and put into effect October 1, 1952, simultaneously
with a nominal charge for the use of space.
for Use of Public Buildines
There are now forty-one major business concessions
which pay a fixed percentage of
buildings which were
their gross sales as rent.
except for the canteen which is located in the TA-3
constructed for commercial
Shop Building and two vending machine concessions
locations but do not
include the following:
have exclusive occupancy of any space.
garage, supermarket (31, motion picture theater (21, barber shop (21, furniture store,
drug store (21, dry cleaning shop, men’s & boys’ clothing store, appliance store, shoe store,
service station (21, watch repair & jewelry shop, launderette, beauty shop, bowling alley &
pool parlor, flower shop, canteen (Shop Area), shoe repair shop, jewelry & gift shop,
hardware store, book & stationery store, bakery & delicatessen,
photo shop, laundry & dry
cleaning agency, department store, tot shop, variety store, sporting goods store, curio
shop, radio & TV sales & service_; vending machine (soft drinks), vending machine (tobacco &
package store, ladies ready-to-wear,
and soda bar.
In addition to the 41 percentage concessions,
is occupied by a bank, Western Union, newspaper,
!a flat monthly rental basis.
ground floor space in permanent buildings
veterinary hospital, and radio station on
The principal changes in percentage concessions
in the past three years have been the
addition of a supermarket,
drug store, service station, theater, barber shop, package store
an expanded men’s
-and canteen; the conversion of the Recreation Hall space to accommodate
and boys’ clothing store; use of space vacated by the men’s and boys’ clothing store to accommodate a women’s
store; discontinuing the tailor shop and substituting in the
space a radio and television sales and service; discontinuing the Community Center Cafeteria and converting the space to accommodate the Mesa Public Library.
It is not contemplated that additional funds will be requested in order to provide ‘additional space for concessions.
operations at White Rock have been discontinued due’ to the decrease in population.
In addition to concessions in commercial buildings, second floor office space is available in
the Hill Theater Building, Concessions
Building, andabove the -jewelry store in the Community Center.
Rental rates for office space were established on a flat rate per square foot per
month to compare favorably with similar accommodations
in Santa Fe or Albuquerque.
There is no waiting list for office space,
Rentals are on a first-come,
but the vacancy factor is very low. Purposes for which office space is being used are as
insurance sales, pet shop, photo and hobby shop, accounting and bookkeeping services, automobile sales, dairy office, chiropractor’s
office, catalogue order office, optometrist, investment services,
and sewing machine agency.
A limited number of churches, clubs, and service activities occupy, under flat rate
buildings of temporary construction or buildings which are not suitSome are as follows:
Nursery School, American Legion,
able for commercial
Veterans of Foreign Wars, Civic Club, Chapel, Youth Center, Youth Lodge, Girl Scouts,
Motor Club, Sportsmen’s
Club, American Red Cross, Los Alamos County offices,
The cold storage building and warehouse,
a warehouse at 120 Seventh Street, and a
portion of awarehouse
at 180 Seventh Street which were constructed for the Army under
the Manhattan District have become surplus to official requirements
and maximum commercial use is being made of the space which has been vacated.
Initially as warehouse
space became available the same was advertised for competitive bids.
There has been a
high turnover among warehouse space tenants and space was advertised frequently until
only’one bid was received.
Competitive bidding established a price of approximately
per square foot per month, and since there is no longer competition in response to invitations to bid, the space is offered on a first-come,
There is no waiting
list for warehouse space.
A number of primary concessions
rent warehouse space for storage purposes in connection with their business activities,
and in addition warehouse space
is presently rented for the following purposes:
Ice sales and storage, moving and storage
of household goods, Fix-It-Shop,
dairy office and storage, and egg storage.
The following table shows revenue
1951, 1952 and 1953:
Gain or Loss
_ A sharp reduction in the number of dormitory residents has resulted in a surplus of
use due to their
buildings of this type. The buildings cannot be converted to commercial
floor plan, construction,
The surplus dormitories,
however, have been made
available temporarily to the various religious groups.
At present seven buildings are occupied by eight denominations.
‘Religiou7s and Cultural
Use of Buildings
In order to encourage the various religious,
cultural, social, fraternal and veterans’
organizations to become a part of the community and to provide facilities necessary for their
activities without obligation or expense to the Government,
a policy has been adopted whereunder organizations
in the category mentioned above, when’the same are organized on a nonprofit basis, are permitted to select and take under long term lease, or letter of intent. to
The letter of intent to lease is
lease, building sites on which to erect their own facilities.
necessitated by the fact that the AEC owns but very little of the land comprising the reservaOn the balance it gives a letter of intent
tion. On such part as it owns it can give a lease.
This is a condition that should be changed in order to permit greater local ownerto lease.
ship of buildings.
Under the above policy four organizations have acquired real estate under
lease or letter of intent and have completed and occupied their own structures.
the Baptist Church, the Catholic Church, Southwest Evangelistic
Inc., and the
Four additional organizations are constructing buildings which will be comMasonic Lodge.
pleted this calendar year on land which they have taken under letter of intent or lease.
are the Episcopal Church, the Bethlehem Lutheran Church, the Grace Lutheran Church, and
Three additional organizations
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Rebekah Lodge.
have acquired building sites and are actively considering building.
They are the Methodist
Church, the Christian Science Church, and The Church of Christ.
Four organizations have
selected sites to be taken under lease or letter of intent in the near future with a view toward building.
They are the Calvary Church, the Unitarian Church, the Veterans of Foreign
Wars, and the American Legion.
Merchandise and services available to residents of Los Alamos through regularly
sources are supplemented to a degree through establishment by
residents of part-time businesses conducted from the home.
Such ventures are the natural
outgrowth of the free enterprise system which is inherent in our system of Government.
The policy with respect to home businesses at Los Alamos was formulated with the objective
of giving tenants the same privileges they would have if they owned their own homes.
However, to avoid infringement on the rights of others or activities which would be detrimental
to the premises owned by the Government, certain limitations and regulations which may
be compared to zoning laws in other communities have necessarily
brief, the home may be used for minor business activities which enable the tenant to act as
This includes such things as ina part-time salesman or manufacturer’s
surance sales or merchandise
sales which can be consummated through the use of catalogues
The home may not be used to warehouse or stock merchandise
or the display of samples.
for sale from the premises or elsewhere in the manner of a retail mercantile establishment
or for the manufacture or production of items on a large scale commercial
basis, or for
of major services for hire such as automotive repair, furniture repair or
requiring heavy service equipment or machinery.
The Zia Company continued as the principal maintenance contractor.
alteration and repairs” from the contract
1953, steps were taken to eliminate “construction,
The Zia Company contract was altered
‘with Zia, to prevent violation of the Davis-Bacon
altera_ to contain “maintenance
and operation” only. A second contract for “construction,
tion and repairs” was negotiated with the Los Alamos Constructors,
Inc., and was effective
February 2, 1953,
The Los Alamos Constructors,
Inc.; was organized specifically
for this one contract,
and the principals are Zia personnel.
Both contracts are cost-plus-fixed
fee. The Zia contract provides for the furnishing of all the administrative forces and supervision,
down to and
to administer and supervise all work accomplished under the secincluding superintendents,
The second contract with LOS Alamos Constructors;Inc.,
provides for furnond contract.
ishing labor, direct supervision,
and for reimbursing
Zia for administration
The functions performed under both of these contracts during this period are essentially those stated in the last report, namely, services to the Laboratory,
and minor construction,
and services to the community, including
and minor construction.
The accompanying graphs which indicate
the combined accomplishments
of The Zia Company and Los Alamos Constructors,
Inc., reflect the progress made during the period 1950-53.
The total employment for The Zia Company as of June 30, 1950, was 1,777 as compared to a total of 1,395 for both contractors
of June 30, 1953. This indicates a reduction of 280 employees engaged in maintenance,
and minor construction during the period.
The payroll costs have remained more
constant, because increases in wage rates have partially offset the reduction in personnel.
The reduction in costs of maintenance and operation is especially noteworthy when it
is related to the value of completed plant in use. The accompanying graph shows the 1950
value of Town site plant as $51.5 million and Tech Area plant $27.6 million, or a total of
This compares to a 1953 value of $79.5 million for the Town site and $97.4
million for the Tech Area or a total of $176.9 million for all plant. Therefore,
the two contractors are now operating and maintaining more than twice as much in plant facilities at a
lower total cost.
The new facilities cost less to operate; however, practically all of the old
facilities in operation in 1950 were still in operation in 1953. This indicates a marked improvement in quality and quantity of maintenance and an increase in efficiency in the methods
During the three-year
period, there has been an increase in the portion of the effort in
support of the Laboratory and a reduction in community items, such as real estate, municipal operations,
and Town site improvements.
It is believed that the pattern for maintenance and operation work has now become fairly well stabilized.
The previous report for the period 1947-50, detailed the steps by which a county form
of government had been established,
with Los Alamos (AEC Project Lands) acquiring sixth
class county status by act of the State Legislature.
The county commissioners
have been serving actively during the present period.
ordinances provide for local misdemeanors
and traffic laws.
Local justices of peace are
performing court duties for minor infractions,
including traffic violations.
The local police officers,
officers include attorney, assessor,
clerk, sheriff, and treasurer.
although paid by AEC funds and a part of the LAFO organization,
derive their authority
for law enforcement from the county sheriff as deputies.
The Town Council has continued to function with members still being elected by popular vote, but this body serves primarily as a sounding board for public opinion.
It has no
It discusses community problems
authority to make laws or regulations for the community.
and listens to complaints and recommendations
of residents and transmits recommendations
to the Los Alamos Field Office when appropriate.
THE ZIA COMPANY
M&t. J,... Sep. bc.
L AC 1, beqinninq
and COST DISTRIBUTION
and OPERATION BASED ON AVERAGE
to COMPLETED PLANT
and CONSTRUCTION WORK IN PkOGRESS
Operation and Maintenance
PLANT IN USE
The Scurry Panel survey in 1952, speaking of the possibility and desire for self=
against any immediate sale of government-owned
government at Los Alamos, recommended
housing or drastic change in the amount of self-government’now
being carried on. It is
believed that it may well take at least many years to attain a status under which all utilities
and all real estate will be privately owned and operated.
The Los Alamos
Three elementary schools and a high school in Los Alamos and an elementary school
at White Rock were in operation when the 1949-1950 school year closed.
Two large elementary schools, three four-room
neighborhood primary schools,
and an intermediate-level
school have been added during the three-year
The White Rock school was closed.
Mountain Elementary School and Little Poplar School, in the North Community, were
opened in September 1950. Aspen Elementary School, also in the North Community, was
placed in service in the Spring semester of 1951. Two additional four-room
Valley Primary School in the Mesa School District and an annex to the Mountain Schoolfollowed in the 1951-52 school year.
In September 1952, the first twelve-classroom
of the intermediate school, Pueblo, was placed in service to accommodate
sixth and seventh
grades from all parts of the town except the Eastern School District and some fifth grade
classes that could not be accommodated
in the Mountain School.
Primary School also was completed for use during the 1952-53 school year.
The second unit
of the Pueblo Intermediate School, consisting of a multi-purpose
facility that will provide
and a cafeteria kitchen, was under construction during the Spring
of 1953, for use beginning in September 1953.
age population statistics continue to show substantially
greater numbers of children in the younger age levels.
The rising curve does not level off
until the three- and four-year
olds are reached; a tapering-off
begins to be evidenced with
the two-year age-group in 1953. The numbers of children by age-groups
in mid-1953 were:
At the end of the 1952-53 school year the personnel of the Los Alamos County School
System totaled 198 full-time and eight part-time employees.
Of the former number, 150
were in teaching positions and positions of educational supervision.
From September 1949, when local school officials first took office, following the
establishment of Los Alamos County by law, until June 1951, the administration
of the school
system was the responsibility
of a County Board of Education, consisting of a County Superintendent of Schools (whose office was elective) and-four members appointed jointly by the
Judge of the District Court, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction,
and the Chairman
In the Spring of 1951 the objective stated in the
of the Board of County Commissioners.
report was attained, through enactment by the State Legislature
of a new
law applicable only to counties of the sixth class (that is, Los Alamos),
under which there was
substituted an elective Board of Educational Trustees of five members,
who are empowered
The members of the Board of Educational Trustees
to employ a Superintendent of Schools.
are elected for four-year
in the odd-numbered
years; the two incumbent members
whose terms expired
in 1953 were re-elected
at the first public election under the new law,
1953, and the other three incumbents will serve until February
F. Robert Wegner,
under whose guidance the
local school system grew to its present size and caliber,
di’ed in office in May 1953. The
Board of Educational
chose as his successor
Dr. Lewis G. Allbke,
who had been
Prior to September
1, 1949, the entire cost of operating the schools at Los Alamos
was borne by the Federal
(as part of the Zia Company’s
cost of operating
When the schools became part of the New Mexico school system,
Los Alamos community).
they began to share in State and County payments for operation
of county schools.
The proportion of the total cost borne by the AEC has steadily decreased
since that time.
budgeted expense for the operation of the public schools in Los Alamos
County during each
with the percentage
of such cost borne by the AEC
of the three fiscal years under review,
to the boards,
was as follows:
The Los Alamos
aspects of the Los Alamos
Medical Center operation
to which reference was made in the previous
during the past three years in
two major changes,
on the basis of which the community
Medical Center contract have now been stabilized.
The first of the changes to be realized
was the move, during the first week of January
in 1952, from the old wooden, Army-type
in wh* .h the Center formerly
housed to the new Medical
designed to meet the needs of the LOS
for hospital facilities
and for physicians’
The upper floors
of the new building provide
a normal complement
of 84 hospital beds
and 20 bassinets,
with four solaria equipped for immediate
supplement the facilities
in the surgical
and medical hospital floors.
surgery is included,
as are delivery
rooms and an obstetrical
the building are the usual hospital out-patient
suites for doctors and dentists;
of the community
Health and Sanitation, department
(not a part of the Medical
Center organization); examining-rooms
used in the industrial-health
of the Los Alamos
and the business and administrative
offices of the Medical
to group tocians’ suites include offices and examininggether the services
in each of the major fields of medical
The second change,
for which much exploratory
work was done by the Medical
Board of Trustees
during the first half of this three-year
the Spring and Summer of 1952, when the transition
private medical and dental practice was brought about. Negotiations for the formation of a
Dental Group were completed in January 1952; and a co-partnership
of dentists, styled the
Los Alamos Dental Group, took over the dental-clinic
space in the new building under a fiveyear lease with the Medical Center and, concurrently,
for providing professional dental services to the community of Los Alamos.
.At about the same time, the
first three physicians to establish private practices in the Medical Center left the employ
of the corporation
and began the leasing of space in the building;
one was.a surgeon,
and one an obstetrician.
During the ensuing months to the end of the fiscal
year 1952, the remaining
at the beginning
of the fiscal year ”
in the Medical
Center or departed.
1953, the conversion
The continuing efforts of the members of the Medical Staff of the Medical Center and
of the organization’s
Board of Trustees to recruit a full complement of highly-qualified
physicians to serve the Los Alamos community on a private-practice
basis resulted, by the
Summer of 1953, in bringing the number of practitioners
to what, with one exception, is reIn September 1953, the lessees included two
garded as the desirable minimum strength.
and three practitioners
in the field of
surgeons, two obstetricians,
internal medicine (with a fourth likely to arrive next January).
lacking, but negotiations are under way with a qualified specialist in the field of eye-care.
the Medical Center employs a professional
In addition to these independent practitioners,
radiologist and continues to have the half-time services of a pathologist,. the latter by arrangement with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
The number of Medical
has been further
in part by the
of the doctors,
to a total of 118 fullThis reduction
some streamtime and 4 part-time
on July 1, 1953.
lining of Medical
in the new building
attention is being
and the conversion
to private practice.
given by the Board of Trustees,
and the field office
with the administration
to ways and means
in cost of operations.
The membership of the Board of Trustees was changed in June 1953, by amendment
of the corporation’s
by-laws, to nine residents of Los Alamos,
elected for three-year
On July 1, 1953, themembers,
although elected as individuals,
three Scientific Laboratory officials,
two executives and a craftsman employee of the Zia
and an operator of a-commercial
Company, two housewives,
Significant program developments during the fiscal year 1953 included the rapid establishment and activation of a Poliomyelitis
Treatment unit within the Medical Center organization
in the Fall of 1952 when polio swept the country and reached a very high rate of incidence in
New Mexico; and the launching of a Radiation-Therapy
section in the Radiology department,
which made possible the administration of new therapy procedures
to victims of cancer
The polioand certain non-cancerous
diseases susceptible to treatment by radiation.
treatment work was undertaken at the specific request of State officials of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis and was relied upon by that organization to provide expert care
and therapy for acute cases of poliomyelitis
that arose throughout the state; no other specialized hospital facility of the kind was available in the State of New Mexico for general
The unit, fortunately, could be deactivated in the Spring of 1953 and has since
been on a stand-by basis.
An active and flexible managerial and staff organization is required
weapons manufacturing mission and its extensive and complex operations.
to support the
and field staffs of Santa Fe Operations Office perform the managedirecting,
and controlling SF0
ment staff functions of planning, organizing,
In certain instances various staff programs necessarily
extend to some
This is particularly true with regard to controlling source fisdegree of “doing the job.”
sionable materials and the custody phase of storage.
SF00 consists of a headquarters staff, largely located in Albuquerque,
staff_located in field, branch, and representative
offices from New York City
staff consists of 12 staff offices and divisions,
Chapter II. Each is represented
or reflected in field office staffs at the point
and a field
to the Marshall
is exercised within SF0 through “line of command” from
Operations. Manager to Field Manager to Contractor,
and not through headquarters
Authority is delegated to Field Managers and to contractors.
On the other
hand, the Manager also delegates adequate authority to his staff for performance
of the staff
The scope and nature of SF00 staff supervisory
are reported in this chapter.
It will be recalled that throughout the six years there has been no direct AEC employee
The MRnRger hRs consistently
held thrt R person qualified to oc86 technical staff officer.
cupy this position could contribute
more by assignment
to the operrting
reason, the Director of bos Alamo6 Scientific LRborRtory has continued to serve 86 the
The teehnkR1 progrRm is not reported in
Manager’s staff advisor on teehnicR1 matters.
bASb, also ha6 responsibility
the following sections,
and tec’hnical information,
which he assigns to Rn Assistant Director,
connected with storage have
LASL, and these programs
Reporting of certain staff office programs
been reported sufficiently
in previous chapters.
This is particularly
true of the reports by the
is quite brief in comparison
of Office of Production Coordination,
Office of Engineering and Construction,
It may be noted that the work done by these offices is reand Office of Test Operations.
The programs of other staff
ported or reflected in considerable
detail in other chapters,
as for instance
Supply or Personnel
are not presented
Control of information
on the development
of atomic energy is one of
the basic AEC missions
under the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. The various related provisions of the Act are defined and interpreted
for Control of Information. ” Both of these basic papers state firmly that critical
must be protected and then, recognizing
the value of the free exchange of ideas and criticisms
dangers of security
they state as firmly
to the public.
An unusual provision
of the Act, Section 3 (a), underlines
this by providing
“shall not contain any provisions
or conditions which prevent the dissemination
except to the extent such dissemination
Four distinct programs
have been developed
which support the information
Two have as their primary
function the protection
Two have as their primary
the sense of all data):
assuring that non-critical
is made publicly available:
and authority for the control of information
is assigned by
to the General Manager and by him to Operations
these assignments being all-inclusive
as part of in-line management
except as specifically
may in turn delegate more limited responsibility
and authority to their field offices and to contractors.
Washington staff supervision
has been assigned by
(including its Declassification
Each has a counterpart,
ing staff supervision
in SF00 headquarters
and each has
field offices and contractors.
of SF0 are
the General Manager to: Office
Office of Security,
or added duty, performa counterpart
or is reflected
with the control
of SF0 Classification
is to determine
the weapons information which could be used by inimical interests
to the detriment
of United States
and as part of the same process
to establish the data which may remain unclassified.
A continuing review of both categories
or if protected
items may be downgraded
to lower classifications
or should be considered
mission of SF0 Security
is to protect classified
assuring that unauthorized
persons do not have access to critical
is to assure that security fences are not put around
The mission goal is expressed
in a variety
tions, such as personnel
trol, and protection
of physical property
The mission of SF0 Declassification
is to determine
if and when previouslyprotected
may be published without adversely
mission related only to the declassification
The present assignment
action on all categories
and has been extended by Washington
to include some measure of control over photography
which is unclassified
or over photography
in which the Military
may have an interest.
of SF0 Information
is also dual: To withhold classified
persons while encouraging
and of classified
persons to advance the national welfare
and satisfy the
Because it is the sole program
with putting out
the balance between Information’s
This balance has seesawed
during the past three years
of field authority on release
The nature of the weapons manufacturing
that all four programs
conducted in intimate association
with the Armed Forces
and, to some extent, with other
The four programs’
functions are such that they cannot be operated as
with like program divisions
in the AEC headquarters.
the functions may not be fully delegated to field offices and to contractors,
between SF00 and its field operators.
It is of interest to note that two of the programs
and a major phase of a third are
are represented at the SF00 staff level and in the field by contractor
Control and dissemination
and technical information
is almost exclusively
although some phases of the public release
of such information
are conducted by
the SF00 Information
and by field offices.
There has been little basic change since mid-1950
in the mission functions of the
having perhaps changed most through a searching
of its objectives.
with the rest of SFO, the requirements
been expanded materially.’
goals common to the four programs
are to segregate
and to protect
and to segregate
of the non-classified
in a considerable
ably toward information
control goals, resulting
in 1950 with too much non-classified
being withheld or protected.
in SF0 control of information
during the past three years
has perhaps been the development
within all four programs
of the duality
The result has been a sharper
defiof mission and an integration
of attitude and effort.
nition and a narrower
total area requiring
the costs and effort of
result has also been a much broader
area which did not require
protection and which could be released safely.
The effect on information released_publicly
has been especially noticeable in the continental test activity, but it has been just as real
throughout the research,
community and other management strutture of SFO.
Santa Fe Operations,
having the major field responsibility
within the AEC for the
originates a large volume of data requiring classification.
of the activity is indicated by the fact that more than 1,500 formal, written decisions were
rendered by the SF0 Classification
Board during the past three years, and by the Security
report that 15,000,OOO classified documents have been originated within SF0 each year.
In the period since mid-1950,
the SF0 classification
organization has been decentralized to some extent and at the same time formalized as a SFO-wide activity.
of Dr. Norris E. Bradbury, Director,
LASL, as the staff Classification
the Manager, SFO, was made formal and shown on organization charts.
serves as Director of the SF0 Classification
Board with Dr. Ralph Carlisle Smith, Assistant Director for Classification
and Security, LASL, as his executive officer in both capacities.
SFG, arranged for the appointment
As a result, the SF0 Classification
a. The SF0 staff Classification
Smith as his executive.
of a local classification
organization as of July 1, 1953,
b. The SF0 Classification
Board: Dr. Bradbury,
Executive Secretary; and special panels serving as members according
nature of matters to be considered.
The Los Alamos
d. The Sandia Laboratory Classification
man; William H. Lawrence,
is being given to establishing
J. R. Townsend,
in other contractor
Decisions of the local area. boards are submitted to the SF0 Classification
For uniformity of classification
or for review and final determination.
of existing guides,
matters subject to SF0 determination.
boards have established a more uniform policy and have minimized possible compromises
The practice has proved especially valuable in control of information relaof information.
tive to the various high explosives processing plants within SFO.
A major activity has been providing guidance to the new contractors
who have entered
the program including:
National Bureau of Standards, Procter & Gamble,
American Car & Foundry, etc.
Dr. Ralph Carlisle Smith has acted as
In his capacity as SF0 Classification
including Operations Greenhouse,
officer for all weapons test operations,
he has been designated
not only as classification
the AEC but also for the Armed Forces,
serving on the staff of the Joint Task Force Commander.
In this manner it has been possible
to maintain a rather uniform classification
policy throughout the weapons and weapons test programs.
Within SFO, a series
guides for the several
weapons test organizations has been prepared,
all of which guides have been approved
by the Armed Forces
a few specific
guides have been prepared
for certain of the contractors
because of the peculiar
These special guides cannot be incorporated
entirely within a general guide for the AEC because they take into consideration
with the contractor.
The office of SF0 classification
detailed and almost
continuous contact with the AEC Office of Classification
in the preparation
of a revised
Guide, a General Classification
Guide, a Critical
Guide, and in the interpretation
bf data related to apparent compromise
The Nuclear ‘Weapons Classification
mainly of SF0 personnel
under the leadership
of Dr. Alvin C. Graves,
has made two major recommendations
which, if adopted,
assist SF0 activities
in reduced security
costs and no loss or weakening of national security.
. The first of these
that there is no security
in the approximate
within the continental
It is not proposed
that these yields should
be publicly announced, but that no information
should be classified
because it gives
of such yields.
The second recommendation
is to adapt to the nuclear
which has been adopted in the reactor
field and is now identified
as the “black box” idea.
This is especially
applied to those items of the nuclear weapon
which are clearly
of a military
nature and not essentially
an AEC matter,
such as the ballistic case and fuzing system for nuclear weapons and the outer case of an aerial bomb,
and the like.
for all activities
Dr. Ralph Carlisle
in his capacity as Coordinating
within SFO, is in direct charge of the SF0 Declassification
is his Executive
or AEC unit proThere is no field organization
of a report or other material
routes it to the Coordinating
Boards usually provide
opinion to reflect
thinking in the operational
is advised by Responsible
by the Manager,
SFO, and appointed by the General
One member of the LASL staff is also a Senior Reviewer
for the AEC and assists on SF0 matters
in their respective
which fall within their fields of specialization.
in the 1950-1953 period of Responsible
at Sandia Laboratory
that the work of that laboratory
in order to expedite
To maintain a uniform policy to avoid compromise
separate but related items by different
and his staff continue to be the channel for forwarding
Branch for final action.
During the last three years,
there has been a considerable
increase. in the number of
technical items considered
by Sandia Laboratory.
Many of these items have
but might readily fall within the
more recent Industrial
With the policy of classification
boards at various field installations,
there has been
a lesser tendency to overclassify
with subsequent declassification
has been a continuing program
to review previously-issued
In the three-year
period of this report it is estimated
that there has been formal declassification
585 items from LASL and 16 items from Sandia Laboratory.
34 Los Alamos items have been reduced to Official Use Only.
There have not
been many items for formal declassification
from the other SF0 contractors,
but it is anticipated that in the future, particularly
in view of the Industrial
will be a sizable quantity of items from them.
by the Los Alamos Scientific LabThe publication
of “The Effects of Atomic
. Oratory early in 1950 and the release
involved in the Rosenberg-Greenglass
cases has made it feasible
for public release
many items previously
it is recognized
fully that on the newer developments
the classification of the information
might be even stricter
than that applied to the wartime
and immediately postwar data.
of the Office
and certain operating
functions at the headquarters
and the national
levels are assigned by the General Manager to the Division
Serial 107, April 24, 1950, is still applicable
Chart, DIS, January
have been various changes not yet formalized
in a GM.
21, 1952, is the most recent expression
of functions and supporting
is not current.
of both staff supervision
and of operating
and of supporting
there are two formal
at the Washington level,
and Public Information.
is concerned with the preparation
and making publicly available
technical and industrial
with the industrial
actually being a separate
placed under Technical
with the controlled
of scientific, technical,
and general information.
SF0 activity encompasses
and through assignments to the SF00 Information Division extends further to sub-programs
such as internal information and special
for staff supervision and for the essential SFOO-level operations
are divided between the Director,
Information Division, SFOO, and the Assistant Director,
LASL, serving essentially as Technical Information Officer for SFOO. Both programs are
supported by added duty personnel in field offices and contractor organizations,
technical or other information personnel in the two weapons laboratories.
This is almost exclusively
a contractor activity and one which is presently conducted
almost entirely by Los Alamos and Sandia laboratories.
Primarily because of its close relationship with declassification
the staff supervision function is performed by
SF00 Information Division is responsible
only for maintaining
LASL’s Assistant Director.
a degree of awareness of the activity.
Classified Information -- There is a large volume of classified
scientific and technical
papers and of reports which are distributed throughout the AEC and to some extent to DOD,
FCDA, U. S. Weather Bureau, U. S. Public Health Service,
The service provided
coordination and review, and dissemination;
and provision of library, document control, and bibliographical
Within the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory there has been an increased effort to
put more of its reports into a form so that they will not contain critical weapon data and
may-be distributed more widely through the AEC classified projects.
Title lists of the reports are included with the Laboratory Monthly Report and receive substantial distribution
There has been established in LASL a
directly to several Armed Forces headquarters.
Weapons Test Report Office as a service group for continental and overseas test organizations to provide centralized,
and uniform handling of weapon test reports.
Before this was done, each Joint Task Force had set up a group for handling the reports of its
have been made with the Oak Ridge Extension of Division of Information Services for routine editorial and reproduction
the load of reproduction from various field groups and reducing the cost of reproduction
reports through the Government Printing Office.
of the National Nuclear Energy Series was removed from the Oak Ridge extension.
understood that this avoided the disbanding of an effective organization.
About 275 weapons
test reports were issued prior to mid-1953.
Sandia Laboratory distributes its reports to a substantial extent within the Department
of Defense, such dissemination
being facilitated by the close liaison between Sandia and
Field Command, AFS WP. The technical reports published by Sandia Corporation
two broad areas of activity which are conveniently separated into reports covering the development of new weapons, and reports, more properly called manuals, covering storage
and use of stockpile weapons.
There is a series of reports
Development reports are prepared by the design groups.
The series begins normally with a feasibility study report,
for each development program.
which is followed in a normal program by a proposed ordnance characteristic
series includes a number of design status reports, culminating in a report entitled “Design
The final development report is a weapon evaluation report,
Status at Design Release.”
normally published some months after design release and late enough in the development
program to permit a complete evaluation of the weapon’s performance
are written for both the AEC and the DOD, the manuals
weapons are prepared
for the weapon users,
manuals of weapons,
fuze tests, aircraft
loading tests, surveillance,
and handling equipment,
not only manuals for the assembly,
and.use of atomic weapons,
also manuals which serve as catalogs of information
indexes of publication.
This large second group of reports
by those most closely in touch with
the actual users of the weapons in the field, the military
liaison and training organization.
The manuals are prepared
in close coordination
with the groups who train teams to use
In this way the manweapons in the field and with the field engineers
of this organization.
are aware of problems
which arise in the field and are in a good position to
modify manuals rapidly in accordance
with changes suggested by field experience.
In both of the large areas of publication,
place a premium
on meeting tight deadlines.
and the need for
Other SF0 contractors
deal almost exclusively
with weapons information
do not distribute
as widely within the AEC organization.
-- The AEC program
and technical information
not one of public dissemination,
but is one of facilitating
and of making
to anyone interested.
Lists for Non-Classified
The need to make atomic energy technological
industry was recognized
in 1952 with establishment
in Washington of an Industrial
This new sub-program
to stimulate field organization
of the subject information.
It varies from
phases of technical information
within an Operations
Office to the AEC information
Of the contractors
other than LASL and Sandia, Holmes & Narver,
Grounds, has perhaps led in the preparation
of the industrial
The industrial program
has not been fully activated
It is anticipated
that in future years more information
now being processed
along with scientific
will be separately
Three SF0 representatives
of the AEC-wide
Richard G. Elliott,
SFOO; Dr. Ralph Carlisle
H. J. Wallis, Superintendent,
for AEC Research
In keeping with GM-CLA-2,
there is a continuing flow of information
areas of research.
to higher authority.
may be issued by scientific
or published upon authorSFOO, for instance,
a contract with Uni-.
ization by a Laboratory
at Los Angeles
and the medical
work is generally
unclassified; its reports receive
within the AEC and in journal articles.
a paper in a
may be through:
or trade journal; a paper with or without visual aids for presentation before a specialized
I 3 e_
Volume of Output -- In the aggregate.
there-is an extensive outflow of non-classified
or industrialby means of reports, papers,
and to a lesser extent, articles.
This is illustrated by the fact that LASL
issued 436 formal reports during the past three years, and that Sandia Laboratory issued
57 formal technical reports during the past two years.
The Public Information
The major activity of SF00 Information Division by assignment is providing staff
supervision and, to a considerable
extent, conducting’the program for the controlled public
release of non-classified
This is paralleled however by an advisory service
to AEC, within SFO, and to associated military organizations on public attitudes and on
and by a distinct activity to disseminate information within AEC
and within SFO.
AEC program information may originate in the SF0 area with an individual, with supor with the AEC. Program-related
ply or operating contractors,
information may originate
in other Agencies’ atomic energy programs and require SF0 evaluation or clearance.
may originate outside SF0 with individuals or organizations previously connected with the
or with other individuals or organizations who voluntarily refer the proposed
action to the AEC for review.
The information action may by nature or source be scientific, industrial, or general; it may be proposed for oral, written, or visual issuance; it
may be intended for any specialized or general public audience.
In general, the areas of activity may be defined as: supporting AFC-Washington,
assisting associated Armed Forces installations,
supporting the SF0 field organization,
conducting the headquarters SF00 activity, and conducting the multiple-agency
An indication of the scope
summaries of activity:
may be gained from the following
issuing SFO- or AEC-originated
maNews Media Service -- Replying to inquiries,
terials, or arranging interviews,
appearances or visits, concerning the full extent of SF0
activity and, to some degree including other AEC and Operations Office activity, such as
exploration and mining.
This category of service extends to newspapers,
or entertainment motion pictures,
photography, news reel, documentary,
Public Reports -- SF0 issues few such reports, but has in the past participated heavily in the preparation of materials for AEC reports such as the Semi-Annual Reports to
SF00 distributes the semi-annual reports to a list of 750 - 1,000 news media,
school and public libraries,
Speeches -- SF00 Information schedules and helps prepare
ances of SF00 personnel,
and to some extent assists field offices
more extensive speaking activities.
texts for public appearand contractors
Press Digests -- SF00 monitors receipt and distribution of digests of newspaper
Within its own area, SF00 is handicapped in that
and magazine articles prepared by AEC.
the major share of the _&EC budget for purchase of periodicals
is utilized by the XEC headSF00 has funds suffiquarters including the purchase of periodicals
within the SF0 area.
cient only for purchase of one Albuquerque newspaper and relies otherwise on newspapers
bought with its own funds, and on clippings forwarded
by field installations
taken from periodicals purchased
by field personnel’s
personal funds or purchased
activity is disseminated
throughout the organization.
-- A library
of AEC, DOD, and contractor
pictures is maintained
of direct and contractor
and for the use of civic and educational
As an indication of use, a
report in 1953 showed that 24 prints of 16 subjects were shown from 3 to 22
times per print, and from 3 to 62 times per subject for a total of 183 showings to audiences,
not including preview
-- This is largely
SF00 and contractor
cussed under motion pictures.
in events such as teacher seminars
by the AEC and its contractors
-- A fairly complete
is maintained in SFOO.
Exhibits -- There have been no SFO-originated
exhibits during the three years,
exhibits have been displayed within the SF0 geographic
of unusual interest
arranged by SF00 featured exploration
and mining for the 1953 Navajo
- - There is a fair degree of activity
requests for printed or other releasable
with civic groups, officials,
or others as for instance school and college
students writing term papers
conducts a continuing sub-program
with regard to Nevada nuclear
tests, including planning and coordination
of the multiple-agency
During operaextent, staffs and operates
directs and, to a considerable
the Test Information
Office in Las Vegas,
The SF0 Director
has served as Director
of Test Information
and through three series has served
series during the last three years,
as an Assistant
to the Test Manager for public affairs.generally.
which has been developed
office for Ranger was staffed entirely
by SF00 and LASL perin nature.
on occasion by Washington Division of Information
advent of Army participation
for Buster- Jangle,
office but reported
to the Army.
including DOD representatives
on the Director
of Test InformaThat pattern
tion’s staff and with the full activity the responsibility
of the Test Manager.
was more fully developed
and will probably
in the future.
of Test Information:
Deputy for AEC:
A SF00 information
Deputy for DOD: A DOD officer.
Sixth Army personnel.
A USAF Special Weapons Center officer.
The Test Classification
as a Declassification
and supported by an FC-AFSWP
2 SF00 secretaries
and 2 military
This continuing staff was supplemented
for more limited
by SF00 secretarial
task groups such as that for Marine participation.
by AEC and other
and typing personnel,
One shot of Tumbler-Snapper,
April 22, 1952, was opened to uncleared
from news media, public officials,
and Civil Defense.
Another in Upshot-Knothole,
17, 1953, was opened to comparable
On-site news coverage
included live radio
For these special events,
task force was organized
to the Test Manager.
Each was directed
by the AJX Director
with deputies for DOD, AEC, Test Organization,
It is probable
that FCDA will be represented
in the future in
its continuing participation
in tests and
in this category.
In keeping with the philosophy
that public information
may not be disassociated
and that it is of most mission value if applied at the point where the
authority has been delegated
of field offices.
The authority delegated
Field offices are required
to keep SFOO-Albuquerque
taken even though they are fully within the area of local management
Each SF0 contractor
some degree of public information,
and by contract
is usually made responsible
for conducting community
In general the
of authority for public information
with other delegations.
and two secretary-typists
were the maxiThe Director,
strength of SF00 Information
during the past three years.
two months in mid-1952,
there were two additional positions
in Los Alamos
were budgeted for fiscal years 1951, 1952, and 1953, primarily
and other action on technical
but various freezes
Division is too. limited in resources
to attempt conduct of a fully-centralized
and in any case has judged that action should preferably
be taken at the field point of concern.
The Division obviously
relies heavily on the supporting
staff of extra duty personnel
in field offices and of contractor
and technical information
the first three-year
period of SFO, a qualified
of the LASL staff
SF0 in the field of Patent Law, authority being delegated
for him to deal diBy the-time of the establishment
rectly with the opposite office in AEC,
SF00 in Albuquerque,
the volume of matters arising in or-related
to the field of Patent Law
to an extent requiring
an office to take care of such activities
for all SF0 offices
an Office of Patent
and related contractor
other than LASL.
on June 16, 1952, at the Headquarters,
The Patent Attorney
advises and assists the SF0 organization
on patent matters,
with the Atomic Energy Act, the Commission’s
and rules, and
patent laws, regulations,
clauses and agreements
to patent rights,
and the reporting of inventions;
advice and assistance
as to patent policy relating to contracting and subcontracting,
to patent clearance
containing patent provisions
in favor of the Government
of inventive subject matter and advises contractors
as to reporting
subject matter of reported
and advises as to preparation and filing of patent applications;
Until June 1950, an Office of Patent Attorney
in the Sandia
1951, the office was deactivated,
and the functions of the Patent.
at Los Alamos Scientific
continue to be handled by the Los Alamos
During the present reporting
the SF00 Patent Attorney
opened 142 patent
including those of the now defunct Sandia Patent Group.
dockets on probable
The SF00 Patent
The Los Alamos
Group opened 99 patent dockets during the period.
including those filed by
filed 20 patent applications
in the U. S. Patent Office,
Sandia; and the Los Alamos
Group filed 29.
The task of providing
for the SF0 complex of laboratories,
and test operations
in scope and difplants, procurement
ficulty during the last three years.
has continued to be planned and necessarily
was there time for wholly satisfactory
adexecuted on a “crash”
and the security
vance planning and orderly
have continued to suffer growing pains.
since 1950 has been achieved,
changes to meet the rapid expansion
in SF0 activi-
The key development in this respect was the establishment
of the regional-field
organizational structure and the emergence of the Office of Security as essentially a staff
organization providing over-all direction to the security program throughout SFO. In mid1950 Los Alamos remained the focal point of SF0 security interests and activities.
security programs at other SF0 offices,
the Sandia and Kansas City Field Offices,. and the
then existing special projects,
tended to lack effective and coordinated direction as component organizations of SFO.
The SF0 Office of Security had been established in April of 1950, with an assignment
of functions SFO-wide in character and on. a broad staff level, as distinguished from operaThe Los Alamos Security Branch, howtional functions related principally to Los Alamos.
ever, remained at that time a component of the Office of Security,
with the SF0 Director of
Security continuing to supervise the Branch directly,
serving in the capacity of a Field
Manager for that purpose.
In 1951, the Office of Security’s regional staff character was more effectively established when the Los Alamos Security Branch took its place in the new Los Alamos Field
Office organizational structure,
and the SF0 regional office moved physically from Los
Alamos to Albuquerque.
Beginning in 1951, rapid expansion took place in SF0 security activities in the field,
with establishment of new security branches at the Rocky Flats, Pantex, Eniwetok, and
With the establishment of the Eniwetok and Las Vegas branches,
Las Vegas installations.
the AEC-NME Test Security Branch, which as a component of the Office of Security had
been responsible for operational functions in overseas tests, was abolished,
strengthening the regional field office structure.
The necessity for providing coordinated security servicing for numerous facilities
from SF0 field offices has required establishment of a Security
Branch of the SF0 Office of Security in Los Angeles, and assignment of two SF0 Security
to New York City. The Los Angeles Security Branch was formally established in October 1950, to continue, on a larger scale, security servicing for various SF0
field offices that had theretofore been performed by security personnel reporting administratively to the Chief of the Los Angeles Procurement
Office, which office had been abolThe New York Security Representative
was appointed in early
ished a few months earlier.
1953, after an analysis of the nature and number of SF0 security obligations in the east
indicated that more effective servicing and a substantial reduction in travel---principally
from Sandia, Los Alamos, and Kansas City--could
be provided by that means.
events have justified the appointment, although budget cuts have forced postponement of a
planned addition of a security assistant there, which will be necessary
9” ’ . q
,Another branch of the Office of Security, the SF00 Headquarters Security Branch,
was established in 1952 to handle operational matters pertaining to the SF00 headquarters
The present SF0 security organization was completed in early
ment of the security branch for the new Spoon River Field Office.
1953 by the establish-
.As-of July 1953, SF0 had security responsibility
in a total of 423 security
throughout the United States-25
per cent of the facilities
of the entire AEC program.
Comprising this total were the 8 prime contractor
at the field offices,
and other contractors,
and consultants whose contracts
or work involved
engaged in program
as of mid-1953 number
156; 53 engaged in general management,
45 in personnel security
work, 23 in physical security,
and 35 in information
and visitor control and other activities.
Guards numbered 369, and
67. For comparison,
AEC security personnel
in mid- 1950 were:
29, physical security
and other administrative
work 24; and there were 442 guards and 63 couriers.
is the only SF0 installation
at which guards are or have been direct employees
of the AEC;
they are contractor
at the other installations.
Data as of July 1953, on prime
where the operation=
at the SF0 field offices (except
amenable to this statistical
are outlined as
employed in prime contractor
in these statistics
(not all of SFO)
and gates manned by guards
for mid-1950 were not available
for each category
indicate a total contractor
security guard personnel
for prime contractor
and total personnel
of 8,250 employed by such contractors.
data on military
in joint AEC-DOD
test and development
are not available,
staff and operational
effort has been required
and detailed procedures
have had to be developed
to fuland the complex requirements
in this area have been a
fill AEC security
major concern of the security
staff during this period.
The great number of SF0 facilities
of a system of continuous review,
throughout the entire operation.
is provided *generally through the responsible
and the Office of Security
of all faciliFormal
on the results of each survey,
and a “satisfactory”
is made, as prescribed
are, of course,
attention and appropriate
are developed and followed
up in a supplemental
SF0 facilities increased from 340 in 1950 to 458 at the end of 1951. Althcugh many
new facilities have been established in the expansion of activities outlined above, the number was decreased to 423 by June of 1953 through realignment and consolidation
activities; e. g., in 1952 the individual sites at Los Alamos were.dropped as individual
facilities and were considered for survey purposes as parts of their related divisions.
The survey program has progressed
in the past three
Experience has permitted emphasis to be shifted, from assuring that minimum
security measures are in effect at each facility, to the areas of coordinating all programs
and measures throughout SF0 to provide increased effectiveness
and economy in the overall operation.
One indication of the results of the above efforts may be seen in the marked reduction
in the relatively expensive use of guards in physical security.
Careful analysis of security
interests and tailoring of protection to requirements,
“building in” advanced physical security measures at new installations,
relocation of security areas, efficient utilization of
alarm devices, fencing, etc., have made possible a more than 50 per cent reduction in the
ratio of guards to the total Q-cleared
work force at major SF0 installations.
there was one guard for every seven employees at the then existing major installations;
in mid-1953 that ratio was approximately
one guard per 17 employees.
In fiscal 1952, an intensive study of the security area setup at Los Alamos resulted
in significant reduction in the size of limited areas (unescorted access to which requires
This, in conjuncQ-clearance),
with no decrease in effectiveness
of security protection.
tion with institution of personnel security safeguards to prevent unnecessary processing
of requests for Q-clearances,
permitted a 3,750 reduction in the number of Q-clearances
as compared to the previous year, with no concurrent decrease from the previous year in the total work force or hiring activities.
The basic personnel security policy has remained unchanged since the 1950 report.
Security clearance for access to Restricted Data is granted only after the AEC has deterthat permitting the individual
mined, based upon full background investigative reports,
Personnel security files,
such access will not endanger the national defense and security.
continue to be screened in local security branches.
including investigative reports,
involving substantially derogatory information,
“HoIds, ” are referred to the regional office, for review and determination
as to whether the information is in fact substantially
“Hold” cases are then submitted to Washington with recommendation
is normally either
As authorized by Washington, further processing
to an informal interview of the individual to extend and clarify the record if it appears
that the question of eligibility could be resolved satisfactorily
by that method, or to a formal regional Personnel Security Board hearing and subsequent review, if necessary,
The hearing process is referred
the Personnel Security Review Board in Washington.
to as the “Administrative
Review Procedure. ”
: 2 I\;
changes have been made in the program,
that are of
In the latter part of 1950, detailed instructional outlines for processing
security cases were issued by Washington, widening the scope of the program and systematizing procedures throughout the AEC.
The most important
as well as to employees:
in the number of cases processed
of the Administrative
in a marked
been conducted by some local security
offices in cases involving
and habits rather than loyalty information,
with a view to determining
if .the employer
would still wish to have the request for clearance
This new provision
good in net effect-the
open to criticism
in the former practice--but
it also resulted in an increase
of the number of cases given
1950, Washington issued official
Critypes of information
that were to
teria for Determining
” setting forth specific
The issuance of these criteria
more uniform evaluation
at all offices and processing
In 1950, two permanent
panels of Personnel
Security Board members
were set up
in SFO, one in New Mexico and one in California.
These board members,
who serve on
a consultant basis and are selected from representatives
and business fields,
the regional office with an “outside,”
In April 1952, the Atomic Energy Act was amended by Public Law 298, 82nd Congress,
--to provide that the Civil Service Commission
of all contractor personnel
except those in vitally important
Bureau of Investigation,
all atomic energy clearance
continued to be assigned responsibility
all AEC personnel
and contractor personnel
This division of investigative
required an extensive
study of all contractor
according to degree of access to sensitive
The FBI also retained investigative
for cases involving possible
were set up for
to the FBI for completion
of any such cases that are initially
From the time this program
went into effect,
on July 1, 1952, through June 30, 1953,
7,268 requests for background
were submitted to the Civil Service
and 3,692 to the FBI.
In the two prior fiscal years approximately
21,000 requests had been
submitted to the FBI.
During the past three years an estimated
cases have been processed
through the regional
cases have progressed
to formal hearings.
has been made in 28 of these cases,
in 18, in 2
no decision was made due to cancellation,
and 8 cases are currently
pending final determination.
field is regarded
in SF0 as being of extreme
continuing effort has been directed to increasing
of the program.
of field office activities
has been extended past the mechanical
processing of “Hold”
cases to broad areas of guidance in evaluation
analysis of the security
in various types and circumstance
information, methods of conducting effective
been given to field office programs
approval for access to controlled areas but not to Restricted
A formal SF Bulletin on P-approval
including a much-needed
set of criteria
is now being developed
for issuance at an early date.
In addition to the basic clearance
function, the SF0 personnel
provides controls over various
other functions involving
clude handling of security
cases, and the security
travel and military
who have had access to Restricted
As indicated in the 1950 report,
document control problems
and in 1950 the major effort was to assure that minimum AEC
days were considerable,
During the continuing expancontrols were placed in effective
operation at all facilities.
Presion in the last three years document control measures
in SF0 have been increased.
sent controls at Sandia, Kansas City, and Rocky Flats,
standards by providing
controls down through the Confidential
An idea of the magnitude of this program
some cases, the Restricted
be gained from estimated
on Hand in SF0
vided a relatively
were as follows:
controls in effect
at the larger
have prowhich as of mid-1953
With respect to the above, it should be explained
in any circumstances
such that a document is reported
cannot be located immediately,
and documents so listed are generally
rather than missing in the sense that the information
contained is exposed
Even though unaccounted-for
documents are few as compared
to the numto compromise.
effort has been directed
to locating or accounting for them.
cent studies of the over-all
volume of clashas indicated the need for a re-examination
and resified paperwork
in our operation,
with goals of eliminating
vision of the Classification
and control systems,
tendency to overclassify,
and control practices are realistic
as well as effective.
Security education programs
designed to insure knowledge
by all personnel
have been extended throughout SFO.
are given special security
are media most
and at termination
The lecture and procedural
heavily relied upon, and are augmented by motion pictures,
‘and other such aids.
It has been recognized
that in SFO, as in AEC as a whole, the security education
field offers opportunity for considerable
improvement in the effectiveness
of the entire
There are recurring problems of non-compliance
with security resecurity program.
as well as individual levels, arising from unfamiliarity
of these requirements
as applied to specific
Plans were begun in 1953 for
with the following
-- Clear specification
on a continuing standard practice
of GM and SF regulations
Contractor and AEC Employees -- Increased effort toward assuring that
each individual is informed and kept aware of his security obligations and the
of his position.
to take positive
action to assure
reof all personnel.
to be made
as an integral part of the SF0 security
On July 1, 1950, the Office of Assistant General Counsel had its main office in Los
Alamos where there were seven attorneys, two of whom were assigned to work on Lo6
Alamo6 community affair6 eXclu6iVely.
One additional attorney lived in Los Angeles where
The position in Los Angeles was
he served as counsel to the Lo6 Angeles Area Office.
abolished in April 1951, the work being handled thereafter by the Lo6 Alamos office.
the Summer of 1951, the work of the office at Lo6 Alamo6 wa6 divided between two attorneys assigned exclusively
to Los Alamo6 Field Office problem6 and the remaining attorneys assigned exclusively
to Santa Fe Operations problems.
In October 1951, the latter
attorney6 moved to Albuquerque,
leaving the two attorney6 in Los Alamos.
With one exception to be noted later, the two office6 have continued to function on the basis of this
division, and on June 30, 1953, there were seven attorney6 in the Office of Assistant General Counsel and four attorney6 in the Counsel’s office at Los Alamos.
the work of the Office of Assistant General Counsel is not extensively
One or two attorney6 in the Albuquerque office are assigned as counThe Same is true with resel to each field office other than the Los Alamo6 Field Office.
spect to each office and division in the Santa Fe Operation6 Office.
In addition to these
assignments there are several assignment6 by subject matter in fields 60 specialized that
contact is a prerequisite
to the efficient handling of problems in such fields a6
The policy of the office is
and construction contract6 and appeals.
to avoid, where possible,
on the ba6i6 of subject matter due
to the frequent necessity,
in a small office such as this, of assigning all attorneys to problems in each of the various field6 at various times.
Since July 1, 1950, SF0 developments and achievements
participated have been numerous.
Many were initiated and/or
more significant of which are briefly summarized below.
in which this office has
handled by this office, the
Test Damage Claims
During the first Nevada test series it was determined that blast damage claims
It was concluded that an
should be investigated and, when justified, settled promptly.
administrative finding of liability under the Tort Claims Act could properly be made withThe AEC cleared the SFOO-proposed
action with the Justice Departout embarrassment.
ment and the General Accounting Office, and SF00 payment was approved in advance by
the AEC. A contract was entered into with General Adjustment Bureau, a corporation
furnishing adjustment services to participating insurance carriers,
and initial administrative arrangements
made by which normal adjustment procedures
were adapted to
Because the Justice Department intends to urge the courts to adopt a different interpretation of the Tort Claims Act, in early 1952 a statute was drafted under which SF00
authority to pay certain claims would be unquestionable.
The Commission has recommended Congressional
Opinions have been rendered or other participation undertaken
particularly those alleged to have resulted from radiation.
on all unique claims,
In 1951, a member of the staff conceived the idea of attempting to persuade California to return contributions made by the AEC through the University of California to
the California State Employees
Retirement System for employees who worked for the
In July 1952,
University at Sandia Base prior to the time Sandia Corporation took over.
primarily as a result of the efforts of this office, the State Employees Retirement System
returned an amount of $399, 751.49 for the benefit of Sandia Corporation employees forSince there was no legal claim to this money, the paymerly employed by the University.
ment was made in accordance
with an Act of the California Legislature,
this office assisting in its passage.
Owing to the lack of personnel in the Counsel’s office at Los Alamos, the Albuquerque
office has handled all construction
contract matters for SFO, including Los Alamos.
A large construction program in Los Alamos, the construction
Pantex, Rocky Flats, and Las Vegas have resulted in numerous claims and appeals by
With the increased familiarity of SF0 lump-sum
the frequency and size of these appeals has
with the AEC appeal procedures,
Further, the practice of retaining legal
increased greatly during the three-year
This office has repcounsel to prosecute the appeals has developed and become standard.
resented SF0 contracting officers in approximately
30 appeals during the period, and on
June 30, 1953, approximately
20 additional appeals were pending or about to be taken.
The amount of money involved in the appeals handled during the three-year
more than $500,000,
and the amount involved in the appeals pending or imminent at the
end of that period was more than $200,000.
A large amount of work consists of drafting various non-routine
Most important of the drafting work is contract drafting,
time has been spent on ordinances
for the County of Los Alamos,
Many of the large SF0 operating
were drafted by this ofLarge
fice, for example,
the Dow Chemical Company contract.
such as the Austin Company’s
have been drafted.
Among the unusual
contracts drafted are the fixed price security
contract at Las Vegas,
unique because this
type of contract is not normally
for bids on a fixed price basis.
Another contract was unique because it was an advertised
fixed price contract covering
housing at the Nevada Proving
In the Spring of 1951, this office appeared for and represented
the AEC at a Federal
hearing in Washington,
D. C., pertainingto
natural gas from the San Juan basin (the source of gas for Los Alamos)
by the’E1 Paso
Natural Gas Company.
In the Spring of 1953, the Teamsters
Union in Las Vegas set out to organize
by the fixed price guard contractor
at the test site.
Had the organizational efforts of the Teamsters
the normal turbulence
would have occurred
during the 1953 Spring series of tests.
and because of the danger of divided loyalty,
it was the desire of management
of the Taft-Hartley
keep the guards out of the Teamsters
Union if possible.
Act seemed to prohibit the representation
of guards by the Teamsters
Union, but decisions
of the National Labor Relations
in such a way that the
would not apply in this case.
Through this office’s
the National Labor Relations Board eventually
decided that the Taft-Hartley
Act did forbid NPG guards from
by the Teamsters
In 1952, the Carson Case was decided by the Supreme Court of the United States.
The opinion in this case contained an extremely
of the tax exemption
arising out of the approvision
in Section 9(b) of the Atomic Energy Act.
of the language of that opinion to the SF0 situation in various states were created.
arose in connection with the sales and use taxes of California
These latter problems
adopted by this
of this office and state taxing authorities.
office in these conferences
have for the most part eventually
been accepted by the state
of the California
The only major exception,
has been referred
to the Department
of Justice which will
prior to shipment overseas,
probably seek an exemption
from the tax in the courts.
During the last three years, ‘procedures
were finally developed
for handling lumpsum construction
where the contractors
during the course of
due to higher prices
their work and defaulted on their contracts.
outbreak of the Korean War, plus the unusual conditions
created by the relative
of Los Alamos
and other differences
between Los Alamos
and more normal cities,
reLos Alamos during the height of the Los Alamos
what to do with earned and unearned money
lated to having the jobs completed
under the contracts and damages
and all of these cases
to be charged against money held by SF0 on the jobs,
answers were furnished to these various
have now been disposed of so far as SF0 is concerned.
of the Office of Test Operations
in 1951, staff functions for
weapons tests were performed
on the SF00 staff or by contractors.
Two continental and one overseas
test series were conducted during calendar year
1951. By completion
of the second Nevada series,
it had become obvious
and number of participants
had exthat the increasing
ceeded the staff resources
The Office of Test Operations
for fullscale weapons tests in collaboration
with the Scientific
and others conThe office was established
in January 1952, and staffing was completed
and Deputy Director
are one representative
each for overseas and continental tests, and for administration.
There is a single secretary.
The office administers
for test support comThe CPFF contract with Edgerton,
mon to both proving grounds.
Grier and the agreement
with Naval Reserve
fall in this category.
from DMA and the requirements
liaison and coordination
between the Los Alamos Scientific
Laboand the Department
are also made by this office for participation
by other Government
such as United States Weather Bureau, United States Public Health Service,
Civil Defense Administration,
all of which contribute significantly
to the test program.
Within the limits of SF0 responsibilities,
groups are obtained as are
in certain instances from other Operations
such as Oak Ridge and
has served as Assistant
serve as Commander,
Task Group 7.5, on Castle.
are filled by OTO.
tests, and will
in the test or-
The Office of Production
has trebled in size during the three-year
in 1948 to coordinate
all aspects of production
of SFOO, it has grown from 51 persons as of June 30, 1950, to 152 as of
June 30, 1953. Office of Production
Storage Operations Branch,
grew from 12 to 33; Storage Operations
Branch in headquarters
3 to 9; and Storage Operations
Branch in the field grew from 36 to 110.
of the office now embrace a wide field.
It coordinates weapons
production and storage operations; participates in technical studies
and procurement planning on an AEC basis; participates
in the planning of technical program
objectives; develops production schedules,
coordinates and reports progress thereon; provides information for and directs compilation of budgets for the entire weapons program;
controls and supervises
accountability for stockpiled weapons components,
source and fissionable materials; and other critical items.
The organization includes:
office; Budget and Administrative
Materials Audit Branch; Planning division, including a Development Engineering Branch
and a Production Planning Branch; Operations division, including a Manufacturing Operations Branch with an Inspection section and a Storage Operations Branch; and Contracts
In 1952, the Contracts Administration division was added to plan, direct, and coordinate for the Office of Production Coordination the negotiation and administration of
prime operating contracts in the development and production fields.
A major task was the
selection of the operating contractor for the projected Spoon River Plant.
The Inspection section of the Manufacturing Branch was also added to perform the
function of performing
final acceptance inspection of explosive and mechanical components
manufactured or assembled at DOD installations.
Two members of the section are now
stationed at Picatinny Arsenal, and three at Inyokern.
of the Planning division was also made during the period,
including the establishment
of the Production Planning Branch.
SAFETY AND FIRE PROTECTION
Safety and fire protection in 1947 was criticized by a Commission Advisory Board,
which concluded that the wartime policy of close direct supervision must be modified to
emphasize and apply the principle of contractor responsibility
for safety and health, encourage contractor initiative, provide incentive, and give maximum freedom to those showing the best operating conditions and results.
The Board recommended,
in effect, that
SF00 provide staff leadership to insure development of adequate contractor programs.
Subsequent industrial safety and health activity has conformed with the recommended
By June 30, 1950, SF00 was able to report that the attitude of contractor managements, referred to by the Board as “fair to poor”, had become “good to excellent” and
that accident rate trends were downward.
The Advisory Board Chairman re-surveyed
SF0 during August 1952. A
to the General Manager that: “Management attitude, and safety organization and personnel,
seemed excellent; tremendous improvement in five years; practically
all items criticized
in the 1948 report seem to have been remedied.”
A staff of 17 directly supervised SF0 safety as of July 1, 1947. The activity consisted essentially of contruction safety inspection and vehicle driver training and testing,
all at Los Alamos.
The organization had no industrial safety nor fire protection engineer.
By mid-1950, a Safety and Fire Protection Division, SFOO, had been organized withalmost
a complete change in personnel.
Industrial safety, traffic, and fire protection engineers
had been added, while total personnel had been cut to 12. Employment of two additional fire
protection engineers in the Fall of 1950 increased total personnel to 14.
In July 1951, SF00 staffs at Kansas City and Sandia Field Offices included one safety
engineer each plus a clerk-stenographer
at Sandia. These three positions had been eliminated by the end of 1951.
In the general reorganization
of July 1951, the .operation was divided into an SF00
headquarters staff and a Los Alamos Field Office staff. SF00 staff personnel were cut to
eight. This was raised to nine with the addition of a sanitary engineer in April 1953, to
provide staff assistance in radiological
safety, industrial hygiene and sanitation, and contaminated waste disposal.
A Health and Safety Branch was established in the Los Alamos
Field Office to direct industrial safety, community and traffic safety, and the project fire
It also was assigned responsibility
for operation of the Police department,
the Health and Sanitation Branch, and later the Industrial Wastes section.
As of mid-1953,
the administrative staff of Los Alamos Branch totaled 7.
SF0 field installations coming under Safety and Fire Protection division cognizance
more than doubled between 1950 and mid-1953.
The workload was further increased by assignment of responsibilities
at all domestic storage sites, and in 1952, of radiological
safety and industrial health.
The Division works closely with the field offices,
and other SF00 and contractor
installations in the fields of industrial, public and camp safety, health, and fire protection;
reviews plans for all new construction and modifications
for compliance with established
codes and standards; advises and assists SF0 offices and contractors
in establishing criteria and developing and carrying out health, safety and fire protection programs;
makes periodic surveys of all facilities to assure that Commission
standards of physical
conditions and performance
are being maintained.
Safety and Health
Direct safety supervision
of contractor operations had been withdrawn by Fall 1951,
with but one exception.
In application of a new concept of construction safety program administration,
were assigned responsibility
on all work under their
This worked well at Pantex, Rocky Flats, Eniwetok, and Nevada Proving
Grounds where one architect-engineer
supervised all construction
and was justified in employing a qualified safety engineer.
At Los Alamos, where the work was divided among
and the employment of a safety engineer by any one of them
was not warranted, the LAFO Health and Safety Branch exercises
part time safety supervision over construction activities while delegating much of the responsibility
to the archiThe emphasis placed on contractors*
bility for safety and health together with the new controls have produced results that are
Attitudes have changed and occupational injury and disease rates had
decreased by over 54 per cent during the three-year. period ending June 30. 1953.
SF0 occupational injury and disease records prior to calendar year 1949 were kept
on a basis which does not permit comparison with subsequent years.
Since 1949, the records have conformed strictly to the American Standards Association
charts present SF0 occupational injury, disease, and Government vehicle accident rates.
SF0 ACCIDENT FREQUENCY RATES
(FREQUENCY RATE = Number of Disabling Injuries per l,OOO,~OO Man-hours
188881 SF0 Construction
SiO GOVERNMENT VEHICLE ACCIDENTS
Years 1949, ‘SO, ‘51, ond
1953 through June
RATE = Number of Accidents
and Fire Protection
and AEC Summary
As in safety and health, contractors’
for fire prevention has been emphasized.
Except at Los Alamos, fire prevention forces are employed by the contractors.
It has not been practical for the contractors to employ fire protection engineers as no one
installation is large enough to warrant full time service.
SF0 now provides fire protection
engineering coverage for all its installations and many of its supplier contractors
there is a large AEC investment much in the same manner as major industrial fire insurance companies provide such coverage for their assureds.
In the years 1947 to 1950, the need for the services of experienced
engineers was realized and initial steps were taken to develop a practical and comprehenPrior to fiscal year 1951, the fire protection
sive fire protection engineering program.
engineering work was largely confined to review of construction plans to insure proper
compliance with established fire protection codes and standards,
and occasional review of
physical conditions at facilities which were known to be substandard.
Subsequently the problems encountered in achieving a degree of fire protection commensurate with importance and value have been numerous due to the severe combustibility
of many of the older structures housing important operations,
and a lack of built-in fire
The problems have been further intensified by the necessity for isolation of
many facilities and the diversity of special hazards and materials,
many of which are
peculiar to SF0 and AEC.
A formal inspection procedure has been standardized and a program placed in effective operation for the coverage of all important SF0 direct and contract activities by annual
The frequency of visits is determined
or semi-annual fire protection engineering surveys.
by the importance of a facility to the over-all mission of SFO. The engineers inspect each
property and its protective equipment and fire protection organization thoroughly,
the quality and adequacy of the property’s
over-all fire protection and submit to management a written report of their findings and recommendations.
of the inspection
program is shown on the chart “Industrial Fire Protection Surveys.”
It has been estimated that “Improved Risk” fire insurance companies expend about
$1.00 for fire protection engineering services for each $10,000 of insured property.
Expenditures by SF00 for fire protection engineering services
$10,000 of AEC-owned property in 1952, and is being further reduced in calendar year
Santa Fe Operations Office and its contractors
expended $652,691 in 1951 and
$866,416 in 1952 for industrial fire department wages, equipment usage and travel.
expressed in terms of dollars spent for services per million dollars of AEC property evaluation, these costs are equivalent to $2,109 for 1951 and $1, 765 for 1952. The net cost per
million dollars of AEC property evaluation was reduced in 1952 by 12 per cent.
An additional reduction is anticipated for the year 1953.
improvement has been accomplished
during the past three years in fire
This has resulted from compliance
protection at SF0 facilities.
The construction of new and replacement
in which ademade in survey reports.
quate fire protection has been incorporated,
also has been a major factor.
of these locations
is due to lack of funds or to plans for relocating
to new and permanent facilities.
- SF0 INDUSTRIAL
FIRE PROTECTION SURVEYS
It is believed that, with few exceptions,
to fire disaster.
The SF0 industrial fire loss
three years has been extremely low compared
evaluation or as compared to major insurance
ence of $0.028 per $100 evaluation.
chart, “SF0 Industrial Fire
facilities of SF0 are now relatively immune
record experience of $0.0011 for the last
to the national average of $0.15 per $100
company “Improved Risk” average experiindustrial fire loss experience is shown on
Loss Ratio’s. ”
When SF00 moved to Albuquerque in July 1951, the contract and procurement
activThe division now handles the advertisities were consolidated under the Supply Division.
research and development,
and operaing and award for architect-engineer,
as well as those contracts and procurement
actions pertaining to obtaining
equipment, and supplies for the regional office and seven of the nine field offices.
More effective utilization of personnel has been achieved by the consolidation.
Prior to the 1951 move to Albuquerque,
the Supply Division had 44 filled positions.
Certain local supply responsibilities
were given to the Los Alamos Field Office, but the
for the preparation of all
with 30 positions,
SF0 prime contracts,
documentation in support of contracts and establishment of central
contract files and, in addition, provided support for field offices by the preparation of contracts, with the exception of Los Alamos and Sandia Field Offices.
The division also established a Traffic Coordinator to effect better utilization of the facilities of Carco Air
especially use of the C-54 and C-47 planes used in the movement of air freight.
In 1952, Office Services activities-including
mail and records,
central files, reproduction, telephone, teletype, and custodial responsibilities--were
placed under the Supply
Division, the personnel totaling 37. Subsequent workloads in handling correspondence
progresreproduction made necessary
some personnel additions.
on June 30, 1953 the Supply Division
had only 70 assigned
In August 1952, certain changes were effected in the organization and responsibilities
of the SF0 Contract Board,
A new Board “charter” appointed Board members and assigned
for reviewing and making recommendations
to the Manager on all contract
The new “charter”
and subcontract actions requiring the Manager’s approval or signature.
changed the name to Contract Review Board and placed new emphasis on the “review”
of its responsibilities
as distinguished from a “negotiating panel” type of board.
non-voting Executive Secretary was provided,
for preliminary review of all contract matters coming before the Board and for advising Board members with respect to various aspects thereof; also, for acting as business manager for the
Board in coordinating and scheduling its contract review activities,
preparing agenda, records, and minutes, and in acting in a liaison capacity with contracting officers and contract representatives
on contractual matters.
contracts in excess
year 1953, the Board considered 98 separate agenda items involving
of $100,000, in addition to furnishing recommendations
on general con-
SF0 INDUSTRIAL FIRE LOSS RATldS
Calendar Years 1948,
‘49, ‘50, ‘51, and ‘52.
= I5 (5
review function determines
based on adequate information
and will result in contracts
that adequately protect the
It also determines
from competitive bidding are based on adequate competition,
under all the circumstances,
and if to other than low bidder are in the best interests
of the Government.
By having such a review provided for, an effective
for good and adequate
has been instilled
in all negotiators.
It has resulted in definitely
of contract files; uniformity
has been achieved in contract
and in negotiated
basic contract provisions;
more adequate and complete staff review
of contracts has resulted,
as well as divergent
staff views having been
and a focal point has been provided
for later crystallization
into SF0 contract policy.
of the Position
In the early part of 1951, the position of Procurement
a staff function under the Director
of this position included
of SF0 cost-type-contractors
functions of direct AEC operations.
In addition to providing
the purpose of the reviews
is to assure that cost-type-contractors
as approved by AEC and to further insure that procurement
is in the best interest
of the Government.
It was not until April 1952, that
the position could be filled.
of the then existing contracts
as well as the procedures
have been made on eight cost-type
scheduled through fiscal year 1954. In addition,
inspections are scheduled
on direct AEC procurement
at three locations.
of the Procurement
are now a part of a Commission-wide
policy established by GM-S&S-45.
Despite the progress
that had been made in the field of Property
June 1, 1950, much remained
to be accomplished
in the reduction
of stores inventories,
of adequate stock levels and controls so as to meet SF0 programs
were fairly well developed,
in the field of redistribution so as to better utilize property
and establish procedures
for the disposal
of property by cost-type
were yet to be developed.
To further add to the responsibility
of the SF0 Property
SF0 expansion program
from the planning stage.
past three years this increased
the number of major AEC and contractor
from eight to more than 21 locations
which now include 18 contractors.
It was evident that if SF0 was to accomplish
the work indicated
as needed in the field
the staff, in order to provide
the advice and assistance
would have to become more familiar
with the contractor’s
the efwas placed upon the developTo accomplish
of its management.
ment of sound and comprehensive
sponsible for the custody
and care of Government-owned
Into small measure
to the strides which
have been made in the control of materials,
reduction of inventory
ratio, and in more prompt determination
of excess stocks available for redistribution
as well as disposal by sale of surplus property,
salvage and scrap
This also contributed
to more efficient
including a reduction in the requirement
additional storage facilities.
which document contractor
and outline recommendations, provide a basis for negotiation
to adopt more adequate
and take desired
SF0 began these examinations
years ago, and now such examinations
to be conducted. throughout the Commission by GM-S&S-45 effective
January 1, 1953. Under the present program
will be made at least once each year and where significant
deficiencies are found, partial
will be made at three-month
to heavy inventories
were many categories
of items with quantities
hand far exceeding
current needs and obviously it was not considered
of these items at a loss to the Commission
within the next 12 months was
if another AEC activity was currently
in the interest
which would otherwise
involve a long procurement
time, and husbanding current appropriated
it was desirable
a vehicle to redistribute
to screen their stocks for long supply items and
long supply lists for circularization
throughout the Commission.
This system was
SFC during the month of August 1952, and from that time to the end of fiscal
year 1953 the dollar value of redistribution
of items in long supply was as follows:
within SF0 Installations
from SF0 to other ABC Operations
from other AEC Operations
Offices to SF0
from other Government
of Items in Long Supply
In the interest
of economy and to expedite the disposal
of excess and surplus property,
to sell surplus personal
including scrap and salvage
within the framework
of the Commission’s
a method to greatly accelerate
at single contractor
locations and relieve
the AEC field offices of detailed responsibilities
which in part would have
been duplicated by the contractor.
and steel from obsolete
items which could not be disposed of through the usual
channels and were being stored,
This method recouped valuable storage space as well as cash dollars for the Commission
the 10s~ of
large quantities of such critical
to the national economy during the Korean War.
Continued close attention has been paid to the prompt disposal of excess and surplus
from newly completed
stocks and components
obsolete by research,
and test programs
and by the reduction of operating inventories
levels as well as excess generated
prior to 1950. This
has accounted for the redistribution
and disposal of this property
bearing a book cost of approximately
$6, 000, 000 during the past three years.
Reduction of stores inventories
and the increase
ratio have been a major
and have brought about direct savaccomplishment
within SF0 during the past three years,
in stocks required;
better utiings to the AEC in the following
lization of property
on hand; prevents
of large quantities
of excess and obsolete material
which in many instances have to be disposed of at a loss to the AEC; reduction
in the cost of storage space; and requires
for supply operations.
purposes the following
table shows the progress
made during the past
three fiscal years in the reduction of stores inventory
for the major cost type
was taken from financial
of Stores Inventory. ”
The Zia Company
Los Alamos Scientific
Bendix Aviation Corporation
& Gamble Defense Corporation
Holmes & Narver,
& Engr. Co., Inc.
No. of Months
*Not in operation
number of months investment
ended June 30, 1953, is 6.9 months.
Another method of presenting
in stock control and inventory
is to illustrate
the total actual annual usage in relation
at the beginBecause the past three fiscal years cover an expansion
ning of the applicable
the total inventory
must be given to the
fact that inventories
SF0 STORES INVENTORY POSITION
RATIO and MONTHS INVESTMENT*
supply on hond
which tends to mask the tremendous
reduction in inventories
in the management
of SF0 inventories
is shown as follows:*
Actual Usage during Fiscal
Number Months Investment
of the older
a - Anticipated
The present aim is to reduce the investment
to a six-month
supply or less,
in the cost of handling stores inventories.
of AEC field offices
and of contractor organizations
in attendance are held annually at SF0 headquarters.
and through the personal
of the most current problems
much closer understanding
and spirit of cooperation
has been developed.
of the conduct of affairs through a Property
As the Mobilization
Planning merged into the period when important
scarce and SFO’s program
was being greatly accelerated,
a Defense Requirements
Branch was established
in the Spring of 1951. This group assumed the planning and execution
of the National Production
and the Controlled
Plan (now Defense Materials System) programs,
in obtaining NPA directives,
During the Korean War, many SF0 “crash”
were executed including estabconstruction
at Pantex and Rocky Flats,
lishment of permanent
testing together with research,
and production activities
which were considered
to be in the vital or critical
inability to obtain
equipment or supplies.
due to SFO’s
With the expansion
of the national economy and stretch-out
of the defense production,
in this field has reduced, resulting in a reduction of required
obtained and computed from Finance Division
of Stores Transactions.”
for Santa Fe Operations
from 1,188 in fiscal year 1950
and 1,629’ for fiscal year 1951, 1952, and 1953 respectively.
Vehicle opto 1, 213, 1,510*,
0.098 per mile for fiscal year 1950 as compared
to costs per mile during fiscal year 1951, 1952, and 1953 of 0.076, 0: 075*, and 0.076*,
The cost per mile of vehicle operation
for fiscal year 1952 and 1953 compare
with the Government
average of 0.0719 for fiscal year 1952 despite increased
Usage tables for fiscal year
Santa Fe Operations
age of 8,466 miles for fiscal year
1951, 1952 and 1953 indicate
in that during fiscal year 1952 and 1953 the average
per year exceeded
that of the Government’s
Cost Per Miles
Mile Per Yr.
from other AEC Operations
Offices during fiscal year 1951 eliminating
of an estimated
$242,958 for like vehicles
to be used by a construction
Twelve units of construction
equipment were transferred
from other AEC Operations
Offices during fiscal year 1951 at an estimated
saving of $50,999 over the cost of purchase
of new equipment for a construction
and other AEC Operations
equipment in the amount of $700,207 were made during fiscal
equipment were made during fiscal year
of these vehicles
were excess and their transfer
units were transfers
from conof like units at an estimated
cost of $122,000.
struction to operation phases without change of location.
equipment were made
a saving of $82,000 over the cost of procurement
of new units.
have been implemented
at all Field
tions to the end that the cost of vehicle operation
will be reduced.
used on construction
are not included
use was not comparable
1, 1951, the position of Traffic
under the Supply Division
In January 1952, a new Branch to handle the traffic activities
was set up.
This Branch is “responsible
for policy recommendations
promote the economical
of traffic by rail, highway and air; coordinates
flights and makes reservations;
SF0 traffic operations
staff assistance to field offices.
of Carco non-scheduled
flights has resulted
in more efficient utilizaHours flown and ton miles carried
with a reduction in the cost
tion of planes.
As a result the Commission
the Carco contract as of July 1, 1952,
per ton mile.
downward the rates per flying hour.
as of February
2, 1953, it
the higher rates due to increased
costs which Carco has
to pay for labor and operation
The Chief of the Branch makes reviews
to traffic matters,
obtains Section 22 Quotations,
both the contractors
at rate hearings.
are evaluated and investigation
over a long period of time, had not
to proper rate application;
As a result of the examination,
the benefit of a Section 22 Quotation.
has been agreed to by the carrier.
who has a considerable
has now employed
a traffic manager who is actively
for more favorable rates and service,
paying close attention to the contractor’s
As a result of these surveysI
more cost conscious in
their traffic operations
and are taking steps to handle these matters
has been greatly accelerated
during the past three
years to keep pace with the expanding AEC program.
spent a great deal of time assisting
field offices and cost-type
uniform mail control procedures,
and disposal schedules,
and making surveys
for the purpose of insuring proper utilization
of filing equipment.
have appointed records
who are placing special emphasis
on the Records
To date there have been 241 Records
Retention and Disposal
will permit eventual destrucby AEC offices and cost-type
There have been 832 microfilm
tion of approximately
13,800 cubic feet of records.
of vital records
proThrough equipment surveys
gram is continuing on a current basis.
for additional filing - equipment,
$61, 300 during the past three years.
Action is being taken by SF0 Management
to see that all new renegotiated
contain a records
clause that provides
to the Commission,
as well as
with no enduring value.
Herefor filing equipment and space has been greatly reduced as a result of this clause.
contained a clause which prevented
of any records prior to three years after termination
LOS ALAMOS and ALBUQUERQUE
CARCO AIR SERVICB*SCHEDULED
MONTHLY AVERAGE -FISCAL
Aug. Sep. Ott
Jon. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun.
FY - 1953
FY - 1953
‘50 ‘51 ‘52
Aug. Sep Oct. Nov. Dec. Jon. Feh Mar. Apr. Moy
Includes AEC, U.qf C., ond Sandio Corp. Payments
SOURCE: SF00 Supply Division,
FY - 1953
CARCO AIR SERVICE
Years 1950, 1951, 1952, and. 1953 u
PER TON MILE
* on 9 month
b I2 months
Corco Atr Service;
and Trof f ic Branch, Supply Division, SF00
The Records Service Center, which was established in 1949, has expanded its facilities.
The addition of a vault became a necessity by the Fall of 1950, to meet security requirements for the storage of classified records.
The vault completed in March 1951, now
contains 766 cubic feet of classified records.
Since July 1950, SF0 records personnel have visited AEC field offices and contractor
offices to arrange for the retirement and disposal of terminated contract records and other
inactive AEC records.
As a result, 911 cubic feet of terminated contract records and 429
cubic feet of Personnel Security files have been stored at the Records Service Center.
total floor space for storage of records is now approximately
3, 903 square feet.
During the past three years, 7,342 cubic feet of both classified and unclassified
records have been received at the Records Service Center, 3,468 cubic feet of which have
This leaves an amount of 3, 874 cubic feet accumulated during this time.
Tangible savings resulting from the retirement and disposal of these records are:
for filing equipment released for re-use and $12, 844 rental cost for office space released
The centralized service provided by the Records Service Center has been of eminent
value to SF0 officials requiring historical and investigational
even going back
into Manhattan Engineer District days. Prompt availability of any retired record from the
Service Center has encouraged the use of this facility for retirement of important records
of AEC and Contractor organizations under SF0 jurisdiction.
There have been 22,138 reference requests serviced by the Service Center since July 1950.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION
The magnitude of the construction job in providing the vastly expanded plant facility
structure has been accentuated throughout this report.
It is emphasized by the accompanying statistical summary which shows, year by year throughout the last six years, a cost
comparison of the increasing programs.
Inheriting from MED on July 1, 1947, fixed assets totaling $41,737,987
in completed facilities and $254,468 in construction
work in progress,
has built up to a total of $471,415,104
in completed plant and $48, 048,245 in work in progress, as of June 30, 1953-roughly
a ten-fold increase.
As shown on the chart, the peak of construction activities was reached during 19521953, with $147,350,702
plant completed in 1953. Outstanding construction during the period included construction of facilities at Pantex, Rocky Flats, Cryogenics
at Sandia Laboratory,
Pacific and Nevada Proving Grounds, and expansion of facilities
.Major construction yet to be accomplished
includes the Spoon River Plant,
of LASL technical facilities,
and Los Alamos permanent housing facilities.
As the construction peak activities have declined during the period, there has een a
decline from 64 SF00 personnel in the Office of Engineering and Construction
as of June 30, 1950, to.21 employees as of June 30, 1953. The Director of the Office of
Engineering and Construction directs SF0 staff supervisory
activities relating to real estate,
and directly supervises
other than field offices,
to which he also renders
staff assistance on construction
Due to SF0 management’s
with the operations
which it inherited from
MED, together with lack of data on past performance
from which to project
it was natural that the budgeting process
under great diffiexpansion program,
culty during the first three-year
period of SFO’s operation.
Not until the end of fiscal year 1950 had both the organizational
and the accounting system of SF0 developed
to the stage where definite patterns were becoming
apparent, making it possible
to use a reasonably
approach in establishing
a practical budget system.
a great deal of effort was devoted after fiscal year 1950 to budget
methods and system development
and increased participation
operating personnel in budget preparation
and review in order to enhance the effectiveness
of budgets as
Another area receiving
attention was the indoctrination of AEC and contractor
in SF0 budget procedures
Early in fiscal year 1951, the system of formal quarterly
was instituted, and responsible
as expense coordinators
to review and approve all aspects of contractor
and field office budgets.
As AJ3C and contractor personnel
gained a better understanding
of SF0 budgeting and reporting
the formal quarterly
review was reduced to two reviews
one at the beginning of the
current fiscal year and another at mid-year.
The expense coordinator
concept has been
continued throughout this period.
to meet Washington
at the same time to serve the needs of SF00 management
without placing an undue reporting
burden upon contractors,
during this period,
along with criteria
This area requires
review of budget estimates.
with more meaningful
trends and rates of progress,
and to utilization
internal budgeting and reporting
in AEC management controls.
budget staffs have been strengthened
in budget submissions
further study are those relating
and simplification of the budget system to provide
a more meaningful
tool to all levels of AEC
of additional standards and refinement
use in budget administration.
As of June 1950, a thorough 18-month examination
had been completed
with a view toward initiating more effective
for manageThe examina ment and better procedures
tion indicated the advisability
of a reorganization
between accounting and
and analysis of cost data, and to transfer
with the attendant
changes made during the present period.
in two major
Unit Cost Svstem
The accounting system has been expanded to include a production
or unit cost system.
This is in line with commercial
and is a major step forward.
first time it is possible
what weapons and weapon components
cost, and to bill
AFSWP with a reasonably
cost of items furnished to them.
A basis is provided
to the costs of contractors
work, and data are available
which are invaluable in support of budget requests.
The short period during which the systern has been in operation
has indicated refinements
which are necessary,
but which will
prove the system to be of even greater
also have been greatly improved.
have been substituted.
This has permitted
a much greater
in better audits at a decrease
In addition to normal financial audits, there has been superimposed
a series of
audits which will develop the extent to which both SF0 contractors and SF0 offices are living up to instructions
In line with these improvements,
from 111 as of June 30, 1950, to 121 as of
identify their respective
each with its sections,
and the Payroll
Finance Division has increased
its staff only
June 30, 1953. Its main branches,
are: the Accounting
Branch and Audit Branch,
Accounts Payable sections.
addition to the Finance Division staff at Albuquerque,
at Kansas City, Denver,
and Los Alamos.
have been selected
points in order to make service
the cost of operation.
Biology & Medicine
1948 through 1953)
299, 8.24, 868. 18
U. S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
SANTA FE OPERATIONS OFFICE
COMPARATIVE BALANCE SHEET
June 30, 1953
June 30, 1953
Cash in U. S. Treasury
Cash with integrated contractors
Working Fund Advances with Other Federal Agencies:
Working Capital Advances with Non-Integrated
Allowance for Uncollectible
for Loss on Stores
Surplus and Salvage Materials (Sandia Corp. )
Weapons Operational Costs
SF Materials at Research Installations Special Reactor Materials
Other Special Materials
24, 910, 509
June 30, 1953
Completed Plant and Equipment
Less: Accumulated Depreciation
Plant & Equipment
(70, 769, 784)
Changes in Progress
Funds and Other Deposits
AND AEC EQUITY
Accrued Leave or Vacation Pay
Working Fund Advances from Other Federal
Funds Held for Others
June 30, 1953
and AEC Equity
*Liability for A.EC Employees*
SUMMARY OF CHANGES IN AEC EQUITY
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1953
AEC Equity, June 30, 1952
or Allotment Cash (Net)
Working Funds Received from
Less: Transfer of Related
Transfers from Other
Net Cost of Operations and Adjustments
Cost of Prior Years
Funds Returned to U. S. Treasury
AEC Equity - June 30, 1953
$682; 937; 764
of Organization and Personnel Division may be
roughly divided into programs relating to the utilization of personnel in connection with SF00
that relate to the
proper, and programs supporting SF0 contract administration requirements
costs for personal services.
The Division functions on a staff basis, recognizing that Office and Division Directors
and Field Managers in their quality as line operating officials are fully responsible for all
elements of management in organization,
personnel and related expense matters.
basis, the staff of the Organization and Personnel Division advises,
guides and assists these
following through to insure compliance by the operating officials with the
only such centralized operating
policy standards and procedures
so directed, and performing
services as are more economically
performed on a centralized basis.
aspects of processing
personnel actions and maintaining records have not as yet been deIt is expected this will be accentralized to field offices to the fullest extent possible.
complished during the current fiscal year.
On contract administration matters the Division (Personnel Branch) staff deals with
certain office and division directors and with all field managers to whom the Manager has
and authority to act as contract representatives
the SF0 prime operating,
construction and support contracts.
generally involve appropriate coordination
to personnel control,
organization control, and expense control.
of all activities
The objective is to make it characteristic
of the organization for operational economy
It is recognized
to be the basic criterion in all organization and personnel determinations.
that placement of properly qualified people will insure the greatest economy in work output;
that appropriate definition of lines of authority and communication,
and job assignments is essential to the economy of work output or progress in advancing
and that the general efficiency of the working force and of its use is also
reflected in the economy with which costs are incurred for communications,
travel, supplies, equipment, space, etc.
in addition to staff supervisory
for the AEC personnel and
organization program the Director is assigned responsibility
as Coordinator for direct AEC
for expense budget planning and exercising
Responsicontrols as to compliance by operating officials with approved financial plans.
bility for compliance with the financial plan for their own ARC direct expenses is fixed with
Thus, the basic staff responsibility
office and division directors and field managers.
Organization and Personnel division in this area is to insure that the related programs for
for planning and control of the organization
structure and for expense
planning and control are invariably directed toward the end objective of maximum operatio
The qualitative aspects of personnel administration,
including job evaluation, are a
of the Personnel
Branch, and involve related staff services
and operating activities,
such as documentation of personnel actions, recruitment and record-keeping.
The aspects of organizational
well as coordination
and expense control procedures are staff service
of the Organization
In addition to the necessary
for the Operations
staff in the Personnel
Branch undertake all technical
staff assistance to contract representatives
costs for personal
and insurance and employee
There are at present
21 prime contracts,
a number of which will ordinarily
various stages of negotiation
during any fiscal year.
The related work
activity of the Personnel
to contract representatives
in developing and negotiating
to the costs of personal
and reviewing and endorsing
as submitted by the contracting
based upon requests
from the contracting
.There is involved the accumulation
of current salary and wage survey data and
of work (fringe benefits)’ relating to the atomic energy
industry and to job classifications
which have significance
in making comparative analyses of reimbursable
costs for personal
The staff also
obtains for contract representatives
of the Department
of Labor respecting
for new construction
work, and have responsibility
compliance by contract administrators
with agency responsibilities
for insuring compliance
the part of contracting
All matters affecting
or influence at the local level or at the level of “international“
union jurisdiction may be helpful in resolving
of concern to this staff.
Where an AEC position must be determined
of the Atomic Energy Labor-Management
Panel, the staff follow-through
will be effected
relating to cost-plus-fixed-fee
in advance of labor agreement
renewal dates or possible
AEC economic position respecting
in wages or benefits which might be
as to their effect on current or future negotiations
of other contractors or with other unions, and whether AEC’s need for continuity of production
on the contractor
to forego taking a strike in support of his bargaining
posiIt is desirable
take a position in negotiations
that is consistent
by the AEC as prudent and desirable
can have AEC approval.
of the Division
the Fall of 1951 has been placed
One problem was identification
of the Manager’s
as a purely staff echelon, distinguished
from the combination
staff and operating
which had characterized
the work of the Division
while at Los Alamos.
to the emergence
a principal concern at that time was with what is now the activity of the Los Alamos
In connection with the establishment of SF00 as a staff echelon, there were
of redefining various delegations and issuances to
the staff relationship of the SFOG headquarters
to the field offices.
Introduction of machine records procedures
for accumulating personnel budgeting,
machine tool inventory, weapons storage, Los Alamos telephone directory and housing data
has resulted in significant economies in terms of time, expense, and accuracy.
An approach has been made to some refinement of the in-service
for more precise compliance with the principles set forth in GM-PER-l
respecting assurance to employees that they are not by-passed for consideration
for better opportunities,
and including appropriate use in identifying employee candidates of the occupational coding
devices developed for purposes of job-sheet control, as well as for purposes of recruiting.
Initial phases have been completed of a plan to validate the present applications of objective
testing devices now used in employing secretarial
and protective force personnel,
determine whether appropriate extension in the use of such devices would prove economical
and of value in connection with all office jobs, with custodial jobs, and with inspector jobs.
The latter program will be carried out with consultant assistance from Civil Service Commission technicians.
The total personnel utilization program has been developed with reference to coordinating direct AEC costs and applying principles of decentralization
to develop expense consciousness
and fix responsibility
for economy in operation with the respective
of realistic hiring plans in relation to economic utilization of
Tendencies to over-plan personnel requirements,
and tendenpersonnel was emphasized.
cies toward over-optimism
in anticipating early hiring dates for additional employees required in a constantly expanding program have been corrected.
and their re-employment
in the fol-
SFO-AEC Employment by Program
(Fiscal Years 1950, 1951, 1952 and 1953)
a In&ease in storage site personnel,
b _ Addition of 2 field offices and related personnel,
c Addition of 3 field offices and related personnel,
51; plus 35
additional personnel for field offices identified under b
The program for converting to the new Job Evaluation program brought problems relating to the down-grading
of the Protective Force at LAFO and the related security positions,
including Shipment Security positions at other field offices; of insuring that operating officials understood and carried out the technical requirements
of the system; and of exercising
adequate controls on the application of the system on a decentralized
basis, including the
device of accumulative audit and plans for appropriate field audits.
Conversion to the AEC Job Evaluation program had a special significance
in Santa Fe
with respect to the Protective Force.
For one thing, SF00 had
been the first Operations Office to initiate the idea of a job evaluation system based upon
factor analysis and point rating.
It was primarily because of this initiative and the identification of SF0 with this type of an approach that SF00 sponsored experimental
the AEC “Workshop Group” in developing the present AEC system.
In the Summer of 1950,
the AEC Workshop Group consisting of personnel technicians from all of the Operations OfThe top, staff of SF00 made a signififices spent something over two weeks at Los Alamos.
cant contribution to the development of the present system by undertaking the first trial application of the tentative system developed by the Workshop Group.
The earliest questions raised or the indication of apprehension on the part of members
of the Protective Force at Los Alamos as to possibility of down-grading
their jobs emerged
The conclusion of the Workshop Committee at
during the course of this trial application.
that time was that a special study of AEC Security Inspector and Guard positions was clearly
indicated because of the apparent overgrading of the Los Alamos Inspector’position
in relation to guard positions at Idaho Falls and Oak Ridge.
Pending issuance of the official AEC Salary Administration
Handbooks in April of 1952,
SF0 continued to utilize, for job evaluation purposes,
the tentative standards and procedures
utilized in this trial application,
except that the tentative system developed no standards
suitable for application to the Protective Force at Los Alamos.
Inasmuch as the AEC system, when finally released,
represented in many respects significant refinements
tentative system which was in current use, extreme care was exercised
in converting to
the official system when it became necessary to develop new descriptions
of duties and reThe
and to make the required factor analyses relating to the job descriptions.
initiated in July 1952, resulted in a considerable
process of rewriting
Conversion was accomplished
and rereviewing job descriptions
June 21, 1953.
There were 1,479 encumbered positions in SF0 which were evaluated under the AEC
and 46 additional encumbered posiSalary Administration program for salaried positions,
tions were pending conversion until current organizational
questions had been resolved by
Altogether there were 1,539 positions evaluated under
the responsible operating officials.
Of the 1,479 encumbered positions,
including 60 vacant positions.
this conversion program,
83 were revised upward in grade, and 471 were revised downward.
at Los Alamos
The downward revisions included readjustment of all of the Inspector pos
that downward revision of the grade value
of these particular Protective
Force positions would have an impact had been anticipated
It had been considered and understood by SF0 and Washington management
for some time.
that the possibility of downgrading these jobs would have a serious effect on the morale and
perhaps on the maintenance of an adequate Protective Force during the conversion period.
Initially it had been agreed that such application of job evaluation to the Protective
jobs might be justifiably delayed and handled on an entirely special basis.
It was considered
by the Fall of 1952, that examination of the duties and responsibilities
and relative values
of this position would have to be considered in relation to similar positions elsewhere in the
AEC and in the Federal service as a whole, due to.the fact that there was considerable
question whether the difference in grade between other Federal guard positions and that established for the LAFO Protective Force was really warranted.
There had been considerable
pressure on the Civil Service Commission to upgrade other guard positions throughout the
Federal service because of comparisons
with the LAFO job, particularly
at military installations such as Inyokern.
This situation indicated a need for a very careful and extensive
study of all related positions in the Federal service.
However, the Los Alamos Field Office
recommended that, rather than delay the special study of the guard position, the SF00 would
be better situated if it made any adjustments indicated at the same time other indicated adjustments for other SF0 jobs and other AEC jobs were accomplished.
special study was initiated by the AEC Washington headquarters
in October 1952. In addition, in order to do everything possible to offset the evident impact of such a downward revision, a very carefully devised program of orientation and participation by members of the
Protective Force was initiated early in October 1952.
The entire approach was explained through supervisory
channels to members of the
Protective Force, and the redefinition of the duties and responsibilities
of the basic inspector position at LASL was the subject of rather thoroughgoing participation by all elements of
the Protective Force.
The final description of the duties and responsibilities,
it is believed, reflected every possible consideration
that was a matter of knowledge and experience on the part of the members of the Force engaged in carrying out the assigned duties
This redefinition was accomplished
prior to the time that the special
committee appointed by the General Manager to make the guard survey initiated its schedule
of auditing various positions throughout the AEC and in other government installations by
visits and investigation at the various locations.
It was further recognized that a keasonable period of time should be allowed to administer this changeover in the manner best calculated to insure an orderly adjustment and
bearing constantly in mind the stringent security requirements
by the weapons program,
to the personal situations of
the inspectors seriously affected economically
so as to preclude hasty or premature resignations.
It was considered that assurance must be given that pay cuts would not take place
until the pay period nearest October 31, 1953, and that in the interim every effort would be
made through in-service
placement to such vacancies as SF0 or the AEC might have and
services to accomplish necessary
adjustments on the work force in
an orderly manner and to insure maintenance of all security requirements
were being trained.
The first of these
two precautions were undertaken.
was to insure as indicated above that approximately
period of time would
elapse after the initiation of the outplacement program during which every possible effort
could be made on the initiative of the affected members of the Force and on the initiative
of the AEC, particularly
SF00 personnel staff, to insure possible relocation of personnel,
rather than adjust to the new downgrading and loss of income.
Announcement of the new lower grade; GS-5, was made and the outplacement program
One of the most sigwas initiated in May 1953. Every possible assistance was provided.
nificant problems relating to this effort had been that of insuring continuity of the minimum
staff essential to maintain security
during the period July 1952 to May 6, 1953
when the GS-5 grade determination
was pending and firm hiring commitments
during this period reduced the force from 425 to.365 and recruitment
was resumed to introduce
the first class of 25 inspectors
at the GS-5 level on June 8, 1953.
While the out-placement
resulted in transfer
within SF0 of
some 36 members
of the Protective
Force after April 1953, there remained
of the force who expressed
a desire for out-placement
As normal recruitment
and hiring plans for necessary
replacements (at the GS-5 level) were resumed,
it was possible
to extend out-placement
and copies of the personal
to Washington Division
of these candidates
on an AJZCwide basis.
there was a coterie of inspectors
on the Guard Force
Despite all of these precautions,
ways of arresting
of the downgrading
of such action by various appeals to top levels of
the AEC management,
as well as to the President
and to the Congress.
The basic concept
underlying this approach for relief from application
of any downgrading
action by the Manager,
SFO, took the form,
of an attempt to develop high-level
concern for the basic integrity of the security
at the installation
at Los Alamos.
effort was made by members
of the group to establish for consideration
by the higher authorities,
were being ignored and that
from judgments made by
alleged to be incompetent
needs of the installation,
and that the evidence
of such incompetence
would be found, upon examination,
and in deficiencies
alleged to be characteristic
of the Los Alamos
if not indeed of SF0 as a whole.
The final step in what appears to have been a concerted
plan of action on the part of
was to publicize
in the local press all of the allegations
to that time, had been presented
to higher authority,
of AEC security
on the part of supervisory
was made prior to the time that appropriate
determinations through grievance
or other administrative
could be acThe emergence
of the press release
happened to coincide with the
by the AEC.
for the Joint Committee
who had been assigned
examine the circumstances
by certain members
of the Protective
Under these circumstances,
it was necessary
to arrest internal administrative
seeking to identify the source of the allegations
and to assess them appropriately
that certain individuals,
as to validity and as to necessary
who had identified
the action undertaken by the aforementioned
were willing to make disclosures
and in confidence
of the Joint
staff, but these individuals
to respond to administrative
inThe AEC inquiries
were being conducted at the instance of
quiries on the part of the AEC.
the Manager of Operations
of his staff, and at his request by members
Staff of the Controller.
in the course of inquiries
of a Special Investigative
appointed by the
despite every effort to encourage
in a situation where,
of the Force involved
in an orderly
fashion to assist
assumed an insubordinate
of the AJX,
of the two individuals
On the other hand, in the course of the normal procedure for notifying employees of
the adverse action in downgrading the Security Inspector position, a significant number of
the Protective Force sought, through orderly means and administrative
established by the AEC for protecting employees or giving employees every opportunity to respond or object to adverse administrative action, to establish. their reasons for believing
that their downgrading action was either not warranted or to -establish other considerations
which they felt had been overlooked by AEC management in their particular cases and which
would have the effect of retaining their job status.
the requirements for 30 days advance notice of an adverse action, the opportunity to respond thereto, and the final opportunity to appeal to higher authority through the AEC
as well as to appeal to the Civil Service Commission
under the provisions of the Veteran’s Preference
With the exception of the two special instances of discharge for reasons of insubordination, all of the questions raised by other members of the Protective
Force, and in some
cases other security positions which were downgraded based on a comparison of their relative value to the new base job, have been resolved within the purview of the administrative
provided under AEC personnel policies.
in the Immediate
There remain to be resolved individual personnel problems resulting mainly from
downgrading actions after conversion to the A.EC Job Evaluation program,
stemming from the LAFO Protective Force situation.
must be placed on the out-placement program to further assist members of the Protective
Force who have difficulty in adjusting to the new grade and pay.
Determination is needed of administrative procedures
to be followed within the AEC
with respect to development of
in following up on application of the Job Evaluation program,
of job evaluations,
current benchmark standard jobs in the Manuals,
relationship of this local responsibility
to audit procedures
expected from the Washington
plan is required for decentralizing
to field offices responsibility
for maintaining personnel records relating to the employees on their staff, for processing
personnel actions, and for recruitment and employment for all positions for which candiThis plan will recognize that the perdates may be found in the local employment area.
sonnel operations at SF00 will be limited to centralized services
for employment on the
Headquarters staff and such coordination of in-service
placement and outside recruiting
as is indicated for positions representing
opportunities for merited consideration
SF0 and AEC personnel,
or which require recruitment outside the field office locality.
Preparation will include publication of operating manuals and administrative
for installing and operating the decentralized
of Kev Personnel
Following management determination of changes in alignment
of functions for weapons program management,
on the Manager’s
in the Manager’s
through introduction of several Assistant Manager positions,
a specific program
for orienting all key personnel to the significance of these changes will be in order.
expected that, proceeding from this program,
additional AEC programs for appraisal and
development of key personnel will be introduced on a developmental basis.
Review of Contractor
There is under consideration,
ment of an over-all
“management review” approach to evaluation of
and Personnel division is brought to bear upon any administrative
of the contractor’s
determination of its budget estimates, nor upon an appropriate interim
follow-up review, consistent with the administrative practice6 of the contractor,
and results of their management control of operational economy in personnel utilization.
short, while the Organization and Personnel division contribute6 to the management determination as to the reasonableness
of the rates to be paid by the contractor for various personnel services,
it makes no contribution with respect to the frequency with which payroll
or other obligations are made from the standpoint of continued operational economy.
connection with this it appears necessary to examine the method presently utilized by contract representatives
in reviewing budget estimates and securing approval of contractor
financial plans relating to reimbursable
costs for personal services,
in order to formulate
management position respecting review of contractor personnel utilization
and endeavor to establish a policy.
Questions have been raised by major prime contracting organizations
realistic the proposed Panel procedures
are likely to be under present procedures
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service,
as contrasted with some of the results regarded as somewhat undesirable under the original procedures
of the “Davis Panel” when
it was attached to the Office of the President.
AEC Budget Cycle
InThere are current questions relating to the planning of the AEC Budget Cycle.
creased refinement on the timely determination of program assumptions and instructions for
budget submittals on an AEC-wide basis will contribute further to devoting the greater
portion of staff time during budgeting periods to substantive considerations
planning; and at the same time comply with AEC budgeting procedures
for physically accumulating and consolidating data to meet deadlines for submittal of budget estimates in
the form and quantity required.