1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Dompicare 20 mg, film

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1. NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Dompicare 20 mg, film-coated tablets
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Each film-coated tablet contains 20 mg domperidone.
Excipient with known effect:
Contains 116 mg of lactose.
For a full list of excipients, see Section 6.1.
3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Film-coated tablet.
The film-coated tablets are white, oblong and biconvex with a score line on one face and of
about 11.2 mm long and 3.9 mm thick.
The tablets can be divided into two equal doses.
4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1. Therapeutic indications
Adults
The relief of the symptoms of nausea and vomiting, epigastric sense of fullness, upper
abdominal discomfort and regurgitation of gastric contents.
Adolescents (over 12 years and weighing 35 kg or more)
The relief of the symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
4.2. Posology and method of administration
It is recommended to take this medicine before meals. If taken after meals, absorption of the
drug is somewhat delayed.
Adults and adolescents (over 12 years and weighing 35 kg or more)
The initial duration of treatment is four weeks. Patients should be re-evaluated after four
weeks and the need for continued treatment re-assessed.
10 mg (1/2 tablet) to 20mg (1 tablet) three to four times per day with a maximum daily dose
of 80 mg.
Paediatric population
Dompicare tablets are unsuitable for use in children under 12 years of age and weighing less
than 35 kg.
Use in patients with hepatic impairment
No data is available in patients with hepatic impairment. Since domperidone is highly
metabolised in the liver, this medicinal product should not be used in patients with hepatic
impairment, see section 4.4.
Use in patients with renal impairment
Since very little unchanged drug is excreted via the kidneys, it is unlikely that the dose of a
single administration needs to be adjusted in patients with renal insufficiency. However, on
repeated administration, the dosing frequency should be reduced to once or twice daily
depending on the severity of the impairment, and the dose may need to be reduced. Such
patients on prolonged therapy should be reviewed regularly (see sections 4.4, 5.2).
4.3. Contraindications
This medicine is contraindicated in the following situations:
- Known hypersensitivity to domperidone or any of the excipients
- Prolactin-releasing pituitary tumour (prolactinoma).
This medicine should not be used when stimulation of the gastric motility could be harmful:
- gastro-intestinal haemorrhage, mechanical obstruction or perforation.
4.4. Special warnings and special precautions for use
Use during lactation:
The total amount of domperidone excreted in human breast milk is expected to be less than
7 μg per day at the highest recommended dosing regimen. It is not known whether this is
harmful to the newborn. Therefore breast-feeding is not recommended for mothers who are
taking this medicine.
Hepatic impairment:
Since domperidone is highly metabolised in the liver, this medicine should not be used in
patients with hepatic impairment.
Renal impairment:
In patients with severe renal insufficiency (GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2) the posology should be
adjusted (see section 4.2) due to a reduced elimination (see section 5.2).
Cardiovascular effects:
Some epidemiological studies showed that domperidone may be associated with an increased
risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death (see section 4.8.) The risk may
be higher in patients older than 60 years or at daily doses of more than 30 mg. Domperidone
should be used at the lowest effective dose in adults and children.
Use of domperidone and other drugs which prolong QTc intervals requires that caution be
exercised in patients who have existing prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals,
particularly QTc, patients with significant electrolyte disturbances or underlying cardiac
diseases such as congestive heart failure.
Drug interactions
Co-administration with oral ketoconazole, erythromycin or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors
that prolong the QTc interval should be avoided.
Data regarding the effect of domperidone on other drugs’ metabolism is lacking. Therefore,
concomitant use of domperidone and drugs with narrow therapeutic windows should be
performed with caution.
For further interactions, please see section 4.5 “Interaction with other medicinal products and
other forms of interaction”.
Precautions for use:
The film-coated tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose
intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactosemalabsorption should not take
this medicinal product.
4.5. Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Effects of other drugs on domperidone
The main metabolic pathway of domperidone is through CYP3A4. In vitro data suggest that
the concomitant use of drugs that significantly inhibit this enzyme may result in increased
plasma levels of domperidone.
Separate in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interaction studies with oral
ketoconazole or oral erythromycin in healthy subjects confirmed a marked inhibition of
domperidone's CYP3A4 mediated first pass metabolism by these drugs.
The results of this interaction study should be taken into account when prescribing
domperidone concomitantly with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors
include: ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, clarithromycin, telithromycin,
erythromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nefazodone (see section 4.4 Special warnings
and special precautions for use).
Systemic exposure of domperidone can be reduced by inducers of CYP3A4 such as
rifampicin, carbamazepine, efavirenz and St. John’s wort.
In vitro and animal in vivo studies suggest a potential risk of domperidone crossing the bloodbrain barrier, when co-administered with substances, which are inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.
The potential risk in humans is unknown. Nonetheless, concomitant use of domperidone and
drugs, which are P-glycoprotein inhibitors (e.g. verapamil, quinidine, ketoconazole and
clarithromycin) should be performed with caution.
With the combination of oral domperidone 10mg four times daily and ketoconazole 200mg
twice daily, a mean QTc prolongation of 9.8 msec was seen over the observation period, with
changes at individual time points ranging from 1.2 to 17.5 msec. With the combination of
domperidone 10mg four times daily and oral erythromycin 500mg three times daily, mean
QTc over the observation period was prolonged by 9.9 msec, with changes at individual time
points ranging from 1.6 to 14.3 msec. Both the Cmax and AUC of domperidone at steady
state were increased approximately three-fold in each of these interaction studies. In these
studies domperidone monotherapy at 10mg given orally four times daily resulted in increases
in mean QTc of 1.6 msec (ketoconazole study) and 2.5 msec (erythromycin study), while
ketoconazole monotherapy (200mg twice daily) and erythromycin in monotherapy (500 mg
three times daily) led to increases in QTc of 3.8 and 4.9 msec, respectively, over the
observation period.
Reduced gastric acidity impairs the absorption of domperidone. Oral bioavailability is
decreased by prior concomitant administration of drugs that reduce gastric acidity, e.g. proton
pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, and antacids.
Effects of domperidone on other drugs
Because of its pharmacologic effects on transit time in the stomach and small intestine,
domperidone may alter the absorption of certain drugs. The extent of absorption of drugs that
disintegrate, dissolve, and/or are absorbed mainly in the stomach (e.g., digoxin) may be
diminished by domperidone, whereas the rate and extent of absorption of drugs that are
mainly absorbed in the small intestine (e.g. acetaminophen, aspirin, cyclosporine, diazepam,
ethanol, levodopa, lithium, tetracycline) may be enhanced. The clinical importance of these
effects has not been determined.
Data regarding the effect of domperidone on other drugs’ metabolism is lacking. Therefore,
concomitant use of domperidone and drugs with narrow therapeutic windows should be
performed with caution.
4.6. Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Fertility
There are no data on the effects of domperidone on human fertility.
Pregnancy
There are limited post-marketing data on the use of domperidone in pregnant women. A study
in rats has shown reproductive toxicity at a high, maternally toxic dose. The potential risk for
humans is unknown. Therefore, this medicine should only be used during pregnancy when
justified by the anticipated therapeutic benefit.
Lactation
The drug is excreted in breast milk of lactating rats (mostly as metabolites: peak concentration
of 40 and 800 ng/ml after oral and i.v. administration of 2.5 mg/kg respectively).
Domperidone concentrations in breast milk of lactating women are 10 to 50% of the
corresponding plasma concentrations and expected not to exceed 10ng/ml. The total amount
of domperidone excreted in human breast milk is expected to be less than 7 μg per day at the
highest recommended dosing regimen. It is not known whether this is harmful to the newborn.
Therefore breast-feeding is not recommended for mothers who are taking this medicine.
4.7. Effects on ability to drive and use machines
This medicine has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
4.8. Undesirable effects
The following frequencies are used for the description of the occurrence of adverse reactions:
Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare
(≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the
available data).
System
Class
Adverse Drug Reaction Frequency
Organ
Rare
Immune system
disorders
Very Rare
Anaphylactic
reactions including
anaphylactic shock
Angioedema
Allergic reaction
Increased prolactin
Endocrine
levels
disorders
Agitation
Psychiatric
Nervousness
disorders
Extrapyramidal
Nervous system
side effects
disorders
Convulsions
Somnolence
Headache
Cardiac disorders
Gastrointestinal
disorders
Unknown
QTc prolongation
Ventricular
arrhythmias
Sudden
cardiac
death
Gastrointestinal
Diarrhoea
disorders,
including very rare
transient intestinal
cramps
Skin
and
subcutaneous
tissue disorders
Galactorrhoea
Reproductive
system and breast Gynaecomastia
Amenorrhoea
disorders
Investigations
Urticaria
Pruritus
Rash
Liver function test
abnormal
As the hypophysis is outside the blood brain barrier, domperidone may cause an increase in
prolactin levels. In rare cases this hyperprolactinaemia may lead to neuro-endocrinological
side effects such as galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia and amenorrhoea.
Extrapyramidal side effects are very rare in neonates and infants, and exceptional in adults.
These side effects reverse spontaneously and completely as soon as the treatment is stopped.
Other central nervous system-related effects of convulsion, agitation and somnolence also are
very rare and primarily reported in infants and children.
4.9. Overdose
Symptoms
Overdose has been reported primarily in infants and children. Symptoms of overdosage may
include agitation, altered consciousness, convulsions, disorientation, somnolence and
extrapyramidal reactions.
Treatment
There is no specific antidote to domperidone, but in the event of overdose, gastric lavage as
well as the administration of activated charcoal, may be useful. Close medical supervision and
supportive therapy is recommended.
Anticholinergic, anti-Parkinson drugs may be helpful in controlling the extrapyramidal
reactions.
5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
5.1. Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Propulsives, ATC code: A03F A 03
Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with anti-emetic properties. Domperidone does not
readily cross the blood-brain barrier. In domperidone users, especially in adults,
extrapyramidal side effects are very rare, but domperidone promotes the release of prolactin
from the pituitary. Its anti-emetic effect may be due to a combination of peripheral
(gastrokinetic) effects and antagonism of dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger
zone, which lies outside the blood-brain barrier in the area postrema. Animal studies, together
with the low concentrations found in the brain, indicate a predominantly peripheral effect of
domperidone on dopamine receptors.
Studies in man have shown oral domperidone to increase lower oesophaegeal pressure,
improve antroduodenal motility and accelerate gastric emptying. There is no effect on gastric
secretion.
5.2. Pharmacokinetic properties
Absorption
In fasting subjects, domperidone is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with peak
plasma concentrations at 30 to 60 minutes. The low absolute bioavailability of oral
domperidone (approximately 15%) is due to an extensive first-pass metabolism in the gut wall
and liver. Although domperidone's bioavailability is enhanced in normal subjects when taken
after a meal, patients with gastro-intestinal complaints should take domperidone 15-30
minutes before a meal. The time of peak absorption is slightly delayed and the AUC
somewhat increased when the oral drug is taken after a meal.
Distribution
Oral domperidone does not appear to accumulate or induce its own metabolism; a peak
plasma level after 90 minutes of 21 ng/ml after two weeks oral administration of 30 mg per
day was almost the same as that of 18 ng/ml after the first dose. In humans, the apparent
volume of distribution is 5.7 L/kg, after intravenous administration. Domperidone is 91-93%
bound to plasma proteins.
Biotransformation
Domperidone undergoes rapid and extensive hepatic metabolism by hydroxylation and Ndealkylation. In vitro metabolism experiments with diagnostic inhibitors revealed that
CYP3A4 is a major form of cytochrome P-450 involved in the N-dealkylation of
domperidone, whereas CYP3A4, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 are involved in domperidone
aromatic hydroxylation. The domperidone metabolites are pharmacologically inactive.
Excretion
Urinary and faecal excretions amount to 31 and 66% of the oral dose respectively. The
proportion of the drug excreted unchanged is small (10% of faecal excretion and
approximately 1% of urinary excretion). The plasma half-life after a single oral dose is 7-9
hours in healthy subjects.
Special populations
Hepatic impairment
No pharmacokinetic studies in patients with hepatic impairment are available. Domperidone
is eliminated mainly by metabolism and therefore, caution is recommended in patients with
hepatic impairment, see sections 4.2, 4.4.
Renal impairment
In patients with severe renal impairment (GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) the elimination half-life
of domperidone was increased from 7.4 to 20.8 hours, but plasma drug levels were lower than
in healthy volunteers, see sections 4.2, 4.4.
5.3. Preclinical safety data
Electrophysiological in vitro and in vivo studies indicate an overall moderate risk of
domperidone to prolong the QT interval in humans. In in vitro experiments on isolated cells
transfected with hERG and on isolated guinea pig myocytes, exposure ratios ranged between
5- and 30-fold, based on IC50 values inhibiting currents through IKr ion channels in
comparison to the free plasma concentrations in humans after administration of the maximum
daily dose of 20mg (q.i.d.). Exposure margins for prolongation of action potential duration in
in vitro experiments on isolated cardiac tissues exceeded the free plasma concentrations in
humans at maximum daily dose (20mg q.i.d) by 17-fold. However, safety margins in in vitro
pro-arrhythmic models (isolated Langendorff perfused heart) and in in vivo models (dog,
guinea pig, rabbits sensitised for Torsade de pointes) exceeded the free plasma concentrations
in humans at maximum daily dose (20mg q.i.d.) by more than 17-fold. In the presence of
inhibition of the metabolism via CYP3A4 free plasma concentrations of domperidone can rise
up to 10-fold.
At a high, maternally toxic dose (more than 40 times the recommended human dose),
teratogenic effects were seen in the rat. No teratogenicity was observed in mice and rabbits.
6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS
6.1. List of excipients
Core:
Lactose monohydrate
Povidone
Maize starch
Crospovidone
Sodium laurilsulfate
Microcrystalline cellulose
Hydrogenated castor oil
Magnesium stearate
Coating:
Hypromellose
6.2. Incompatibilities
Not applicable.
6.3. Shelf-life
3 years.
6.4. Special precautions for storage
This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
6.5. Nature and content of container
Blister packs consisting of PVC/Aluminium.
Pack sizes of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 100 tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6. Instructions for use and handling, and disposal (if appropriate)
No special requirements.
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local
requirements.
7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
[To be completed nationally]
8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)
[To be completed nationally]
9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION
Date of first authorisation: 17 April 2013
10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
17/04/2013

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