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Looking after yourself
20
Today, people who live in the
developed world have access to
medical treatment, clean
drinking water and hygienic
living conditions. New advances
in medicine help doctors treat
illnesses. By using vaccinations,
doctors can protect us from
diseases that used to kill
millions of people every year,
like smallpox and measles.
1 Explain why we live longer
nowadays compared to one
hundred years ago.
2 What can yo
ou do to keep
healthy?
3 What are th
he girl and doctor
looking at in the photo?
4 Have you evver had a
vaccination?
?
5 Listen to the song. Point to the
e words you hear.
white blood cell
bacteria
virus
flu
red blood cell
vaccination
21
A triip to the
e hospittal
X-rays pass
1
Listen and read.
A
through the body
and leave an image
of bones and organs
B
on photographic
I know what
Yes. It allows
this is. It’s an
doctors to
ultrasound
monitor the
machine.
foetus inside the
mother.
film.
Look! This
bone is
broken.
A and Carla are learning
Alex
aabout different machines ...
C
D
What’s that?
This is an
electrocardiograph.
It monitors your
heart rate.
It’s a microscope.
With this machine we can
You have a
perform microsurgery on
very strong
tiny parts of the body, like
heartbeat
nerves and capillaries.
Alex!
2
Look at the story. Write one or two words to
complete the sentences.
1. X-rays pass through the body and leave
an image of bones and ..... .
2. An ultrasound machine allows doctors to
monitor ..... .
3. Doctors use an electrocardiograph to
monitor ..... .
22
Allex
e and Carla’s school trip project
Look at Alex and Carla’s project and then answer the questions.
Medical advances chart
1 Copy the chart in your notebook. Add another machine that
Alex and Carla saw at the hospital. Is it used for prevention,
diagnosis or treatment?
2 Add the following words to your chart: exercise, thermometer,
blood tests, blood transfusions, organ transplants, healthy eating.
3 Why do you think it was so difficult to be a doctor in the past?
Share your ideas with the class.
23
Heallthy hab
bits
Scientists continue to research and develop new medicines
that treat illnesses. We can also stay healthy by taking care of
our bodies. It’s easy, just follow these five rules:
Rule 1: Eat healthily
A healthy diet is a balanced diet. Different nutrients
help our body systems.
Iron helps blood carry oxygen around the body.
Potassium helps your heart, muscles and nerves
work properly. It also helps prevent high blood
pressure.
Vitamin C helps strengthen your immune system.
Proteins build muscle and help us grow.
Carbohydrates provide fibre, which helps move
food through the digestive system, keeping it
clean and running smoothly.
Remember to drink plenty of water. Water keeps
the body systems functioning properly.
Rule 2: Exercise
It is very important to do exercise regularly. Exercise
makes our body stronger and it also helps our
circulatory and respiratory systems. When we
exercise, we breathe faster and our heart has to
work harder to pump blood around the body. As a
result, our heart gets stronger. The muscles that
we use to breathe in and out also get stronger.
Did you know?
1 Explain why a balanced diet is important.
2 How does exercise help make your heart stronger?
24
When you exercise, your
brain releases chemicals,
called endorphins,
which make you feel
happy.
Rule 3: Sleep
It is very important that we get enough sleep.
Sleep allows our body to rest and grow. Sleep
also helps the brain develop so that speech and
memory function properly the next day.
Rule 4: Keep clean
We wash our body to remove dirt, bacteria and
sweat. We should wash our hands before we eat
and after going to the toilet to remove any germs.
We also need to remove food and plaque from
our teeth by brushing them at least twice a day.
Rule 5: Have medical check-ups
Medical check-ups monitor our health and
check that our body systems are working
properly. Your doctor will also make sure you
have the vaccinations you need to protect you
from certain diseases. It is a good idea to have
regular check-ups with your dentist and
optician too.
3 How many hours of sleep do you get each night? Find
out what the recommended amount of sleep is for
someone your age.
4 How many hours of exercise do you do each week? Find
out what the recommended amount of exercise is for
someone your age.
25
Unhealthy habits
Sometimes when we get sick or feel unhealthy, it isn’t our fault
and there isn’t anything we can do about it. However, other
times it can be avoided. Read the texts below and find out what
we need to avoid in order to stay healthy.
1
Infectious diseases
Some diseases, such as colds, are contagious. This
means they spread from person to person through the
air. The germs or pathogens usually enter the body
through the nose or the mouth. The body has natural
defences, such as white blood cells, to protect itself
against germs. If you get plenty of rest, drink enough
water, exercise and have a healthy diet, your defences
will be stronger.
2
Bad eating habits
An unhealthy lifestyle, such as eating a lot of fast food
and doing little exercise, can cause weight problems and
heart disease. Remember to read the food labels on
food products. These labels can help us choose
between a healthy and an unhealthy product. Try to
avoid products that contain more than 22% sugarr and
more than 1.5% salt. Too much sugar can cause weight
problems while too much salt can be bad for your heart.
Many foods also contain chemicals which are added
to make them last longer. Some of these additives
are very bad for your body.
Link it up!
1 What substances can cause an allergic reaction? Do you
have any allergies?
2 How can you boost your body’s natural defences?
3 How can playing video games harm your body?
26
Find out about some different
types of additives. Why are
they added to food?
3
4
Allergies
An allergy is a medical condition when you
have a bad reaction to something you eat,
breathe or touch. Some people are allergic to
dust, pollen, animal hair and certain foods.
5
Game over
Playing video games too often can result in
weight gain, sleep loss, headaches,
backache and eye strain. Play them for short
periods only. Doing exercise in a group will
benefit your body and mind much more than
watching a screen or television.
Say no!
Drugs such as alcohol and tobacco cause
serious health problems. Alcohol can harm
your liver, heart and brain. Smoking can stop
you growing, as well as badly affecting your
lungs and heart.
4 Why do you think it is better to eat natural foods
instead of processed foods?
5 Why do you think young people start smoking and
drinking alcohol?
27
We are all equal
As we get older, we develop physically,
y mentally and
emotionally.
y We must recognise our emotions and know
when it is necessary to control them. We also need to be aware
of our responsibilities towards other people and their feelings.
A basic human right states that all people
are equal.
Look around the school playground. There
are boys and girls from different countries,
pupils who speak different languages and
pupils with different religions. There are
confident children, shy children, sporty
children and studious children.
People are different – they like different
things and feel differently in different
situations. What we must remember is
that people always deserve respect. We
might find one situation easy, whereas
another person might feel nervous or
scared. We always need to take other
people’s feelings into consideration.
1 Copy and complete the chart in ypur notebook, then compare your answers with a
partner. Are they similar or different?
28
Always
Sometimes
Never
I feel confident playing sport.
.....
.....
.....
I don’t enjoy playing sport.
.....
.....
.....
I enjoy playing and working with groups of people.
.....
.....
.....
I feel shy when working in a group.
.....
.....
.....
I feel nervous before an exam.
.....
.....
.....
I get angry when others don’t do what I want.
.....
.....
.....
Em
mpathy
Empathy is the ability to understand how someone feels. If we
can understand how somebody feels, or empathise with them,
we can decide to do or say something which will make them
feel better. See if you can empathise with the children in the
pictures below.
Two classmates are laughing at Luke. Luke is the smallest
boy in the class and he is very shy. Some children are
watching but they aren’t doing anything to help him.
Dan and Sarah want to play football. Elsa and Tom
want to play tag. Tom takes the ball so that the
others can’t play with it. He then kicks the ball away.
It is David’s first day at his new school.
It is break time and he is alone. There is
a group of children playing nearby.
Two older boys are drawing graffiti on a
school wall. Helen is standing behind a
tree and can see what they are doing.
2 How do you think the characters are feeling?
3 What should the children in the stories do?
29
FIND OUT:
How germ
ms spread
Id
dea:
Germs pass easily from
person to person and
d to
objects that we toucch.
Dark sheets of
card
Flour
Plastic plates
Te
es
est:
Use flour to demonstrate how easily germs spread.
1
2
Pour some flour onto a
plastic plate. Press your
right hand into the flour
and shake off the excess.
3
Shake hands with your
partner. Observe how
much flour is left on your
partner’s hand.
Press your hand onto the
piece of card. Observe
how much flour is left on
the card.
Co
onclusions
1 How much flour passed to your
partner and to the card? Why do you
think we should wash our hands before
eating and after going to the toilet?
2 Find out the correct way to wash your hands.
Is warm water better than cold water for
removing germs? Why or why not?
30
THINK ABOUT IT:
Famou
us scientistss
Edward Jenner was an English
doctor who lived two hundred
years ago. At the time, there
was a terrible virus called
smallpox which killed millions
of people all around the world.
Jenner noticed that farm
workers who caught a similar
disease called cowpox did not
catch smallpox. He made a
hypothesis why these people
did not catch the disease.
Jenner infected an eight-yearold boy called James Phipps
with the cowpox virus. The boy
became ill but then recovered.
Jenner then infected the same
boy with the deadly smallpox
virus. The boy did not catch the
disease. Jenner’s hypothesis
was correct. The cowpox virus
protected people from
smallpox.
1 What was Edward Jenner’s hypothesis about the
smallpox virus?
2 How do you think Edward Jenner felt when he was
testing his hypothesis on James Phipps?
3 Investigate the discovery of other vaccines. Search for
information on the internet.
31
LOOK BA
ACK:
Look
k after yo
ourself
Sttudy
u
skills
1 Copy and complete.
Unhealthy habits
Consequences
Unhealthy diet
heart disease
.....
Lack of .....
tiredness
.....
respiratory and heart problems
prevents growth
Alcohol
harms your .....
harms your .....
harms your .....
Video games
weight gain
.....
.....
.....
2 Make definition cards to help you revise.
Cut out small pieces of card – about eight from
one sheet of card.
Write a key word from the unit on one side of
the cards.
Write the definitions on the back.
Place the cards in a pile on the table with the
definitions facing up.
Choose a card and identify the word.
Practise spelling the word as you play the game.
Keep playing until you have identified all the
words correctly.
32
Re
eview
1 Look at the pictures below. Which parts of the body are
the people protecting? What are they protecting them
from?
A
B
C
D
2 Correct the following sentences in your notebook.
a. An electrocardiograph leaves an image of bones and organs on a photographic plate.
b. Carbohydrates contain fibre which is good for the respiratory system.
c. An allergy is a contagious disease.
d. Vaccinations protect you from obesity.
e. Playing lots of video games will benefit your body more than doing exercise.
3 Match the two columns in your notebook.
1. smallpox
a. diagnosis
2. fast food
b. disease
3. vaccination
c. healthy habit
4. X-ray
d. prevention
5. antibiotics
e. unhealthy habit
6. exercise
f. treatment
4 Work in pairs. Make questions with the
words below and ask your partner.
How often
do you
should you
sleep eight hours a night?
eat fast food?
do exercise?
play video games?
wash your hands?
33
Animals
38
Animals are divided into two
main groups: vertebrates and
invertebrates. Did you know
that about 97% of the animals
on Earth are invertebrates? That
means only three percent are
vertebrates. All vertebrates have
a backbone and an internal
skeleton. There are five classes
of vertebrates: mammals, birds,
fish, reptiles and amphibians.
1 Can you name the animals in
the picture?
2 Which vertebrate groups do
these animals belong to?
3 Are the animals in the picture
in their natural habitat?
4 Are these animals herbivores,
carnivores or omnivores?
5 Listen to the song. Point to the vertebrate groups
you hear.
mammal
bird
reptile
fish
amphibian
39
A trip to the Natural
Science Museum
countryside
Do you know
1
Listen and read.
A
B
Alex and Carla are learning
about vertebrates ...
This animal’s a
what this
It’s a
animal eats?
carnivore. It
eats meat.
Yes, it is!
vertebrate – it has
a backbone and a
skeleton. Is it a
reptile?
It doesn’t
have any legs. I
Look at its
know! It’s a
big teeth!
What do you
C
snake.
know about
That’s a
D
these animals?
Tyrannosaurus
rex. It was
oviparous and a
carnivore.
They were
oviparous. They
laid eggs.
That’s correct!
And they
were very
big!
2
Look at the story. Write one or two words to
complete the sentences.
1. All vertebrates have a ..... and an
internal ..... .
2. Oviparous animals lay ..... .
3. Dinosaurs were ..... .
4. Reptiles breathe with ..... .
5. Carnivores eat ..... .
6. A reptile without any legs is called a ..... .
40
I know…they
breathed with
their lungs.
Dinosaurs were
reptiles. Do you
know how they
breathed?
Alex and Carla’s school trip project
Look at Alex and Carla’s project and then answer the questions.
Vertebrates chart
1 Copy and complete the table in your notebook. How many
vertebrate groups are viviparous?
2 Find a picture of a reptile and add it to your chart. Which column
does it go in?
3 Carla wants to add echidnas to the table. Which column should it
go in?
41
Vertebrate nutrition
Unlike plants, animals cannot make their own food. They eat
other living things. Living things that obtain energy by eating
other living things are called consumers. There are three types
of consumers – herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat meat
and omnivores eat both plants and meat.
Most reptiles and amphibians are carnivores. Mammals,
birds and fish can be herbivores, carnivores or omnivores.
Mammals have different types of teeth and birds have different
types of beaks depending on the food they eat. All baby
mammals drink their mother’s milk until they can find their own
food.
Animals such as sheep and cows have a special way of
digesting food. Grass is partly digested in the digestive
system, but then it returns to the mouth. The animal
chews the grass to break it down more and swallows
it again. The grass returns to the digestive system
where the process is completed. These animals are
called ruminants.
Goats, giraffes, deer and camels are all
examples of ruminants.
Did you know?
1 What is a consumer?
2 Name six ruminants.
3 Explain what is special about the way ruminants
digest food.
42
A cow’s stomach has four
chambers and they have no
upper front teeth.
Vertebrate respiration
All animals need to take in oxygen. They all need to expel
waste carbon dioxide from the body too. This exchange of
gases inside the body is called respiration. Different animals
have different ways of performing the process of
respiration.
pharynx
lungs
gills
water in
trachea
diaphragm
water out
Fish take in oxygen from water. The water
enters the body through the mouth and leaves
through the gills. The oxygen is absorbed into
the blood through capillaries in the gills. Waste
carbon dioxide leaves the body through the gills.
Mammals, birds and reptiles take in oxygen
from the air. Air passes into the lungs. Blood
cells absorb the oxygen from the lungs and
transport it around the body. Waste carbon
dioxide leaves the body through the lungs.
nostril
lungs
When they are young, amphibians are aquatic animals. They take in the
oxygen they need from the water through their gills. During metamorphosis,
their gills close and they develop lungs. Adult amphibians can also absorb
oxygen and expel carbon dioxide through their moist skin.
trachea
4 Dolphins and sea turtles live in the sea but breathe with
their lungs. How is this possible?
5 Find out why a turtle is classified as a reptile and a frog
is classified as an amphibian.
6 Living things adapt to their environment. Beaks and
teeth are adaptations. Work with a partner and make a
list of other animal adaptations.
43
Vertebrate reproduction
All animals have a life cycle. They are born, they grow, they
reproduce and they die. When an animal reproduces it creates
a new living thing which is similar to itself. This is called its
offspring. Reproduction is very important because if a species
does not replace the animals that die, it becomes extinct.
Frogs lay eggs underwater. They are oviparous.
These eggs float on the water, where many are
eaten by predators. Only a few survive.
Polar bears give birth to
live cubs. They are
viviparous. They dig deep
dens in the snow to give
birth in.
Turtles lay eggs on land. They are oviparous.
Female turtles dig nests in the sand and bury
their eggs to protect them from predators.
Birds lay eggs in nests. They
are oviparous. Nests are
safe places where eggs are
out of the reach of
predators.
Fish lay eggs underwater.
They are oviparous. Some
fish can lay millions of eggs,
but most are eaten by
predators.
Link it up!
1 How do the animals in the photos produce offspring?
Are they oviparous or viviparous?
2 What difficulties do the animals in the photos face
when trying to reproduce?
44
The thousands of eggs that
frogs lay in pond water is
called frogspawn. In each one
you can see a black tadpole
embryo.
Oviparous, viviparous and
ovoviviparous animals
Most animals reproduce sexually. This method requires a male
and a female of the same species. The ova, or the eggs, produced
by the female, are fertilised by the sperm, produced by the male.
Animals can be oviparous, viviparous or ovoviviparous.
Oviparous animals
Birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians are oviparous animals. The
embryo grows outside the female’s body, inside an egg. The shell or
jelly around the egg protects the embryo. The egg also contains all
the nutrients it needs to grow. These eggs will later hatch into new
offspring.
Mammals that are oviparous are called monotremes. The echidna is
an example of a monotreme.
Viviparous animals
Almost all mammals are viviparous. The embryo develops inside the
mother and she gives birth to live offspring. All baby mammals,
including monotremes, drink their mother’s milk until they can find
their own food.
Ovoviviparous animals
A few species are ovoviviparous. These animals produce eggs but the
eggs develop and hatch inside the mother. Later, the mother gives
birth to live offspring. Some fish, reptiles and amphibians are
ovoviviparous. The tiger shark is ovoviviparous.
3 Life is a struggle for survival. What dangers are facing
the young animals in the photos?
4 Some birds sit on their eggs to keep them warm. Find
out why the eggs do not break.
45
Invertebrates
Invertebrates all share one characteristic – they do not have a
backbone. We can classify invertebrates into six groups:
arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms, annelids, sponges and
cnidarians.
Arthropods
This is the largest invertebrate group. All arthropods have an
external skeleton called an exoskeleton.
Most crustaceans have two body parts: a
cephalothorax and an abdomen. Their
exoskeleton is very hard, like a shell. They have
five pairs of legs but the front pair of legs has
claws. They also have four antennae.
Arachnids have two body parts: a cephalothorax
and an abdomen. The cephalothorax is made up
of the head and the thorax. They have four pairs
of legs and up to eight eyes.
Myriapods have long, thin,
segmented bodies. They
have many pairs of legs
and two antennae. They
live in dark, damp places.
Insects have three body parts: a head, a
thorax and an abdomen. All insects have two
antennae and three pairs of legs which are
joined to the thorax. Most insects have one or
two pairs of wings.
1 Work with a partner and classify these invertebrates: wasp, spider, crab, centipede, ant,
scorpion, millipede and lobster.
46
Molluscs
Molluscs are another large group of invertebrates. There are
three subgroups: gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods.
cephalopod
gastropod
bivalves
Other invertebrate groups
Echinoderms live at the bottom of the
sea. They are covered by a hard, spiny
skin. Starfish are echinoderms.
Annelids have a long, soft body
with moist skin. Many annelids are
parasites and live inside the bodies
of other animals. Most annelids live in
water, but they can also live on land.
2 Earthworms are very important for
the environment. Find out what they
do.
Sponges live in water. They are the simplest
invertebrates. They have no muscles,
nervous system or circulatory system.
Cnidarians live in the sea. They have
a soft, jelly-like body with one
opening. This opening is surrounded
by venomous tentacles. Jellyfish
and sea anemones are cnidarians.
3 Sponges have no circulatory or nervous
system. They cannot move. Find out
how they get their food.
47
FIND OUT:
How wings work
Idea:
The shape of a bird’s
wings helps it fly.
Paper
Scissors
Glue
Ruler
String
Test:
Make a wing and observe how it helps a bird fly.
1
2
Cut a strip of paper, about
20 cm long. Fold it in half
and stick one edge 2 cm
from the other edge.
3
Measure the bottom and
the curved part of the
paper, using a ruler and
string. Make a note.
Place a ruler through the
wing and blow hard
against the fold. Observe
what happens.
Conclusions
1 Does the wing move up or down as
you blow against it?
2 Which part of the wing is shorter – the
bottom part or the curved part?
3 The curved shape makes the air travel faster
over the wing than under it. Can you think of
a man-made object that uses this adaptation?
48
THINK ABOUT IT:
1
Endangered animals
2
Siberian tigers are found in the coniferous
forests of China, North Korea and Russia.
Unfortunately, there are only about 400
Siberian tigers left in the wild.
A male Siberian tiger is about 3.3 metres long
and weighs about 165 kilograms. They have thick
fur to protect them from the cold climate.
3
The Siberian tiger is a carnivore. It eats large mammals such as deer,
bears and cattle.
4
The female Siberian tiger gives birth to three or four cubs.
Unfortunately, usually only one cub survives.
5
The Siberian tiger is in danger of becoming extinct. People hunt and
kill tigers because they can sell their fur for a lot of money. Humans
are also destroying their natural habitats.
1 Match these headings to the paragraphs in the text:
a) Diet
d) Reasons why they are endangered
b) Habitat
e) Reproduction
c) Description
2 Choose another endangered animal. Investigate it and write a
report. Include information about its habitat, diet, reproduction
and give the reasons why it is endangered.
49
LOOK BACK:
Animals
Study skills
1 Copy and complete.
Vertebrates
Amphibians
.....
.....
.....
.....
Animal
kingdom
Arthropods
.....
Invertebrates
Insects
.....
Myriapods
.....
Bivalves
.....
.....
Sponges
Echinoderms
.....
2 Make invertebrate cards to practise spelling.
Write the names of the invertebrate groups
on pieces of card.
Draw a picture of an animal from that
group on the other side of the card.
Work with a partner. Show the picture of
the animal and ask your partner to identify
the group it belongs to.
Now ask your partner to spell the word.
50
.....
Review
1 Identify the animal group by reading the definitions.
a. They are viviparous and drink their mother’s milk.
b. They have fins and scales and breathe through their gills.
c. They are oviparous and lay their eggs in water. When
they are adults, they breathe with their lungs or
through their skin.
2 Copy the definitions and order the letters.
a. This is an external skeleton that all arthropods have. (xeostlekeno)
b. This is the process in which baby amphibians change into adult amphibians. (moipssaoetmrh)
c. This animal produces eggs but the offspring develops inside the mother. (suorvviipoova)
3 True or false? Copy the sentences and correct the ones that are false.
a. Birds are viviparous.
b. Reptiles are herbivores.
c. Insects have two antennae.
4 Ask and answer questions about the animals in this unit
with a partner.
Does it have a backbone?
Yes, it does.
Is it a fish?
Yes, it is.
Is it oviparous?
No, it isn’t.
It’s a tiger shark!
51

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