Chapter 15

Document technical information

Format pptx
Size 8.9 MB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

Chapter 15
Commercial Microbial Products and
Biotechnology
Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Yeast Fermentation
Clicker Question:
Antibiotic Production:
P. chrysogenum
Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Yeast Fermentation
Clicker Question:
Antibiotic Production:
Penicillium chrysogenum
Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Yeast Fermentation
Clicker Question:
Antibiotic Production:
Penicillium chrysogenum
Fermenters
Research to Industrial Size Fermenters
Finding
Antibiotic
Producers
After Finding an Antibiotic Producing
Microbe
1. Test for antibiotic yield…need high yielding strains to
produce enough for the next steps.
2. Purification so that a highly pure crystalline product.
3. Chemical Identification, and testing tolerance in
animal models.
After Finding an Antibiotic Producing
Microbe
1. Test for antibiotic yield…need high yielding strains to
produce enough for the next steps.
2. Purification so that a highly pure crystalline product.
3. Chemical Identification, and testing tolerance in
animal models.
Clicker Question:
Industrial Production of Penicillin
Fermenter Kinetics
with Penicillium
chrysogenum
Clicker Question:
Fermenter Kinetics
with Penicillium
chrysogenum
Clicker Question:
Fermenter Kinetics
with Penicillium
chrysogenum
Clicker Question:
Fermenter Kinetics
with Penicillium
chrysogenum
Clicker Question:
Tetracycline
Production
Vitamin Production
A
Extremozymes
(a) Acid Tolerant Enzymes to Digest
Fibrous Foods
(b) Pullulanase from
Pyrococcus woesei which
has a growth opt temp =
100oC
Immobilized Enzymes: Reactor Columns
Wine Fermentation
1. It starts with the type of grape, Vitis
vinefera.
2. The yeast: Saccharomyces ellipsoideus.
3. Then finished with the malolactic
fermentation (acid tolerant Oenococcus,
Lactobacillus and Pediococcus).
Vitis vinefera, what a beautiful plant!
Sauvingon Blanc
Cabernet Sauvingon
Cultivars
Pinot Noir
Grape Chemistry
Wines have
a pH ~3.5
Stored as sugar or amino acid conjugates –
liberated during crushing and enzymatic attack
during fermantation
Science, 10 February 2006 vol 311 pg 804
Aging Barrels in Beringer Winery Caves
Malolactic Fermentation: Convert Malate  Lactate + CO2
Uncontrolled vs Controlled Fermentation
The Evolution of Wine Making ?
How did it start? - required non-leaking vessels, and
- making juice…with the discovery that
old juice became a bit different,
and what seemed to be a great
idea.
Clicker Question:
Uncontrolled vs Controlled Fermentation
The Evolution of Wine Making ?
How did it start? - required non-leaking vessels, and
- making juice…with the discovery that
old juice became a bit different,
and what seemed to be a great
idea.
Some how – they could control the fermentation by using
the gooey stuff at the bottom of the barrel to start the next
round of fermentation.
This reduced tremendous variation in batches.
This continued for a few thousands of years.
Then came the pure culture technique (~1880’s)
Wine is Good for You
Beer is Made from
Malted Barley
“Beer is proof the God loves us
and wants us to be happy”
….Benjamin Franklin
Mashing – Temp Regulation
Making the WORT
Hops
Beer
Home Brew
Boiling the Wort
Fermentation
Bottling
Pils
Dark
Whiskey’s
Barley or Grape Fermentation  Distilled, usually to 100 proof
(50% ethanol).
Distillate  Aging Barrels (oak) for 10-12 years ending up about
80 proof along with a great change in flavor.
Barley fermentation (beer) distillate  aging to make Scotch.
Barley, Corn + Rye (beer) distillate  aging in charred barrels =
Bourbon if done in the State of Kentucky
Others named Whiskey if done out of Kentucky.
Barley, Wheat + Rye (beer) distillate  aging to make Irish
Whiskey
Barley + Rye (beer) distillate  aging to make Canadian
Whiskey.
Brandies and Vodkas
Grape wines distillate  aging to Cognac (only in the Cognac
Department of France), Brandies everywhere else.
Classical Vodka from potato….with little flavor other than ethanol.
New trendy vodkas:
Ethanol as a Biofuel
Corn based Ethanol
Clicker Question:
Switch Grass
Ethanol as a Biofuel
Corn based Ethanol
Clicker Question:
Switch Grass
Ethanol as a Biofuel
Corn based Ethanol
Clicker Question:
Switch Grass
Ethanol as a Biofuel
Corn based Ethanol
Clicker Question:
Switch Grass
Oil from Algae
Botryococcus braunii.
The oil droplets are evident in this phase micrograph, some
have been expelled and are droplets in the medium. These
oil droplets have 30-36 carbon hydrocarbons.
Clicker Question:
Expressing Mammalian Genes in Bacteria
There are a few Problems … that can be overcome:
1. Expressing intron-free genes in bacteria.
Clicker Question:
Expressing Mammalian Genes in Bacteria
There are a few Problems … that can be overcome:
1. Expressing intron-free genes in bacteria.
Clicker Question:
Expressing intron-free
genes in bacteria.
Clicker Question:
Expressing intron-free
genes in bacteria.
Clicker Question:
Expressing Mammalian Genes in Bacteria
There are a few Problems … that can be overcome:
1. Expressing intron-free genes in bacteria.
2. Purification of the Protein.
a. Is it expressed in the cytoplasm or exported to the
medium
b. Fusion proteins and other ways to simplfy
purification.
3. Testing the purity AND safety.
Recombinant Vaccines
Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses have many genes, a
great diversity of proteins.
Clicker Question:
Recombinant Vaccines
Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses have many genes, a
great diversity of proteins.
Clicker Question:
Transgenic Animals and Plants
Transgenic salmon is 4.5 kg.
Control salmon is 1.5 kg.
Getting a Gene into a Plant
Transgenic Plants
Tobacco plants, one a
Bt toxin transgenic
plant. Both exposed to
armyworm larvae.
Clicker Question:
×

Report this document