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Charles Fourier
Charles Fourier

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The previous chapter describes the dramatic political changes that followed the
French revolutions. Equally profound were the social and economic changes th
what has sometimes been called the Industrial Revolution. Beginning in Great
the processes of manufacturing were transformed. Britain held the lead in indu
eventually the following changes reached western Europe, the United States, R
• New sources of energy. The coal-fired steam engine replaced tradition
such as wood, wind, and water. Nations with abundant coal-Britain,
United States---(:ould benefit from the new technology. Railroads and
by the steam engine, created important links between raw materials, i
merican and
t accompanied
ritain about 1750,
.alization, but
ssia, and Japan.
I sources of power
ermany, the
teamships, fired
ustry, and market.
• New labor-saving technologies. Phases in textile production once done by hand, such as
spinning and weaving, were mechanized. Factories replaced cottage in ustry and became
more efficient through the use of interchangeable parts and the assemb y line.
• Increased standard of living. The factory system was tremendously pr ductive.
Efficiencies of scale and improved transportation links meant cheaper consumer goods
for everyone. The accumulation of great wealth provided the capital £ r further
• New patterns of work. The factory system transformed rural laborers nto industrial
workers with rigid timetables and strict discipline. Workers faced Ion hours of tedious
and often dangerous work.
• New social patterns. Industrialization separated work from home life and created separate
spheres for men and women. Women, especially middle-class wome ,were expected to
take care of home and children. Men were expected to work and pro ide for the family.
• Urbanization. Industrial centers grew rapidly through the nineteenth century. Large cities
struggled to provide such services as water delivery, sewage dispos ,police and fire
protection, public education.
I. Patterns of industrialization
A. Foundations ofindustrialization
1. Coal critical to the early industrialization of Britain
a) Shift from wood to coal in eighteenth century; deforestati n caused wood
shortages b) Abundant, accessible coal reserves in Britain 109
2. Overseas colonies provided raw materials
a) Plantations in the Americas provided sugar and cotton
b) Colonies also became markets for British mauufactured grods
c) Grain, timber, and beef shipped from United States to Bd in after 1830
3. Demand for cheap cotton spurred mechauization of cotton in
stry a) John Kay invented the flying shuttle, 1733 b) Samuel Crompton invented the spinning "mule," 1779 c) Edmund Cartwright invented a water-driven power loom, 1785
4. James Watt's steam engine, 1765
a) Burned coal, which drove a piston, which turned a wheel
b) Widespread use by 1800 meant increased productivity, ch aper prices
5. Iron and steel also important industries, with continual refine a) Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal as principal fuel b) Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger steel 6. Transportation improved with steam engines and improved ste 1
a) George Stephenson invented the first steam-powered loco otive, 1815
b) Steamships began to replace sailing ships in the mid-ninet enth century
c) Railroads and steamships lowered transportation costs and reated dense
transportation networks
B. The factory system
1. The factory gradually replaced the putting-out system
a) Most industrial workers from rural areas, where econo ic opportunities were
b) Factory system required division oflabor; each worker pe
rmed a single task
c) Required a high degree of coordination, work discipline, an close supervision
2. Working conditions often harsh a) Workers lost status; not skilled, just wage earners b) Harsh work discipline, fast pace of work, frequent accidents 3. Industrial protest a) Luddites struck against mills and destroyed machines, 1811 nd 1816 b) Fourteen Luddites hung in 1813, and the movement died C. The early spread of industrialization
1. Industrialization in western Europe
110 a) British industrial monopoly, 1750 to 1800, forbade immigratio of skilled
b) Napoleon abolished internal trade barriers in western Europe, d'smantled guilds
c) Belgium and France moved toward industrialization by mid-ni eteenth century
d) After German unification, Bismarck sponsored heavy industry, arms, shipping
2. Industrialization in North America slow to start, few laborers, little apital
a) British craftsmen started cotton textile industry in New Englan in 1820s
b) Heavy iron and steel industries in 1870s
c) Rail networks developed in 1860s; integrated various regions 0 United States
D. Industrial capitalism
1. Mass production provided cheaper goods
a) Eli Whitney promoted mass production of interchangeable part for firearms
b) Later (1913), Henry Ford introduced assembly line to automobi e production
2. Industrialization expensive; required large capital investment
a) Encouraged organization of large-scale corporations with hundr ds of investors
b) New laws protected investors from liability
3. Monopolies, trusts, and cartels: competitive associations
a) Trusts and cartels formed to control supply of a product (and th refore its price)
b) Vertical organization: Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co.
c) Horizontal organization (or cartel): IG Farben, world's largest c emical company
II. Industrial society
A. The fruits of industry
1. Population growth
a) Industrialization raised material standards of living
b) Populations of Europe and America rose sharply from 1700 to I 00
c) Better diets and improved sanitation reduced death rate of adults and children
2. Demographic transition: popUlation change typical of industrialized ountries
Pattern of declining birthrate in response to declining mortality
b) Voluntary birth control through contraception
B. Urbanization and migration
1. Industrialization drew migrants from countryside to urban centers a) By 1900, 50 percent of population of industrialized countries liv d in towns
b) By 1900, more than 150 cities with over one hundred thousand p ople in Europe
and North America
c) Urban problems: shoddy houses, fouled air, inadequate water s ply
d) By the late nineteenth centnry, governments passed building co es, built sewer
2. Transcontinental migration: some workers sought opportunities abr .ad
1800-1920,50 million Europeans migrated to North and South merica
b) Fled: famine in Ireland, anti-Semitism in Russia, problems else
C. Industry and society
1. New social classes created by industrialization a) Captains of industry: a new aristocracy of wealth b) Middle class: managers, accountants, other professionals c) Working class: unskilled, poorly paid, vulnerable 2. Dramatic changes to the industrial family a) Sharp distinction between work and family life, worked long h urs outside home
b) Family members led increasingly separate lives
3. Men gained increased statnre and responsibility in industrial age a) Middle- and upper-class men were sole providers b) Valued self-improvement, discipline, and work ethic c) Imposed these values on working-class men (1) Workers often resisted work discipline
(2) Working-class cultnre: bars, sports, gambling, outlets awa from work
4. Opportunities for women narrowed by industrialization a) Working women could not bring children to work in mines or actories
b) Middle-class women were expected to care for home and chil en
c) Increased opportunities for women to work in domestic servic
5. Many children forced to work in industry to contribute to family s pport
1840s, Parliament began to regulate child labor
b) 1881, primary education became mandatory in England
D. The socialist challenge
1. Utopian socialists: Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and their follo a) Established model communities based on principle of equalit . b) Stressed cooperative control of industry, education for all chi ren 2. Marx (1818-1883) and Engels (1820-1895), leading nineteenth-c ntury socialists
a) Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic, unproductive
b) Critique of industrial capitalism
(1) Unrestrained competition led to ruthless exploitation of or.king class
(2) State, courts, police: all tools of the capitalist ruling class
3. DIe Communist Manifesto, 1848
a) Claimed excesses of capitalism would lead communist revol tion
b) "Dictatorship of the proletariat" would destroy capitalist orde
c) Socialism would follow-a fair, just, and egalitarian society
d) Ideas dominated European and international socialism throug out nineteenth
4. Social reform came gradually, through legislative measures a) Regulated hours and restricted work for women and children b) Under Bismarck, Germany provided medical insurance and s cial security
5. Trade unions formed to represent interests of industrial workers a) Faced stiff opposition from employers and governments b) Forced employers to be more responsive to workers' needs; a erted violence
III. Global effects of industrialization
A. The continuing spread of industrialization beyond Europe and North
1. Industrialization in Russia promoted by tsarist government
a) Between 1860 and 1900, built thirty~five thousand miles ofra'lroads
b) Finance minister, Sergei Witte, promoted industry
(1) Oversaw the construction of the trans-Siberian railroad
(2) Reformed commercial law to protect industries and steam hip companies
(3) Promoted nautical and engineering schools
(4) Encouraged foreign investors
c) By 1900 Russia produced half the world's oil, also significant ortion of its iron
and armaments
2. Industrialization in Japan also promoted by government
a) Hired thousands of foreign experts to establish modern industr es
b) Created new industries; opened technical institutes and univer ities
c) Government-owned businesses then sold to private entreprene rs (zaibatsu)
d) Japan was the most industrialized land in Asia by 1900
B. The international division of labor
1. Industrialization increased demand for raw materials
a) Nonindustrialized societies became suppliers of raw materials
b) Cotton from India, Egypt; rubber from Brazil, Malaya, and Co go River basin
113 2. Economic development stronger in lands colonized by Europ
a) High wages encouraged labor-saving technologies
b) Canada, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand. later industrialized
3. Economic dependency more common in other countries
a) Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and south~ast Asia
b) Foreign investors owned and controlled plantations and pr duction
c) Free-trade policy favored foreign products over domestic
d) World divided into producers and consumers
What is the contribution of each of the following individuals to world histo ? Identification
should include answers to the questions who, what, where, when, how, and y is this person
James Watt
Eli Whitney
Henry Ford
J. D. Rockefeller
Thomas Malthus
Robert Owen
Karl Marx
Sergei Witte
State in your own words what each of the following terms means and why i is significant to a
study of world history. (Terms with an asterisk are defined in the glossary.) Bessemer converter Luddites* Crystal Palace Demographic transition Socialism* 114
Trade unions
Zaibatsu *
Economic dependency
1. What inventions led to the mechanization of the cotton industry after 1750. Why was the
textile industry so prominent at this time?
2. Explain how Great Britain took such a commanding lead in the Industrial
3. Summarize the changes in iron and steel production and in transportation in the nineteenth
4. When and how did industrialization spread to the European continent and t
States? What factors in those countries tended to support industry?
5. What are some of the characteristics of "industrial capitalism"? How did in
J. D. Rockefeller achieve such dominance over the marketplace?
strial giants like
6. What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the material standard 0 living in Europe
and America? Who benefited the most from this?
7. What are the significant demographic (population) trends of the nineteenth c ntury in Europe
and America? What factors account for these changes?
8. What was the impact of the industrial revolution on working-class families?
changes for working-class men, women, and children.
onsider the
9. In what ways did the major industrial nations of the west become more respo$sive to the
needs and interests of working people?
10. Compare the process of industrialization in Russia and Japan in the late ninet enth century.
11. What was the impact of Western industrialism on the nonindustrial countries f Asia and
South America?
Match these figures, groups, or items with the statements that follow.
A. Proletariat
B. Bourgeoisie
C. Zaibatsu
D. Thomas Malthus
E. Henry Ford
F. James Watt
1. G.
Eli Whitney
H. Robert Owen
J. D. Rockefeller
Karl Marx
Sergei Witte
A philanthropic industrialist who created utopian societies for his workers and their
2. _ English handicraft workers who tried to halt the industrialization of the te tile industry
through sabotage.
3. Inventor who, by manufacturing with interchangeable parts, streamlined' dustrial
4. _ The industrial empires built by wealthy Japanese industrialists.
5. Inventor ofthe steam engine, which provided the energy that ran the Ind
6. _
Entrepreneur who advanced mass production with a mechanized assembl line that
moved the product through the factory.
7. Economist whose dire predictions about population growth suggested that othing could
he done to relieve poverty.
8. _ The wealthy middle class, often the managers or industrialists.
9. _ The urban working class. the wage earners in industry.
Finance minister who aggressively promoted the industrial development 0 Russia.
11. An aggressive and often mtbless industrialist who built a vertical empire
12. -
An outspoken critic of industrial capitalism who envisioned a classless
would share equally in the benefits ofindustry.
und oil
For each of the following quotes, identifY the speaker, if known, or the point fview. What is the
significance of each passage?
1. "I have a belt round my waist, and a chain passing between my legs, and I g on my hands
and feet. The road is very steep, and we have to hold by a rope; and when t ere is no rope, by
anything we can catch hold of.... I am very tired when I get home at night; I fall asleep
sometimes before I get washed. I am not so strong as I was, and cannot stan my work so
well as I used to. I have drawn till I have had the skin off me; the belt and cain is worse
when we are in the family way."
2. "Population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five ye rs, or increases in
a geometrical ratio ... [while] the means of subsistence ... could not possi 'ly be made to
increase faster than in an arithmetic ratio. The ultimate check to population ppears then to be
want of food, arising necessarily from the different ratios according to whic population and
food increase."
3. "Domestic life is the chief source of her influence .... There is something
independence. "
feminine in
4. "The history of all hitherto exiting society is the history of class struggles.... Our epoch, the
epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the
class antagonism. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile
camps, into two great classes facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat"
1. Consider the network of railroads in Europe in 1850 (Map 30.1, page 823 i the textbook).
What factors seem to dictate the placement of railroads? In Britain, which r gions are well
connected and which are more isolated? How would you characterize the n
of railroads
on the continent?
2. Consider the population distribution in Europe by 1850 (also Map 30.1). D . s population
density correspond to the other indications of industrialization, such as railr ads, coal
deposits, and industrial centers? How do you explain the discrepancies?
3. Graph the population growth between 1700 and 1900 for Britain, Europe, J an, and the
United States. What factors account for this dramatic growth? What factors ight account for
the differences within the industrialized nations?

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