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NONINDIGENOUS MARINE SPECIES IN
KANE`OHE BAY, O`AHU, HAWAI`I
June 2002
COVER
Areial view of Kane`ohe Bay from Kealohi Point (He`eia State Park) to Kahalu’u Fishpond
showing barrier and patch reefs and Kapapa Island. Image provided by Paul Jokiel, Hawaii
Instiitute of Marine Biology.
NONINDIGENOUS MARINE SPECIES IN
KANE`OHE BAY, O`AHU, HAWAI`I
Final Report prepared for the David and Lucile Packard Foundation
and the State of Hawai`i Department of Land and Natural Resources
Division of Aquatic Resources
S. L. Coles
R. C. DeFelice
L. G. Eldredge
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum
Hawai`i Biological Survey
Bishop Museum Technical Report No. 24
Honolulu, Hawai`i
June 2002
Published by
Bishop Museum Press
1525 Bernice Street
Honolulu, Hawai`i
Copyright © 2002 Bishop Museum
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America
ISSN 1085-455X
Contribution No. 2002-019 to the Hawai`i Biological Survey
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The presence and impact of nonindigenous (introduced) marine organisms in Kane`ohe Bay,
O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands are evaluated using a combination of historical records and on-site
surveys and findings are compared with the results of similar studies conducted in Hawai`i and
the Pacific. Observations and collections were made in November 1999 to January 2000 at 24
stations from variety of habitats and environments throughout the bay and from one site at Moku
Manu Island outside the bay. A comprehensive literature review of published papers and books
and unpublished reports was conducted to develop a listing of previous species reports, and the
marine invertebrates, fish, mollusk and algae collections at Bishop Museum were queried for
information regarding all organisms that had been collected from Kane`ohe Bay. The assembled
data were developed into a relational data base used to determine the 1999-2000 percent
component of the total biota that was nonindigenous or cryptogenic, the number of new reports
for the bay versus the number of previous reports not found, and a chronology of first reports of
introductions.
The 1999-2000 surveys observed or collected a total of 786 taxa including 617 species, more
than six times the number of taxa previously reported by any single survey of biota in the bay. Of
these, 59% of the total taxa and 51% of the named species were new reports for Kane`ohe Bay
after consideration of nomenclatural name changes.
However, only 24% of the total taxa
previously reported for the bay were found by the present study. This may be due in part to
misidentifications in previous studies, non-sampling of meiobiota and plankton by the present
study, or actual disappearance of some species from the bay such as the introduced mollusk
Haliotis sp. However, the results suggest that further sampling and observation would produce
considerably more taxa and species.
Historically, 204 nonindigenous or cryptogenic species (collectively termed NIS) have been
reported in Kane`ohe Bay since 1920, and 116 were found on the 1999-2000 surveys, the most
that have been determined for any single study in the Hawaiian Islands or Johnston Atoll. In
terms of the component of total identified species, NIS composed 18.8%, among the highest
percentage components that has been found in Hawai`i and second only to the 23% value that
was determined for Pearl Harbor. Fifty-two of the NIS were new reports for the bay. However, all
but 16 of the new bay reports had previously been reported in Hawai`i, and those 16 are
designated cryptogenic and subject to revision.
The distribution of NIS within the bay was concentrated in areas of harbors, piers and docks near
the shoreline and on the Coconut Island reef where a metal artificial structure provides settlement
opportunity and where introductions of nonindigenous algae have occurred historically. NIS of
25-36 or more occurred at these sites compared to 1-25 NIS at sites in coral rich areas with more
open oceanic circulation. A contrasting pattern was found for species richness. Highest numbers
of >150 total taxa occurred along the main channel of the bay or at Moku Manu island where
corals and coral reef conditions were most dominant and circulation with the open ocean was
relatively unrestricted.
Sites with <100 total taxa and greatest numbers of NIS occurred at
i
inshore areas in harbors, along docks and piers, or in sedimentary areas dominated by
nonindigenous or other macroalgae.
This pattern of inverse relationship between NIS and
species richness corresponds with previous observations in O’ahu’s and on coral reef areas
elsewhere in the Hawaiian Islands and in tropical areas of the Pacific.
Invasive nonindigenous species, i.e. those that have proliferated apparently uncontrolled by
environmental conditions or biotic factors somewhere in Hawai`i, are dominated in the bay by five
species of macroalgae, four of which were first introduced in Hawai`i into the bay in the 1970s. All
five species now occur throughout the bay on reef flats and reefs slopes and often cover large
areas of reef, overgrowing or restricting the habitat space available for reef coral or native algae.
All five are either common to abundant elsewhere in Hawai`i or have recently been reported
outside of the bay. Collectively, these nonindigenous marine algae constitute the most serious
marine introduction problem for the Hawaiian Islands. Significantly, all but one species were
purposely introduced to or redistributed in Hawai`i for aquaculture purposes.
Of the four
invertebrates and three fishes occurring on these surveys and considered invasive elsewhere in
Hawai`i only two species, a stomatopod believed to have entered in the 195os and an intertidal
barnacle that was not present in the early 1970s, occurred frequently within the bay.
The
remaining NIS were low in abundance and frequency and are not recognizably impacting coral
reefs or other relatively undisturbed areas in the bay.
Historically, new NIS reports in Kane`ohe Bay steadily increased from 1920 through the end of
the century, with first reports by decade showing distinct peaks in the 1930s, 1960s, 1970s and
with the present study. An analysis comparing first reports prior to 1960 to post 1960 could be
interpreted to suggest that introductions in the bay have accelerated in the last 40 years, with only
36% of first reports occurring before 1960 compared to 64% post-1960. However, comparing
these first NIS reports with first reports for all taxa clearly indicates that the pattern is a reflection
of a substantial increase in sampling and identification effort during this same period, with 75% of
the 1364 total taxa in the bay been having been first reported after 1960. Furthermore, many of
these recent nonindigenous species first reports in Kane`ohe Bay had previously been reported
elsewhere in Hawai`i.
Analysis of origins of the Kane`ohe Bay NIS shows a similar pattern as previous studies in Pearl
Harbor and the south and west shore harbors of O`ahu, with the majority of species with
identifiable origins or distributions coming from the western (17%) or central Indo-Pacific (11%),
the latter region equaled by the Caribbean (11%).
The study results support a developing paradigm of reduced invasion success in communities
with greater species richness, which has been indicated by studies in both tropical and temperate
marine systems and in temperate terrestrial communities.
This has important management
ramifications, since it suggests that an essential means for reducing nonindigenous species
proliferation and spread is to restore or maintain environmental conditions that promote
ecologically balanced, high diversity communities. Along with control measures to prevent the
arrival and release of nonindigenous marine species, protection of species richness and diversity
ii
in receptor areas appears to be a potentially important mechanism for limiting the impacts of
introduced species.
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
i
LIST OF APPENDICES
v
LIST OF TABLES
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
vii
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Nonindigenous marine species introductions and their impacts on native populations 1
B. Marine Nonindigenous Species Introductions in Hawai`i
3
A. Kane`ohe Bay Historical Perspective
5
III. METHODS
A. Literature Search
B. Bishop Museum Collection Catalogue Records
C. Field Surveys
D. Data Analysis
11
11
11
14
IV. RESULTS
A. Station Location and Descriptions
B. Benthos and Fish Surveys
C. Comparison with Previous Studies – All Taxa
D. Nonindigenous and Cryptogenic Species
E. Invasive species
F. Comparison with Previous Kane`ohe Bay NIS Reports
G. Chronology of Introductions to Hawai`i and Origin of NIS of Present Study
15
20
25
25
29
33
36
V. DISCUSSION
38
VI. CONCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
45
VII. REFERENCES
47
VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
56
iv
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX A. Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Kane`ohe Bay.
Page
57
APPENDIX B. Listing of Marine Organisms Reported for All Studies in Kane`ohe Bay.
191
APPENDIX C. Station Records for Invertebrates and Fishes Collected or Observed
in Kane`ohe Bay during 1999-2000.
312
APPENDIX D. Station Records for Cryptogenic or Nonindigenous Species Collected or Observed
in Kane`ohe Bay during 1999-2000.
342
APPENDIX E. Supplementary Information for Nonindigenous and Cryptogenic Species Observed
or Collected in Kane`ohe Bay During 1999-2000 Surveys.
347
v
LIST OF TABLES
Table
Page
1
Dates and locations of Kane`ohe Bay Stations Longitude and latitude coordinates
are in WGS84 datum.
13
2
Distribution of total taxa and major taxonomic groups among Kane`ohe Bay
Stations, 1999-2000.
21
3
Numbers of taxa and named species in major taxonomic groups previously reported
and by the present study.
26
4
Numbers of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species by station.
27
5
Cryptogenic and nonindigenous species newly reported for Kane`ohe Bay and
Hawai`i, and previous reports in Pearl Harbor and O’ahu south and west shore
harbors.
34
Numbers of marine nonindigenous species found in various world locations
44
6
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Page
1
Locations of sampling stations in Kane`ohe Bay.
12
2
Methodology summary.
14
3
Distributions of major taxonomic groups observed or collected in Kane`ohe Bay,
1999-2000.
22
4
Pattern of total taxa observed or collected at Kane`ohe Bay stations.
23
5
Dendrograph of similarity analysis for Kane`ohe Bay and Moku Manu Stations
based on all taxa of algae, invertebrates and fishes.
24
Pattern of nonindigenous or cryptogenic species observed or collected at
Kane`ohe Bay stations.
28
Dendrograph of similarity analysis for nonindigenous species distributions
among stations.
30
6
7
8
Occurrences of Acanthophora spicifera, Gracilaria salicornis, Hypnea musciformis,
Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum at survey stations.
31
9
Occurrences of Carijoa riisei, Mycale armata Chthamalus proteus, Gonodatylaceus
falcatus, Cephalopholos argus, Oreochromis mossambicus and Lutjanus kasmira
at survey stations.
32
10
Cumulative numbers of total NIS reported for Kane`ohe Bay 1902-2000.
35
11
Numbers of first reports of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species for
Kane`ohe Bay by decade.
35
Comparison of first NIS reports to total first species reports for Kane`ohe
Bay by decade.
35
13
Chronology of first appearance in Hawai`i of NIS found in present study.
36
14
Reported origins or ranges of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species found
in present study.
37
12
vii
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Nonindigenous marine species introductions and their impacts on native populations.
The distributions of marine organisms throughout the world have been established with the influence of
natural physical barriers such as landmasses, temperature or salinity gradients, or current systems, which
isolated populations and promoted speciation through evolutionary time scales. However, the geographic
ranges of formerly separated species populations have always been in flux as changing current systems,
shifting temperature environments or disappearance of land barriers with sea level rise have permitted
range extensions of organisms through natural means. What we often traditionally view as a relatively
static marine ecosystem with defined boundaries dividing distinct populations has in fact been subject to
continual transport, invasion, competition and changes in dominance at low rates of natural introduction.
When natural means causing redistribution of species populations in the sea become superceded by
man-related activities, dramatic changes can occur in the resident communities of the areas receiving the
introductions. As stated by Briggs (1974) “dominant species can not only succeed in colonizing when
they manage to migrate across barriers but often show spectacular success as the result of man-made
introductions, either purposeful or accidental”. Human-mediated transport of nonindigenous species is
not a new phenomenon. For thousands of years vessels have transported boring organisms and fouling
organisms (Carlton 1992; Carlton and Hodder 1995,Carlton 1999), and circumnavigation of the world by
sailing vessels has been underway since the early sixteenth century. In fact, because classification and
identification of marine organisms began only in the mid-eighteenth century, and few marine biological
surveys were conducted prior to the mid-nineteenth century, the “natural” distributions of many widely
distributed marine shallow water species remain in question (Carlton 1989; Carlton 1999).
In the last century, and more especially during the last two decades, man-related redistribution of marine
shallow water organisms has become more frequent and ever more important in its impacts on native
communities. These introductions of nonindigenous species have been promoted though six principal
vectors (Carlton 1987; Ruiz et al. 1997; Thresher 1999; Barnes 2002):
•
Transport of planktonic or larval forms in ship ballast water or benthic forms in ballast water
sediments in large cargo vessels.
•
Transport of fouling organisms attached to vessel hulls or of nonattached organisms associated with
fouling communities (Rainer 1995; Taylor et al. 1999; Thresher 1999; Godwin 2001)
•
Transport of fouling organisms on anthropogenic marine debris, which has been estimated to have
increased 100 fold in the Southern Ocean in the 1990s, has doubled the propagation of bryozoans,
barnacles, polychaetes, hydroids and molluscs in the subtropics and tripled it in high latitudes (Barnes
2002).
•
Intentional or unintentional release or propagation in the natural environment of edible or
commercially important organisms, or of organisms that are associated with organisms brought in for
culture purposes.
•
Ornamental organisms such as exotic fishes or algae, originally intended for aquarium observation,
1
teaching or research but escaping or released into the environment.
•
Reconnection of formerly isolated bodies of water by canal construction, the primary example being
“Lessepsian migration” of organisms through the Suez Canal between the Red and Mediterranean
Seas (Por 1978; Zibrowius 1992; Galil 1999).
The primary vector responsible for recent invasions in coastal and inland waters is generally concluded to
be worldwide commercial shipping. Ships may transport viable organisms within their ballast water or on
their hulls as fouling organisms. These potential invaders may be discharged in harbors where, with no
natural predators of controls, they may proliferate rapidly. The role of ballast water (Carlton 1985.;
Hallegraeff and Bolch 1991; Smith et al. 1996; Carlton 1997; Chu et al. 1997; Gollasch 1999; Hines et al.
1999; McCollin et al. 1999; Pechenik 1999; Taylor et al. 1999; Wonham et al. 2000; Godwin and Eldredge
2001) and ship fouling (Carlton and Geller 1993; Rainer 1995; Smith et al. 1996; Chu et al. 1997; Godwin
2001; Godwin and Eldredge 2001). as transport vectors of nonindigenous species has been
demonstrated in many parts of the world. Although these mechanisms for species transport are not new,
aquatic species introductions may have accelerated in many areas of the world in the last decade (Cohen
and Carlton 1998; Hewitt 1999) possibly due to more rapid ship movement and increased traffic to and
from some areas such as China.
Since the 1970s, a striking surge of exotic species invasions has occurred in harbors, ports, and other
coastal ecosystems around the world (See Carlton 1985.; Carlton and Geller 1993; Ruiz et al. 1997 for
reviews).
Introduced species can rapidly monopolize energy resources, act as voracious predators,
overcome endemic species, or transmit parasites and diseases that can be passed to humans through
the food chain or direct exposure.
Because of the serious consequences that can result from
nonindigenous introductions, marine species invasions have been ranked among the most serious
potential perturbations of marine ecosystems (Carlton and Geller 1993). Many introductions of invasive
marine nonindigenous species have occurred in the last two decades. Examples include the fouling
mussel Perna perna along the Texas Gulf coast (Hicks and Tunnell 1993), the Japanese shore crab
Hemigrapsus sanguineus on the US Atlantic coast (McDermott 1991; Brosseau et al. 1999; Larson et al.
1999; Seeley 1999; McDermott 1999; Tyrrell and Harris 1999) the North American ctenophore
Mnemiopsis leidyi into the Black Sea (Shushknia et al. 1990) , the alga Codium fragile tomentosoides
(Trowbridge 1996) and a variety of invertebrates (Hayward 1997; Taylor et al. 1999) into New Zealand
waters, and Japanese dinoflaggelates (Alexandrium spp.) macroalga (Undaria pinnatifida), starfish
(Asterias amurensis) and the European green crab Carcinus maenus into Australian waters (Sanderson
1990; Hallegraeff and Bolch 1991; Buttermore et al. 1993; Rodriguez et al. 1999).
San Francisco Bay, which has had a long history of direct commerce and exchange of shipping with
Hawai`i, has been especially impacted by marine species invasions.
Species introductions in San
Francisco Bay have been so prolific and successful that no shallow water habitat in the bay is free of
exotic species, and it is difficult to find any abundant native species (Carlton 1979; Cohen and Carlton
1995). Moreover, species invasions continue in San Francisco Bay (Gosliner 1995; Mills and Sommer
1995; Daehler and Strong 1996; Greenberg et al. 1996; Cohen 1999) which have the potential to be
ecologically devastating. The Chinese river clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, has reached densities as
2
high as 10,000 per m in shallow areas of the bay, sufficient to strip the bay of phytoplankton blooms that
2
form the basis of the food chain (Carlton et al. 1990) and to alter food webs (Thompson and Luoma
1999). The European green crab Carcinus maenus consumes a wide variety of prey (Grozholz and Ruiz
1999) and is capable of greatly altering the San Francisco Bay ecosystem (Cohen et al. 1995) through
predatory consumption, competition and indirect effects such as hybridization. This crab has recently
extended its range to Oregon coast (Behrens Yamada 1999) and Puget Sound (Cohen 1999). The
estuarine Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (Carlton and Cohen 1997) harbors a human parasite,
damages levees and shorelines and interferes with fisheries (Cohen and Carlton 1998). Cohen and
Carlton (1995, 1998) have estimated that a new invasion occurs in San Francisco Bay an average of
every 10 to 12 weeks, and new invasions continue to be documented (Cohen et al. 1995; Gosliner 1995;
Mills and Sommer 1995; Cohen and Carlton 1998).
B. Marine Nonindigenous Species Introductions in Hawai`i
The main Hawaiian Islands are among the most isolated land areas in the world, lying more than 4300 km
from the North America and more than 6400 km from Japan, and the native biota of these islands have
one of the world’s highest rates of endemism in the world (Kay and Palumbi 1987). The Hawaiian islands
have also been a principal port of call for ocean-going ships sailing from San Francisco Bay and
elsewhere in the Pacific for more than 150 years. Located at the crossroads of the Pacific, Hawai`i
receives ship traffic from all oceans, principally from the west coast of North America, Asia and the South
Pacific (Carlton 1987). Virtually all international shipping passes to Hawai`i through Honolulu Harbor and
Barbers Point Deep Draft Harbor on O`ahu, making these the most likely entry points for introduced
marine species into Hawai`i.
Information concerning the abundance of nonindigenous marine species in Hawaiian waters has
proliferated in the past five years. Prior to 1995 this type of information was limited primarily to fishes and
macroalgae.
Maciolek (1984) listed 19 species of diadromous and marine fishes to be present in
Hawaiian waters, which was increased to 21 marine species by Randall (1987), about 4% of a total of 536
Hawaiian shore fish species (Randall 1992).
Approximately 18 species of macroalgae have been
introduced to Hawai`i since 1950 (Russell 1992), again about 4% of the approximately 430 estimated total
macroalgal species for Hawai`i (J. Smith, pers. comm.). Carlton and Eldredge (in prep.) and Eldredge and
Carlton (2002) reviewed the marine and brackish water invertebrates of Hawai`i and determined
approximately 343 species to be demonstrably or potentially nonindigenous, or about 7% of the
approximate 5000 marine species estimated for Hawai`i (Allison et al. 1995).
Baseline studies of Hawaiian nearshore marine biota directed toward the detection of introduced species
and their impact (Coles et al. 1997; Coles et al. 1998; DeFelice et al. 1998; Coles et al. 1999a; Coles et
al. 1999b; Coles et al. 2001; Coles and Eldredge 2002; DeFelice et al. 2002) have shown that
nonindigenous species components of total taxa vary substantially from these average values, depending
on the characteristics of the area surveyed.
Findings have varied from 95-100 nonindigenous and
cryptogenic species found in Pearl Harbor (Coles et al. 1997; Coles et al. 1999a) and O`ahu’s south and
west shore commercial and public harbors (Coles et al. 1999b), amounting to 23% and 17% respectively
of the total number of species of invertebrates, macroalgae and fishes found. By contrast, nonindigenous
components of total biota identified for studies on coral areas around Kaho`olawe Island (Coles et al.
3
1998), Midway Atoll and French Frigate Shoals in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (DeFelice et al. 1998,
2002) and at Johnston Atoll (Coles et al. 2001) have ranged from only 0.4% (French Frigate Shoals) to
2% (Johnston Atoll). These low numbers of introduced species on previously studied Hawaiian reefs may
be due, at least in part, to increased resistance to invading organisms being provided by the higher
species richness and diversity of coral reef communities (Coles and Eldredge 2002; Hutchings et al.
2002). Alternatively, the results may be primarily due to the remoteness of these areas having limited the
opportunity for species introductions to occur.
Kane`ohe Bay is virtually unique in Hawai`i in being a large semi-restricted marine system with
characteristics of both coral reef and estuarine environments and habitats. It was a major Hawaiian
population center prior to European contact and has been highly influenced by man’s activities over the
last century. Shipping activity of medium-size vessels to the Kane`ohe Marine Corps Base (KMCB) and
movement of ocean going sailing craft to the Kane`ohe Yacht Club has been frequent over the last 50-60
years, providing opportunity for vessel-related introductions. Aquaculture activities on Coconut Island and
at an oyster production facility in that operated in south Kane`ohe Bay in the 1970s have provided
additional mechanisms for species introduction. In many respects Kane`ohe Bay provides a natural
laboratory to determine whether species introductions near coral reef areas have spread to the more
diverse reef systems and what the impacts of such introductions has been.
Except for studies focused on the extent and impacts of introduced algae (Rodgers and Cox 1999; Woo
et al. 1999; Smith et al. In press), information has been lacking about the quantity, distribution and impact
of nonindigenous and invasive species in Kane`ohe Bay, and no study has comprehensively sampled for
the full range of benthic macrobiota that occurs in the bay. The present study reports these conditions for
surveys conducted November 1999 - January 2000 and compares findings with all information available
for species reported in the bay prior to that time. Study findings are compared with previous studies
conducted by the present authors and relates the Kane`ohe Bay introduced species composition and
frequency with the pattern which has been developed for the Hawaiian Islands and elsewhere in the
Pacific where information is available.
4
A. Historical Perspective
The history of Kane’ohe Bay and its watershed up through 1976 was reviewed in detail by Chave and
Maragos (1973) and Devaney et al. (1976), who provided primary references for the events briefly
described here. With its abundant water, fertile taro fields, numerous fish ponds and fishing provided by
the largest embayment in Hawai`i, the Kane’ohe Bay region was a major Hawaiian population center prior
to and early after European contact. The bay area included nine ahupua’a valleys extending from the
mountaintop to the sea with about 30 fishponds and was highly productive. Population at the time of
European contact has been estimated variously as around 15,000 to 17,000 or about one fourth of the
60,000 total estimated for O`ahu (Devaney et al. 1976).
Following European contact the population of the Kane’ohe Bay region fell precipitously, along with the
rest of Hawai`i, due to introduction of diseases, disruption of native society and culture and emigration
into the growing district of Honolulu. By the time of the first Hawai`i census in 1831 the population of the
nine Kane’ohe Bay area ahupua’a was recorded as 3,019, with a total for the Koolaupoko district, which
includes Kailua and Waimanalo, of 4,987. Population for the district reached its lowest in 1872, when
only 2,028 persons were recorded, or about 40% of the 1831 value and only about 10% of the number
estimated for Kane’ohe prior to European contact about 100 years earlier. Although population began to
increase in the 1870s, the 1831 value was not reached until the 1920s. Population for Koolaupoko then
doubled in less than 20 years, reaching 9000 in 1940, and then again in ten years with over 20,000 in
1950, with population distribution about evenly divided between the Kane’ohe and Kailua-Waimanalo
areas. With the completion of the Pali Highway in 1957 and the Likelike Highway in 1960 and the rapid
accessibility to Honolulu urban centers that these afforded, Koolaupoko district population soared
exponentially, reaching 92,000 in 1970, 110,00 in 1980 and 122,000 in 1995 (U. S Census and Hawai`i
DBEDT). Most of this population increase in the last 20 years has occurred in the Kane’ohe area, which
accounted for 60,000 of the 110,000 for the district in 1980 (Smith et al. 1980).
Land and ocean usage also changed dramatically in the Kane’ohe Bay area throughout this period. With
a native economy and culture based on subsistence agriculture and aquaculture, the land was intensely
cultivated using a sophisticated system of terracing and fish pond construction and maintenance,
“crowded with plantations of taro, sweet potatoes, sugar-cane, etc. interspersed with a great number of
coconut trees” (Portlock 1789). Kane’ohe Bay, which was included in extensions of the valley-based
ahupua’a was equally intensively cultivated, with 30 walled fishponds shown in a map based on an 1882
survey. These included the two largest (Heeia and Moli’i) fishponds remaining in Hawai`i. The open
waters of the bay were also probably heavily fished within the limitations of the kapu system, and fishing
rights were allocated as part of the respective ahupua’a.
This system of intensive but sustainable land and ocean utilization changed radically with the decline of
the Hawaiian population, changes in land tenure rights with the Great Mahele in 1848, and increases in
non-Hawaiian population and other land usage. The earliest attempt at non-traditional agriculture was in
the 1850s, with the first sugar plantation on O`ahu at Ku’uloa, at the north end of the bay. By 1865 four
plantations were in production, at Ku’uloa, Ka’alea, Waihee and Kan’eohe, and in the early 1880s, four
more at He’eia, Kane’ohe, Kahalu`u and Ahuimanu, with a total of over 1000 acres in cultivation in 1880.
5
However, sugar cultivation in the Kane’ohe Bay area was short-lived, with only two plantations remaining
in operation through 1985, and the last closing down in 1902-03.
Rice cultivation utilizing and expanding former taro ponds shortly followed sugar cultivation, with the first
rice plantings in the early 1860s, and most rice farming occurring between 1880 and the 1920s. This
process of converting abandoned taro fields involved increasing width and extent of old dikes,
constructing a vast network of new irrigation ditches, and using livestock to plow and compress the soil of
rice ponds to increase their water retention.
Rice cultivation occurred primarily in the ahupua’a of
Waihole, Waikane, Kahaluu, He’eia and Kane`ohe and was estimated in 1892 to total 700 acres of pond
in 1882.
The decline of rice production from the 1890s to the 1920s coincided with a shift in acreage to pineapple
cultivation, which was the major industry in the Kane’ohe area from 1910 to 1925. At its peak, 2500 acres
were under pineapple cultivation, and photographs of the south Kane`ohe area in the 1920s indicate that
most of the available land was devoted to this production. However, like other cash crops attempted in
the Kane’ohe area, production and costs were found to exceed profitability, and the fields were
abandoned to revert to wild conditions or ranching after 1925.
Stock grazing continued in the Kane`ohe Bay watershed throughout this entire period of experiments in
commercial agriculture. Cattle and sheep were first introduced on O`ahu in 1793 by Vancouver, and
hundreds of cattle and numerous goats were described grazing in the area in the 1840s and 1850s
(Parker 1835-1862; Bates 1854). This activity increased steadily and continued after other large-scale
agricultural activities ceased, rising from an estimated 700 acres in grassland and ranching in 1880 to
nearly 3000 acres in 1969 (Chave and Maragos 1973).
Ranching and overgrazing undoubtedly
contributed to erosion and loss of native vegetation which was noted as early as 1917 (MacCaughey
1917), and by 1933 serious concern was conveyed to Kane`ohe Ranch by the Territorial Forester about
erosion being caused by overgrazing by dairy stock (Devaney et al. 1976).
These agricultural and ranching activities significantly affected the environmental conditions and water
quality of Kane`ohe Bay as runoff and sedimentation increased through time. Elimination of taro terraces
that had acted to retain water and sediments also probably contributed to hillside erosion. This may have
been somewhat counterbalanced by another factor that has influenced Kane`ohe Bay, the diversion of a
substantial portion of the Kane`ohe Bay watershed groundwater and stream flow to leeward O`ahu,
primarily for sugarcane production in the Ewa plain. This began with the completion of the Waihole tunnel
in 1916 and continued with the Haiku, Kahalu’u, and Waihe`e tunnels in 1940, 1946 and 1955
respectively. This resulted in a combined >40% diversion and decrease in total stream runoff for the
3
-1
Kane`ohe Bay watershed, from ca. 315,000 to 182,000 m day (Chave and Maragos 1973; Devaney et
al. 1976).
Kane`ohe Bay has long been recognized as a unique and marine environment that originally supported
abundant reef corals and associated marine life. The earliest report was from James Macrae, botanist on
Byron's voyage to Hawai`i in 1824-1826 who noted that Kane`ohe Bay was open, exposed and "full of
rocks in many places above water which renders it unsafe for vessels to anchor. It is full of fish." (Wilson
6
1922). Agassiz (1889) described Kane`ohe Bay to have its bottom “covered in many places by numerous
more or less circular patches of living corals in all stages of growth… with their sides covered with
magnificent clusters of Pocillopores and Porites… and the simpler Fungiae so characteristic of the Pacific
reefs.” Mackaye (1915) mentioned “over a hundred varieties of corals are known to exist in Kane`ohe
Bay” that were colored “yellow, red, green, brown, and lavender, with snow-white corals making bright
spots along the reefs”. He listed the 16 major coral species that composed the “coral gardens” in the
south bay, which was in the vicinity of the present Makani Kai Marina. MacCaughey (1918) remarked
that in Kane`ohe Bay there were “many small coral isles and atolls; some are of notable perfection and
that in the bay “in protected waters of inner channels or lagoons that corals attain their finest
development”. Edmondson (1928) described the bay as "one of the most favorable localities for the
development of shallow water corals” with “nearly all the reef-forming general known in the Hawaiian
Islands … represented in certain areas of this bay and many species grow luxuriantly."
Considerable change occurred in the water quality and marine environment in Kane`ohe Bay with
th
urbanization and development of the watershed in the second half of the 20 century. This phase of the
history of windward O`ahu and Kane`ohe Bay began in about 1945 as residents of Honolulu began to
utilize the improved Pali Road to frequently visit the area, with many people eventually making their
homes in Kane`ohe-Kailua when the Pali and Likelike highways were completed. This “opening up” of
the windward side culminated in the soaring populations of the Ko’olaupoko District previously described
and in considerable impacts that affected Kane`ohe Bay. The hardened surfaces of roads, parking lots
and building roofs diverted water into storm sewers and streams that previously would have percolated
into ground, but now went directly into the bay, along with sediments from hillsides exposed of vegetation
by construction and development. Nine of the bay’s 30 fishponds that are indicated to have existed in the
th
19 century were filled between 1946 and 1948 and used for housing sites, and only 12 of the original
ponds remain today. Principally as a result of extension and development of the Kane`ohe Marine Base
just prior to World War II, large areas of the Bay were dredged and filled, especially in the south bay in
the vicinity of Mokapu Peninsula. Between 1939 and 1941 over two million cubic yards of reef area were
dredged in areas on the bay side of Mokapu and much of the material deposited extend the shoreline in
the vicinity of the Marine Base’s runways (Devaney et al. 1976).
The Marine Base was also the first source to release sanitary sewage into the bay, beginning in with the
discharge of untreated primary sewage in the southeast bay in the 1940s. In 1971 sewage treatment at
the Marine Base was upgraded to secondary (removal of suspended solids and reduction of organic
load). Prior to 1963 municipal waste from Kane`ohe town was handled by a network of cesspools and
septic tank and discharged into a stream. At that time the Kane`ohe sewage plant treatment became
operational, which utilized secondary treatment and discharged the effluent in south Kane`ohe Bay in 8 m
depth. In 1970 a small secondary treatment plant constructed for a housing development at Ahuimanu
began discharging in northwestern Kane`ohe Bay. By 1975 the total sewage discharge from these three
3
-1
sources had risen to a total of about 17,000 m day , with about 70% of the total coming from the
Kane`ohe municipal discharge in south Kane`ohe Bay.
By the early 1970s the water quality and marine environment of Kane`ohe Bay had been severely
degraded, especially in the south basin where a residence time for water of approximately two weeks
7
(Bathen 1968) meant that nutrients and suspended solids discharged by the sewage outfalls, streams
and shoreline runoff accumulated, stimulating phytoplankton uptake and growth. Biological conditions at
that time in the bay were described in Banner and Bailey (1970), Maragos (1972, 1973), Smith et al.
(1973) and Banner (1974). It had been evident for years that effluents were causing eutrophication and
biological damage in the bay, especially in the south basin (Laws and Redalje 1979) where reef corals
had become scarce (Maragos 1972). In place of corals the benthic community had become dominated
by suspension and deposit feeders utilizing the increased organic load that was being generated by
primary production stimulated by sewage discharge. Distributions of corals (Maragos 1972, 1973) as well
as macroalgae (Soegiarto 1973) and reef fish (Key 1973) showed dramatic decreases in the south basin,
and corals transplanted into this area failed to grow or survive (Maragos 1972). In the mid-bay the
shallow reefs were dominated by an invasive native macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa, which
overgrew corals and weakened their skeletons and reef that was being formed by them (Banner and
Bailey 1970; Maragos 1972). A study of the bay’s bathymetry (Roy 1970) comparing depths from 1882
and 1927 charts with fathometer readings made in 1969 indicated no significant change between the two
earlier dates, but a mean decrease of 1.6 m between 1927 and 1969. The composition of 72% of the
sediment comprising this decrease was carbonate, suggesting that the reef had been degrading and that
reef erosion was exceeding deposition during this period.
In order to counter the impacts of sewage induced eutrophication, construction began in 1975 for transfer
and disposing Kane`ohe sewage effluents to an deep ocean outfall at about 30 m depth outside of
Mokapu Peninsula. All sewage was permanently diverted from Kane`ohe Bay to the deep outfall by May
1978. The reduced nutrient loading in the bay quickly manifested itself in reduced plankton, suspended
solids and turbidity in the south bay. The benthic community shifted from dominance by suspension and
deposit feeding detritovores to autotrophic algae and reef corals which could utilize the improved light
penetration of the water column (Smith 1981). Resurveys of reef sites in the bay in 1983 (Maragos et al.
1985; Alino 1986; Evans et al. 1986; Holthus et al. 1986; Holthus et al. 1989) revealed a remarkable
recovery of corals, especially Porites compressa and Montipora verrucosa in the southern and middle
lagoon, while Dictyosphaeria cavernosa algae declined greatly except for a minor increase in the northern
lagoon.
Along with the impact of sewage discharge, an important environmental factor affecting Kane`ohe Bay
has been periodic runoff from torrential rainstorms, and the effects of these have interacted with
conditions in the bay to influence the characteristics of the biota following the storms. Major storms which
occurred in 1965 (Banner 1968) and 1987 (Jokiel et al. 1993) resulted in quite contrasting conditions for
the benthic communities over the long term. Both storms produced sediment-laden, low salinity water in
shallow depths that resulted in extensive mortality for benthic organisms and fishes. Damage from the
1965 was long-term on some shallow reefs in the south bay directly impacted by the flood, which
underwent a “phase shift’ in the dominant benthic component from reef corals to the colonial anemone
Zoanthus (Banner 1968; Maragos and Chave 1973). After removal of sewage discharge from the south
bay, the Zoanthus population diminished, probably due to food limitation and the 1987 storm did not
produce another shift to Zoanthus dominance, but rather a recovery of corals from tissues remaining in
the apparently dead coral skeletons (Jokiel et al. 1993).
8
Measurement of nutrients and other water quality indicators during the early 1990s indicated that
nutrients had remained near or below the lowered values that had been measured during monitoring
following the removal of sewage discharge from the bay in 1978 (Coles and Ruddy 1995; Laws et al.
1996). Corals transplanted to four sites where (Maragos 1972) had shown high mortality in the south bay
during the period of sewage discharge showed good survival and growth in 1991-92 (Coles and Ruddy
1995). However, surveys conducted on benthic coverage throughout the bay suggested that the rate of
coral recovery established in 1970 and 1983 had slowed or, in some cases, reversed and Dictyosphaeria
cavernosa had again increased at one third of the sites surveyed (Evans 1991; Evans and Hunter 1992;
Hunter and Evans 1995). Since nutrient measurements in the south bay indicated values near lower
limits of detectability (Coles and Ruddy 1995; Laws et al. 1996), and coral declines were greatest in the
central bay, these changes may have been related to non-point discharges from sewage disposal through
cesspools and septic tanks. Studies of the nutrient dynamics of Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Larned and
Stimson 1996; Stimson et al. 1996; Larned 1998) suggest that sediments function as localized nutrient
sources, making sustained growth possible despite low nutrient concentrations in the water column, and
that nutrient regeneration from sediments beneath thalli, and/or excretion by animals inhabiting these
chambers, contribute to the elevated nutrient levels utilized by the algae.
The other prominent change in Kane`ohe Bay in the last two decades has been a growing dominance of
the benthos by nonindigenous (alien) algae species (Rodgers 1997; Rodgers and Cox 1999; Smith et al.
in press)]. The first introduced algae in Kane`ohe Bay was Acanthophora spicifera, which was reported
by (Doty 1961) who mentioned Kohn’s (1959) recording of this species in 1956 on the egg cases of
Conus quercinus collected in Kane`ohe Bay. A. spicifera is believed to have been accidentally introduced
on a barge in Pearl Harbor during WW II (Doty 1961; Russell 1992), but the remaining algal introductions
were as potential aquaculture species that did not prove practical or profitable, but managed to proliferate
on their own.
The most thoroughly documented are various species of Kappaphycus (=Eucheuma)
(Russell 1983) which were introduced by Doty in 1974 and rapidly spread over the reef on which they had
been displaced from broken pens. Although originally proposed to be limited in its ability to disperse
because of light limitations that prevent its survival in deep water (Russell 1983), subsequent surveys
(Rodgers and Cox 1999) have shown Kappaphycus to have been spreading throughout the bay at an
average rate of 250 m per year, or over 6 km from its point of introduction in 1974. Another algae
introduced in that year, Hypnea musciformis, was originally planted on reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu but
is not as prominent in the bay. However, it has spread to many other locations on O`ahu and to other
Hawaiian Islands, and is an especially invasive pest on the south and west coasts of Maui. The most
recent introduction, Gracilaria salicornia, has spread over 5 km since its introduction in 1978, an average
rate of spread of approximately 280 m per year (Rodgers and Cox 1999).
This is now the most
widespread and abundant alien nonindigenous alga in the bay and it covers large areas of shallow reef,
especially in the south bay. Both Kappaphycus and Gracilaria smother and displace live coral in the
shallow depths on reefs and prevent the utilization habitat by reef-associated invertebrates and fishes.
During the last two decades increasing popularity of Kane`ohe Bay and perception of its value as a
recreational and income-producing asset has resulted in competition among user groups for the bay’s
space and resources. The bay is now heavily used by recreational and commercial fishermen, power and
sailing boaters, tourist oriented business providing experiences in snorkeling, high speed watercraft, glass
9
bottom boat tours, and research activities by the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, from which scientists
have studied the bay for over 50 years. The mix of activities from these various users sometimes impinge
upon one another and optimizing usage among them has been the subject of the Kane`ohe Bay Task
Force and the Kane`ohe Bay Decision Support System, a project to determine trade-offs among uses that
might improve management of the bay’s activities (http://www.coralreefnetwork.com/network/hcri.htm).
The history of Kane`ohe Bay illustrates a resource that has always been considered of high value, but
over the last century has gone from a pristine condition to a highly degraded state, then through a degree
of recovery and finally to the present condition, which shows some symptoms of re-decline. The bay has
always been highly affected by activities within its watershed and shoreline, as well as those occurring
directly within the bay’s waters.
The present study provides a further dimension of knowledge for
Kane`ohe Bay by determining the present and historical condition of the bay in terms of both
nonindigenous species and the total biota that has been reported through this period of development and
use.
10
METHODS
A. Literature Search
A variety of sources of information on the environmental conditions and biological communities of
Kane`ohe Bay were examined. Literature consulted included published papers in the open scientific
literature, taxonomy-based monographs and books, unpublished reports for environmental studies in the
harbors, and newspaper and magazine articles that were concerned with the development or
environmental and biological communities of the harbors. Resources that were consulted in this search
were the libraries of Bishop Museum, the University of Hawai`i, Manoa and Hawai`i Institute of Marine
Biology and AECOS Inc. An annotated bibliography of the assembled literature is presented in Appendix
A.
B. Bishop Museum Collections
Bishop Museum collections databases for algae, invertebrates, malacology and ichthyology were
reviewed for all marine or estuarine organisms indicated to have been collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
The
retrieved data were assembled into a combined database containing taxa identity, taxonomic authority,
collection location and date, collector and collectors notes, when available. This information is included
with the general listing of all taxa for the study developed from all sources and presented in Appendix B.
C. Field Surveys
Samples were collected from 24 sites inside and one outside of Kane`ohe Bay (Figure 1) using methods
previously employed on nonindigenous species surveys in Hawai`i, Midway and Johnston Atoll. Sampling
station locations, dates, coordinates and depths are summarized in Table 1.
The sampling and analysis process for benthic organisms is summarized in Figure 2. Collections and
observations were made by two experienced investigators sampling as large a variety of habitats as
possible at each station while snorkeling or using Scuba.
One diver recorded the sight-identifiable
invertebrate macrofauna and macroalgae and all fishes swimming in the area, The second diver sampled
organisms from hard surfaces and sediments from the intertidal zone to the base of the reef. Macroorganisms were collected by hand, hard surfaces were scraped with a chisel, and several liters of coral
rubble were placed in an 80 µm mesh bag and transported back to the laboratory for later inspection and
removal of cryptic organisms. When present at a survey site, whole macroalgae plants were collected
and preserved in 70% ethanol, and epiphytic organisms were later rinsed from the algae and preserved in
ethanol for future processing.
Collected organisms and substratum, which ranged 4-8 liters in total
volume for each station, were inspected on site, and selected hydroids, anemones and tunicates were
removed and relaxed in a solution of Epsom salts and seawater before preserving in 5% formalin. The
remaining
11
N
W
E
0
#
2
#
1#
3
4#
2 Kilometers
OAHU
S
5#
9#
11
#
10
#
25#
y
Ba
8#
e
oh
ne
Ka
7#
6#
23
#
13
#
12
#
16
#
24
#
14
#
15
#
17#
18
#
22#
19
#
21
# 20
#
Figure 1. Locations of sampling stations in Kane`ohe Bay
organisms were preserved on site in 70% alcohol before returning the samples to the laboratory for
sorting and identification of organisms.
Sediment dwelling organisms were sampled at each station, using cores 12.5 cm diameter by15 cm
deep pushed into the substratum. Sediments obtained were sieved through a 0.5 mm mesh screen and
the organisms retained by the screen which were placed in plastic bags and preserved in 70% alcohol
until processing.
Specimens collected were sorted and identified to species or the lowest practicable taxa, using dissecting
or compound microscope magnification when necessary. Identifications were made using descriptions
available in Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i Sections 1 to 4 (published), 5 and 6 (unpublished), various
taxonomic references, and voucher specimens in the Bishop Museum collections.
Specimens from
various groups were sent to taxonomic experts for final identifications (see Acknowledgments).
12
Table 1. Dates and locations of Kane`ohe Bay Stations
Fouling
Sampling
Depth
Date
(m)
Station
Location
1
North Channel
17-Nov-99 1-6
2
Moli'i Fish Pond
2-Nov-99 0.5-1
3
Hakipu'u Reef
17-Nov-99 1.5-5
4
Waikane Pier
2-Nov-99 0-3
5
Waiahole Reef
17-Nov-99 0.5-7
6
Pu'u Kauai
19-Nov-99 0.5-6
7
"Pristine" Reef
19-Nov-99 1-8
8
Kahaluu Landing
12-Nov-99 0-2.5
9
Channel Marker “12”
19-Nov-99 0.5-15
10 Wass Reef
12-Nov-99 1-9
11 Sand Bar
12-Nov-99 0-0.5
12 Heeia Kea Pier
19-Jan-00 0-7
13 Checker Reef
10-Nov-99 0.5-10
14 Floating City
10-Nov-99 0-4
15 Coconut Island Reef
8-Nov-99 0.5-7
16 Heeia Fish Pond Reef
10-Nov-99 0.5-2
17 HIMB Pier
8-Nov-99 0-4
18 Makani Kai Marina
8-Nov-99 0-3
19 Kokokahi Pier
5-Nov-99 0-4
20 Kane`ohe Yacht Club Dock
5-Nov-99 0-6.5
21 Kane`ohe Yacht Club Reef
5-Nov-99 1-5
22 MCB Fuel Dock
25-Jan-00 0.5-8
23 Rubble Island
26-Jan-00 0-2
24 SAG Harbor
25-Jan-00 0.5-8
25 Moku Manu Island
26-Jan-00 1.5-18
13
Sediment
Latitude N
Longitude W
Sampling Depth
Date
(m) Deg Min Sec Deg Min Sec
28-Jan-00 6.5
21 30 22.1 157 50 57.1
28-Jan-00 0.5
21 30 22.1 157 44 50.6
28-Jan-00 3.0
21 30 3.9 157 50 25.7
28-Jan-00 3.0
21 29 33.6 157 50 43.9
28-Jan-00 7.5
21 29 14.6 157 49 55.8
28-Jan-00 6.5
21 28 39.7 157 50 12.2
28-Jan-00 10.0
21 28 42.3 157 49 29.5
28-Jan-00 3.5
21 27 48.7 157 50 1.5
28-Jan-00 10.0
21 27 35.2 157 49 22.1
28-Jan-00 10.0
21 27 46.7 157 48 45.9
28-Jan-00 0.1
21 27 53.9 157 48 31.6
19-Jan-00 0.5
21 26 36.8 157 48 40.3
28-Jan-00 10.0
21 26 38.5 157 47 47.2
28-Jan-00 4.0
21 26 23.1 157 47 30.2
28-Jan-00 6.0
21 26 38.5 157 47 47.2
28-Jan-00 4.0
21 26 13.2 157 48 15.2
28-Jan-00 7.0
21 25 46.9 157 47 31.1
28-Jan-00 3.0
21 25 6.0 157 47
23
28-Jan-00 5.0
21 24 52.2 157 46 45.6
28-Jan-00 5.0
21 25 2.6 157 46 7.2
28-Jan-00 6.0
21 25 9.5 157 46 22.6
28-Jan-00 8.0
21 26 15.3 157 45 55.1
26-Jan-00 0.2
21 26 53.0 157 46 58.9
25-Jan-00 10.0
21 27 3.3 157 46
42
no sample
21 28 00 157 50
00
Figure 2. Methodology summary.
14
D. Data Analysis
All organisms identified from the field study were entered on an Access database relational with
the databases for previous literature reports and museum collections of organisms from Pearl
Harbor. The combined information was used to track the occurrence of species chronologically
from the time of the first available reports for Kane`ohe Bay.
The Sorenson’s Index of percent similarity, based on presence-absence of species at station
pairs, was used to measure the degree of association among stations. By this index, the more
species two stations share relative to their total species complements, the greater their ecological
similarity. Based on a matrix of Sorensen Index values, cluster analysis was used to arrange
stations into groups or clusters. Intercluster distances were calculated using an unweighted pair
group average method. In this analysis, similar stations will form clusters distinct from other
stations. These clusters are arranged in a hierarchical, treelike structure called a dendrogram.
Calculation of the similarity measures and cluster analysis were performed using the Multi-Variate
Statistical Package, ver. 3.1 (Kovach 1993).
15
RESULTS
A. Station Locations and Descriptions
Station 1 (Latitude 21°30’ 22.1’, Longitude 157°50’ 57.1”)
North Channel. Wave turbulent area along south side of near Bouy Marker 5, on reef area with
abundant live coral extending from 4 to 6 m depth next to dredged channel. Outside of live coral
area bottom is consolidated limestone with coarse sand and moderate Halimeda algae cover.
Station 2 (Latitude 21°30’ 22.1’, Longitude 157°44 50.6”)
Moli`i Fish Pond. Inshore area at north end of bay with abundant Rhizophora mangle mangroves
growing along a muddy shore. Subtidal substratum is coarse sand with surface coating of fine,
terrigenous silt. Abundant biotope on bottom is mats of nonindigenous Acanthophora spicifera
and Gracilaria salicornia macroalgae mixed with nonindigenous Hypnea musciformis,
Kappaphycus spp. and native Caulerpa taxifolia and Dictyota acutiloba. Burrows, probably of
Alpheus mackayi and Callianassa sp. and nonindigenous Sabellastarte spectabilis.
Station 3 (Latitude 21°30’ 3.9’, Longitude 157°50 25.7”)
Hakipu`u Reef flat in 1.5 m depth with abundant Montipora capitata, Sarcothelia edmondsoni.
Porites compressa and common Dichtyosphaeria cavernosa on top of reef. Approaching reef
edge, P. compressa and D cavernosa become more abundant to 5 m depth then bottom is
primarily fine sand and silt.
Station 4 (Latitude 21°29’ 33.6’, Longitude 157°50 43.9”)
Waikane Pier. Along wooden pier off leading ca. 200 m from the shoreline to a depth of 3 m.
Pier pilings are heavily fouled with the introduced barnacles Chathamalus proteus, and Balanus
spp. at the water surface and introduced Pennaria disticha, Schizoporella sp. and Crassostrea sp.
below, with the wood of the pilings highly penetrated by burrows of introduced Teredo sp.
shipworms. Bottom substratum is smooth, coarse coral rubble with a fine silt coating and little
macrobiota apparent.
Station 5 (Latitude 21°29’ 14.6’, Longitude 157°49’ 55.8”)
Waihole Reef, near Channel Marker 4. Very abundant (75-90% coverage) of Porites compressa,
Montipora capitata, and Sarcothelia edmondsoni and moderate cover of Dichtyosphaeria
cavernosa in 1.5 m depth.
Other corals present to moderately abundant were Pocillopora
damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Porites lobata and Montipora patula. High Porites compressa
coverage extends down to ca. 7 m.
Station 6 (Latitude 21°28’ 39.7’, Longitude 157°50’ 12.2”)
Pu`u Kauai Reef. Fringing reef extending from flat at 0.5 m to silty bottom at reef base in 6 m
depth.
Reef flat has coral cover of ca. 25%, mostly of Porites compressa and Pocillopora
damicornis, with common Hydrolithon sp. calcareous and green Dictyosphaeria cavernosa algae
16
and occasional Gracilaria salicornia algae and Montipora capitata coral.
Sand channels are
interspersed on reef top with medium to coarse sand. Reef slopes gently with high coverage of
mostly P. compressa to start of fine silt sediment covered bottom at ca 6 m.
Station 7 (Latitude 21°28’ 42.3’, Longitude 157°49’ 29.5”)
“Pristine Reef”.
Large patch reef in central north bay adjacent to barrier reef composed of
numerous microatolls of Porites compressa and Montipora capitata, and rare Pocillopora
damicornis, Pocillopora eydouxi Porites lobata and Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in 3-4 m depth
among coarse sand and coral rubble. Coral off reef channel extends to 8 m depth at base of reef
slope and silty bottom. Coral cover on reef is virtually 100% (ca. 80% P. compressa and 20%
Montipora capitata). D. cavernosa is more abundant (30%) on the lee side of reef at 4-6 m.
Station 8 (Latitude 21°27’ 48.7’, Longitude 157°50’ 1.5”)
Kahalu`u Pier.
Old pier pilings extending 200 m out from Wailau Point supporting fouling
community. Fine silt bottom in 2.5 in 2.5 m depth shows abundant burrow openings and growth
of seagrass Halophila hawaiana.
Station 9 (Latitude 21°27’ 35.2’, Longitude 157°49’ 22.1”)
Channel Marker “12” Reef. Reef with abundant coral c over to 15 m depth and intermittent coral
colonies to 15 m. Dictyosphaeria cavernosa abundant on reef slope to 5 m depth.
Station 10 (Latitude 21°27’ 46.7’, Longitude 157°48’ 45.9”)
Wass Reef.
Small patch reef near the Kane`ohe Bay sand bar that was the site of two
comprehensive fish surveys utilizing total recovery by fish poisoning. Reef is steeply sloped from
1 to 9 m depth, with heavy Dictyosphaeria cavernosa coverage from the reef top to 7 m.
Station 11 (Latitude 21°27’ 53.9’, Longitude 157°48’ 31.6”)
Sand Bar. Subtidal zone of ca. 0.5 m depth sampled about 200 m from lagoon side . Substratum
is coarse sand and fine coral rubble with abundant seagrass Halophila hawaiana interspersed
with dense patches of introduced algae Acanthophora spicifera. and less abundant Gracilaria
salicornia, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa, Hypnea musciformis, Caulerpa taxifolia, Padina sp.
Halimeda sp. with clumps of broken coral Montipora capitata.
Station 12 (Latitude 21°26’ 36.8’, Longitude 157°48’ 40.3”)
Heeia Pier Northwest side of main Heeia and shallow reef flat separated from dock by a narrow
channel. Pier pilings only sparsely covered with fouling organisms, mostly filamentous algae.
Channel has abundant algae on bottom, and reef flat covered with coarse sand and heavy
growths of algae, especially introduced Gracilaria salicornia, Hypnea musciformis, Kappaphycus
spp. and Acanthophora spicifera.
Station 13 (Latitude 21°26’ 36.5’, Longitude 157°48’ 47.2”)
Checker Reef. Sandy reef with sparse coral and abundant algae on flat at 0.5 m with coral
increasing to 3 m depth, then decreasing down to reef base at 10 m.
17
The macroalgae
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa and introduced Kappaphycus spp. are very abundant down slope from
edge of reef. Fungia scutaria mushroom coral is more common here than at any other site in
Kane`ohe Bay
Station 14 (Latitude 21°26’ 23.1’, Longitude 157°47’ 30.2”)
“Floating City”. Iron structure originally deployed as prototype for “floating city” now sits on a
sand bottom with upper sections protruding from water and now is the largest manmade object in
the open waters of Kane`ohe Bay. Abundant fouling community includes the only specimens of
the introduced octocoral Carijoa riisei that was found on the survey except at the dock area at
Sag harbor (Station 24). The algae Dictyosphaeria cavernosa is very abundant around the base
of the structure, and the seagrass Halophila hawaiana is common in the sand east of the reef at
3.5 m depth.
Station 15 (Latitude 21°26’ 38.5’, Longitude 157°47’ 47.2”)
Coconut Island Reef. West of the dolphin pens of Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB).
This area is directly leeward of where nonindigenous algae Kappaphycus spp. were introduced in
1974-76 and escaped from their pens when they broke up in a storm. Consequently, this is the
area mostly heavily impacted by these algae, which have formed an essential monoculture
covering large areas of the reef flat, edge and slope with dense growths with algal thalli many cm
thick. The introduced algae Acanthophora spicifera is also very abundant along with Gracilaria
salicornia, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa and Dictyosphaeria versluysii.
The habitat space is so
completely monopolized by that few benthic invertebrates were noted.
Station 16 (Latitude 21°26’ 13.2’, Longitude 157°47’ 15.2”)
Heeia Pond. Reef outside of one of the largest former fishponds in the bay which is now filled
with sediment and lined with introduce Rhizophora mangle mangrove trees along much of its
perimeter. Large sandy area on reef top in 0.5 m has intermittent coral rubble and abundant
introduced Gracilaria salicornia algae. Reef slopes down to 2 m with moderate cover of Porites
compressa and Montipora capitata coral and abundant Dictyosphaeria cavernosa and common
Kappaphycus spp.
Station 17 (Latitude 21°25’ 46.9’, Longitude 157°47’ 31.1”)
HIMB Pier. Floating docks and cement pilings for the HIMB ferry, built approximately 200 m out
onto the edge of the fringing reef. Reef flat at 0.5-1 m depth is fine to coarse sand and coral
rubble on limestone substratum, with abundant Gracilaria salicornia, Acanthophora spicifera and
Padina sp. algae. Pier pilings and floating docks support abundant fouling invertebrates, and
corals Porites compressa, Montipora capitata and Pocillopora damicornis common to abundant
from reef edge to down slope.
Station 18 (Latitude 21°25’ 6.0’, Longitude 157°47’ 23”)
Makani Kai Marina. Floating docks and concrete wall in a harbor area nearly isolated from the
bay by a rock jetty and much affected by fresh water runoff. Introduced oysters Crassostrea sp.
fanworm Sabellastarte spectabilis and bryozoan Amathia distans are abundant along the
18
concrete wall along with numerous other fouling invertebrates.
Few organisms seen on the
floating docks. Only a single coral species Montipora capitata was seen, which occurred at 2 m
depth well below freshwater lens.
Station 19 (Latitude 21°24’ 52.2’, Longitude 157°47’ 45.6”)
Kokokahi Pier. Abandoned wooden pier and nearby reef adjacent to Kokokahi YWCA at head of
Kane`ohe Bay. Area is heavily silted due to runoff from two stream discharges and is closest
station to site of the sewage outfall that formerly discharged in the south basin. Despite these
impacts Montipora capitata and Porites compressa corals are present in low abundance, mixed
with abundant Gracilaria salicornia and Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in medium grained sand and
coral rubble. Fouling invertebrates are abundant on the wooden pier pilings and iron posts of
signs marking the reef edge.
Station 20 (Latitude 21°25’ 2.6’, Longitude 157°46’ 7.2”)
Kane`ohe Yacht Club Floating Docks. Pier pilings and floating docks of the Kane`ohe Yacht
Club, the largest marina in the bay, and which provides berthing to both motor and sailing craft.
Channel entrance to the yacht club and its basins have been dredged from the reef to ca. 7 m
depth.
Docks and piling support an abundant fouling community, dominated by introduced
species, especially the bryozoans Schizoporella sp. and Amathia distans, the fanworm
Sabellastarte spectabilis and a few Porites compressa and Pocillopora damicornis corals
occurred.
Station 21 (Latitude 21°25’ 9.5’, Longitude 157°46’ 22.6”)
Yacht Club Reef. Located between entrance channels to the Yacht Club, the reef extends form
0.5 m down to 10 m depth. Reef top is mixed Montipora capitata and Porites compress in coarse
sand with abundant algae Gracilaria salicornia, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa and Kappaphycus spp.
Introduced invertebrates, e. g. the fanworm Sabellastarte spectabilis, the ascidian Phallusia nigra
and the hydroid Pennaria disticha were abundant, along with the synaptid holothurian
Opheodesoma spectabilis.
Station 22 (Latitude 21°26’ 15.3’, Longitude 157°45’ 55.1”)
Marine Corps Base Fuel Dock. Concrete and iron pilings of the main docking area for the Marine
Base on southwest side of Mokapu Peninsula and east of Base runways. Surfaces are densely
fouled with heavy coverage of sponges and other invertebrates to the bottom in 9 m depth.
Sponges are sediment coated and bottom is silty fine sediment with numerous borrow openings.
Station 23 (Latitude 21°26’ 53.0’, Longitude 157°46’ 58.9”)
Rubble Island. Small, unnamed island west of Mokapu Peninsula formed of dead coral rubble
nearly awash at high tide. Shoreline is fringed by Montipora capitata, Porites compress and
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa, with sparse Pocillopora damicornis and other invertebrates in low
abundance. Halophila hawaiana seagrass occurs in sandy area off the island and its surrounding
shallow reef.
19
Station 24 (Latitude 21°27’ 3.3’, Longitude 157°46’ 42.0”)
Sag Harbor. Docking area from small to medium size boats along northwest shore of Mokapu
Peninsula with channel and basin dredged to 8 m depth. Area is within 100 m of a reef with high
coral coverage, including the species Porites compressa, Montipora capitata Pocillopora
damicornis and Fungia scutaria, and an abundance of a variety of reef fishes. The pier pilings
support numerous introduced fouling organisms including the heaviest coverage of the
nonindigenous octocoral Carijoa riisei that has been observed in any harbor area or embayment
in Hawai`i.
Station 25 (Latitude 21°28’ 0’, Longitude 157°50’ 0”)
Moku Manu Island. Located approximately 9 km outside of Kane`ohe Bay, this site was the only
one in truly oceanic conditions with clear water. Despite being on the leeward and landward west
side of the island, the site is highly affected by both wind generated waves and ocean swells.
The substratum is scoured rock with steep walls down to a flat sandy bottom at 18 m depth, and
the areas sampled was at a large cave-like depression that extends back into the main island
about 20 m.
The steep walls and large boulders support abundant corals and associated
epifauna, and an abundance of a large variety of reef fish, the most observed at any site, and it
was the only station where the introduced reef fish Lutjanus kasmira was observed.
B. Benthos and Fish Surveys
A total of 787 taxa with 617 named species were observed or collected at the 25 stations on the
surveys in 1999-2000 (Appendix C). This compares with a total of 1362 taxa reported for the bay
in published and unpublished literature or Bishop Museum collections from 1902 to 1999. Of the
787 taxa determined from the present study over half, or 462 taxa with 315 named species, were
new reports for Kane`ohe Bay, and 63 taxa with 35 named species were new reports for Hawai`i.
The distribution of taxa for major phylogenetic groups among the 25 stations is listed in Table 2
and shown graphically for 16 groups in Figure 3.
Only a few of these groups showed
recognizable patterns. Macroalgae had maximal values of 20 or more taxa at Stations 2, 11, 13,
and 24, three of which were in shallow sedimentary environments nearshore at Moli`i Fishpond,
on the Sand Bar or on the reef flat at Checker Reef. Sponges had 10 taxa or more at Stations 14
and 15 on or near Coconut Island Reef. Hydrozoans, gastropods and decapods had maximal
values at Stations 1 and 25, the most open ocean environments of the stations surveyed.
Bryozoans and fishes were maximal at Stations 1 or 7, both coral reef areas in areas of open
circulation. Overall, Station 1 ranked first or second for seven of the 16 groups, and Station 25
ranked first or second for five groups, indicating the generally higher species diversity for these
coral reef areas with unrestricted circulation.
20
Table 2. Distribution of total taxa and major taxonomic groups among Kane`ohe Bay Stations, 1999-2000.
Taxa
Algae
Spermatophyta
Porifera
Hydrozoa
Anthozoa
Sipuncula
Polychaeta
Gastropoda
Bivalvia
Polyplacophora
Pycnogonida
Cirripedia
Peracarida
Decapoda
Ectoprocta
Brachiopoda
Echinodermata
Ascidiacea
Fishes
Total
1
10
0
9
4
7
3
26
50
9
1
3
0
22
22
9
0
8
10
33
224
2
24
1
0
0
0
1
21
5
2
0
0
1
11
9
1
0
2
2
0
79
3 4 5 6 7 8
10 4 12 14 9 6
0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 3 2 3 4
1 1 3 1 4 4
5 2 9 7 5 3
0 1 1 1 0 1
24 10 21 14 24 25
18 2 32 3 22 12
6 4 16 1 6 8
1 0 0 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 4 1
1 1 0 0 0 2
10 8 15 10 17 10
9 9 15 8 12 13
7 5 6 8 11 5
0 0 0 1 1 0
2 2 2 3 2 2
1 2 7 6 6 7
19 2 16 20 27 5
115 54 159 100 152 109
9
6
0
4
0
6
0
21
19
4
0
0
0
13
9
6
0
5
9
14
116
10
1
0
4
0
5
0
25
20
5
0
0
0
12
15
2
0
6
9
23
127
11
20
2
0
0
1
0
19
29
1
0
0
0
5
10
0
1
4
3
0
95
12
17
0
5
2
1
0
25
32
5
0
1
1
18
12
2
0
4
7
3
135
21
Station
13 14
32 11
1 2
6 12
1 3
6 6
0 0
29 24
26 14
4 7
0 0
1 1
0 2
18 13
17 10
5 5
1 0
7 6
7 10
14 16
175 142
15
5
0
16
3
4
0
30
27
4
1
3
0
11
10
3
0
4
4
11
135
16
11
1
1
0
1
0
27
12
5
1
1
1
15
16
2
0
4
4
10
110
17 18
7 0
0 0
11 9
2 0
3 1
1 1
31 17
24 4
12 5
1 0
1 0
2 3
10 5
9 3
5 5
0 0
6 1
12 5
10 5
146 64
19 20
9 2
0 0
5 9
1 1
3 3
2 0
21 25
24 2
6 2
0 0
0 0
1 1
5 5
8 8
2 3
0 0
2 0
6 5
4 3
99 69
21 22
8 0
0 0
4 5
1 1
2 1
1 0
20 27
11 9
5 3
0 0
0 0
0 2
11 9
7 5
1 5
0 0
6 2
7 6
9 5
93 80
23
11
1
4
0
3
2
17
7
3
0
0
0
8
10
0
0
3
7
8
84
24
20
0
7
4
6
1
17
2
1
0
0
1
18
5
2
0
0
5
22
111
25 All
0 97
0 3
5 49
8 22
9 19
0 4
22 62
57 166
10 51
1 2
4 10
1 5
16 52
23 69
11 39
0 1
5 26
3 22
21 88
194 787
Figure 3. Distributions of major taxonomic groups observed or collected in Kane`ohe Bay, 1999-2000
22
N
W
E
##
#
#
#
#
#
All Taxa
S
0-100
# 101-150
150+
#
##
#
#
#
#
##
##
#
#
#
y
Ba
##
e
oh
ne
Ka
#
#
##
##
##
#
#
#
##
#
#
#
##
##
#
##
#
#
#
#
Figure 4. Pattern of total taxa observed or collected at Kane`ohe Bay stations
Figure 4 summarizes distributions of all taxa collected or observed at the 25 stations. Highest
numbers of total taxa occurred at offshore stations along the Kane`ohe Bay main channel or at
Moku Manu Island where corals and coral reef conditions were most dominant, i.e. at Station 1
(North Channel), Station 3 (Hakipu`u Reef), Station 5 (Waihole Reef), Station 7 ("Pristine" Reef),
Station 13 (Checker Reef) and Station 25 (Moku Manu) .
All but one of these reef-coral
dominated areas showed 150 or more taxa and were in areas with high circulation (Bathen 1968)
or, at Checker Reef (Station 13), was inshore of Sampan Channel which receives good water
movement and has historically shown the highest coral coverage in this section of the bay
(Maragos 1972; Maragos 1973). The lowest numbers of total taxa occurred in nearshore areas
throughout the bay such as at Station 2 (Moli'i Fish Pond), Station 6 (Pu'u Kauai), Station 19
(Kokokahi Pier), Station 21 (Yacht Club Reef) Station 23 (Rubble Island), at the Sand Bar (Station
11) or in harbor and pier areas (Station 4, Waikane; Station 12, Heeia Kea; Station 18, Makani
Kai; Station 19, Kokokahi; Station 22 Marine Corp Base Fuel Dock) where total taxa ranged 5094 per station.
23
25
24
13
12
23
21
16
10
9
15
19
17
14
8
22
20
18
4
11
2
6
5
3
7
1
2E
2D
2C
2B
2A
1
4
20
36
52
68
84
100
Percent Similarity
Figure 5. Dendrograph of similarity analysis for Kane`ohe Bay and Moku Manu Stations based on
all taxa of algae, invertebrates and fishes.
Sorensen similarity coefficients using presence-absence of all identified taxa were calculated to
determine patterns of community similarity among the 25 stations, and a dendrograph
summarizing these results is shown in Figure 5. Two major clusters are indicated, with the
second cluster subdivided into 5 subclusters, which correspond with locations and environmental
characteristics of the stations. Cluster 1 contains six stations that are all coral-dominated reefs
along or near the main channel in the north or midbay. Cluster 2A is comprised of two stations
with sedimentary substratum near the Moli`i Fishpond and at the sandbar. Cluster 2B contains
three stations from pier and harbor areas in the south bay at Makani Kai Marina, the Yacht Club
and the Marine Corps Base Fuel Dock, and the small Waikane Pier in the north bay. Cluster 2C
is comprised of sites in reef areas at the Floating City site, Coconut Island and HIMB and
24
Kokokahi Piers in the south bay and the Kahaluu Landing site near the shore in mid-bay. Cluster
2D is a mixture of sites from the south and midbay, most of them nearshore reef areas but
including the offshore small Wass Reef seaward of the channel in midbay. Cluster 2E contains
Heiea Kea Pier and Checker reef near the main channel in midbay. Two stations, Sag Harbor on
the north side of Mokapu Peninsula and Moku Manu Island outside of the bay did not cluster with
any other set of stations. These patterns suggest that the primary differentiating factor among the
sites was the degree to which they were characterized by coral-reef conditions and associated
organisms. Additional Sorensen Similarity analyses (not shown) ran for combined invertebrates,
fishes, and the major taxonomic groups of sponges, polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves,
pericarids, decapods, bryozoan and ascidians showed similar grouping among stations that were
dominated by reef corals and representative of coral reef conditions.
C. Comparison with Previous Studies – All Taxa
Table 3 lists the numbers of taxa and named species by major taxonomic groups for all previous
reports including Bishop Museum collections and for the present survey. Although the present
study found more taxa and named species that any single previous study in the bay, a total of
only 332 total taxa (1362 previous-1032 not found) were found in common between the present
study and all previous reports, resulting in an average finding of only 24% of previous reported
taxa.
For groups with 20 or more taxa in the present study, the finding rates were quite
consistent, ranging from a low of 19% for the bryozoans (Ectoprocta) to a high of 32% of the
sponges (Porifera). By comparison, the proportions of the taxa and species found in the present
study that had previously been reported averaged 41% for total taxa and 49% for named species.
These percentages range wider by group, with around 75% of the fishes down to 22% of the total
taxa of sponges in the present study having been previously reported or present in Bishop
Museum collections.
D. Nonindigenous and Cryptogenic Species
Species previously reported in Hawai`i were categorized as native, nonindigenous or cryptogenic
(i. e. of uncertain origin but with indications of being introduced) according to the designations in
(Carlton and Eldredge In prep.) and (Coles et al. 1997; Coles et al. 1999a). For brevity, the term
NIS is used hereinafter to refer to combined nonindigenous and cryptogenic species. For species
new to Hawai`i, status was assigned using the criteria presented by Chapman (1988) and
Chapman and Carlton (1991) and described in Coles et al. (1997; 1999a.) These criteria include
new appearances in the region, association with known dispersal mechanisms or other
introduced species and disjunct geographic distributions.
Taxonomic specialists were also
consulted for their input in assessing the status of newly reported species.
Of the 617 named species identified for Kane`ohe Bay in this study, 34 were categorized as
cryptogenic and 82 as nonindigenous for a total of 116 NIS, or 19% of the 617 total identified
species overall.
The NIS species are listed in Appendix D and their distributions by major
taxonomic group and by station are summarized in Table 4. The groups Porifera, Hydrozoa,
25
Table 3. Numbers of taxa and named species in major taxonomic groups previously reported and by the present study.
Taxa
Algae
Spermatophyta
Ciliophora
Porifera
Ctenophora
Cnidaria
Aschelminthes
Platyhelminthes
Polychaeta
Oligochaeta
Phoronida
Sipuncula
Mollusca
Pycnogonida
Crustacea
Insecta
Bryozoa
Brachiopoda
Chaetognatha
Hemichordata
Echinodermata
Ascidacea
Fish
Reptilia
Other
Total
All Taxa
Named Taxa
All Taxa
Prev. Stud. Prev. Stud. Pres. Study
81
3
7
34
4
85
2
16
117
2
3
1
332
3
262
1
59
3
2
1
49
30
259
2
4
1362
80
3
7
31
4
70
1
15
106
2
3
1
298
2
245
1
47
2
2
1
48
25
248
2
2
1246
97
3
0
49
0
41
0
0
62
0
0
4
219
10
126
0
39
1
0
0
26
22
88
0
0
787
Named Taxa
Pres. Study
83
3
0
16
0
36
0
0
38
0
0
4
175
8
104
0
26
1
0
0
21
17
85
0
0
617
Previous Taxa New Taxa
Not Found
Pres. Study
49
0
7
23
4
66
2
15
90
2
3
1
253
3
203
1
48
3
2
1
35
23
192
2
4
1032
26
64
0
0
38
0
22
0
0
35
0
0
4
141
10
71
0
28
1
0
0
11
15
21
0
1
462
Named New Taxa
Present Study
% Prev. Taxa
Found
% Present Taxa
Prev. Reported
% Pres. Named
Prev. Reported
50
0
0
6
0
18
0
0
20
0
0
4
103
8
46
0
19
1
0
0
7
12
21
0
0
315
39.5
100.0
0.0
32.4
0.0
22.4
0.0
6.3
23.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
23.8
0.0
22.5
0.0
18.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
28.6
23.3
25.9
0.0
0.0
24.2
34.0
100.0
39.8
100.0
22.4
62.5
46.3
50.0
43.5
47.4
35.6
0.0
43.7
41.1
0.0
55.8
28.2
0.0
26.9
0.0
57.7
31.8
76.1
66.7
29.4
75.3
41.3
48.9
Table 4. Numbers of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species by station.
Taxa
1
Algae
0
Spermatophyta 0
Porifera
2
Hydrozoa
3
Anthozoa
0
Polychaeta
1
Gastropoda
4
Bivalvia
1
Pycnogonida
0
Cirripedia
0
Peracarida
2
Decapoda
2
Bryozoa
2
Ascidiacea
7
Fish
0
All
24
2
5
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
2
0
1
0
15
3 4
1 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
1 1
0 0
1 2
0 0
0 1
1 0
0 3
1 3
1 3
1 2
1 2
9 18
5
1
0
0
2
1
0
2
0
1
0
0
1
1
5
1
15
6
3
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
5
2
17
7
0
0
0
4
0
2
2
0
1
0
2
1
1
5
1
19
8
3
0
4
3
0
4
4
1
0
1
3
2
2
6
1
34
9 10
1 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
3 2
2 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
2 2
0 1
7 7
0 0
16 15
11
3
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
9
12
4
0
2
1
0
3
3
0
1
1
3
2
2
6
0
28
13
5
0
2
0
0
3
1
0
1
0
2
2
2
6
0
24
14
4
0
4
3
1
4
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
8
0
36
27
15
3
0
10
3
0
5
4
1
1
0
1
2
2
3
0
35
16
2
1
1
0
0
3
1
0
0
1
2
2
1
4
0
18
17
2
0
6
2
0
4
3
2
0
1
1
2
3
9
0
35
18
0
0
5
0
0
5
2
3
0
2
1
2
3
5
1
29
19
2
0
2
1
0
5
4
0
0
1
1
2
2
6
0
26
20
0
0
6
1
0
4
0
1
0
1
1
2
2
5
0
23
21
3
0
2
1
0
2
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
6
0
18
22
0
0
1
1
0
6
2
0
0
1
2
2
4
6
1
26
23
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
6
0
11
24
0
0
2
3
1
2
1
0
0
1
4
1
1
5
0
21
25
0
0
0
6
0
1
2
1
1
0
2
1
1
2
1
18
All
6
1
15
17
2
9
7
8
7
3
10
3
8
15
5
116
N
W
NIS
E
#
#
#
#
S
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
##
#
#
y
Ba
#
#
25+
e
oh
ne
Ka
##
1-10
# 11-25
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
# # ##
#
#
#
#
Figure 6. Pattern of nonindigenous or cryptogenic species observed or collected at Kane`ohe Bay
stations.
Mollusca and Ascidiacea each had 15 to 16 nonindigenous or cryptogenic species, followed by
Peracarida with 10 species, Bryozoa and Polychaeta with 9 and Pycnogonida with 7. The most
widely occurring NIS groups were the Decapoda, with 1-3 species at all 25 stations, and the
Ascidiacea, with 1 to 8 species present at all 25 locations. However, in terms of abundance, the
macroalgae, with only six species, was by far the most dominant group. At most of the 15
stations where introduced macroalgae occurred, they usually occupied large areas on reef flats or
lagoon reef slopes, and their impact and importance as invasive species is far greater than
suggested by the numbers of species present or their distribution within the bay.
The pattern of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species occurrence among the 25 stations is
summarized in Figure 6, and in many respects it contrasts the pattern for total taxa (Figure 4).
Maximal numbers of >25 NIS occurred nearshore in harbor and pier areas at Stations 8
(Kahalu`u Landing), 12 (Heeia Pier), 17 (HIMB Pier), 18 (Makani Kai Marina), 19 (Kokokahi Pier)
and 22 (MCB Fuel Dock) or at Stations 14 and 15 at the “Floating City” and Coconut Island Reef
sites. The highest number of 38 species occurred at Station 14 (“Floating City”), where the
variety of habitats provided by the abandoned iron structure and the adjacent reef supported at
least one NIS from every major group, including the second highest numbers of NIS ascidians of
28
any station. The second highest in total NIS with 37 were Stations 8 (Kahalu`u Landing) and 17
(HIMB Pier), each at a nearshore area with artificial surfaces provided by docks and piers.
Station 8 had a relatively high number of NIS in all groups and Station 17 had the most NIS
ascidians and second highest number of NIS sponges. Next in NIS abundance was Station 15
(Coconut Island Reef) with 35 total taxa and the most NIS sponges. Fewest NIS occurred at
Stations 3 (Hakipu`u Reef) and 11 (Sandbar), both with 9 NIS. Both stations are remote from the
shore and piers or harbors, but with the contrasting environments of a well-developed coral patch
reef (Station 3) versus a sedimentary sand flat mostly supporting macroalgae (Station 11). Other
sites which had fewer than 20 total NIS were all on coral reefs (Stations 5, 6, 7 9, 10, 21 and 25)
or the muddy sand flat near Moli’i Fishpond (Station 2) with a similar environment as the sandbar.
Sorensen similarity coefficients were also calculated for NIS using presence-absence data of the
116 taxa at the 25 stations, and results are summarized in the dendrograph in Figure 7. The 25
stations fall into four major clusters and one outlier that can be related to their environmental
characteristics and numbers of NIS. Cluster 1 contains all the offshore coral reef stations in the
north bay, at Moku Manu and the station at Waikane Pier, each with totals of 9 to 23 NIS. Cluster
2 contains the two sedimentary environments at Station 2 and 11 and two reefs, one nearshore in
the north bay and another at Checker Reef in midbay. Cluster 3 is the largest and contains all of
the harbor and pier stations in the south and midbay, and the reefs near Coconut Island and the
Yacht Club in the south bay. This cluster also contains all stations where more than 25 NIS
occurred. Cluster 4 contains one nearshore and one offshore reef in the north bay and two
nearshore south bay reefs, all of which had 17 or less NIS, among the fewest found. Station 24
at MCB Sag Harbor did not cluster with any other station.
E. Invasive species.
Of 116 NIS determined for Kane`ohe Bay, we consider only 12 to be invasive, i.e. uncontrolled by
environmental conditions or biotic factors and attaining such abundance that they monopolize or
alter habitats and displace native populations and/or cause environmental or economic damage
in Hawaiian waters.
These invasive species are five macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera,
Gracilaria salicornia, Hypnea musciformis , Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum)
four invertebrates (Carijoa riisei, Mycale armata Chthamalus proteus, Gonodactylaceus falcatus)
and three fishes (Cephalopholis argus, Oreochromis mossambicus and Lutjanus kasmira).
Distribution of these species among the 25 stations is shown in Figures 8 and 9.
Invasive
macroalgae were by far the most apparent nonindigenous species and imposed the greatest and
most pervasive negative impact on the bay’s marine communities. All five species occurred
throughout the bay and usually were the dominant benthic organisms on reefs where they
occurred. With exception of H. musciformis, which was found at Stations 3 and 5 near the main
channel, all invasive algae occurred on nearshore reefs throughout the bay or at stations on or
near Coconut Island Reef. Abundances of all five invasive algae were generally greatest in the
vicinity of Coconut Island. Acanthophora spicifera occurred on reef flats at nine sites from the
furthest north to the furthest south station in the bay, where it was a frequent but not abundant
29
24
16
23
10
9
21
20
18
22
15
14
19
12
17
8
6
13
11
2
4
5
3
25
7
1
4
3
2
1
4
20
36
52
68
84
100
Percent Similarity
Figure 7. Dendrograph of similarity analysis for nonindigenous species distributions among
stations.
segment of the algal community. Gracilaria salicornia was the most widely spread invasive algae,
occurring at 12 of the stations, and it was also the most abundant and invasive species on the
reef flats, where it forms large, thick mats that entirely cover large sections of reef. Kappaphycus
alvarezii and K. striatum were usually very prominent at the 10 stations where they occurred.
Greatest abundances were leeward of the area on Coconut Island reef where this species
originally was introduced, but they now occur throughout the bay, forming large growths of
branching algal thalli often resembling bushes or trees that may overgrow and kill live corals on
reef margins and reef slopes.
30
#
#
Acanthophora spicifera
Gracilaria salicornia
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Hypnea musciformis
#
Kappaphycus alvarezii
& K. striatum
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Figure 8. Occurrences of Acanthophora spicifera, Gracilaria salicornis, Hypnea musciformis , Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus
striatum at survey stations.
31
# Carijoa riisei
# Mycale armata
#
Chthamalus proteus
#
#
##
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Gonodactylaceus falcatus
# Cephalopholis argus
# Oreochomis mossabicus
# Lutjanus kasmira
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
##
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Figure 9. Occurrences of Carijoa riisei, Mycale armata Chthamalus proteus, Gonodatylaceus falcatus, Cephalopholos argus,
Oreochromis mossambicus and Lutjanus kasmira at survey stations.
32
Of the four invasive invertebrate species found in Kane`ohe Bay, the stomatopod
Gonodactylaceus falcatus is by far the most widely distributed, occurring at 21 sites in all sectors
of the bay. This species was first reported in Waikiki in 1963 and in Kane`ohe Bay prior to 1968
Kinzie (1968) and has apparently been highly successful in establishing itself in all habitats where
coral rubble occurs. Within the bay it was absent only at the harbor stations at Makani Kai, the
Yacht Club and Sag Harbor and from one reef near the Yacht Club. The intertidal barnacle
Chthamalus proteus also occurred throughout the bay at any station where an emergent hard
surface was available for its settlement. Two invertebrates that are highly invasive in some areas
elsewhere in Hawai`i did not occur at many sites on this survey. The introduced octocoral Carijoa
riisei was found at only Station 14 on the iron structure at the “Floating City” and at Station 24 on
cement pilings at Sag Harbor. At the former site only a single colony was found, but at Sag
Harbor this species virtually covered many dock pilings with long, thick growths of the octocoral,
excluding any other benthic organism. The sponge Mycale armata occurred at only four sites:
Coconut Island Reef (Station 15), HIMB Dock (Station 17), Kane`ohe Yacht Club Floating Dock
(Station 20) and Rubble Island (Station 23).
The three invasive fish species found in this study were not abundant or frequent. The introduced
grouper Cephalopholis argus (Roi) occurred only on two reef stations in the north bay, and the
tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus occurred only at the Makani Kai and Yacht Club harbor
stations in the south bay. The introduced reef fish considered most invasive and widespread in
Hawai`i, Lutjanus kasmira (Ta`ape), occurred only at the Moku Manu station outside of the bay,
where only a few individuals were seen.
F. Comparison with Previous Kane`ohe Bay NIS Reports
Table 5 shows the NIS species which are new reports for Kane`ohe Bay and for Hawai`i. Of the
total 116 NIS found in Kane`ohe Bay 53 (26 cryptogenic, 27 nonindigenous) were new reports for
the bay, but of these only 16 (14%) were not previously reported for Hawai`i. All of the new
Hawai`i reports are considered cryptogenic, and of these nine are hydroids and five are
pycnogonids. Of the 53 new Kane`ohe Bay reports, 17 were previously found in surveys in Pearl
Harbor in 1996, and 25 found in Honolulu Harbor or other O`ahu harbors in 1997-98 along with
most of the remaining NIS. Therefore, most of the NIS determined for this study were already
established in Hawaiian waters and the remaining 16 cryptogenic species still remain to be
confirmed as nonindigenous introductions.
Figures 10 and 11 show the cumulative new NIS reports for Kane`ohe Bay in the last century and
by decade, and Figure 12 compares new NIS reports by decade with the total new reports of all
species. Including the present study, total new NIS reports for the bay reached over 200 by
2000, and Figure 10 suggests a relatively steady increase in NIS through the century. However,
the decadal presentation of the same data in Figure 11 shows that steady accumulation of NIS in
the bay has not been the case, but rather that new NIS reports have been highly periodic with
new reports of >25 NIS occurring only in the 1930s, 1960s, 1970s and with the present study.
33
Table 5. Cryptogenic and Nonindigenous species newly reported for Kane`ohe Bay and
Hawai`i, and previous reports in Pear Harbor and O`ahu south and west shore harbors
Taxa
Porifera
Porifera
Porifera
Porifera
Porifera
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Anthozoa
Mollusca
Mollusca
Pycnogonida
Pycnogonida
Pycnogonida
Pycnogonida
Pycnogonid
Peracarida
Ectoprocta
Species
Biemna sp.
Chalinidae n. sp. (purple)
Dysidea arenaria
Heteropia glomerosa
Toxiclona sp.
Antennella secundaria
Anthohebella parasitica
Clytia latitheca
Dynamena crisioides
Plumularia floridana
Plumularia strictocarpa
Sertularella areyi
Sertularella tongensis
Sertularia ligulata
Tridentata humpferi
Ventromma halecioides
Sarcothelia n. sp.
Chama fibula
Hipponix australis
Anoplodactylus californicus
Anoplodactylus digitatus
Anoplodactylus marshallensis
Callipallene sp.
Tanystylum rehderi
Stenothoe valida
Caberia boryi
Porifera
Porifera
Porifera
Porifera
Hydrozoa
Anthozoa
Polychaeta
Polychaeta
Mollusca
Mollusca
Pycnogonida
Pycnogonida
Peracarida
Peracarida
Peracarida
Ectoprocta
Ectoprocta
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
Osteichthys
Osteichthys
Dysidea sp.
Gelliodes fibrosa
Mycale armata
Sigmadocia caerulea
Obelia bidentata
Carijoa riisei
Eulalia sanguinea
Hydroides brachyacantha
Chama macerophylla
Diodora ruppelli
Anoplodactylus arescus
Pigrogromitus timsanus
Leucothoe micronesiae
Mesanthura sp.
Paraleucothoe flindersi
Bugula robusta
Caulibugula dendrograpta
Ascidia sp. A
Ascidia sp. B
Corella minuta
Didemnum perlucidum
Eusynstyela hartmeyeri
Herdmania sp.
Polyandrocarpa sagamiensis
Polyandrocarpa zooritensis
Centropyge flavissimus
Cephalopholis argus
Status
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Cryptogenic
Total Cryptogenic
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Nonindigenous
Total Nonindigenous
Total NIS
34
New Reports
Kane`ohe
Bay
Hawai`i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
26
16
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
27
0
53
16
Previously Reported
Pearl
O`ahu
Harbor
Harbors
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
11
17
18
25
250
Cumulative NIS
200
150
100
50
0
1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000
Decade
Figure 10. Cumulative numbers of total NIS reported for Kane`ohe Bay 1902-2000
40
New NIS Reports
35
Cryptogenic
Nonindigenous
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000
Decade
Figure 11. Numbers of first reports of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species for
Kane`ohe Bay by decade
0.30
New NIS
50
0.25
New NIS/Total
40
0.20
30
0.15
20
0.10
10
0.05
0
New Crypto + Into.: Total Species
New Cryptogenic + Introduced Species
60
0.00
1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000
Decade
Figure 12. Comparison of first NIS reports to total first species reports for Kane`ohe
Bay by decade
35
This suggests that new NIS reports have been highly effort related and maximal when sampling
activities in the bay were high. This hypothesis is supported in Figure 12, which compares the
total new NIS reports for the bay (bars) by decade with a ratio (line) of these to the total new
reports for all species during the same periods. This ratio is high compared to new NIS only for
the 1930s when 31 new NIS were reported, about 60% of the number for the 1970s (52) or the
present study (53), but the ratio of NIS to total new species for the 1930s was nearly double the
1970 and present study. Given that the relatively high ratio for the 1930s reflects a truly high
incidence of new NIS, this may be due to the 1930s having had the first relatively high sampling
activity in the bay which could have collected NIS that had been present for a long time.
G. Chronology of Introductions to Hawai`i and Origin of NIS of Present Study
Appendix E provides detailed information on the nonindigenous status, first Hawai`i report date
and location and estimated origin of the NIS found in the present study. Of the 116 total NIS, first
reports occurred in Kane`ohe Bay for 52 (45%) of the total, followed by 30 (26%) first reports that
occurred in Pearl Harbor. These two areas alone therefore account for about 70% of the first
report locations for the 116 NIS found in the present study. The chronology of these NIS first
report in Hawai`i is shown by decade in Figure 13. Over half (57) of the 116 total NIS were first
reported in the last 30 years, with most of those that are designated nonindigenous first found in
1970s and 1990s, and most of those designated cryptogenic first detected in the present study.
Interestingly, none of the NIS of the present study was first reported in Hawai`i in the 1980s, the
only decade for which this was the case.
50
No. of Species
45
40
Nonindigenous
35
Cryptogenic
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
pre- 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000
1900
Decade
Figure 13. Chronology of first appearance in Hawai`i of NIS found in present study
36
EA
1%
Ukn
17%
CA
9%
WA
EP
4%
1%
IP
11%
WIP
17%
WW
40%
Figure 14. Reported origins or ranges of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species found in present
study.
Figure 14 shows the estimated origin of the NIS for which information is available for their source
area or geographic distribution.
Sixty-six (57%) are from unknown source areas or have a
worldwide cosmopolitan distribution. Of the remaining 50 species, most are from the western
Indo-Pacific (17%) or the central Indo-Pacific (11%) and only a minor fraction (1%) are from the
eastern Pacific. The rest come mostly from the Caribbean (11%) and the western Atlantic (4%),
with only 1% from the eastern Atlantic.
37
DISCUSSION
Kane`ohe Bay is the most extensively and longest studied marine system in Hawai`i, with over
850 published and unpublished references relating to marine organisms and the Kane`ohe Bay
environment (Appendix A) listing over 1360 algae, invertebrates and fishes (Appendix B). The
present study has been the most intensive single program that has been conducted in Kane`ohe
Bay and has produced by far the largest number of total taxa (787) and named species (617),
with 59% to 51% of these, respectively, new reports for Kane`ohe Bay. By comparison, only five
previous individual studies have listed more than 100 taxa (Taylor 1975; Brock 1976; Grovhoug
1976; Henderson et al. 1976; Lewis 1980), and the greatest number are from a laboratory study
of mollusk prosobranch larvae sampled from the bay weekly over a 2 1/2 year period (Taylor
1975).
Despite the large number of taxa reported and new reports for Kane`ohe Bay from the present
study, only 24% of the total taxa previously listed for the bay were found. This finding rate is in
part due to some invertebrate groups (Ciliophora, Foraminifera, Nematoda, Phoronida) and
plankton not being sampled or analyzed by the methods of the present study or identifications not
yet having been received from taxonomists for some others (Actiniaria, Copepoda, Tanaidacea,
Capreliidae, Pontoniidae). Also many of the previous reports were one time only occurrences
such as for the Taylor (1975) study of mollusk prosobranch larvae, or are of indeterminate validity
without voucher specimens available for verification. Nonetheless the results suggest that further
sampling in the bay would yield considerably more taxa and species.
Including the present study, a total of 204 species designated nonindigenous (141) or cryptogenic
(63) have been historically reported in Kane`ohe Bay, of which 116 (57%) were found in the
present study and 53 (26%) were new reports for the bay. However, most of these new reports
for the bay have been previously reported elsewhere in Hawai`i, and all 16 species from the
present study which are new to Hawai`i are designated cryptogenic and subject to revision. This
is similar to results for the two previous studies of introduced species in O`ahu’s Harbors where
22 new NIS were found for Pearl Harbor (Coles et al. 1997) and 15 new NIS for O`ahu’s south
and west shore commercial and public harbors (Coles et al. 1999b).
The results of this study may be compared to the comprehensive analysis of nonindigenous
species in San Francisco Bay (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Cohen and Carlton 1998) in which 234
nonindigenous marine and brackish water species were considered to have become established
in the bay from 1851 to 1995. For their total data set 55% of the total nonindigenous species were
first reported after 1960, compared to 45% in the previous 110 years. Similar analysis on a data
set that excluded about one-third of the reports on the basis of extraordinary collecting effort,
specialized taxonomic expertise, unsure report date or chance discovery of localized species
produced a similar result of 50% of the first reports occurring after 1960. These results were
interpreted to indicate an accelerating invasion rate of nonindigenous species in San Francisco
Bay (Cohen and Carlton 1998).
38
Similar analysis for the present study for the 141 Kane`ohe Bay nonindigenous species that have
been collected or observed in since the first report of Venerupis philippinarum in 1920 would
result in only 42 of these having been first reported prior to 1960 and 99 from 1960 to 2000.
However, nine of the post-1960 first reports for the bay were previously recorded elsewhere in
Hawai`i, resulting in 51 (36%) of the first reports occurring before 1960, and 90 (64%) of them
after 1960. This interpretation of the data would suggest even a greater post-1960 acceleration
of species invasions in Kane`ohe Bay than derived for San Francisco Bay.
However, we conclude that these increased reports of nonindigenous species in Kane`ohe Bay
are primarily due to increased sampling analysis in the bay that occurred in the 1960s, 1970s and
the present study, which resulted in 75% of the 1364 total taxa having been first reported after
1960. The basis of new reports for NIS in Hawai`i is discussed in Coles et al. (1999b) and
concluded to be due to three principal factors: 1) actual increases in transport, survival and
propagation of introduced species; 2) increased sampling effort from extensive or intensive biotic
surveys during a given period; 3) increased attention to taxonomic groups by specialists that
results in identifications of organisms that may have been resident for a undetermined time.
Given that new reports of both NIS total taxa have coincided with times of increased sampling
and taxonomic effort for the present and previous studies throughout the last century (e.g. Figure
12), we interpret the present study’s new reports to be due mostly to periodic intensive sampling
and species identification rather than an indication of accelerating increases in nonindigenous
species with time.
Overall, the results for numbers of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species and their percent
component of the total identified species are remarkably similar to the two previous studies in
Pearl Harbor and O`ahu’s commercial and public harbors. Pearl Harbor was found to have 95
NIS or 23% of the total identified taxa (Coles et al. 1999a), while the five O`ahu harbors combined
had 100 NIS or 17% of the total species (Coles et al. 1999b). The 116 NIS determined for the
present study is the highest number that have been found in any study in Hawai`i, but comparison
with the total of 617 named species results in a NIS component of 18.8%, intermediate between
the previous values. This percentage is also remarkably identical to estimates made by one of us
(SLC) from obsevations of the NIS and total taxa that could be identified in the field at the time of
the surveys, in which 26 NIS were listed among a total of 138 taxa for an NIS component of
18.8%. By contrast, similar studies by the same investigators in coral reef environments at
Kaho’olawe Island, Midway and Johnston Atolls and French Frigate shoals have shown NIS
component of the total identified biota of 1.5% or less for up to 668 total taxa per study.
The present study is also similar to the Pearl Harbor and O`ahu harbors studies in showing a
contrasting pattern of species richness versus NIS occurrence with proximity to open water
circulation and reef coral-associated organisms.
In both Pearl Harbor and Honolulu Harbor,
maximal species richness of >175 taxa occurred at or near entrance channels where circulation
with open ocean water was relatively unrestricted and reef corals were abundant compared to
stations within the harbors. Sorenson similarity analyses of species presence-absence data for
the harbors also indicated clustering associated with proximity to channels and with reef
39
associated biota. In the O`ahu south and west shore harbors, only six NIS were found at the
entrance to Honolulu Harbor and only one each at stations near the entrances to Keehi Lagoon
and the Barbers Point Deep Draft Harbor. In the present study, total taxa >150 taxa occurred
only on Kane`ohe Bay reefs with relatively high and diverse coral coverage along the main
channel, at the end of Sampan Channel or offshore at Moku Manu Island. By contrast NIS of >25
occurred only at or near harbors and piers or at the two stations on Coconut Island reefs which
have been subject to algal introductions or the construction of the artificial surfaces of the
“Floating City”. The occurrence of 18 NIS at the Moku Manu Island station, remote from the
others in the bay and the most exposed to open ocean circulation, is somewhat inconsistent.
However one third of these NIS are hydroids and cryptogenic first reports for Hawai`i that may
become re-designated to native status.
Twelve of the 116 NIS are considered invasive in Hawai`i, and Kane`ohe Bay is well known for
the degree that introduced and native invasive macroalgae have impacted and monopolizing the
benthic habitat on the bay’s reefs (Rodgers and Cox 1999, Smith et al. in press). Four of the five
invasive algae found did not exist in the bay 30 years ago but are now the dominant benthic
organisms by coverage on reef flats throughout much of the bay. Our results suggest that these
species have continued to spread throughout the bay in the last decade. Surveys made in 1996
(Rodgers 1997; Rodgers and Cox 1999) did not find Gracilaria salicornia, Kappaphycus alvarezii
or K. striatum to occur north of our Station 6 (Waikane Pier), and Smith et al (in press) state that
Gracilaria salicornia was not found in the north bay on 1999 surveys. However we found all three
species, along with Acanthophora spicifera and Hypnea musciformis all the way to the north end
of the bay at Station 2 (Moli`i Fishpond), and Kappaphycus has recently been reported outside of
the bay at Ka`a`awa (J. Smith, pers. comm.). This suggests that spreading rates of 250 m yr-1
estimated by Rodgers and Cox (1999) may be underestimates, and that Kappaphycus does have
mechanisms for dispersal over deep water and out of depressions, contrary to conclusions by
Russell (1983) for these species, previously referred to under the genus name Eucheuma.
Although Kane`ohe Bay was the site of introduction of Hypnea musciformis in 1974 (Russell and
Balazs 1994) and was the dominant algae in the vicinity of Station 13 (Checker Reef) in 1977
(Russell 1992), H. musciformis was not common on Kane`ohe Bay reefs during surveys in 1999
(Smith et al. in press) when it was found at only on one of fifteen sites in low abundance. We
found it to be common at six stations throughout the bay in November 1999 and January 2000,
but did not find it on a rapid assessment follow-up survey in April 2002. The abundance of this
species may fluctuate substantially with season and water temperature. Water temperatures
during the November 1999-Jananuary 2000 surveys were low approaching 20°C while those in
April 2002 were unseasonably high, above 25°C. Acanthophora spicifera was first reported as an
accidental introduction in Hawai`i in 1950 and in Kane`ohe Bay in 1956 (Doty 1961). Once the
only introduced algae 30 years ago when it was abundant on nearshore reef flats in the bay
(Russell 1992), it still occurs throughout the bay in moderate abundance. It appears to have been
out-competed by Gracilaria salicornia in the same locations where it was once the most common
algae (SLC, pers. obs.) such as on the reef flat along the causeway leading to the HIMB pier
(Station 17).
40
Of the four invasive invertebrates found on our surveys, only the stomatopod Gonodactylaceus
falcatus occurred widely in the bay, at all 21 stations where coral rubble was sampled. First
reported as Gonodactylus falcatus in 1954 in dead coral heads from Kane`ohe Bay and Waikiki,
by 1963 it was determined to have virtually displaced the native stomatopod Pseudosquilla ciliata
from the coral head habitat formerly inhabited by this species in Kane`ohe Bay (Kinzie 1968).
Although this species has undergone considerable name changes and its status as an introduced
species in Hawai`i has been debated (Manning and Reaka 1981; Kinzie 1984; Barber and
Erdmann 2000; Ahyong 2001), it has been resolved to be an introduced species to Hawai`i under
the revised genus name of Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Ahyong 2001; Coles and Eldredge 2002).
Our results indicate that displacement of Pseudosquilla ciliata has continued to the present in
Kane`ohe Bay with only one specimen of P. ciliata collected at only two stations, compared with
around ten specimens of G. falcatus at most of the 21 stations where it occurred.
Chthamalus proteus was also widely distributed in the bay and occurred wherever a hard surface
was available in the intertidal for its settlement. The origin of this species is the Caribbean
(Southward et al. 1998) and It was first reported for Hawai`i in Kane`ohe Bay in 1995 (Hoover
1998; Southward et al. 1998) and shortly thereafter in Pearl Harbor (Coles et al. 1997; Coles et
al. 1999a). It did not occur on O`ahu in 1972-73 at the time of a barnacle survey of by Matsuda
(1973) nor in Pearl Harbor from a comprehensive survey of harbor biota conducted in 1971-73
(Evans et al. 1974). In the past 30 years it has become the dominant organism in harbors and
embayments in the high intertidal zone throughout Hawai`i where it can totally monopolize habitat
space, and it occurs as far west as Midway (DeFelice et al. 1998) and Guam (Southward et al.
1998). Its rapid dissemination, proliferation and success as an introduced species indicates that
nonindigenous species introductions continue to occur at an unpredictable rate in Hawai`i and
can rapidly invade available ecological niches.
The red sponge Mycale armata is considered invasive in Hawai`i (RCD, pers. obs.), and along
with other introduced sponges, it forms a virtual sponge reef in the path of the thermal discharge
from the Waiau power plant in Pearl Harbor (Coles et al. 1997). In Kane`ohe Bay it is more
cryptic and probably occurs more widely than the four stations indicated, where it was sufficiently
abundant to have occurred in collected samples. It is frequently observed in the recesses of
dead coral rubble or in small areas on the surface of the ref flat.
The introduced octocoral Carijoa riisei was first reported (as Telesto riisei) in Pearl Harbor in 1972
(Evans et al. 1974; Devaney and Eldredge 1977) and shortly thereafter in Honolulu Harbor (SLC
pers. obs.) and a number of other locations around O`ahu by 1979. Although this is its first
documented report for Kane`ohe Bay, it has occurred at the Station 14 site for at least five years
(D. Gulko, pers. comm.). Although only one small colony still exists at that site, the abundance of
C. riisei on the Station 24 SAG Harbor pier pilings was the densest coverage of this species that
we had observed to that time in all of O`ahu’s harbors, the environment most frequently colonized
by this species. Interestingly, no C. riisei occurred on surfaces in any other of the other Kane`ohe
Bay harbors or piers at the Kane`ohe Yacht Club, Makani Kai Marina, the HIMB pier or the Heeia
41
public harbor, suggesting that currents in these areas were insufficient to sustain its growth.
Since the time of these surveys, C. riisei has been found to be extremely abundant on a sunken
ship at 30 m depth off Waikiki and under a bridge covering a channel from the Hawai`i Kai
marina, where it covers piling up to the intertidal zone. Although one of the few introduced
marine invertebrates that have spread from harbors and embayment to oceanic coral reefs in
Hawai`i, C. riisei was previously considered a relatively benign introduction with no recognized
negative impacts (Coles and Eldredge 2002). However, recent observations and information
have elevated its invasive status. It is now known to monopolize benthic surfaces under
conditions optimal for its growth from the intertidal zone to as deep as >100 m, where it can
overgrow and kill black coral trees that may provide necessary recruits for commercially
harvested coral beds in more shallow water (R. Grigg, pers. comm.).
None of the three invasive fishes (Cephalopholis argus, Lutjanus kasmira Oreochromis
mossambicus) observed in this study were either frequently encountered or abundant in the bay.
C. argus, and L. kasmira are normally more abundant in deeper water offshore and Oreochromis
mossambicus is usually found a dominant fish in brackish or fresh water. For the other two
nonindigenous fishes found, Lutjanus fulvus was the most frequent but occurred as only single
specimens at five stations, and the Lemon Peel Centropyge flavissimus only as individual
sightings at two stations. This is the first documented report for C. flavissimus in Kane`ohe Bay,
but it has been known to occur there for many years (R. Pyle, pers. comm.) and probably was
introduced as an aquarium release.
The pattern of estimated origins of the NIS in Kane`ohe Bay is similar to those found for Pearl
Harbor and O`ahu’s commercial and public harbors (Coles et al. 1997; Coles et al. 1999a; Coles
et al. 1999b), an expected result since most of the same species are involved. Over half of the
species are of cosmopolitan or unknown origin, but the remainder are dominated by those
originating from the western Indo-Pacific (17% Asia to Africa), followed by the general IndoPacific (11% South and North Pacific to Asia), and Caribbean (9%). The eastern Atlantic and
Eastern Pacific coastal areas accounted for only 1% each of the total 116 NIS. Chapman (1999)
has noted a similar pattern in that nearly all nonindigenous species of peracarid crustaceans in
estuaries of the North America or Europe are from the western sides of the Pacific or the Atlantic
oceans and that few native northeast Pacific species have invaded western ocean estuaries. He
attributed this pattern to environmental conditions that allow proliferation of introductions in the
mild northeast Pacific maritime climate compared to the harsher conditions to be endured by
organisms transported in the opposite direction. By contrast Hewitt (2002) found the greatest
proportions of nonindigenous species in Australian ports to be from the northeast Atlantic and
third highest from the northeast Pacific, indicating that the majors sources of ship traffic were the
primary determinant of the origin of species introductions. In the case of Hawai`i the prevailing
pattern is probably primarily due to the dominance of ship traffic to Honolulu by Japanese and
other Asian vessels (Carlton et al. 1993), particularly by fishing boats that may carry fouling
organisms on seldom cleaned hulls, or from Asian origins of introductions such as aquacultured
algae, mollusks and fish. The relatively high contribution to Hawai`i NIS from the Caribbean is
remarkable, considering that that those organisms that may come as fouling must endure
42
freshwater exposure while in transport thorough the Panama Canal. However, for organisms
such as the barnacle Chthmalus proteus, which can enclose itself within its calcareous plates,
freshwater exposure has apparently not been a limiting factor.
Findings of studies of nonindigenous marine species in the tropical Pacific have been reviewed
by Coles and Eldredge (2002) and these are compared with studies conducted in temperate
regions in Table 6. The 82 nonindigenous species of the present study are the highest of any
Hawaiian study or for anywhere within the tropics. The Kane`ohe Bay and O`ahu harbors values
are about intermediate between the maximum 240 reported for the Mediterranean Sea and
numbers ranging down to zero for Australian tropical ports and for coral reef areas in the
Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll.
Overall, the data suggest a pattern of decreasing
occurrence of nonindigenous species with tropical conditions and/or a coral reef environment.
Numbers >100 occur only in temperate regions and numbers <20 only for the tropical ports of
North Queensland or coral reef communities exposed to open oceanic conditions in Hawai`i or
Johnston Atoll. Values for Australia indicate a clear distinction between temperate and tropical
regions and ports, with 24 to 80 nonindigenous species reported for states or individual studies
south of the Tropic of Capricorn and 0 to 16 occurring within the tropical zone. Nonindigenous
species numbers for Guam are higher than for any other tropical areas except Kane`ohe Bay and
O`ahu ports, but the Guam studies also found high total taxa values of 682 for the Apra Harbor
study and 4,635 for the island wide study. This resulted in nonindigenous component values of
only 4% and 0.8% respectively for Guam, indicating that that nonindigenous species comprise a
relatively low proportion of the diverse Guam marine fauna, despite the high degree of shipping
activity that has occured in Apra harbor.
These results support a previously proposed hypothesis (Coles et al. 1999b; Coles and Eldredge
2002) that tropical areas and coral reef systems are more resistant to nonindigenous species
introductions and disruptions of native populations and communities than has been found to
occur in temperate regions. Additional support and analysis by Hutchings et al. (2002) concludes
that these tropical systems may be less at risk to invasions because of greater species diversity
and higher endemism of native biota offering fewer opportunities for successful proliferation of
new arrivals than in lower diversity temperate areas. This paradigm has been substantiated by
findings within a temperate marine system as well, where increased species richness of sessile
organisms significantly decreased invasion success in coastal New England habitats (Stachowicz
et al. 1999).
Moreover, biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion has been confirmed
experimentally for terrestrial grassland systems by Kennedy et al. (2002) who found that
increased species richness enhanced invasion resistance by increasing crowding and
competition for space in localized plant neighborhoods. However, Hewitt (2002) did not find a
significant relationship between species richness and decreased invasion success for eight port
surveys around Australia, although invasion success was found to decrease significantly with
latitude along with a linear but non-significant increase in species richness.
However, this
inability to significantly relate invasion resistance with species richness may have been due to the
scale at which the comparisons were made and comparisons made at a finer level such as used
by Stachowicz et al. (1999) or Kennedy et al. (2002) might support the relationship (Hewitt 2002).
43
Table 6. Numbers of marine nonindigenous species found in various world locations
Location
Mediterranean Sea
San Francisco Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Puget Sound
Hawai`i
Pearl Harbor, Hawai`i
South and West O`ahu Harbors,
Kane`ohe Bay
Kaho`olawe Island
Midway Atoll
French Frigate Shoals Atoll
Johnston Atoll
Australia
Victoria (Australia)
New South Wales
South Australia.
Tasmania
Freemantle Port, Western Australia
Newcastle Port, New South Wales
Eden Port, New South Wales
Port Hedland, Western Australia
Bunbury Port, Western Australia
Mackay Port, N. Queensland
Hay Point Port, N. Queensland
Darwin Port, Northern Territories
Lucinda Port, N. Queensland,
Mourilyan Port, N. Queensland,
Abbott Point Port, N. Queensland,
Guam
Apra Harbor
Island wide
Nonindigenous
Species
240
234
116
39
44
Source
Ruiz et al. 1997
Cohen and Carlton 1998
Ruiz et al. 1997
Mills et al 1997
69
73
82
3
4
2
5
Coles et al. 1997, 1999a
Coles et al. 1999b
Present Study
Coles et al. 1998
DeFelice et al 1998
DeFelice et al 2002
Coles et al. 2001
80
43
36
33
33
25
24
16
12
12
10
5
2
2
0
Hilliard et al. 1997
Hilliard et al. 1997
Hilliard et al. 1997
Hilliard et al. 1997
Hewitt 2002
Hewitt 2002
Hewitt 2002
Hewitt 2002
Hewitt 2002
Hewitt 2002
Hewitt et al. 1998, 2002
Hewitt 2002
Hoedt et al. 2001
Hoedt et al. 2000
Hoedt et al. 2000
27
40
Paulay et al. unpublished report
Paulay et al. in press
CONCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
A number of factors other than the species richness of the native community influence the
resulting success of invading organisms, including introduction frequency, proximity to sites of
introduction, environmental characteristics of the source and arrival sites and the makeup of the
biotic community at the arrival site, to name a few. All of these factors have undoubtedly acted to
produce the mix and distributions of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species that exist in
Kane`ohe Bay. Kane`ohe Bay is a virtually unique environment for Hawai`i, showing a large
variety of habitats characteristics of both an semi-enclosed estuary and a variety of coral reef
environments within its approximate 55 km
2
area, and it has been high influenced by
anthropogenic factors during the last century. Not surprisingly, it has the highest number of
nonindigenous and cryptogenic species that have been reported anywhere in the state of Hawai`i,
historically having had 204 reported NIS, compared to a total of 343 marine and brackish-water
NIS estimated to occur for all of Hawai`i (Eldredge and Carlton 2002). It has been a site of
introduction for many of the most invasive species, i.e. macroalgae, that have resulted in the
greatest disturbances of marine systems both in Kane`ohe Bay and elsewhere in Hawai`i. The
distribution of NIS that have been established within the bay follow predictable patterns, with
greatest numbers of nonindigenous and cryptogenic species occurring near harbors and piers in
areas of overall lower species richness, and fewest NIS in coral reef areas with open circulation
and overall high species richness.
This replicates patterns previously observed in O`ahu’s
harbors where maximum species richness and fewest NIS were near harbor mouths and reef
corals and coral reef conditions occurred.
Most of the NIS that occur in Kane`ohe Bay are cryptic, few in number and encountered
infrequently, and many have been a part of Hawai`i’s marine biota for over 50 years and are of
little management concern.
For established, abundant, invasive species, eradication is
problematical. Invasive species such as macroalgae and the octocoral Carijoa riisei that have
reached high abundance and frequency levels either within or outside of the bay, mechanical
removal or poisoning have limited potential except where populations are in early stages of
establishment and can be isolated from the surrounding environment.
Biotic controls using
predators or parasites focused on target invasives may have long-term potential, but virtually
nothing is known in this subject for marine invasive species, in Hawai`i or elsewhere.
Management efforts should focus in two areas to prevent new introductions and spread of
existing invasives. First, the main vectors of introduction, i.e. moment in ships ballast water or as
hull fouling, accidental or intentional release of aquaculture organisms or their adventitious biota,
and “enhancement” of fisheries by release of imported species should all be strictly controlled or
curtailed. Because Hawai`i is a net importer of goods and fuel, ballast water carried to Hawai`i is
minor compared to other U. S. ports (Godwin and Eldredge 2001) and probably not a major
source of NIS at present. However, hull fouling, especially of Asian fishing boats, barges and
sailing craft may be a source of introduction as well as movement of NIS around the Hawaiian
Islands. Vessels bound for areas which have been found to be virtually free of NIS such as
Kaho`olawe and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands should be routinely inspected to assure that
they do not transport NIS.
No aquaculture operation should be allowed to dispose effluent
45
directly into Hawai`i’s ocean or freshwater environments, and an information outreach should be
made to inform the general public of the potential detrimental impacts of release of exotic
aquarium organisms or favorite imported live food organisms.
Failed programs such as the
introduction of reef fishes in the 1950 and algae in the 1970s should never be repeated.
The second approach that this and other studies suggest will help limit the spread of established
nonindigenous marine species is to establish or continue land and ocean management practices
that will maintain and enhance a diverse, species rich, marine biota. The developing paradigm
relating decreased invasion success with higher diversity both in marine and terrestrial systems
suggests that loss of diversity may result in greater susceptibility to invasions when geographical
barriers to species movement are breached. Moreover, the pattern of association of NIS with
disturbed, low diversity areas within Kane`ohe Bay and O`ahu’s harbors indicates that this
relationship is maintained on a local level even within the same body of water. Efforts such as
controlling land runoff, ground injected or discharged sewage and overfishing which are directed
to preserving a balanced and diverse coral reef community may also be the best measures to
limit the proliferation and spread of invasive introduced marine organisms.
46
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Reef Population Biology. University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology,
Kane`ohe, Kane`ohe.
Holthus, P. F., J. E. Maragos and C. W. Evans. 1989. Coral reef recovery subsequent to the
freshwater kill of 1965 in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Pacific Science 43: 122-134.
Hoover, J. P. 1998. Hawai`i's Sea Creatures. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu. 366 pp.
Hunter, C. L. and C. W. Evans. 1995. Coral reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i: two centuries of
western influence and two decades of data. Bull. Mar. Sci. 57: 501-515.
Hutchings, P. A., R. W. Hilliard and S. L. Coles. 2002. Non-indigenous species introductions and
potential for marine pest invasions into tropical marine communities, with special
reference to the Indo-Pacific. Pac. Sci. 56: 223-233.
Jokiel, P. L., C. L. Hunter, S. Taguchi and L. Watarai. 1993. Ecological impact of a fresh-water
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Kay, E. A. and S. R. Palumbi. 1987. Endemism and evolution in Hawaiian marine invertebrates.
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as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature 417: 636-638.
Key, G. S. 1973. Reef fishes in the bay. p. 51-66 in S. V. Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam,
ed. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: a reef ecosystem under stress. University of Hawai`i Sea
Grant, Honolulu.
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55
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was conducted with the financial support of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation
and with Dingle-Johnson Act Funds administered through the State of Hawai`i Department of
Natural Resources Division of Aquatic Resources. Special thanks to the administrations of those
organizations for making these funds available. The assistance of the management and staffs of
the Library and Department of Natural Sciences at Bishop Museum is gratefully acknowledged.
Pakki Reath devoted long hours to processing and sorting of samples and assisted in the field.
Richard Pyle provided assistance in querying the Bishop Museum marine invertebrates database.
The University of Hawai`i Hamilton Library, the Pacific Maritime Center, and AECOS Inc.,
provided access to unpublished reports and other valuable information from their respective
libraries.
Taxonomic expertise for identifying organisms was provided by the following individuals, and their
generous efforts and contributions to this project are gratefully acknowledged.
Algae: Mr. Jack Fisher, Bishop Museum
Hydrozoans: Dr. Dale Calder, Royal Ontario Museum
Zoantharians: Dr. Daphne Fautin, University of Kansas
Molluscs: Ms. Regie Kawamoto, Bishop Museum
Isopods: Dr Brian Kensley, U.S. National Museum of Natural History
Cumaceans Dr. Les Watling, Darling Marine Center, Unversity of Maine
Pycnogonids: Dr. C. Allan Child, U.S. National Museum of Natural History
Bracyura: Dr Peter Ng: University of Singapore
Anomura: Dr. Patsy McLaughlin, Shannon Point Marine Center, Western Washington
University
Bryozoa: Ms. Chela Zabin, Department of Zoology, University of Hawai`i
Opihuroids: Dr Gordon Hendler. Los Angeles Museum
Ascidians: Mr. Scott Godwin, Bishop Museum and Dr. Gretchen Lambert, California State
University at Fullerton
Fish: Mr. Arnold Suzamoto, Bishop Museum
56
APPENDIX A
Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Kane`ohe Bay
The bibliography has been compiled from sources which include but are not limited to:
Gordon, J. A. and P. Helfrich 1970. A bibliographic species list for the biota of Kane`ohe Bay.
HIMB Tech. Rep. No. 21
Hawai`i Wildlife Fund and AECOS, Inc. 1999. Hawai`i Coral Reef Initiative computer interactive
bibliography
Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) web site: http://cramp.wcc.hawaii.edu/
57
Acevedo, R. (1991). "Preliminary observations on effects of pesticides carbaryl, naphthol, and chlorpyrifos
on planulae of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis." Pac. Sci. 54: 287-289.
Aeby, G. S. (1991). "Behavioral and ecological relationships of a parasite and its hosts within a coral reef
system." Pac. Sci. 45: 263-269.
Aeby, G. S. (1998). "A digenean metacercaria from the reef coral, Porites compressa, experimentally
identified as Podocotyloides stenometra." J. Parasitology(84): 1259-1261.
Feeding Porites compressa infected with a digenean metacercaria to the coral-feeding butterflyfish,
Chaetodon multicinctus, established that the metacercaria was Podocotyloides stenometra. Those and
field examinations finding a prevalence of 100% and an average intensity of infection of 6.5 worms/fish
in 28 C. multicinctus off Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, established this fish as a definitive host.
Plagioporus sp. of Cheng and Wong, 1974 is a synonym of P. stenometra.
AECOS Inc. (1981). O`ahu Coastal Zone Atlas. Honolulu, U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers, Pacific Ocean
Division, Fort Shafter, Hawai`i.
Used for GIS substrate/habitat maps. There is no location data form associated with this reference.
AECOS Inc. (1982). Marine baseline ecological reconnaissance off the east shore of Kualoa Beach Park.
Kane`ohe, O`ahu, Sea Engineering Inc.: 15.
This report describes baseline biological studies undertaken in September 1982 on a reef flat off
Kualoa Beach Park (Ko'olaupoko, O'ahu) as an adjunct to marine survey work in preparation for
placement of surge breaker structures. The report includes both a review of recent marine survey
work conducted in the area and the results off a diving survey on the reef flat in the area of expected
impacts of the proposed action.
Agassiz, A. (1889). "The Coral Reefs of the Hawaiian Islands." Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 17: 121-170.
A recapitulation of the older theories of coral reef formation along with the author's own observations of
the living and ancient Hawaiian coral reefs made during the winter of 1885. Discussion on the
elevated reefs and sand beaches as-well as the living coral reefs suggests that the Hawaiian Islands
have not been uplifted more than 20-25 feet. The Kane`ohe Bay reef is described along with the other
fringing reefs of O`ahu. The author mentions seeing "a few Gorgoniae" in Kane`ohe Bay as well as
some corals. British Admiralty Charts are included to show the Position of the coral reefs on O`ahu,
including one bathymetric chart of Kane`ohe Bay.
Aguirre, A. A., G. H. Balazs et al. (1995). "Adrenal and hematological responses to stress in juvenile green
turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without fibropapillomas." Physiolog. Zool 68: 831-854.
This study reports baseline adrenocortical, hematological, and plasma biochemical values for clinically
healthy juvenile green turtles from a discrete population at Kane`ohe Bay, island of O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Using a general linear modeling program, we compared mean values for these parameters with mean
values of a group afflicted with green turtle fibropapillomas (GTFP). Turtles of similar size classes from
both groups were collected under the same conditions in the same study area and season at the same
time of the day. Corticosterone, hematological, and enzymatic responses to acute and chronic stress
were characterized for each group at four different sampling periods: 0 h (within 2 min of capture), 1 h,
3-4 h, and 24 h postcapture. On the basis of the differences identified between groups and times within
a group, we conclude that turtles with GTFP are chronically stressed and immunosuppressed.
Aguirre, A. A., G. H. Balazs et al. (1994). "Organic contaminants and trace metals in the tissues of green
turtles (Chelonia mydas) afflicted with fibropapillomas in the Hawaiian islands." Mar. Poll. Bull. 28: 109114.
Environmental contaminants have been listed as a possible cause of green turtle fibropapillomas
(GTFP). Brain, fat, liver, and kidney tissues from 10 juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) afflicted
with GTFP, were tested to determine exposure to selected environmental pollutants and any possible
relation to GTFP. One juvenile green turtle free of the disease, one pelagic green turtle, and one
pelagic loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) served as controls. Egg shells and tissues from three green
turtle hatchlings were also tested. The tissues and shells analysed in this study indicated that none
contained any of the listed organochlorine, polychlorinated biphenyl, organophosphate, or carbamate
insecticides in concentrations above the stated method of detection limits. Most of the concentrations
of selenium and heavy metals were also considered to be below levels reported normal in other animal
species. No correlation was found between the contaminants tested and GTFP because of the low
levels detected. Trace metals and other pollutants tested in this study play a minor role in the aetiology
of GTFP in a discrete green turtle population at Kane`ohe Bay, Island of O`ahu, Hawai`i.
58
Aguirre, A. A., G. H. Balazs et al. (1994). "Evaluation of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) for
potential pathogens associated with fibropapillomas." J. Wildlife Dis. 30: 8-15.
Thirty-two juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were captured alive in Kane`ohe Bay, Island of
O`ahu, Hawai`i, during September 1991. Ten of the turtles sampled were afflicted with green turtle
fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) in varying degrees of severity. Virus isolation attempts were negative in all
individuals. Using nasopharyngeal and cloacal swabs, we isolated 28 Gram negative bacteria, five
Gram positive cocci, Bacillus spp., and diphtheroids. The most common isolates included
Pseudomonas fluorescens (68%), P. putrefaciens (66%), Vibrio alginolyticus (50%), non-hemolytic
Streptococcus (50%), V. damsela (47%), and V. fluvialis (47%). Chlamydial antigen was detected in
four of the turtles sampled. The primary lesions in animals with GTFP were hyperplasia of squamous
epithelial cells and mesodermal proliferation with a marked degree of orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis.
Mites, leeches, and other organisms were associated with the surface of papilloma lesions. The
etiologic agent of GTFP was not isolated.
Akiyama, D. M. (1982). Epizootilogical studies of a granulomatous disease of the topminnow Poecilia
mexicana. Animal Science. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 90.
Parasites occurring in livers of "diseased' topminnows from American Samoa studied in comparison
with "clean ' topminnows collected from Kane`ohe Bay in 1980.
Alender, C. B. (1963). The venom from the heads of the globiferous pedicellariae of the sea urchin,
Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 126.
A study of the biochemical nature of the venom in the pedicellariae heads of the sea urchin, T. gratilla
(Linnaeus), its extraction, partial purification, general chemical nature and physical properties. To
determine the mode of action, techniques of physiology and pharmacology were applied from the
standpoint of biological assay and pharmodynamics. Venom from other sea urchin species was
collected and compared with T. gratilla. The sea urchins were collected on the reef flats and slopes on
the leeward side of Kapapa Island, Kane`ohe Bay.
Alino, P. M. (1986). A comparison of coral community structure on reef flats in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Coral
Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i
Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHISEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 91-100.
Coral colony size-frequency distribution, species composition and total coral coverage was estimated
for various reef flat stations. The data provide additional evidence that reef recovery had proceeded in
the five years following termination of sewage discharge into Kane`ohe Bay. Proximity to stream
mouths is an important factor controlling reef coral community structure, suggesting that occasional
"fresh water" kills are an important factor in this region
Allen, J. A. (1998). "Mangroves as alien species: the case of Hawai`i." Global Ecol. Biogeog. Letters
7(Mangrove Special): 61-71.
Prior to the early 1900s, there were no mangroves in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In 1902, Rhizophora
mangle was introduced on the island of Molokai, primarily for the purpose of stabilizing coastal mud
flats. This species is now well established in Hawai`i, and is found on nearly all of the major islands.
At least five other species of mangroves or associated species were introduced to Hawai`i in the early
1900s, and while none has thrived to the degree of R. mangle, at lest two have established selfmaintaining populations (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Conocarpus erectus). Mangroves are highly
regarded in most parts of the tropics for the ecosystem services they provide, but in Hawai`i they also
have important negative ecological and economic impacts. Known negative impacts include reduction
in habitat quality for endangered waterbirds such as the Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus
knudseni), colonization of habitats to the detriment of native species (e.g. in anchialine pools),
overgrowing native Hawaiian archaeological sites, and causing drainage and aesthetic problems.
Positive impacts appear to be fewer, but include uses of local importance, such as harvesting B.
gymnorrhiza flowers for lei-making, as well as some ecological services attributed to mangroves
elsewhere, such as sediment retention and organic matter export. From a research perspective,
possible benefits of the presence of mangroves in Hawai`i include an unusual opportunity to evaluate
their functional role in coastal ecosystems and the chance to examine unique or rare species
interactions. Heeia Swamp, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu was studied along with other sites on O`ahu.
Anderson, S. L. (1986). Glutamine synthetase activity in the symbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium
microadriaticum. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea
59
Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 424-429.
Anon. (1947). Building the Navy's Bases in World War II. History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the
Civil Engineers Corps, 1940-1946, Vols. I and 2. Washington, D. C., U. S. Gov. Printing Office: 522.
A report of the work accomplished by the Bureau of Yards and Docks, the Corps of Engineers, the
Construction Battalions or "Seebees", and many civilian employees, engineering firms and contractors.
Information pertaining to Kane`ohe Bay may be found on the following pages of volume two: p. 121-the first CPFF contract awarded by the Navy during the war construction program was on August 5,
1939, to cover the construction of a new naval air station at Kane`ohe as well as other bases in the
Pacific p. 155--construction of the MCAS began in September of 1939 under a PNAB contract; p. 138139--the major project (of MCAS) entailed extensive dredging to provide the necessary seaplane
runways. The dredging continued for 3 years during which time 11,000,000 cubic yards of material
was removed.
Anon. (1966). Annual Report 1964-66. Honolulu, Hawai`i Depart. Land and Nat. Resources.
An extensive population of clams Venerupis philippinarium was discovered in the SE section of
Kane`ohe Bay. This provided recreation for 10,000 clam diggers during the 1965 season. To extend
the distribution of the clam, approximately 1,500,000 seed clams were transferred from the original bed
to other areas in the Bay, to Pearl Harbor, Keehi Lagoon and Maunalua Bay.
Anon. (1968). Annual Report 1967-68. Honolulu, Hawai`i Depart. Land and Nat. Resources.
In this year's report it was reported that an estimated 41,000 persons participated in the clam season
and harvested about 10,700 gallons of Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarium) from the southeastern
section of Kane`ohe Bay. After the close of the season, about 253,000 seed clams were collected and
transferred to waters off Wailupe, O`ahu. Two large specimens of the quahog clam, Mercenaria
mercenaria from the eastern U. S. were discovered in Kane`ohe Bay. These clams were traced to an
unrecorded introduction into the Bay during the 1930's by a private citizen. A total of 985 Quahog
clams were imported from Connecticut and planted in Kane`ohe Bay and in the Nomilo fishpond on
Kauai.
Anon. (1969). Annual Report 1968-69. Honolulu, Hawai`i Depart. Land and Nat. Resources.
The annual report of the Department of Land and Natural Resources for 1968-69. The Division of Fish
and Game reports that the topshell, Trochus niloticus, was introduced from Guam into the vicinity of
Pyramid Rock in Kane`ohe Bay. Later monitoring made at the site of release gave counts of 72 and
44 live Trochus respectively. As yet, evidence of Trochus reproduction had not been uncovered. After
a year in Hawaiian waters the quahog clams introduced from Connecticut into Kane`ohe Bay have
grown from an average size of 1/14 1/34 " in length. The clams have adjusted well with a survival rate
of 80%. An experimental introduction of abalone into Kane`ohe Bay was carried out by HIMB on
Coconut Island. Two species, the Green Abalone (Haliotis ens) and the Pink Abalone (H. corrugate)
were shipped periodically from the California Fish and Game Department.
Atkinson, M. J. (1981). Phosphate metabolism of coral reef flats. Dept of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of
Hawai`i,.
Phosphate uptake experiments were conducted on collections of reef organisms incubated in aquaria.
Field (water) samples were taken to determine the net changes of phosphate ratios were determined
for reef autotrophs. Uptake rates of phosphate is proportional to the reactive phosphate
concentrations, and ambient phosphate concentrations of 0.15 uM the uptake and release of
phosphate between the reef benthos and the water column is approximately 0.1% of community dark
respiration.
Au, W. W. L. and K. Banks (1998). "The acoustics of the snapping shrimp Synalpheus paraneomeris in
Kane`ohe Bay." J. Acoustical Soc. Am. 103: 41-47.
Snapping shrimp are among the major sources of biological noise in shallow bays, harbors, and inlets,
in temperate and tropical waters. Snapping shrimp sounds can severely limit the use of underwater
acoustics by humans and may also interfere with the transmission and reception of sounds by other
animals such as dolphins, whales, and pinnipeds. The shrimp produce sounds by rapidly closing one
of their frontal chela (claws), snapping the ends together to generate a loud click. The acoustics of the
species Synalpheus paraneomeris was studied by measuring the sound produced by individual shrimp
housed in a small cage located 1 m from an H-52 broadband hydrophone. Ten clicks from 40
specimens were digitized at a 1-MHz sample rate and the data stored on computer disk. A lowfrequency precursor signature was observed; this previously unreported signature may be associated
with a "plunger" structure which directs a jet of water forward of the claw during a snap. The peak-to-
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peak sound pressure level and energy flux density at 1 m (source level and source energy flux density)
varied linearly with claw size and body length. Peak-to-peak source levels varied from 183 to 189 dB
re: 1 muPa. The acoustic power produced by a typical snap was calculated to be about 3 W. A typical
spectrum of a click had a low-frequency peak between 2 and 5 kHz and energy extending out to 200
kHz. The spectrum of a click is very broad with only a 20-dB difference between the peak and
minimum amplitudes across 200 kHz. A physical model of the snapping mechanism is used to
estimate the velocity, acceleration, and force produced by a shrimp closing its claws.
Bachman, R. (1963). Fluctuations and trends in the abundance of nehu (Stolephorus purpureus Fowler) as
determined from catch statistics. Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 100.
The catch reports from 1948 to 1960 for the tuna fleet fishing in Kane`ohe Bay and Ma'alaea Bay were
used to compile the statistics for this study. An estimate of the relative abundance within each area
was derived from the "link-chain-relative" method which was considered to be a better measure of
centralized tendencies than the arithmetic mean based on catch per unit effort. The relationship
between nehu and tuna abundance and that between effort expended to catch nehu and tuna were
examined to determine whether either fishery had an effect on the other.
Baer, L. J. (1980). Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic communication and behavior among
surgeonfishes (Family Acanthuridae). Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 276 pp.
Relationships between communication and various social, physical, biological, ecological,
morphological and phylogenetic factors were investigated in four species of surgeonfishes. Specimens
were trapped from various locations in Kane`ohe Bay for laboratory studies. Field observations were
made at unspecified sites.
Bailey-Brock, J. H. (1976). "Habitats of tubicolous polychaetes from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston
Atoll." Pac. Sci 30(1): 69-81.
Forty-seven species of tube-building polychaetes, belonging to the families Spionidae, Chaetopteridae,
Sabellariidae, Terebellidae, Sabellidae, and Serpulidae, were collected from the Hawaiian Islands and
Johnston Atoll. Eight different habitat types or zones were distinguished, each having a characteristic
polychaete fauna.
Bailey-Brock, J. H. (1984). "Spawning and development of Arenicola brasiliensis (Nonato) in Hawai`i
(Polychaeta; Arenicolidae)." Proc. 1st Intern. Polychaete Conf., Sydney 1: 439-449.
Spawning and development of Arenicola brasiliensis from a shallow Hawaiian reef flat on Coconut
Island, Kane`ohe Bay, are described. Mucus cocoons containing fertilized eggs are extruded from
burrows and remain attached for 4-5 days. Newly spawned cocoons contain embryos that are evenly
distributed throughout the cocoon. There is some correlation between lunar phase and spawning,
with more cocoons appearing during neap tides than spring. Pelagic larvae settle after 4-5 days, the
trochs are lost at the 6 setiger stage and post larvae secrete mucus tubes.
Balazs, G. H. (1978). "A hawksbill turtle in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu." Elepaio(38): 128-129.
Baldwin, W. J. (1972). "A new genus and new species of Hawaiian gobiid fish." Pac. Sci. 26: 125-128.
Recent fish collections made primarily in the southeast sector of Kane`ohe Bay and near Coconut
Island, O`ahu, have provided several series of specimens of an undescribed goby.
Baldwin, W. J. (1978). Suitability of cultured topminnow Poecilia vittata, family Poeciliidae, as a live baitfish
for skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, in the tropical Pacific. Wash. D. C., U. S. Dep. Commerce:
149-155.
Poecilia vittata were collected from mangrove habitat in SE Kane`ohe Bay in 1970 and tested for use
as baitfish. Optimum biological and technical factors that can be applied toward intensive culture of this
baitfish are discussed and recommendations for a facility design are made,
Baldwin, W. J. (1984). "A note on the occurrence of the gold spot herring, Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus
(Ruppell) in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 38: 123-126.
The occurrence of the gold spot herring, Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus, is reported for Hawai`i from
the islands of O`ahu, Molokai, and Lanai. This species was first collected in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu in
1975, and appears to have largely replaced the Marquesan sardine, Sardinella marquesensis,
introduced to Hawai`i in the 1950s. Notes on the separation of the gold spot herring from other
Hawaiian clupeids are provided in addition to a comparison of the Hawaiian specimens with specimens
of gold spot herring from Red Sea and tropical Pacific localities.
61
Ball, G. H. (1963). "Cephaloidophora caepilodei n. sp. and C. pinguis n. sp., gregarines of a Xanthid Crab in
Hawai`i." J. Protozool. 10(3): 321-327.
A descriptive study of two new species of gregarines collected from a xanthid crab, Carpilodes
rugatus, found on Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay. The hosts were examined live and the infected
portions of gut were fixed in Bouin-Duboscq fluid, while the contents of the gut were Smeared on cover
slips and fixed with Schaudinns fluid at 50-60 deg. C. Sections of the digestive tract were 7 u thick and
stained in Delafield's haematoxylin and eosin.
Banaszak, A. T. and M. P. Lesser (1995). Survey of mycosporine-like amino acids in macrophytes of
Kane`ohe Bay. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Seagrant: 171-179.
Banner, A., H. (1940). The Hawaiian crustacea of the family Crangonidae. Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i: 147.
A study of the family Crangonidae found in the Hawaiian Islands. Of the eighteen genera in the family,
only 4 are found in Hawai`i: Crangon having 21 species; Synalpheus having 5 species, Alpheopsis
having 1; and Jouseaumea having 2 species. The author reviews the systematics of each of the
Hawaiian species.
Banner, A. H. (1953). "The Crangonidea or snapping shrimp of Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 7: 3-144.
A study of the crangonid fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Nine species are listed from Kane`ohe Bay.
Banner, A. H. (1959). "Contributions to the knowledge of the alpheid shrimp of the Pacific Ocean. Part IV.
Various small collections from the Central Pacific area, including supplementary notes on alpheids
from Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 13: 130-155.
Descriptions of specimens from various collections, those specimens reported from Kane`ohe Bay
include: Alpheus lanceloti Coutiere -Ahoolaka (Sand Island), Kane`ohe Bay. Collected from silty sand
flats at tide level by A. H. Banner, max. length 20 mm. Alpheus rapax Fabricus -Kane`ohe Bay in
shallow burrows on inshore mud flats in the intertidal zone. Also found in the intertidal zone on
Ahoolaka (Sand Island) in Kane`ohe Bay by A, H. Banner, 1955, 1956, Alpheus platyunguiculatus
(Banner) - collected from silt-buried coral heads in intertidal mud flats behind the shoreward reefs of
Kane`ohe Bay by A, H. Banner, max. length 34 mm.
Banner, A. H. (1959). "A dermatitis-producing alga in Hawai`i." Hawai`i Medical Journal 19: 35-36.
A study of the distribution and toxicity of the blue-green alga, Lyngby majuscula Gomont conducted at
the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay This alga is found on many beaches in O`ahu, Molokai
and Kauai although is not toxic in all areas--Kane`ohe Bay and Hanauma Bay have non-toxic strains of
L. majuscula.
Banner, A. H. (1968). A fresh-water "kill" on the coral reefs of Hawai`i, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute
of Marine Biology: 29 pp.
A study of the effects of a fresh water kill of organisms on the reefs shorelines of Kane`ohe Bay
caused by the heavy rainfall on May 2-8, 1965. The author describes the hydrography of the bay and
includes a description of the storm by G. P. Ingwersen, Lt. Col., Corps of Engineers. Observations of
the animals before and after the rainfall were made by author and numerous people working at the
Hawai`i Marine Laboratory on Coconut Island.
Banner, A. H. (1974). "Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i: Urban pollution and a coral reef ecosystem." Proc. 2nd
Intern. Coral Reef Symp.: 689-702.
The submarine topography and small tidal exchange of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i give it a rather poor
circulatory pattern which has heightened the effects of man upon the marine environment. Coral
dredging in preparation for WWII, heightened urban development, water runoff, increased siltation,
sewage runoff, and other impacts have had serious side effects. The results are that in 1/3 of the bay
no coral is left growing, in 1/3 almost all coral has been over-grown by an alga, and only in the last
third are the coral reefs reasonably intact. At the time of writing, it appears that the urban pollution will
increase at least until 1976 and more of the remaining coral reef ecosystem will be eliminated.
Banner, A. H. and J. Bailey (1970). The effects of urban pollution upon a coral reef system. A preliminary
report., University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 25: 66.
Changes in water quality in Kane`ohe Bay are shown to parallel changes in the population of the
watershed, and in particular parallel development of new subdivisions and operation of two sewage
systems that discharge into the southern part of the bay. Evidence is presented to show that profound
changes occurring in the benthic community probably result from population growth and land
62
development in the Kane`ohe Bay watershed: the eutrophication,,of the bay from sewage discharge
and the combined siltation and lowered salinity in times of storm. This report also contains the results
of an extensive survey conducted in August 1970 to ascertain the extent of the Dictyosphaeria
cavernosa coverage.
Banner, A. H. a. Banner, D. M (1974). "Contributions to the knowledge of the alpheid shrimp of the Pacific
Ocean. Part XVII. Additional notes on the Hawaiian alpheids: new species, subspecies, and some
nomenclatorial changes." Pac. Sci. 28: 423-437.
Update to a previous monograph on the Alpheidae for the Hawaiian archipelago. This study
recommends changes in nomenclature and describes several new species and records. Many
specimens were collected in the Bay.
Barnard, J. L. (1955). "Gammaridean amphipoda (Crustacea) in the collections of the Bishop Museum."
Bishop Mus. Bull. 215: 1-46.
A taxonomic study of the gammaridean amphipod collection in the Bishop Museum. Kane`ohe Bay is
the type locality for one species, Photis hawiensis nov. sp.
Barnard, J. L. (1970). "Sublittoral Gammaridea (Amphipoda) of the Hawaiian Islands." Smithson. Contrib.
Zool. 34: 1-286.
A taxonomic study of the gammaridean amphipod collection in the Hawaiian Islands.
Barnard, J. L. (1971). "Keys to the Hawaiian marine Gammaridea, 0-30 meters." Smithson. Contrib. Zool.
58: 1-135.
A taxonomic guide to the gammaridean amphipod collection in the Hawaiian Islands.
Barry, C. K. (1965). Ecological study of the decapod crustaceans commensal with the branching coral,
Pocillopora meandrina var. nobilis. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 64.
A study in which an attempt was made to determine the factors imposed by the host limiting its
decapod crustacean community. The host coral was viewed as a microhabitat which is both a biotic
and a physical component of the symbiont's environment, thus both the physical and biotic roles of the
coral were considered. Intra and inter-specific interactions of the symbionts were also considered.
The coral head communities were studied on five patch reefs on the north side of the Sampan Channel
in Kane`ohe Bay.
Results showed that the differences among coral heads are mainly quantitative and that the coral head
microhabitat is qualitatively uniform. The species composition of the community in P. meandrina is
relatively constant-a total of 11 obligate decapod crustacean commensals are found with 4 ubiquitous
species. The biomass, numerical composition and species diversity of the community varies with the
size of the coral head. Food is supplied by the coral head to its commensals. The decapod
community is probably limited by the amount of subsurface area available in the coral- head. The
exact composition of the community is most likely dependent on intra and interspecific interactions of
the symbionts.
Barry, K. L. and C. W. Hawryshyn (1999). "Effects of incident light and background conditions on potential
conspicuousness of Hawaiian coral reef fish." J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K 79: 495-508.
Bartholomew, E. F. (1973). The production of microcopepods in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Dept. of
Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 43 pp.
These microcopepods were found to be the most abundant microcopepods during the year in south
Kane`ohe Bay. Total densities ranged from 220,000/m3 during warmer months to 16,000/m3 in colder
months. About half of the planktonic primary production in south Kane`ohe Bay was consumed by the
three species during the summer months. Twenty-four microplankton samples were made with paired
vertical double drop nets.
Bassim, K. M. (1998a). Effects of temperature-induced "bleaching" on reproductive output in Montipora
verrucosa Vaughan (Scleractinia). Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel.
Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 53-59.
Thirty nine Montipora verrucosa colonies of statistically similar diameters were randomly subdivided
into 3 treatment groups of equal number. One group of colonies was induced to expel at least 50% of
its zooxanthellae, as measured by the use of computerized image-analysis, 2 weeks prior to the
expected spawning date (the 2-week group); another was 'bleached' 1 week before spawning (1-week
group). The control group was not bleached. The control group produced the most egg bundles
( 3000), although not statistically different from the 2-week group ( 2000). The 1-week group,
63
however, produced only 162 bundles. Possible explanations for what occurred and the potential
ecological significance are discussed. On June 19, 1997, M. verrucosa were collected from Checker
Reef, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Bassim, K. M. (1998b). Effects of elevated temperature and 20 M ammonium enrichment on survivorship
in symbiotic and aposymbiotic larvae of Fungia scutaria (Fungiidae) and Montipora verrucosa
(Acroporidae). Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu,
HIMB, UH: 83-92.
Changes in survivorship of groups of the larvae of Montipora verrucosa (Acroporidae), and Fungia
scutaria (Fungiidae), were measured in response to elevated seawater (27, 28, 29, and 30 C
treatments), and ammonium concentrations (0 and 20 M ammonium sulfate added). M. verrucosa
larvae contained zooxanthellae during embryonic development, were studied in both an aposymbiotic
and symbiotic state. Increasing temperature, the effects of which was significant in all groups,
decreased survival in M. verrucosa, and had an unpredictable response in both of the F. scutaria
subgroups. Elevated ammonium values, on the other hand, slightly increased survivorship over time in
all groups. Temperature had a much more pronounced effect upon the larvae than ammonium. In the
environment where M. verrucosa is most common, seawater temperature averages 27 C. On the reef
flats where F. scutaria is typically found, water temperatures may reach as high as 29 C. Both
species occur in waters where the ammonium concentrations are extremely low ( 0.2 M). The
responses to ammonium found in this experiment are in contrast to earlier experiments (Bassim 1997),
in which aposymbiotic Diploria strigosa were found to be adversely affected by ammonium.
Bates, G. W. (1854). Sandwich Island Notes by a Haole. New York, Harper Bros.
A collection of notes written by Bates during his travels to and around the Hawaiian Islands in 1853.
Bates describes not only the physical features of Honolulu but also the cultural, social and political
aspects of the city prior to annexation. There are delightful narratives of trips taken around O`ahu,
including a chapter of a trip to Kane`ohe. Other trips include Kauai, Molokai, Maui and Hawai`i
Bathen, K. H. (1968). A descriptive study of the physical oceanography of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i,
University of Hawai`i, Manoa.
The results of a 13 month hydrographic survey of Kane`ohe Bay are presented in this primarily
descriptive study. The subjects covered are the hypsographic conditions, tides, circulation patterns,
volume transports, sewage distribution, heat budget, precipitation, runoff and the distribution of water
properties in the bay. Interrelations between these subjects are also examined.
Bathen, K. H. (1974). Baseline description of the marine and shoreline environments existing in Kane`ohe
Bay between Waiahole and Waikane, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Honolulu, Environmental Communications, Inc.:
65.
Bell, J. L. (1985). " Larval Growth and Metamorphosis of a Prosobranch Gastropod associated with a
Solitary Coral." Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 5: 159-164.
In Hawai`i Epitonium ulu has been only on the solitary coral, Fungia scutaria. Larvae were reared in
culture to investigate length of larval life, growth of larval shell and tissue, and the metamorphosis of
competent larvae. Shell length and tissue mass increased steadily after hatching, with shell length
leveling at 390 um on day 27. Metamorphosis was induced with seawater which had been in contact
with Fungia for 24 hours. Using this method, larvae were first capable of metamorphosis on day 26
post-hatching. Larvae began non-specific metamorphosis (without contact with Fungia) on day 29.
With a larval life of 26 days and non-specific metamorphosis, Epitonium ulu did not fit either
hypothesis. The lack of ability to remain in the plankton until its encounters its host may be balanced
by the high fecundity of Epitonium.
Berg, C. J., Jr. (1971). A comparative and ontogenetic study of the behavior of strombid gastropods. Dept. of
Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 170 pp.
The behavior of ten species in two genera, Strombus and Lambis, was compared with respect to
convergence and divergence of basic forms of behavior with both the Strombidae and the superfamily
Strombacea. Studies of modal action patterns comprising such essential behavior as feeding,
locomotion, righting and escape were stress because the differences in these kinds of behaviors would
reflect significant ecological and morphological determinants of behavior. Stombus maculatus were
collected in Kane`ohe Bay from the intertidal on solution benches at Kapapa island and in 1-2 m of
water on the reef extending from Kapapa Island to Sampan Channel.
Berg, C. J., Jr. (1972). "Ontogeny of the behavior of Strombus maculatus (Gastropoda: Strombidae)." Amer.
64
Zool. 12: 427-443.
The ontogeny of strombid behavior was studied by observing the behavior of Strombus maculatus
veligers collected from the plankton and reared past metamorphosis to adults, and by observing
juvenile strombids collected in the field. Complete adult modal action patterns (MAP's) associated with
locomotion, feeding, and righting of overturned shells are performed by S. maculatus juveniles
immediately after metamorphosis. There are changes in the frequency of the use of certain MAP's
which are associated with variations in shell shape and size. Planktonic tows were made throughout
the year in Sampan Channel, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i during flood tide.
Bergquist, P. R. (1967). "Additions to the sponge fauna of the Hawaiian Islands." Micronesica 3: 159-174.
A study describing fifteen sponges from the Hawaiian Islands, two of which were previously recorded,
the remainder are new. Two sponges, Psammophysilla purpurea (Carter) and Clatharia procera
(Ridley) have only been found in Kane`ohe Bay and nowhere else in the Hawaiian Islands.
Berrill, M. (1965). The ethology of the synaptid holothurian, Opheodesoma spectabilis Fisher. Depart. of
Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study investigating the activities and reactions of the holothurian, 0. spectabilis, in both the
laboratory and in its endemic natural habitat of Kane`ohe Bay. The author discusses the habitat,
distribution and anatomy of the holothurian and then presents an analysis of the animal's behavior with
emphasis on orientation, activities and the diurnal rhythm of some behaviors, as well as their affinity to
the brown alga Sargassum echinocarpum.
Bigger, C. H., P. L. Jokiel et al. (1983). "Cytotoxic transplantation immunity in the sponge Toxadocia
violacea." Transplantation 35: 239-243.
The Hawaiian sponge, Toxadocia violacea, collected from Kane`ohe Bay, exhibited discriminating
transplantation immunity in an extensive series of allogenic and xenogenic parabioses. Cytotoxin
alloincapatibility occurred without exception, but with differing degrees of severity. The allorejection
reactions developed more rapidly than has been observed in any other animal species. Xenographic
reactions between Toxadocia violacea and Callyspongia diffusa were characterized by acute
cytotoxicity, immune memory and qualitative change in secondary versus primary responses.
Bigger, C. H., P. L. Jokiel et al. (1982). "Characterization of alloimmune memory in a sponge." J.
Immunology 129: 1570-1572.
Allogenic tissue of the marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, collected in Kane`ohe Bay, was
grafted/parabiosed to examine critically the essential features of alloimmune memory in this least
complex metazoan phylum.
Although sponges lack and organized circulatory system, the
immunologic memory spreads rapidly through body tissue. Heightened reactivity persisted only 3-4
weeks after primary sensitization, in contrast to the long term alloimmune memory found among
vertebrates.
Bishop, S. E. (1916). Reminiscences of Old Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawaiian Gazette Co. Ltd.
A collection of personal memories, reminiscences and writings of Serena Edwards Bishop. This is the
first such "history" book published about Hawai`i. The book includes a brief biography of S. E. Bishop
by Lorrin A. Thurston. Bishop did most of his missionary work on the Kona coast of Hawai`i, but he
made several trips to the other islands and during one of these trips he met Rev. B. W. Parker and his
wife in Kane`ohe (p. 51).
Bohm, A. (1931). "Distribution and variability.of Ceratium in the northern and western Pacific." Bishop Mus.
Bull. 87: 1-46.
A paper presenting the results of a plankton study collected by Dr. V, Pietschmann (1927-1928) during
the course of a journey from Honolulu to Yokohama, Moji, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Singapore. The
material was obtained by using the ship's pump for two or more hours at a time and then it was filtered
through nets. The distribution of Ceratium sp. was studied and the variation was studied by observing
those characters which showed themselves to be relatively constant, i.e., transdiameter, total length
and expanse of horns. A sample from Nuupia fish pond, Kane`ohe Bay, contained only two specimens
of Ceratium furca and two of Ceratium fuscus.
Boone, L. (1938). "Coelenterata: Hydroida. Scientific results of the world cruises of the Yachts Ara, 19281929, and Alva, 1931-32. Alva Mediterranean cruise 1933, and Alva South American cruise, 1935,
William Vanderbilt, Commanding." Bull. Vanderbilt Marine Mus. 7: 33-34.
Booth, D. J. (1991). "The effects of sampling frequency on estimates of recruitment of the domino
65
damselfish Dascyllus albisella Gill." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 145: 149-159.
Booth, D. J. (1995). "Juvenile groups in a coral-reef damselfish: density-dependent effects on individual
fitness and population demography." Ecology 76: 91-106.
Costs and benefits to group living in animals may affect the fitness of individual group members and
also demography of the population. The effects of grouping on the growth, survival, and attainment of
maturity of juveniles of an Hawaiian coral-reef damselfish (Dascyllus albisella) were evaluated from
1987 through 1989. In this species, pelagic larvae settle (at approximately 14 mm total length) on coral
heads, joining temporary groups of up to 15 juveniles. Group members establish a dominance
hierarchy based on size, and fish leave these groups upon reaching mature size (70 mm total length)
to enter the nearby adult population. Previously, I had demonstrated that larvae preferentially join
larger groups and I expected to find clear advantages to group membership. Survival, especially of
smaller fish, was enhanced in large groups, but growth, especially by individuals of low social status,
was reduced. Consequently, the time to reach maturity increased with group size in both years of the
study, suggesting a more rapid entry into the adult population of fish in smaller groups or living alone.
However, the probability of reaching mature size (a function of size-specific growth and survival)
increased with group size in 1988 but not in 1987, thus indicating a benefit to group living during only
one of the two years of the study. Although this study demonstrated density-dependent juvenile growth
and survival, with consequent fitness effects of group living, it has also highlighted considerable interand intra-annual variability in these relationships. Such variability will have major consequences for
predictions of the effects of juvenile ecology on the demography of organisms.
90
90
Boroughs, H. and D. F. Reid (1958). "The role of the blood in the transportation of Strontium -Yttrium in
the teleost Fish." Biol. Bull. 115: 64-73.
A study conducted at Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, on certain aspects of the transportation of the
90
90
radioactive isotope, strontium -yttrium , in the blood of the teleost fish, Tilapia mossambica. The
90 90
Sr -Y dose was injected into the ventricle of the heart and at a series of predetermined times, as
much blood as possible was withdrawn through the kidney sinus. Radioactivity of the plasma and the
cells was monitored. Separate organs and tissues were ashed and their radioactivity was also
monitored.
Boroughs, H., S. J. Townsley et al. (1956a). "The metabolism of radionuclides by marine organisms I. The
uptake, accumulation and loss of strontium by fishes." Biol. Bull. 3: 336-351.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay, measuring the uptake,
accumulation and loss of radiostrontium by the various tissues and organs of fish from three trophic
levels:
Fourth Trophic Level - Euthynnus yiato, black skipjack; Eeothunnus macropterus, yellowfin tuna;
Coryphaena hippurus, dolphin
Third Trophic Level - Carangoides ajax, papio caught in Kane`ohe Bay; Kuhlia sandvicensis, aholehole
caught in Kane`ohe Bay
Second Trophic Level - Tilapia mossambica
The inter-relationships of these trophic levels to the passage of the isotope by way of the food chain
was also discussed. Pelagic fishes were shown to excrete the ingested isotope within a few hours,
although various tissues retained varying amounts of residual isotope. Tilapia mossambica excreted
the isotope much more slowly and most of the radioactivity was found in the structural tissues, The
retention of radioactivity in various organs and tissues of the different fishes is discussed in relation to
their habitat.
Boroughs, H., S. J. Townsley et al. (1956b). "The metabolism of radionuclides by marine organisms II. The
uptake, accumulation and loss of yttrium by marine fish and the importance of short-lived radionuclides
in the sea." Biol. Bull. 3: 352-357.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay, to determine the metabolism of
yttrium by the fish, Tilapia. Although yttrium is closely related to strontium, only 2% of the ingested
dose of yttrium remains after 2 days, which is very much less than a similar dose of strontium. The
distribution of the remaining ingested isotopes also differs widely.
Boroughs, H., S. J. Townsley et al. (1956c). "The metabolism of radionuclides by marine organisms III. The
45
uptake of Calcium in solution by marine fish." Limnol. Oceanogr. 2: 28-32.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay, using Tilapia mossambica to
determine whether marine fish required calcium in their diets or whether they could take up an
adequate amount of calcium from the seawater showed that marine fishes can take up calcium directly
from seawater, and do not need a dietary source for this element. In comparison with a similar
66
experiment using radiostrontium, it was found that marine fishes discriminate in favor of calcium.
Bosch, H. F. (1965). "A gastropod parasitic on solitary corals in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 19: 267-268.
A study of the relationship between the wendletrap gastropod, Epitonium ulu Pilsbry and the solitary
coral, Fungia scutaria Lamarck collected in Kane`ohe Bay. The author feels that this relationship
might be correlated with the breeding cycle of the snails and is probably only intermittent or temporary.
Bosch, H. F. (1967). Growth rate of Fungia scutaria in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Dept. Zoology. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i: 38.
A study on the annual growth rate of the solitary coral, F. scutaria, by observing increases in skeletal
length and width during a period 1963-1964. Measurements were made in situ in Kane`ohe Bay.
Estimates of growth, made on the basis of large sampling, were used to assess the effects of the
environment upon variations in growth rate. The environmental effects were substratum, waves and
currents, siltation, other physical and chemical factors, biotic factors, population density and local
distribution patterns.
Bowers, R. L. (1965). Observations on the orientation and feeding behavior of barnacles associated with
lobsters. Dept. Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A two part study: 1) A study in which the orientation of Balanus trigonus on a single specimen of
Panulirus japonicus was measured using a previously published method. Barnacles on various areas
of the lobster's carapace were measured and an attempt was made to correlate the results with the
results of previous workers and the general habitat of the lobster. The lobster was collected at Coconut
Island, Kane`ohe Bay, with the adhering organisms: Balanus trigonus, Chelonibia patula, Sagartia
longa, and Hydroides norvegica. 2) A study of the orientation of the barnacle, Trilasmis (Temnaspis)
fissum hawaiense (Pilsbry) epizoic on the lobsters, Panulirus japonicus (DeSiebold) and Panulirus
penicillatus (Oliver) involving orientation to jets of seawater and to jets of seawater and lobster meat
juice. Observations were also made on the feeding behavior of the barnacle. Species epizoic on the
lobsters: Balanus trigonus (Darwin), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani), Trilasmis (Temnaspis) fissum patula
(Ranzani), Trilasmis (Temnaspis) fissum hawaiense (Pilsbry) Octolasmis (Octolasmis) lavei (Darwin),
and Paralepas palinuri urae (Newman).
Bowers, R. L. (1970). The behavior of Alpheus clypeatus Coutiere (Decapoda, Alpheidae). Dept. of Zoology.
Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 148 pp.
The behavior and ecological adaptations associated with the construction and inhabitance of algal
tubes by Alpheus clypeatus were examined. Shelter procurement of this type differs from that of most
other alpheid shrimps which utilize shelter, such as crevices in coral or the canals within sponges, that
require little or no modification. Field collections were conducted regularly over a 15 month period in
1968-69 at stations at 60-80 ft immediately seaward of Kane`ohe Bay and in Kane`ohe Bay at 2-8 ft
form dead heads of Pocillopora meandrina. The ability to utilize a portion of the habitat with reduced
levels of intraspecific competition is discussed with respect to the adaptive significance of tube
construction.
Bowers, R. L. (1977). Biological reconnaissance of coral communities near stream mouths in Kane'ohe Bay
- summary of results. Honolulu, Dept. of the Army, Engineer Division, Pacific Ocean.
Description and data for condition of reef coral assemblages near Kane`ohe Bay stream mouths in
1977.
Bowser, G. (1880). An Itinerary of the Hawaiian Islands with a Description of the Principal Towns and Places
of Interest, The Hawaiian Kingdom - Statistical and Commercial Directory and Tourists Guide: 18801881: 435-576.
An itinerary of a trip around the Hawaiian Islands with chapters on Honolulu, O`ahu, Maui, Hawai`i,
Kauai, and Ni'ihau and Molokai, Lanai and Kaho'olawe. Chapter two is a short account of a horseback
trip around O`ahu--the author left Honolulu to travel over the Pali to Waimanalo, then to Kane`ohe,
Waikane, Laie and back to Honolulu. At this time, most of the land in Kane`ohe was cultivated with
sugar, there being three plantations and the Honorable C. C. Harris, Chief Justice of the Kingdom had
the largest plantation. In the Heeia district, the big sugar plantation belonged to John McKeague. Rice
was also planted in Heeia, cultivated by Mr. Ah Kau. Mr. John Crowder maintained a fishery ground in
an area 3 miles along the beach to the sea. At the far end of the bay, near Waiahole and Waikane,
most of the land was cultivated with rice. Horse raising was the chief industry of Kualoa, there being
over one hundred head of horses on the land which was at one time a sugar plantation.
Boylan, D. B. (1966). The chemical nature of the toxic secretions of the boxfish (Ostracion lentiginosus
67
Schneider). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A chemical investigation of the pure toxic component isolated from the crude secretions of the boxfish,
0. lentiginosus. The synthesis of the toxic principle was attempted in an effort to elucidate the
mechanism of biological action. The boxfish were caught off Waikiki and Kane`ohe Bay reefs.
Brewer/Bradman Associates (1989). Baseline marine, estuarine and stream surveys: Bayview Golf Course
expansion, South Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Bayview Golf
Course Expansion, Kane`ohe, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Honolulu, Pacific Atlas (Hawai`i) Inc.
Qualitative/semi-quantitative study of fishes, corals, invertebrates and algae. Water quality
measurements.
Brick, R. W. (1970). Some aspects of raft culture of oysters in Hawai`i. Kane`ohe, Hawai`i Institute of Marine
Biology: 45 pp.
Results of experimental treatments of oysters held in Kahaluu Pond in Kane`ohe Bay. Oysters used
were nonindigenous Crassostrea virginica collected from Pearl Harbor and C. gigas collected in
Kane`ohe Bay. Oysters were negatively affected by the flatworm Stylochus sp. predation, suspended
sediments and turbidity. Confirms an Edmondson (1946) report of oysters in Kane`ohe bay being
killed by a parasitic worm.
Brick, R. W. (1974). "Effects of water quality, antibiotics, phytoplankton and food on survival and
development of larvae of Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Portunidae)." Aquaculture 3: 231-244.
Larvae of the portunid crab Scylla serrata were successfully reared using a combination of antibiotics
(penicillin-G+polymyxin-B), phytoplankton (Chlorella sp.) and appropriate food ((Artemia salina nauplii).
Antibiotics enhanced pre-metamorphic survival of zoea while leaving rate of zoeal development and
success of metamorphosis to megalopa unaltered. Water filtration and ultraviolet sterilization had no
significant effect on rates of zoeal survival or development. Although antibiotics did not effect
metamorphosis of megalopa to the crab stage, the antibiotic mixture may have been detrimental to
survival of megalopae.
Bridges, K. W. (1967). Aspects of the feeding dynamics of the aholehole (Kuhlia sandvicensis). Department
of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study investigating two aspects of the feeding dynamics of the aholehole: the relationship between
the food, growth and metabolic requirements of the fish and the provision of a quantitative expression
of the relationship between the food growth and metabolic requirements. The fish were caught by
angling with live shrimp along the breakwater at the entrance to the Anchorage, Coconut Island,
Kane`ohe Bay.
The use of regression analysis on the data was shown to be the most complete description of the food
and growth relationship. It was found that an increased level of swimming did increase the
maintenance requirement of the fish but not the net efficiency. The maintenance requirement for a 63
gm aholehole was estimated to be 0.534 /day at zero activity and the cost of swimming at 4.5 in/sec
was 41% of the total maintenance requirement. Rate of weight loss of starving fish was shown to be
related to the weight of the fish and this provided an estimate of the rate of metabolism. Weight loss
values recorded during periods of activity compared favorably with oxygen consumption studies for the
same levels of activity.
Brill, R. W., G. H. Balazs et al. (1995). "Daily movements, habitat use, and submergence intervals of normal
and tumor-bearing juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.) within a foraging area in the Hawaiian
islands." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 185.
Depth-sensitive ultrasonic transmitters monitored the horizontal and vertical movements of 12 juvenile
(65 cm carapace length) green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.) in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu (Hawai`i, USA).
This site was chosen because of its accessibility, its importance as a foraging area, and the high
incidence ( approx. 50%) of fibropapillomatosis, a tumor disease of unknown etiology. Our objectives
were to determine the daily movements, habitat use, and submergence intervals of normal and tumorbearing animals. The presence of tumors had no obvious effects on movement patterns or habitat use.
All turtles remained within a small portion of the bay where patch reefs and shallow coral-covered
areas are common, and algal growth most abundant. During daylight, two normal and two tumorbearing animals remained within known feeding areas, all other turtles studied stayed within deep mud
bottom channels or within crevices on the sides of reefs. All, except one tumor-bearing turtle, moved
up on to shallow patch reefs or shallow coral-covered areas at night. Submergence intervals for both
groups were short (over 90% were 33 min or less and none exceeded 66 min) compared to maximum
breath-hold times (up to 5 h) measured in the laboratory by earlier workers. Juvenile green turtles in
68
Hawai`i, therefore, most likely maintain aerobic metabolism while submerged and surface before
oxygen stores are significantly depleted. Tumor-bearing turtles had a higher frequency of longer
submergence intervals during the night, indicating they may have been somewhat less active at night.
Normal turtles showed no such day-night difference.
Brock, J. H. (1976). Benthic marine communities of shoreline structures in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i Environmental Center: 161 pp.
Detailed study with 19 stations (up to 20 substations at each). Data are mixed (some quantitative and
some qualitative), which presents problems with comparisons of species abundance. The appendix
has a detailed species list.
Brock, R. E. (1979). The effects of grazing by parrotfishes (Family Scaridae) on selected shallow Hawaiian
marine communities. Dept. Of Fisheries. Seattle, Univ. Of Washington: 174 pp.
This study has been conducted to: 1) assess the quantitative effects that rasping parrotfishes in a coral
reef ecosystem have on the structure of benthic communities; 2) describe the standing crop of
parrotfishes and 3) examine scarid recolonization patterns on a fish-depopulated patch reef. Field
studies were conducted at Johnston Atoll and Kane`ohe Bay. Fishes were collected at 3 study sites
(sites other than Reef 22) and various other reefs in the bay. Reef 22 was completely denuded of
fishes with rotenone in August 1966 (Wass, 1967) and in October 1977 (this study) to record
recolonization of all fish species.
Brock, R. E. (1979). "An experimental study on the effects of grazing by parrotfishes and role of refuges in
the benthic community structure." Mar. Biol. 51: 381-388.
In an experimental study on the effect of parrotfish (probably Scarus taeniurus) grazing on the
2
structure of benthic reef communities, fishes in densities of 0.6 to 1.5 parrotfish per m or 9 to 17 wet
2
wt. of fish per m were found to have an optimum effect. resulting in the greatest benthic species
richness and biomass on 2 dimensional surfaces. However, the presence of refuges (i. e. 3
dimensional surface) has a greater impact on benthic community structure than does parrotfish
density.
Brock, R. E. (1982). "A critique of the visual census method for assessing coral reef fish populations." Bull.
Mar. Sci. 32(1): 269-276.
Many investigators have noted that estimates of coral reef fish populations by visual census are biased
but its precision has never been quantitatively determined. It is still used, however, because this
technique is usually assumed to be the best non-destructive method of population assessment. This
2
study compares the results of visual censuses conducted on an isolated 1,500 m patch reef to the
collection of all fishes made subsequently with rotenone on that reef. The visual censuses missed the
presence or underestimated abundance of cryptic fish species. Diurnally active species were
reasonably well censused, but the most common were often underestimated. Thus comparisons
between fish communities based on visual census data should be restricted to the diurnally exposed
species. This study was conducted on an isolated patch reef in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Brock, R. E. and J. H. Brock (1977). "A method for quantitatively assessing the infaunal community in coral
rock." Limnol. Oceanogr. 22.
Acid dissolution with previous formalin preservation allows virtually total recovery of the infaunal
community in coral rock, making quantitative studies possible. Most groups remain readily identifiable
following this treatment. Coral rock samples from gradients of sewage and stream stress suggest a
decrease in numbers and biomass with distance from the perturbation.
Brock, R. E., C. Lewis et al. (1979). "Stability and structure of a coral patch reef fish community in a stressed
Hawaiian ecosystem." Mar. Biol. 54: 281-292.
Two collections of the fishes residing on an isolated coral patch reef (ca. 1500 m2) in Kane`ohe Bay
were made 11 years apart. Of the 112 species of fishes in both collections, only 40% were in
common, but these made up more than 85% of the wet biomass in each collection. The two
assemblages of fishes were similar in trophic structure and standing crop. Many coral reef fish
communities are dominated by carnivorous forms. In the present study planktonivorous fishes were
the most important trophic group in the community; this was related to abundant zooplankton
resources.
Brock, R. E. and S. V. Smith (1983). "Response of coral reef cryptofauna communities to food and space."
Coral Reefs 1: 179-183.
Components of benthic communities in a coral reef system subjected to elevated particulate organic
69
loading show differential biomass responses to this food resources. Th macrofaunal biomass of the
hard bottom cryptofaunal community was elevated under such loading ; termination of the nutrient
input resulted in a rapid decline in hard bottom cryptofaunal biomass. In contrast, adjacent soft
substratum communities showed minor variation in macrofaunal biomass.
Brock, V. E. (1952). "A history of the introduction of certain aquatic animals to Hawai`i." Rept. Bd. Agric.
Forestry: 114-123.
Summary of established aquatic introductions in Hawai`i.
Brock, V. E. (1960). "The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters." Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol
45(4): 463-480.
The present account of Hawaiian aquatic introductions is not an analysis of ecological alterations of
the fauna of Hawaiian waters. It is rather an attempt to simply record such introductions and additions
that have occurred insofar as available documentation permits and to describe, in general, the
Hawaiian environment. Many of the less conspicuous aquatic invertebrates which have been
fortuitously introduced are not listed. Like insect immigrants, they will quietly continue to establish
themselves. Their recognition as immigrants often depends on their ultimate collection and proper
identification.
Brock, V. E. (1962). The experimental introduction of certain marine fishes from the Society Islands to the
Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Hawai`i Economic Planning and Coordination Authority.
A final report of a study to selectively introduce some species of fish from the Society Islands into the
Hawaiian Islands. This report deals with the preliminary studies of fish selection, transportation to the
Hawaiian Islands, their release and finally cases of their recapture.
Records concerning Kane`ohe Bay:
October 10, 1956. (Tarao) Epinephelus merra - 469 released from Coconut Island
October 10, 1956. (Toau) Lutrianus vaigiensis - 239 released from Tide House, Coconut Island
October 10, 1956. (Aaravi) Lethrinus meriatus - 3 released from Tide House, Coconut Island.
Brostoff, W. N. (1985). "Seaweed grazing and attachment by the nereid polychaete Playtynereis dumerilii."
Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 4: 3-8.
Certain seaweeds able to form adventitious holdfasts appear to propogate in response to grazing by
the herbivorous polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. While Platynereis is found on and grazes ten
common species of seaweeds in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, it attaches a lesser number to the substratum
and causes permanent attachment and regrowth in only the red algae Acanthophora spicifera,
Ceramium fimbriatum and Griffithsia tenuis. Holdfasts of Acanthophora can be classified into
polychaete-induced or naturally developed based on the presence of conspicuous bite marks and
orientation of the attached axes. In back-reef areas where the predominant substratum is sand and
coral rubble, polychaete-attached Acanthophora constitutes 85% of the population, although 100% of
thalli show evidence of grazing. At sites where Acanthophora grows on solid rock substrata, there is
less evidence of polychaete-induced attachment and grazing.
Brownscombe, A. K. (1965). An Ethological Study of the Shore Crab, Metapograpsus messor (Forsskal) in
O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands. Depart. Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 100.
The behavior of the crab, M. messor, was studied from an ethological viewpoint, both in the laboratory
and in the field. Cyclic effects of the environment on the crab behavior were investigated. Various
areas around O`ahu were studied, but the area of the concentrated population study was at Coconut
Island in Kane`ohe Bay where the population reaches its greatest density found on O`ahu. The
behavioral repertoire of the crab appeared to consist of 28 discrete behavioral units--the feeding and
locomotion behaviors are remarkably complex considering the simplicity of the central nervous system.
Dominance hierarchies were not apparent in the field, but dominance according to sex and size was
established in the laboratory under enforced crowding conditions. Cyclic fluctuations in environmental
light intensity, tides, and temperature have a profound effect on producing periodic behavioral patterns
in the crab. A diurnal rhythm was revealed from population numbers, feeding rate, number and
percentage of animals feeding at hourly intervals and the distribution of activities. Melanophore
expansion had a rhythm corresponding to the diurnal activity rhythm. Territorial behavior was not
present, and there was no tendency toward social cooperation.
Bryan, W. A. (1915). Natural History of Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawaiian Gazette Co. Ltd.
A general history of the Hawaiian people, the geology and geography of the islands, the native and
introduced plants and the animals of the islands. There are two chapters on the flora and fauna of
coral reefs in which is mentioned finding Dendrophyllia manni growing on the edge of a small coral
70
island in Kane`ohe Bay. Opheodesoma spectabilis was found to be common in Pearl Harbor and
Kane`ohe Bay.
Burdick, J. K. (1969). The feeding habits of nehu (Hawaiian anchovy) larvae. Dept. Of Oceanography.
Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 54 pp.
Nehu larva from S.E. Kane`ohe Bay were collected with a 1-m net and a plankton purse seine. The
food of the larvae was mostly small copepods. Newly feeding larvae ate mostly nauplii, but changed
their diet to copepods as they grew larger. Copepods were the selected food items. Nehu larvae do not
have the very low feeding incidence often ascribed to these fishes.
Burgess, P. (1995). "Strangers in Hawai`i." Hawaiian Shell News 43: 12.
Description of Bulla vernicosa Gould 1859 abundant on sand bar in mid-Kane`ohe Bay, 1954; probably
arriving from Guam.
Burns, D., C. Andrews et al. (1984). "Microbial biomass, rates of DNA synthesis and estimated carbon
production in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Bull. Mar. Sci. 34: 346-357.
Estimates were made of microbial biomass and production in the water column and unconsolidated
sediments in a transect across the barrier reef of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i over a 5-week period.
Cell-associated parameters measured were chlorophyll alpha and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP).
The total biomass of microorganisms in the water column and coral sands ranged from11.5 to 99.8 mu
g C liter-1 and 281 to 941 mu g C cms-3, respectively. Total microbial community production ranged
from 3.3 to 17.4 mu g C liter-1 h-1 in the water column, and from 11.3 to 58.2 mu g C g-1 (dry wt) h-1in
the sediments. Total depth integrated microbial production in the sediments exceeded that in the
overlying water by a factor of 100 when expressed on an areal basis. Estimates for microbial carbon
production in coral reef rubble are equivalent to, or exceed previous estimates for, the total coral reef.
Byrne, J. E. (1962). Observations on
the behavior of parrotfishes with particular attention to the
mucous envelope. Department of Zoology . Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i.
A study summarizing the literature published on the mucous envelope formation in the parrotfish and
giving observations on the fish in Kane`ohe Bay. Observations included the effect of light, day/night
cycles, and natural over unnatural (lab) environments on the mucous envelope formation. Studies
were also done on the predator-prey relationship of the parrotfish to Mulloidichthyes samoensis,
Parupeneus porphyreus, Acanthurus sandvicensis, Parupeneus multifasciatus, Chaetodon miliaris and
Kuhlia sandvicensis. Species of parrotfish used: Scarus dubius, Scarus perspicillatus.
Byrne, J. E. (1970). "Mucous envelope formation in two species of Hawaiian parrotfishes (genus Scarus)."
Pac. Sci. 24: 490-493.
Some parrotfishes have developed a unique capacity to form a mucous envelope at night. Scarus
dubius and S. perspicillatus are two Hawaiian species that exhibit envelope-building behavior.
Laboratory experiments indicate that envelope formation is promoted by darkness, and is inhibited by
constant light. The completed envelope is a transparent, mucous cocoon surrounding the fish. A mass
of glandular tissue was found in the buccal cavity of S. dubius and S. perspicillatus. It is suggested that
this tissue is the envelope-producing gland
Campbell, L., P. et al. (1994). "Immunochemical characterization of eukaryotic ultraplankton from the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans." J. Plankton Res. 16: 35-51.
The eukaryotic algae are an important component of the ultraplankton ( <5 mu-m diameter cells) and
contribute substantially to the photosynthetic biomass of the oceans. Because of their small size,
individual species cannot be easily distinguished by traditional or epifluorescence microscopy. To
examine the composition of the eukaryotic ultraplankton assemblage, immunofluorescence probes
produced to strains thought to be representative of the ultraplankton (Emiliania huxleyi clone BT-6;
Pycnococcus provasolii clone OMEGA-48-23; Pelagococcus subviridis clone PELA CL2; Thalassiosira
oceanica clone 13-1; unidentified chlorophyte clone B6125) were used to identify and enumerate
individual cell types in samples from the North Atlantic (Gulf of Maine and adjacent slope) and the
subtropical North Pacific (Station ALOHA and Kane`ohe Bay). Emiliania huxleyi was the most
frequently recognized cell type at all sample locations throughout the euphoric zone, varying from 1 to
7% of the total eukaryotic algae. Counts include both lith-bearing and naked forms, so are the first
recorded total counts for E. huxleyi. Pycnococcus provasolii was also observed at all sampling
locations, although it appeared to be more important at offshore stations than coastal or Kane`ohe
Bay. In surface waters, where the prasinophyte marker pigment prasinoxanthin is below the level of
detection by HPLC analysis (e.g. station ALOHA), an immunofluorescence assay provides an
alternative means to quantify this cell type. Pelagococcus subviridis was observed throughout the Gulf
71
of Maine and at Station ALOHA, but was rarer (generally <1% of total counts), and it was absent or
below the limit of detection at Kane`ohe Bay. Thalassiosira oceanica was also rare in the Gulf of
Maine, where it occurred mainly in the mixed layer. The chlorophyte B6125, a subtropical isolate, was
more abundant in Kane`ohe Bay than in the Gulf of Maine. In all, only a small proportion of the total
eukaryotic algae (of which >60% were cells <3 mu-m diameter) could be accounted for by
immunofluorescently labeled cells, which suggests the presence of numerous other species and a
diverse assemblage. Moreover, the presence of cell types such as E. huxleyi in a variety of geographic
regions demonstrates the cosmopolitan nature of these ultraplankton species.
Canu, F. and R. S. Bassler (1927). "Bryozaires des Iles Hawai`i." Bull. Soc. des Sci. Nat. de Siene et Oise
ser. 2. Fasc. 8 (suppl: 1-56.
A systematic study of the bryozoans collected by the Albatross expedition from the region of the
Hawaiian Islands. Species collected in the Kane`ohe Bay area include: Fam. Escharellidae
Schizoporella crassomuralis nov. sp. Albatross Stn. 4158-36-55 m., Moku Manu; Fam. Reteporidae Rhynchozoan nudum nov. sp. Albatross stn. 4168-36-38 m., Moku Manu
Caperon, J. (1967). "Population growth in microorganisms limited by food supply." Ecology 48: 715-22.
The author suggests that the model for a number of different bacterial populations using a variety of
both energetic and substantive food as the growth-limiting factor, is widely applicable as a densitydependent growth model. Data are presented to show that it is also applicable to the unicellular alga
Isochrysis galbana, growing under limiting nitrate concentrations, and to several species of
phytoplankton growing under limiting light intensity.
Caperon, J. (1968). "Population growth response of Isochrysis galbana to nitrate variation at limiting
concentrations." Ecology 49: 866-872.
Initial uptake of nitrate by Isochrysis galbana is very rapid compared to the next synthesis step, thus
the concentration of some form of internal rather than environmental nitrogen controls growth rate
when the nitrogen supply is limiting. Under this assumption the steady-state growth rates are shown to
fit a hyperbolic curve relating growth rate to the inferred internal nitrogen concentration.
Caperon, J., S. A. Cattell et al. (1971). "Phytoplankton kinetics in a subtropical estuary: eutrophication."
Limnol. Oceanogr. 16(4): 599-607.
Kane`ohe Bay measurements of chlorophyll-a, primary productivity (14C), and nutrients (nitrate and
phosphates) were taken over a four-month period to compare with data collected a decade earlier.
The intent of this study was to investigate the enrichment effects of increased waste discharges over
this period. The south sector was found to be highest in all parameters measured. The productivity
index, however, showed no difference between sectors.
Caperon, J., W. A. Harvey et al. (1976). "Particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and chlorophyll as measures
of phytoplankton and detritus standing crops in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands." Pac. Sci. 30:
317-327.
Data are presented to show that the Kane`ohe municipal waste discharge into the southeastern corner
of Kane`ohe Bay gives rise to high concentrations of particulate organic matter and chlorophyll-a. The
data cover a period of 4.5 yr and show a continuing increase in particulate organic matter and
chlorophyll-a and a significant increase in the particulate organic N:C ratio. It is shown that regression
analyses of particulate organic C and N on chlorophyll-a can be used to estimate the phytoplankton
and the detritus C and N concentrations in surface water samples from the eutrophic southeastern
section of the bay. The differences in regression analyses results on samples from eutrophic waters as
opposed to those from oligotrophic waters are discussed.
Caperon, J. and J. Meyer (1972a). "Nitrogen-limited growth of marine phytoplankton. I. changes in
population characteristics with steady-state growth rate." Deep Sea Res. 19: 601-18.
Steady-state growth of phytoplankton in nitrate and ammonia limiting media was examined in
continuous culture experiments. Growth rate cannot be directly related to observed nutrient
concentration in a chemostat environment except perhaps in a long-term average sense. The results
are consistent with an internal reservoir nutritional mechanism. Steady-state ammonium limited
growth takes place without evidence of an internal reservoir, and nitrogen per cell remains constant
over all growth rates studied. The relative variability of population carbon, nitrogen, chlorophyll-a, cell
volume, and cell concentration with steady-state growth rate is examined in the context of using these
indicators of the physiological state of the population, rather than environmental parameters, to
determine steady-state nutrient-limited growth rate.
72
Caperon, J. and J. Meyer (1972b). "Nitrogen-limited growth of marine phytoplankton. II. uptake kinetics and
their role in nutrient limited growth of phytoplankton." Deep Sea Res. 19: 619-632.
The kinetics of nutrient uptake for nitrate ions and ammonium ions is developed for several species of
phytoplankton. A derived linear function correlating the maximum uptake rate parameter and the
preconditioning growth rate of the population, combined with the findings of part I of this study,
provides a model that relates steady-state growth rate to environmental substrate concentration.
Caperon, J., D. Schell et al. (1979). "Ammonium excretion rates in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i measured by a
15
N isotope dilution technique." Mar. Biol. 54: 33-40.
Ammonium ion uptake and excretion rates were measured in water samples taken from Kane`ohe
15
15
14
Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, by monitoring the N/( N + N) isotope ratio in dissolved ammonium ion in
15
incubated samples which had been spiked with N-labeled ammonium ion. High excretion rates
appeared to be associated with high standing crops of microzooplankton organisms passing a 0.333
mm mesh gauze), but the actual excretion was due primarily to smaller organisms (less than 0.035
mm in nominal diameter). Preliminary results indicate that excretion rates were substantially higher
during the night than during the day, and that on the average daily uptake and excretion of ammonium
ion were roughly in balance.
Carayannis, G. P. (1967). The barium content in the calcareous skeletal materials of some recent and fossil
corals of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i.
A study involving ion concentrations of the skeletal materials of some corals. Aragonite-calcite ratios
of living and fossil corals (Madreporaria) were determined with a Temp-Pres D-1, X-ray diffraction unit.
Barium content was measured with a Perkin Elmer 303 atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Calcium determinations were made with a Beckman DU flame photometer. The corals were collected
from the western side of Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay.
Caspers, H. (1980). "Fauna adapted to inhabiting the sponge Damiriana Hawaiiana in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i (Abstr.)." Int. Symp. Biol. and Manag. Mangroves and Trop. Shallow Wat. Commun. 2: 20.
Caspers, H. (1985). "The brittle star, Ophiactis savignyi (Muller & Troschel), an inhabitant of a Pacific
sponge, Damiriana Hawaiiana de Laubenfels." Echinoderms 1984-1985: 603-607.
Cass, P. H. (1967). Some aspects of the biology of the gastropod genus Hipponix on O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i,: 62.
A study examining the differences among the three subtidal, rock dwelling species of Hipponix
occurring on O`ahu, using taxonomic as well as biochemical means. Their modes of feeding and
reproduction are compared with other closely related genera. Analysis of amino acids by paper
chromatography suggested that the three species are distinct. The other methods used by the author
came to this same conclusion. The specimens were collected in Kane`ohe Bay as well as in other
areas of O`ahu.
Castro, P. (1966). Checklist of the commensal decapod crustacea of the Hawaiian Islands. Depart. Zoology.
Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 64.
A complete review of the commensal decapods of the Hawaiian Islands. In addition to the material
collected in the field, those commensal association decapods which have been reported in the
literature are also included. A total of 31 commensal is listed: 17 natantian decapods and 14
brachyurans. The commensal nature of some of these forms is in question. Madreporian corals serve
as hosts for the largest number of species. Other hosts are Echinoidea, Porifera, Asteroidea,
Pelecypoda, Antipatharia, Polycheata, Holothuroidea and Gastropoda.
Castro, P. (1969). Symbiosis between Echinoecus pentagonus (Crustacea, Brachyura) and its host in
Hawai`i, Echinothrix calamaris (Echinodea). Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 173 pp.
The symbiosis between Echinoecus pentagonus and its host in Hawai`i, the diademitid sea urchin
Echinothrix calamaris , was studied from specimens collected in Kane`ohe Bay to show how
physiological, behavioral and morphological adaptations are involved in the establishment of a
dynamic equilibrium between the partners. Male and juvenile females live on the host's peristome,
while adult females are confined to the host's rectum, where calcification of the periproct produces a
gall-like structure. The feeding habits, nutrition, physiological mechanisms, energy budget and
reproduction of the symbiotic crab are discussed in terms of the relationship to the sea urchin host.
Castro, P. (1978). "Settlement and habitat selection in the larvae of Echinoecus pentagonus (A. Milne
Edwards) a brachyuran crab symbiotic with sea urchins." J. exp mar. Biol. Ecol. 34: 259-270.
73
Habitat selection by the settling larval stage of Echinoecus pentagonus (A. Milne Edwards) collected
from Kane`ohe Bay, a crab inhabiting the rectum and peristome of sea urchins, was investigated by
analyzing orientation to the host and the factors eliciting metamorphosis in the laboratory reared
larvae. Results suggest a positive orientation to gravity and a negative response to light coupled with
a chemical reaction to host material which provide the behavioral mechanism which enables the
megalopa to find a host and establish the association.
Chadwick, N. E. (1986). Aggressive interactions of the solitary coral, Fungia scutaria (Lamarck). Coral Reef
Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i
Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHISEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 350-360.
The solitary free-living coral Fungia scutaria caused unilateral tissue damage to colonial corals in over
93% of 277 natural contacts in Hawai`i. Macroalgae overgrew and smothered F. scutaria in all 52
natural cases observed. 41% of a population of F. scutaria occurred in contact with other species of
live coral or algae with no significant difference between reefs. Th remainder of the population
occurred in the midst of monospecefic aggregations or singly on reef flats. Large F. scutaria induced
local tissue necrosis on corals in over 80% of field experimental contacts, while smaller individuals
moved away and caused significantly less damage.
Chadwick, N. E. (1988). "Competition and locomotion in a free-living fungiid coral." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.
123: 189-200.
This study examined the ecological importance and mechanisms of interspecific competitive damage
and movement by the solitary free-living coral Fungia scutaria in Kane`ohe Bay. in Hawai`i. Over 40%
of a population of F. scutaria occurred in contact with other species of live coral or algae, and F.
scutaria caused unilateral tissue damage to colonial corals in >94% of 277 natural contacts. In
contrast macroalgae overgrew and smothered F. scutaria in all cases observed. with no significant
difference between reefs. Large F. scutaria induced local tissue necrosis on corals in over 80% of
field experimental contacts, while smaller individuals moved away and caused significantly less
damage. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that long distance movement may be via passive
transport by water motion. The ability of some free living corals to actively damage or move away from
encroaching corals may be important to their survival on reefs dominated by colonial species
Chase, R. G. (1969). Some aspects of the life history of the Iao, Pranesus insularum insularum, an Hawaiian
atherinid. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 58 pp.
Description of general characteristics of the iao populations sampled in 1968-69 in the vicinity of
Coconut Island and Lilipuna dock in Kane`ohe Bay. After March 1969 most of the iao in the sampling
area disappeared, probably as result of spawning migrations.
Chave, E. H. and J. E. Maragos (1973). A history of the Kane`ohe Bay region. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay. S. V.
Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Seagrant.
Chavez, E. M. (1986). Gametogenesis and origin of planulae in the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept.
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 193-205.
Three colonies of Pocillopora damicornis were tagged on the reef flat of a fringing reef in Kane`ohe
Bay, sampled every 2-3 days in summer 1983 and prepared for histological study. The ability of single
colonies and single polyps to produce larvae over a period of two consecutive monthly cycles is
described.
Cheroske, A. G., S. L. Williams et al. (1996). "The effects of physical disturbance on Hawaiian algal turf
communities (Abstr.)." Ann. Benthic Ecology Meeting, 7-10 Mar 1996: 26.
Biological disturbance (herbivory) commonly controls coral reef algal communities. However, in coral
reef environments that are, for example, high-energy or overfished, physical disturbance may also
control algal communities. On a reef flat (Kane`ohe Bay, HI), algae growing on rubble were subjected
to 3 levels of experimental tumbling (0, ambient, 3x), a disturbance that clearly is evident in the bay.
After 3 months, algal biomass was significantly reduced by 16% between the non-tumbling and
ambient treatments and disturbance-tolerant turfs and crusts were more prevalent on less disturbed
rubble. Turfs were also the most abundant algal functional form in Kane`ohe Bay. Water flow
measurements over the reef flat correlated positively with rubble tumbling rates, linking large-scale,
oceanic processes with small-scale disturbance patterns. This study is one of the first demonstrating
that chronic physical disturbance can control coral reef algal communities.
74
Chiappa, C. X., C. M. Gallardo et al. (1996). "Feeding behavior of the Hawaiian anchovy Encrasicholina
purpurea Fowler (Pisces: Engraulidae) in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Ciencias Marinas 22: 73-89.
In this paper, data on growth of the encephalon, sense organs and other feeding-related structures in
Encrasicholina purpurea are analyzed. Allometric indexes of length of the different parts of the
encephalon in relation to standard length (SL) were obtained. Growth of ocular lenses is isometric in
organisms less than 25 mm SL, whereas positive allometric values were obtained for individuals 25+
mm SL. Growth of pectoral fins showed a similar pattern. During the life history of this species, visual
perception is more important than olfactory sense for prey detection. Only larvae display filter-feeding,
while adults feed through deglutition and biting.
Chu, G. W. T. C. (1952). "First report of the presence of a dermatitis-producing marine larval schistosome in
Hawai`i." Science 115: 151-153.
A description of a larval schistosome tentatively identified as Cercaria littorinalinae from marine snails,
Littorina pintado Wood collected from Moku Manu (Bird Island) near Kane`ohe, O`ahu.
Clark, A. H. (1949). "Ophiuroidea of the Hawaiian Islands." Bishop Mus. Bull. 195: 1-133.
A taxonomic study of the ophiuroids from the Hawaiian Islands based primarily upon the collections by
the Albatross in 1902. Records of collections from Kane`ohe Bay (with date of collection): Ophiactis
savignyi (Muller and Troschel) (1933 and 1942) Ophiactis modesta Brock (1933). The author includes
a list of species taken in shore collecting but rather than listing the species from the various localities,
they are all presented as the Hawaiian collection.
Clark, H. L. (1925). "Echinoderms other than sea stars." Bishop Mus. Bull. 27: 89-111.
A report on the echinoderms other than sea stars collected by the Tanager Expedition. The collection
is now housed in the Bishop Museum.
Clarke, T. A. (1971). "The ecology of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini in Hawai`i." Pac.
Sci. 25: :133-44.
Kane`ohe Bay is a pupping ground for the scalloped hammerhead shark. This investigation found the
pups to be most abundant between April and October. While in the bay for a maximum of three to four
months, the pups stay in the most turbid areas by day and move out at night to reef areas where they
feed on reef fishes and crustaceans. As many as 10,000 pups per year pass through Kane`ohe Bay.
Except during the delivery and breeding season -April to October- stomach contents indicate that adult
hammerheads are pelagic.
Clarke, T. A. (1973). Fishes of the open water. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: A Reef System Under Stress. S. V.
Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i, Sea Grant. UNIHI-SEAGRANTTR-72-01: 99-100.
Brief description of the common pelagic fish species found in Kane`ohe Bay, based on observations
and anecdotal reports.
Clarke, T. A. (1976). Fishes of the open waters of Kane`ohe Bay, App. 2.6 Kane`ohe Bay Water Resources
Data Evaluation: 207-234.
Clarke, T. A. (1989). "Seasonal differences in spawning, egg size and early development time of the
Hawaiian anchovy or nehu, Encrasicholina pupurea." Fish. Bull.
Detailed information is given on the factors affecting spawning and development success for the
Hawaiian anchovy, Encrasicholina pupurea. All material was collected form Kane`ohe Bay in ca. 1988.
Clarke, T. A. (1992). "Egg abundance and spawning biomass of the Hawaiian anchovy or Nehu,
Encrasicholina purpurea, during 1984-1988 in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 46: 325-343.
In Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i (USA), nehu (Hawaiian anchovy, Encrasicholina purpurea) eggs were found
primarily in areas where water depth was greater than 10-12 m and were infrequently encountered
near reefs, shorelines, or other shallow areas. Eggs were usually most abundant near the centers of
one or both of the two large basins; the more enclosed southern basin usually accounted for the
majority of the total eggs present. Nehu eggs were present throughout the year, but abundance was
usually higher between July and February or March. There was considerable shorter time-scale
variation in egg abundance, but there was no apparent underlying periodicity other than the annual
cycle. Egg abundance was poorly correlated with measured environmental factors; the only potential
relationship was that abundance tended to be low during the season of strong northeast trade winds.
Egg abundance in Kane`ohe Bay was poorly correlated with abundance in Pearl Harbor, Hawai`i, the
75
other major area where nehu are found. Total numbers of eggs present in Kane`ohe Bay reached
about 10-9 during peaks.
Clarke, T. A. (1996). "Reproductive biology and egg abundance of the yellowtail scad or Omaka, Atule mate
(Carangidae), in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 50: 93-107.
Yellowtail scad or 'omaka, Atule mate (Cuvier & Valenciennes), spawn mostly between March and
September or October, but there is considerable interannual variation in length of the season and egg
density in Kane'ohe Bay. Spawning occurs principally in open areas of the bay, with highest egg
abundances in the southern section. Almost all adult 'omaka taken in the bay were reproductively
active. More than two-thirds were males, which also routinely reached sizes larger than the largest
female. Sex ratio and proportion of impending or recent spawners among females differed between
day and night samples; all females in day samples were actively spawning. Adults probably move into
the bay only for spawning and thus represent a biased sample of the sex ratio and spawning frequency
of the population associated with the bay at any given time. Batch fecundity of females 188-232 mm
standard length ranged from 63,000 to 161,000; mean relative fecundity was 741 eggs per gram. The
standing stock of 'omaka associated with the bay during the peak spawning season is probably at least
800-1600 kg or 5000-10,000 adults. Current annual catch of 'omaka in the bay is a large fraction of the
estimated standing stock, but the latter could be much higher if spawning frequency were
underestimated or individual fish did not spawn throughout the entire season.
Clarke, T. A. (1987). "Fecundity and spawning frequency of the Hawaiian anchovy or nehu, Encrasicholina
purpurea." U.S. Fish Wild. Serv. Fish. Bull 85: 127-138.
Female nehu (E. purpurea ) can begin spawning at 35 mm standard length; almost all fish over 40 mm
SL from Kane`ohe Bay were mature and in spawning condition. Mature females were found in all
months of the year. Females from summer (May-October) had higher fecundity and relative cost per
batch than fish from winter (November-April). In nehu and most other anchovies, fecundity appears to
increase exponentially with weight. Nehu appear to be distinguished from other species by a higher
exponent and consequently greater increase in relative fecundity over the reproductive size range.
Nehu spawn during a short period 1 or 2 hours after sunset and begin hydrating ova only a few hours
before spawning. Data on presence or absence of hydrated ova or postovulatory follicles along with
differences in oocyte size in fish collected from throughout the diel cycle indicated that, after spawning,
nehu can ripen a new batch of oocytes in 2 days and that most females spawn every other day.
45
Clausen, C. D. (1971). Effects of temperature on the rate of calcium uptake by Pocillopora damicornis.
Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, University
of Hawai`i Press: 246-59.
Most of the data obtained was from samples taken at the end of three- and six-hour incubation periods
45
at Kane`ohe Bay and Eniwetok Atoll. The amount of Ca incorporated per hour was calculated and
these rates were plotted against temperature. Rates based on samples taken after a three hour
incubation were consistently higher at all temperatures than those taken after six hours, indicating an
45
apparent decrease in the rate of Ca incorporated with increasing incubation. The patterns of the
45
curves, however, were similar for both incubation periods. The rate at which Ca was incorporated
increased exponentially with temperature from 12 deg whereas at 30 deg C it was again lower.
Clausen, C. D. (1972). Factors affecting calcification process in the hermatypic corals Pocillopora
damicornis and Porites compressa. Dept. of Biology. Los Angeles, Loma Linda Univ.: 95 pp.
The effects of temperature and temperature acclimation on calcification in two coral species,
o
Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa, were studied. P. damicornis showed both a 27 C and
o
a 31 C temperature optimum, one or the other being dominant depending on the natural water
temperature to which the coral was adapted. P. compressa may also have two optima, but the data
are inconclusive. The optimum temperatures may indicate two isoenzymes or two alternative
metabolic pathways for the calcification process.
Clausen, C. D. and A. A. Roth (1975). "Effect of temperature and temperature adaptation on calcification
rate in the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis." Mar. Bio. 33: 93-100.
45
Using Ca incorporation into the coral skeleton as a measure of calcification rate, the effect of
temperature on calcification rate was studied in the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis.
Temperature has a marked effect on rate - an effect that varies depending on the temperature history
of the coral. P. damicornis showed both 27 and 31 C temperature optima, one or the other being
dominant depending on the natural water temperature to which the coral was adapted. The two
optimum temperatures may indicate two isoenzymes or two alternate metabolic pathways involved in
the calcification process. This research was conducted in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i and at
76
Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands.
Clutter, R. I. (1973). Plankton ecology. Estuarine pollution in the State of Hawai`i, Vol. 2: Kane`ohe Bay
study, final report. D. C. e. a. Cox. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i, Water Resources Research Center. 2:
187-213.
This study includes density, distribution, and diversity data for Kane`ohe Bay phytoplankton,
microplankton, and macroplankton during the period of July 1968 to May 1969. These data are used
to define similarities and differences in plankton populations in the various sectors of Kane`ohe Bay
and to determine whether pollution has measurably affected the plankton community. Stressed
conditions in the southern sector are evidenced by decreasing diversity, altered ecosystem structure,
and decreasing plankton population stability.
Coles, S. L. (1973). Some effects of temperature and related physical factors on Hawaiian reef corals. Dept.
of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 33 pp.
The effects of temperature on photosynthesis and respiration on four species of corals and of the
combined effects of temperature, salinity and light on various physiological functions of Montipora
verrucosa were investigated. Corals were collected from reefs in Kane`ohe Bay in 1970-71.
Photosynthesis:respiration ratios showed significant decreases with increasing temperature for all four
species, and coral growth and physiological functions were optimal was optimum at temperature
approximating annual summer ambient maxima.
Coles, S. L. (1992). "Experimental comparison of salinity tolerances of reef corals from the Arabian gulf and
Hawai`i. Evidence for hyperhaline adaptation." Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp. 1: 227-238.
The world-wide salinity tolerance of reef corals ranges considerably above and below the average
salinity of open ocean seawater. Experiments in the Arabian Gulf and Hawai`i (specimens collected
from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu) determined whether salinity tolerances of corals are altered by their
, which produced bleaching and
salinity history. The lowest salinity tolerated by Gulf corals was 23 
partial mortality, compared to survival in good condition in Hawai`i at 20 
for P. compressa and at
for Hawai`i P. damicornis and M. verrucosa. Acclimation experiments did not elevate the upper
25 
, but lower tolerance could be altered to a level
salinity tolerance of Gulf P. compressa above 49 
comparable to Porites in Hawai`i.
Coles, S. L. and P. L. Jokiel (1977). "Effects of temperature on photosynthesis and respiration in hermatypic
corals." Mar. Biol. 43(3): 209-216.
Photosynthesis and respiration rates of the reef corals Pocillopora damicornis (Linn.), Montipora
verrucosa (Lamarck) Porites compressa Dana and Fungia scutaria Lamarck were measured under
controlled temperature conditions for specimens collected from Kane`ohe Bay and Enewetak in 197071 . Results indicate that coral metabolism is closely adapted to ambient temperature conditions.
Tropical corals measured at Enewetak showed greater primary production compared to maintenance
requirements at elevated temperatures than did subtropical varieties of the same species in Hawai`i.
o
P:R ratios were significantly and negatively related with temperature between 18 and 31 C for all
Hawaiian corals, whereas at Enewetak this ratio generally showed a curvilinear relationship for this
o
temperature range. Extrapolation of P:R ratios for Enewetak specimens at temperatures above 25 C
o
suggests lethal temperature for these corals to be 2-5 C higher than for Hawaiian corals, in good
agreement with experimental findings for temperature tolerance.
Coles, S. L. and P. L. Jokiel (1978). "Synergistic effects of temperature, salinity and light on the hermatypic
coral Montipora verrucosa." Mar. Biol. 49: 187-195.
Temperature tolerance in a number of light and salinity regimes was measured for the reef coral
Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck) collected from Kane`ohe Bay in 1972. Results indicate that tolerance
is affected by salinity and light. Low salinity reduces the ability of the corals to survive short term
exposure to elevated temperature, and high natural light intensity aggravates damage sustained by
corals at high and low temperature. In long term growth experiments high light intensity caused
substantial loss of zooxanthellar pigment, higher mortality rates, reduced carbon fixation and lowered
growth rates at optimal temperatures at both upper and lower sublethal temperatures. Interactions
between physical environmental factors appears to be most important near the limits of tolerance for a
given factor. Acclimation capability was indicated, and was influenced by both thermal history and
pigmentation state of stressed corals.
Coles, S. L., P. L. Jokiel et al. (1976). "Thermal tolerance in tropical versus subtropical Pacific reef corals."
Pac. Sc. 30: 159-166.
Upper lethal temperature tolerances of reef corals collected in 1974 in Kane`ohe Bay and at Enewetak,
77
Marshall Islands were determined in the field and under controlled laboratory conditions. Enewetak
o
o
corals survived in situ temperatures of nearly 34 C, whereas 32 C was lethal to Hawaiian corals for
similar short term exposures. Laboratory determinations indicate the upper thermal limits of Hawaiian
o
corals are approximately 2 C less than congeners from the tropical Pacific, corresponding to
differences in the ambient temperatures between the geographic areas.
Coles, S. L. and L. Ruddy (1995). "A comparison of water quality and reef coral mortality and growth in
southeast Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, 1990 to 1992 with pre-sewage diversion conditions." Pac.
Sci. 49(3): 247-265.
Growth and mortality of the three dominant coral species occurring in Kane'ohe Bay were determined
for four periods from November 1991 to January 1993 at four stations in the bay's southeast basin.
Twelve water quality parameters were monitored biweekly to monthly at these stations from November
1991 to August 1992. Both water quality measurements and coral survival and growth indicated
considerable improvement to conditions that prevailed when treated sewage was discharged into this
area of Kane'ohe Bay. Mean concentrations for orthophosphate, nitrite + nitrate, ammonia, and
chlorophyll a, and mean values for light extinction and sedimentation were significantly less than those
measured during time of sewage discharge in 1976-1977. Means of all of these except orthophosphate
were not significantly different from means measured in 1978-1979 during the first year after sewage
diversion. Mean orthophosphate concentration was approximately double the mean of the first year
after diversion, and this increase may relate to increased abundances of the green macroalgae
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forskal) Boergesen that have been observed in this section of the bay in
recent years. Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck) survived and grew well throughout the study period at all
four stations, including stations in areas where rapid mortality and minimal growth occurred for this
species in 1969-1971. The other two species, Porites compressa Dana and Pocillopora damicornis
(Linnaeus), showed different survival and growth patterns according to station location. Most rapid
mortality and lowest growth generally occurred for P. compressa at the station most affected by land
runoff in the southernmost section of the bay. However, the major cause of early mortality and poor
growth of Porites compressa at that location was the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae (Bergh), which
rapidly consumed tissues of corals transplanted to that station, suggesting that predators that control
P. sibogae parasitism elsewhere in the bay are absent from that area. Pocillopora damicornis survival
and growth declined at all stations throughout the study, and this species may have been affected by
fish predation. Growth of M. verrucosa and P. damicornis showed significant positive relationships with
water turbidity values within a range of up to ca. 1.0 NTU.
Coles, S. L. and R. Strathmann (1973). "Observations on coral mucus "flocs" and their potential trophic
significance." Limnol. Oceanog. 18(4): 673-678.
Suspended mucus "flocs" were sampled selectively at Hawai`i and Eniwetok and analyzed for
particulate carbon and nitrogen. Visible mucus flocs contain significant quantities of organic matter
compared to microscopic suspended particle concentrations in the surrounding water. C:N ratios
suggest that suspended mucus "flocs" are enriched with nitrogen compared to more recently secreted
coral mucus or microscopic particulate organic matter.
35
Cook, C. B. (1971). Transfer of S-Labeled material from food ingested by Aiptasia sp. to it's endosymbiotic
zooxanthellae. Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis.
Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press: 218-224.
This report contains my preliminary results, a discussion of the pitfalls in this type of research, and
suggestions regarding other approaches to problems of animal-to-alga transfer of materials.
Specimens of Aiptasia sp. were collected from masses of the siphonaceous green alga Dictyosphaeria
intermedia growing on reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Cook, S. B. (1969). "Experiments on homing in the limpet Siphonaria normalis." Anim. Behav. 17(4): 679682.
In this paper I describe the homing cycle of Siphonaria normalis, the common pulmonate limpet found
in the Hawaiian Islands. Given are the results of rock rotation experiments which tested the role of
navigation by distant clues in homing and the results of displacement experiments performed to
determine if dead-reckoning is necessary for limpet homing. The animals used in this study live on
rocks in the intertidal zone of the outer shore of Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Cooke, W. J. (1976). Reproduction, growth and some tolerances of Zoanthus pacificus and Palythoa
vestitus in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Coelentrate Ecology and Behavior. G. O. Mackie. New York,
Plenum.
Study of the reproductive biology of Zoanthus pacificus and Palythoa vestitus collected in Kane`ohe
78
Bay from the reef on the northeast side of Coconut Island in ca. 1975.
Cooke, W. J. (1977). Cnidaria (Colenterata) Class Hydrozoa. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i. Section 1:
Protozoa through Ctenophora. D. M. Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Honolulu, Bishop Museum press. B.
P. Museum Spec. Publ. 64(1): 70-104.
Description and taxonomic revision of hydrozoans for Hawai`i, including those collected by author in
early 1970s in Kane`ohe Bay.
Cooke, W. J. (1984). "New scyphozoan record for Hawai`i: Anomalorhiza shawi Light, 1921, and
Thysanostoma loriferum (Ehrenberg, 1835); with notes on several other rhizostomes." Proc. Biol. Soc.
Wash. 97: 583-588.
Cooke, W. J., J. G. Grovhoug et al. (1980). A survey of marine borer activity in Hawaiian nearshore waters:
Effects of environmental conditions and epifauna. 5th Int. Cong. Mar. Corrosion & Fouling, Graficas
Orbe, Madrid.
Test exposures were conducted at various locations around the island of O`ahu, Hawai`i, to investigate
the relationship of wood boring activity to environmental factors and surface epifaunal fouling. Data
were collected from various field sites, exposures in a flow-through seawater microcosm facility, and
drift wood borer communities. All test exposures were unpainted blocks of Douglas fir exposed for
periods of 3-6 months in the field, and for one year in the experimental facility. Wide variation was
found in borer activity between the various sites, even those less than 3000 meters apart in the same
3
bay. Densities of teredinid borers ranged from 0 per block to about 6000/block (1 per 0.2 cm ). At
locations in Pearl Harbor and Kane`ohe Bay, reductions in borer activity were associated with
epifaunal communities consisting of compound tunicates and tubicolous polychaetes. The results of
this study show that borer and surface epifaunal populations do interact with each other, and the
amount and kind of surface fouling can reduce borer activity.
Cooney, T. D. (1973). Yolk sac stage energetics of the larvae of three Hawaiian fishes. Dept. Of
Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 57 pp.
The energetics of yolk sac stage larvae of Caranx mate, Etrumeus micropus and Abudefduf
abdominalis sampled from Kane`ohe bay were investigated under laboratory rearing conditions at
o
24 C. Although the results do not support the existence of a physiological "critical period" at the time
of yolk depletion, there exists a possibility of high mortality resulting from the switch from endogenous
to exogenous food sources in the period following yolk depletion.
Cordover, R. D. (1975). Aspects of the natural history of the Hawaiian marine shrimp, Penaeus marginatus.
Dept. Of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 36 pp.
Adult and juvenile P. marginatus were studied in their deep water and nearshore environments at
O`ahu, Hawai`i. General ecology and life history data are reported. Weekly sampling with a seine were
taken at several study sites along the perimeter of Kane`ohe Bay.
Corn, C. (1967). Interim Report (as of January 1967) on the distribution and ecology of the family Ostreidae,
in Kane`ohe Bay. Honolulu, KB Collection: 23.
A progress report and proposal for research concerning oysters in Kane`ohe Bay. Included is a
taxonomic key for identification of species as well as a summary of the distribution of each species in
the bay.
Cox, D. C., P. F. Fan et al. (1974). Estuarine pollution in the State of Hawai'i. Volume 2: Kane`ohe Bay
Study, University of Hawai`i, Water Resources Research Center, Manoa: 444.
Cox, E. F. (1983). Aspects of corallivory by Chaetodon unimaculatus in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Dept. of
Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 60.
Interactions between a corallivore, Chaetodon unimaculatus, and the two dominant coral species in
Kane`ohe Bay were investigated. Because of its selective feeding, C. unimaculatus appears to have a
significant effect on the growth and distribution of its preferred coral species, M. verrucosa.
Cox, E. F. (1986). The effects of predation on growth and competition in the corals Montipora verrucosa and
Porites compressa. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers.
Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i, Haw. Institute of Marine Biology. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant
Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 321-329.
Experiments evaluated the effects of predation by a selective corallivore (the one spot butterflyfish
Chaetodon unimaculatus) on Porites compressa. Caged colonies of M. verrucosa had a vertical growth
79
-3
-1
rate of 9.71x10 cm d . Uncaged colonies of this species that were exposed to predation had a
-3
-1
vertical growth rate of only 3.92x10 cm d .
In the caged treatments M. verrucosa killed and
overgrew P. compressa tissue, as predicted from laboratory experiments. In the uncaged pairs
however, several colonies showed a reversal of dominance, with P. compressa killing branches of M.
verrucosa.
Cox, E. F. (1986). "The effects of a selective corallivore on growth rates and competition for space between
two species of Hawaiian corals." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 101: 161-174.
Cox, E. F. (1991). Interactions between trophic levels on coral reefs: scleractinian corals and corallivorous
butterflyfishes in Hawai`i. Dept. of Biology. Albuquerque, Univ. Of New Mexico: 123 pp.
Resource use by coral-feeding butterflyfishes was studied at six sites in the Hawaiian islands,
including one site in Kane`ohe Bay. There was little diet overlap between the specialist species
Chaetodon unimaculatus and the generalist species Chaeatodon multicinctus, C. ornatissimus and C.
trifasciatus. Although there was high diet overlap between the generalist species, C. multicinctus
showed a strong feeding preference for the coral Pocillopora meandrina. C. ornatissimus fed on corals
roughly in proportion to their abundance, and C. trifasciatus, contrary to laboratory feeding preferences
shown for pocilloporid and montiporid corals, fed on Porites in the field. The specialist C.
unimaculatus, preferred Montipora spp. at all sites, and there was no correlation between overall
butterflyfish densities and coral cover at these sites.
Cox, E. F. (1992). "Fragmentation in the Hawaiian coral Montipora verrucosa." Proc. Seventh Intern. Coral
Reef Symp, Guam 1: 513-516.
Cox, E. F. and S. W. Ward (1998). Effects of ammonium enrichment on reproduction in two Hawaiian corals,
Montipora verrucosa and Pocillopora damicornis. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp
and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 61.
Colonies of Montipora verrucosa and Pocillopora damicornis were collected in early March 1997 from
the perimeter of Checker Reef in Kane`ohe Bay. Colonies were distributed among 6 microcosm tanks,
with 3 tanks randomly assigned to an ammonium enrichment treatment. Ammonium sulfate was
dripped into tanks beginning in April 1997 and spawning of M. verrucosa was monitored during June,
July, and August. There were no differences in the number of eggs per bundle or fertilization success
between control and treated colonies. There was a significant decrease in mean egg size (control: 429
m, SD=16, n=12 colonies; treatment: 408 m, SD=14, n=8 colonies) and a trend towards increased
chlorophyll per egg. Total fecundity was highly variable. With removal of one outlier colony in the
nutrient treatment, there was a trend towards reduced fecundity in the treated colonies. Planulation in
P. damicornis was assessed following the full moon in July. Controls released significant numbers of
planulae, but nutrient treated colonies did not release any planulae. Planulae collected from control
colonies settled equally well in aquaria containing seawater enriched with ammonium sulfate as in
aquaria with just seawater. There were no differences in short term survival of planula with or without
nutrient enrichment. Nutrient enrichment was ended 15 November 1997, and planulation monitored on
the following full moon periods. No planulation in nutrient treated colonies was observed until the full
moon of March 1998 when 5 of 6 previously nutrient enriched colonies released small numbers of
viable planulae.
Cox, W. W. (1971). The relation of temperature to calcification in Montipora verrucosa. Dept. of Biology. Los
Angeles, Loma Linda Univ.: 29 pp.
45
Various test indicate that inorganic exchange between labeled Ca and unlabeled calcium is not a
significant factor affecting experiments using this isotope in measurements of coral calcification. Tests
o
o
run at temperatures from 17 C to 34 C indicate that the optimum temperature for this species sampled
o
from Kane`ohe Bay is around 30 C.
Cross, R. R. (1968). "Introduced shells not to be collected." Hawaiian Shell News 16: 7.
Cuttress, C. E. (1977). Subclass Zoantharia. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i. Section 1: Protozoa through
Ctenophora. D. M. Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Honolulu, Bishop Museum press. B. P. Museum
Spec. Publ. 64(1): 130-147.
Description and taxonomic revision of zoantharians for Hawai`i, including those collected or observed
by author in Kane`ohe Bay.
Dade, W. and B. T. Honkalehto (1986). Bryozoan assemblages in modern coral reefs of Kane`ohe Bay.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers. Kane`ohe, Univ. of
80
Hawai`i, Haw. Institute of Marine Biology. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept.
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 35-51.
Environmental preferences of the 57 bryozoan species collected in Kane`ohe Bay indicate three
distinct assemblages. Observed species distributions reflect not only availability of substrate but also
changes in environmental factors with depth and distance from shore. Centers of abundance and
diversity are limited to coral and bedrock dominated habitats of reef environments, and bryozoans are
virtually absent from sand dominated environments.
Dade, W. and B. T. Honkalehto (1986). Common ectoproct bryozoans of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Coral Reef
Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers. Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i, Haw.
Institute of Marine Biology. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHISEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 52-65.
A catalog of short descriptions and illustrations of 57 species of bryozoans collected during summer
1983 in Kane`ohe Bay. Classification is based on colony form, degree of calcification and shape of
zooecial aperature.
Dall, W. H., P. Bartsch et al. (1938). "A manual of the recent and fossil marine pelecypod mollusks of the
Hawaiian Islands." Bishop Mus. Bull. 153.
A study of recent and fossil marine pelecypods including a taxonomic discussion and a discussion of
the two theories of organism establishment on the Hawaiian Islands: the drift theory versus the larval
swimming theory.
Danforth, C. G. (1970). "Epicaridea (Isopoda) of Hawai`i." Bull. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci. 69: 27-31.
A description of a new form of the Bopyrid Ionella murchisoni n. sp. This is the sixth species of
parasitic isopod in the Epicaridea suborder to be reported from the State of Hawai`i and is the first of
this genus to be found outside of Chile. The isopod was found in Kane`ohe Bay on Sand Island in the
right gill chamber of the host shrimp Callianassa sp.
Danilowicz, B. S. (1995). The origin of recruitment pulses in the Hawaiian damselfish Dascyllus albisella
(Abstr.). Twenty Third Benthic Ecology Meeting, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers Inst. Marine Coastal
Sciences.
The distance reef fish larvae before recruitment is under debate: do larvae recruit to their natal reefs,
or do they disperse and recruit to distant reefs? The degree of localized recruitment in D. albisella was
tested by monitoring spawning and recruitment daily and weekly in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, in 1992.
Spawning dates of recruits were back-calculated using otolith rings. No evidence for localized
recruitment was found, as spawning and back-calculated spawning of recruits did not overlap on a
daily or seasonal basis. Recruitment occurred in distinct pulses from January through July, and these
events were highly correlated with peaks in water
temperature. Given the seasonal changes in
oceanic currents in the islands, recruitment pulses in this species were likely to originate from distinct
spawning episodes occurring at upcurrent.
Danilowicz, B. S. (1997). "The effects of age and size on habitat selection during settlement of a
damselfish." Environ. Biol. Fishes 50: 257-265.
The adults of many coral reef fish species are site-attached, and their habitat is selected at the time of
settlement by their larvae. The length of the planktonic larval period varies both intra- and
interspecifically, and it is unknown how the age and size of larvae may affect their selection of habitat.
To investigate the influence of age and size on habitat selection, I collected newly settled Hawaiian
domino damselfish, Dascyllus albisella, daily from grids containing three coral species at four locations
in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. I recorded the coral species each fish was collected on, and
measured and aged (by otoliths) the collected fish. The results indicate that the coral Pocillopora
meandrina was selected by settling fish significantly more than the other two coral species. Younger
and smaller larvae selected this coral species more frequently than older/larger larvae. In addition,
younger/smaller individuals were found more commonly inside the bay than older/larger settling larvae.
Differences in the choice of coral species and location of settlement may be partly due to ontogenetic
differences in the sensory capacities of larvae to detect corals, conspecifics, and predators, or to a
larval competency period.
Danilowicz-Bret, S. (1997.). "A potential mechanism for episodic recruitment of a coral reef fish." Ecology 78:
1415-1423.
Most marine animals have complex life histories with dispersive larvae. Recruitment to marine
populations should then result from larval production external to each population (i.e., an open
population). However, it has been suggested that self-recruitment to these populations may also be
81
important (i.e., a closed system). The contribution of these two sources of larval supply to recruitment
were explored using the Hawaiian domino damselfish, Dascyllus albisella. Spawning and recruitment
were monitored daily and weekly in the southeast section of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, during
1992. Daily increment formation in the otoliths of this species was validated, and the spawning dates
of arriving recruits were back-calculated using otolith rings. Since this section of Kane`ohe Bay is
sheltered, with a water exchange rate of only 26% per day, I predicted larvae would be retained
(passively and behaviorally) after hatching; therefore recruitment from locally spawned larvae would be
important. Contrary to my prediction, no self-recruitment was evident. Spawning times and backcalculated production of recruits did not overlap on a daily or seasonal basis. During the first half of the
year, recruitment pulses were large and associated with rises in water temperature. During the latter
half of the year, recruitment rates were lower and recruitment events were not associated with water
temperature. Given the apparent absence of self recruitment and the seasonal pattern of
oceanographic currents in the Hawaiian Islands, recruitment episodes in the, first half of the year may
have originated from distinct reproductive episodes at upcurrent islands. Recruitment episodes in the
latter half of the year may have resulted from a general increase in D. albisella spawning external to
Kane`ohe Bay.
Davis, K. K. (1971). The levels of residual chlorine in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i and the effects of
residual chlorine on coral planulae. Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 62.
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of chlorine present in the field and the effects of
chlorine on coral planulae. The field studies consisted of measuring the chlorine concentration of
seawater from the vicinity of two sewer outfalls in southern Kane`ohe Bay. Water samples were
collected from the surface boils in dark glass bottles. Subsurface samples were collected with a Van
Doren water sampler. Laboratory studies involved determining the lethal and sublethal effects of
different concentrations of hypochlorite solutions for various time periods on the planulae.
Davis, L. V. (1967). "The suppression of autotomy in Linckia multiflora (Lamarck) by a parasitic gastropod,
Stylifer linckiae Sarasin." Veliger 9: 343-346.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay, with specimens collected in
Kane`ohe Bay, investigating the host-parasite relationship of L. multiflora and S. linckiae. In this
relationship, the gastropod reduces the high rate of spontaneous autotomy of the arms of the starfish.
de Laubenfels, M. W. (1950). "The sponges of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu." Pac. Sci. 4(1): 3-36.
A taxonomic study of the sponges in Kane`ohe Bay especially in the vicinity of Coconut Island. About
a dozen species were common, another dozen were rare. The more common species of sponges of
Kane`ohe Bay are described and a key is provided for their identification.
de Laubenfels, M. W. (1957). "New species and records of Hawaiian sponges." Pac. Sci. 11: 1-236.
A paper based oh three years of taxonomic study of the Hawaiian sponges. Myxilla rosacea
(Lieberkuhn) Schmidt found in Kane`ohe Bay was previously described in de Laubenfels, 1950.
Deardorff, T. L. (1987). " Redescription of Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii (Johnston and Mawson, 1951)
(Nematoda: Anisakidae), with comments on species in Pulchrascaris and Terranova." Proc.
Helmintholog. Soc. Wash 54: 28-39.
Deardorff, T. L. a. S., F. G. (1983). "Nematode-induced abdominal distention in the Hawaiian puffer fish,
Canthigaster jactator (Jenkins)." Pac. Sci. 37: 45-48.
A heavy infection in the body cavity of two sharp-nosed puffer fish, C. jactator , by a nematode,
Philometra sp., is reported. The large number and size of the nematodes caused a conspicuous
protrusion of the abdomen in both fish. Other infected specimens of C. jactator were observed in the
waters of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
D'Elia, C. F. (1977). "Uptake and release of dissolved phosphorus by reef corals." Limnol. Oceanog. 22(2):
301-315.
The fluxes of dissolved reactive, organic, and total phosphorus into and out of non-feeding corals were
measured by chemical and radiochemical techniques. A net uptake of reactive phosphorus from
seawater by corals containing zooxanthellae was not, at typical ambient phosphorus levels, sufficient
to offset simultaneous losses of organic P. Although the symbiotic corals tested cannot obtain all of
the phosphorus they require by means of reactive phosphorus uptake at typical environmental
concentrations, the ability of corals to obtain part of it in this manner, and the presence of mechanisms
for efficient recycling of phosphorus within the symbiotic association, may help enable corals to flourish
in waters low in phosphorus sources.
82
Demartini, E. E., F. A. Parrish et al. (1996). "Barotrauma-associated regurgitation of food: Implications for
diet studies of Hawaiian pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus (family Lutjanidae)." USNMFS Bull.
94: 250-256.
Juvenile (128-244 mm fork length) pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, were caught by hook
and line from 60-90 m depths offshore of Kane`ohe Bay, windward O`ahu, Hawai`i, during FebruaryAugust 1994. About one-half of the 180 specimens were intercepted by scuba divers 15-18 m below
the sea surface and individually "bagged" live before they were retrieved for the remaining distance to
the surface. The other half were retrieved directly by fishing line to the surface ("unbagged"); these
latter fish thus remained at a continual risk of prey loss from regurgitation while they were stressed by
the full extent of pressure change. The retained stomach contents of bagged and unbagged fish were
compared on the basis of volume and type of food -and on the size of individual prey items. Bagged
samples of juvenile snapper on average retained a 116% (95% CI=70-157%) greater volume of prey
than unbagged snapper; bagged snapper also had more types and greater maximum body sizes of
prey than did unbagged fish. These results are discussed in terms of designing quantitative diet
studies for juvenile snapper and other deep-water physoclistous fishes.
Devaney, D. M. (1967). "An ectocommensal polynoid associated with Indo-Pacific echinoderms, primarily
ophiuroids." Occ. Pap. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 23: 287-304.
A commensal polynoid from Hawai`i and other Pacific localities is described and identified as
Hololepidella nigropunctata. The generic status of Hololepidella is reviewed and two additional
morphological features are considered as possible criteria for separating this genus from other
polynoid genera. The polynoid is very commonly associated with the brittlestar Ophiocoma dentata
and less frequently with O. brevipes and O. erinaceus in Hawaiian waters. Biological observations
indicates the following: Only single individuals are found on ophiuroid hosts, but more than one have
been recovered from the asteroid, Acanthaster planci.
Devaney, D. M. (1968). The systematics and post-larval growth changes in ophiocomid brittlestars. Depart.
Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 292.
A comprehensive review of the subfamily Ophiocominae in terms of its systematic structure. This
study involved: (a) determining the extent and the limitations of genera and species concept and (b)
analyzing the phylogenetic relationships more thoroughly. These two points are realized through new
interpretation of taxonomic criteria, some presented for the first time, according to the author.
Numerous collections were made on O`ahu - Ophiocoma pica Muller and Troschel was found in
Kane`ohe Bay. A representative series of specimens were given by the author to the Hawai`i Institute
of Marine Biology, Coconut Island.
Devaney, D. M. and L. G. Eldredge (1977). Class Scyphozoa. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i. Section 1:
Protozoa through Ctenophora. D. M. Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Honolulu, Bishop Museum press. B.
P. Museum Spec. Publ. 64(1): 108-118.
Description and taxonomic revision of hydrozoans for Hawai`i, including those collected by author in
early 1970s in Kane`ohe Bay.
Devaney, D. M., M. Kelly et al. (1976). Kane`ohe: a history of change (1778-1950). Honolulu, U. Army Corps
of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division: 271.
Comprehensive and richly illustrated compendium of historical information for the Kane`ohe Bay
watershed, including changes in Kane`ohe Bay water quality, dominant biotopes and summary of
species introduced into Kane`ohe Bay up through 1958
Disalvo, L. H. (1969a). Regeneration functions and microbial ecology of coral reefs. Dept. Of Zoology.
Chapel Hill, Univ. Of North Carolina: 289 pp.
This study attempted to characterize mechanisms and rates of regenerative functioning in coral reefs
in Kane`ohe Bay and Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. Emphasis was placed on the study of bacteria
and other microorganisms based on their typically important regenerative roles in other ecosystems.
Ten dead coral heads were collected from 3 study sites within indicated study area.
DiSalvo, L. H. (1969b). "Isolation of bacteria from the corallum of Porites lobata (Vaughn) and its possiblesignificance." Am. Zool. 9: 735-40.
This paper discusses the results of a survey conducted to determine the number, distribution, and
activities of bacteria in selected coral reef environments, including Kane`ohe Bay. Some of the
isolated bacteria were capable of digesting chitin in vitro, suggesting that the mechanism for skeletal
weakening might be bacterial breakdown of the organic matrix. Absence of change from aragonitic to
83
calcitic crystals from a discolored region supported the contention that skeletal weakening was due to
the breakdown of organic matrix rather than direct solution of carbonate.
DiSalvo, L. H. (1971a). Ingestion and assimilation of bacteria by two scleractinian coral species.
Experimental Coelenterate Biology,. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, University
of Hawai`i Press: 129-36.
The author attempted to determine the degree of bacterial fouling of living and dead coral surfaces and
to observe some general aspects of particle feeding by these corals. He also attempted to determine if
35
the ingested S-labeled bacteria were assimilated by the polyps of two coral species collected on a
mid-Kane`ohe Bay patch reef.
DiSalvo, L. H. (1971b). "Regenerative functions and microbial ecology of coral reefs: labeled bacteria in a
coral reef microcosm." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 7: 123-36.
Representative coral reef organisms and substrata assembled in a lab microcosm removed
radioactively labeled bacteria from water circulated over them. Biochemical fractionation of selected
organisms in these experiments suggested digestion and possible assimilation of bacterial proteins. In
view of previous results concerning microbial ecology, it is suggested that coral reef infaunal metazoa
are adapted to utilize internal sedimentary processes and regenerative functioning through suspension
(and deposit) feeding mechanisms. A model ecosystem is presented to suggest the possible feedback
of these mechanisms as they operate within a reef.
DiSalvo, L. H. (1971d). "Regenerative functions and microbial ecology of coral reefs. II. Oxygen metabolism
in the-regenerative system." Can. J. Microbiol. 17:: 1091-11.
Measurements were made relevant to the oxygen metabolism of the internal zone of coral reefs.
Antibiotics significantly lowered oxygen demands and bacterial counts, suggesting the important
respiratory role of anaerobic bacteria. Measurements of total oxygen consumption by two intact coral
"deadheads" were compared to oxygen demands by their internal sediments, resulting in oxygen
consumption of these sediments in suspension being about ten percent of the total oxygen
consumption of intact heads. Water samples collected from within regenerative spaces in situ
generally showed oxygen debts when compared to ambient reef waters, with oxygen debts of internal
water's of (stressed) inshore reefs higher than those of an offshore reef.
DiSalvo, L. H. (1972). "Stressed coral reef crabs in Hawai`i." Mar. Poll. Bull. 3: 90-91.
Destruction of coral reefs in Hawai`i eliminates the associated fauna by loss of its habitat, but evidence
is produced of damage to reef crabs, which may be a more direct consequence of pollution.
Carapaces showing distress were recovered from living crabs collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
DiSalvo, L. H. (1974). "Soluble phosphorus and amino nitrogen released to seawater during recoveries of
coral reef regenerative sediments." Proc. 2nd Intern. Coral Reef Symp. Brisbane 1: 11-19.
The amounts of recovered nutrients at Kane`ohe Bay were calculated in relation to the total sediment
and sediment organic matter derived from each coral head. The results of these calculations were
comparable on a per-station basis with previous data on bacteria per unit sediment and oxygen
consumption per unit sediment. The bacterial count per gram sediment was directly related to the
amounts of soluble nutrients when calculated on a per-gram-sediment basis.
DiSalvo, L. H. and K. Gundersen (1971c). "Regenerative functions and microbial ecology of coral reefs. I.
Assays for microbial population." Can. J. Microbiol. 17: 1081-89.
This paper discusses the results of analyses performed on sediments obtained from complex internal
reef spaces at Kane`ohe Bay and Eniwetok Atoll. Attention is focused on assaying the microbial
populations. Arguments are made for the existence of an efficient system of mineralization based on
the unique biogenic structure and high organismic diversity of coral reefs.
Domotor, S. L. and C. F. D'Elia (1986). "Cell-size distributions of zooxanthellae in culture and symbiosis."
Biol. Bull. 170: 519-525.
Doty, M. S. (1961). "Acanthophora, a possible invader of the marine flora of Hawai`i." Pac. Sci, 15: 547-552.
A paper dealing with the genus Acanthophora, its discovery in Hawai`i and a subsequent literature and
herbaria search to find previous Pacific records of this genus. The author mentions Kohn (1959)
recording Acanthophora in Kane`ohe Bay found on the egg cases of Conus quercinus.
Doty, M. S. and B. C. Stone (1966). "Two new species of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae)." Brittonia 18: 303306.
84
A taxonomic paper describing two new species in the genus Halophila, one from the Hawaiian Islands,
Halophila Hawaiiana Doty and Stone sp. nov., and the other from Australia, Halophila australis Doty
and Stone sp. nov. H. Hawaiiana was found in four areas in Kane`ohe Bay: in the salty mud at minus
2 feet below MSL off the NW corner of Moku 0 Loe Island, 3 Oct. 1950 Doty 8110; in a colony in about
15 feet water on bottom of channel dug in 1943, east of U. H. Marine Laboratory, 28 March, 1952,
Doty 9930; in sand on shoal, submerged 2 feet, about 1 mile NW of Kapapa, 17 January 1948,
Webster 1189 and near Mokuawa, off Makaekahana, 19 August 1915
DPED, H. S. (1967). Hawai`i State Research Inventory. 1967. Honolulu, Hawai`i Dep. of Planning and Econ.
Dev.: 199.
Bibliography of all research reports completed and/or published by or for the State of Hawai`i between
January 1, 1967 and December 31, 1967, or in progress as of January 1, 1968. Listings are by
administrative departments and includes all such research by HIMB researchers.
DPED, H. S. (1968). Hawai`i State Research Inventory. 1961-1966. Honolulu, Hawai`i Dep. of Planning and
Econ. Dev.: 199.
Bibliography of all research reports completed and/or published by or for the State of Hawai`i between
July 1,1961 and December 31, 1966, or in progress as of January 1, 1967. Listings include all such
research by HIMB researchers. - companion volume #123.
Dunham, D. W. (1978). "Effect of chela white on agonistic success in a diogenid hermit crab (Calcinus
laevimanus)." Mar. Behav. Physiol. 5: 137-144.
An intertidal Hawaiian diogenid hermit crab, Calcinus laevimanus, has an enlarged left chela, bearing a
large white patch on its outer surface. The chela is used in agonistic display and in fighting. In fights
between opponents closely matched in size, the crab bearing the larger white patch is more likely to
win. An experiment in which the white was concealed by black paint showed that it is the white patch
per se that confers an agonistic advantage on the bearer. Possible modes of effect are discussed.
Specimens were collected from Coconut island and Rubble Island in Kane`ohe Bay in 1972-73.
Dunham, D. W. (1978). "On contrast and communication efficiency in hermit crabs." Crustaceana 35(1).
Three common Hawaiian intertidal hermit crabs differ in the appearance of their chelae. [Calcinus
laevimanus (Randall, 1840), Calcinus swurati (Forest, 1951), Clibanarius zebra (Dana, 1852).] Since
the chelae are conspicuously important in fighting, one might expect the fighting efficiency of these
three species to differ significantly. Their agonistic behaviour was compared by observing intraspecific
fighting in the laboratory, in order to determine whether there were any differences in the overall
efficiency of terminating agonistic bouts.
Dunham, D. W. (1981). "Chela efficiency in display and feeding by hermit crabs (Decapoda, Paguridea)."
Crustaceana 41(1).
Three common Hawaiian intertidal hermit crabs differ in the appearance of their chelae. [Calcinus
laevimanus (Randall, 1840), Calcinus seurati (Forest, 1951), Clibanarius zebra (Dana, 1852).] The
present paper examines the use of leg displays, responses to these displays, and the use of chelae in
feeding in these three species, in order to investigate some of the advantages and disadvantages of
chela specialization for fighting. Animals were collected from Kane`ohe Bay and Waimanalo Bay in
1972-73.
Dunn, D. F. (1974). "Aciniogeton sesere (Coelenterata, Actiniaria) in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 28: 181-188.
Edmondson, C. H. (1921). "Stomatopoda in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ.
Pap. 7(13): 279-302.
A taxonomic study of the stomatopod collection in the B., P. Bishop Museum. The collection
comprises 53 specimens grouped under six genera and nine species, one of which is new. Of the 53
specimens, 10 are recorded from Guam, 4 from Tahiti and 2 from the Marquesas, the other 37 are
from Hawai`i.
Edmondson, C. H. (1928). "The ecology of an Hawaiian coral reef." Bishop Museum Bull. 45: 64 pp.
Description of Kane`ohe Bay as "one of the most favorable localities for the development of shallow
water corals. Nearly all the reef-forming general known in the Hawaiian Islands are represented in
certain areas of this bay and many species grow luxuriantly."
Edmondson, C. H. (1930). "New Hawaiian Medusae." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 9(6): 1-16.
A taxonomic description of several forms of creeping and sessile medusae previously unrecorded from
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the Hawaiian Islands. The type specimen of the Stauromedusae, Kishinouyea hawaiiensis n. sp. was
found in Kahana Bay on seaweed in shallow water; type specimen is now in Bishop Museum.
Edmondson, C. H. (1930). "New Hawaiian Crustacea." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 9(10): 1-18.
A taxonomic description of new species of the genera Processa, Jousseaumea. Axiopsis, and Palicus
and of the family Portunidae. Kane`ohe Bay is the type locality of a new species, Processa paucirostis
n. sp.
Edmondson, C. H. (1933a). Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Special Publ. no.
22, 1st ed.
A general descriptive study of the fauna found in the reefs and shores of the Hawaiian Islands.
Edmondson, C. H. (1933b). "Quantitative studies of copepods about the shores of O`ahu." Fifth Pacific
Science Congress 3: 1997-2001.
A study in which the copepods around O`ahu were sampled quantitatively to determine the amount of
food available to other organisms in the shoal areas. It was hoped that this abundance or paucity of
such a potential food source might be correlated with the relative growth of other organisms.
Kane`ohe Bay was the center for sampling on the windward shore of O`ahu. Sampling was carried
over a period of one year (September 22, 1931 to September 21, 1932).
Edmondson, C. H. (1933c). "Cryptochirus of the Central Pacific." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 10(5): 123.
A taxonomic study of the members of the genus Cryptochirus (Crustacea) collected in the Central
Pacific. This genus includes the crabs which as larvae settle in the calyces of coral, causing the death
of the polyp. The crabs remain there passively as the coral continues to grow around it. Cryptochirus
minutus n. sp. is less plentiful in Kane`ohe Bay than at other localities on O`ahu. It may be found in
species of Cyphastrea ocellina and Lepastrea purpurea.
Edmondson, C. H. (1935). "New and rare Polynesian crustacea." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 10(24): 140.
A taxonomic account of the new and rarely observed decapod crustaceans collected by various field
workers in widely separated parts of Polynesia ranging from Hawai`i through the equatorial islands to
Fiji, including the Lau Archipelago and Tongatabu. A new species of Periclimenes was found living on
Linckia multiflora in Kane`ohe Bay called Periclimenes bicolor n. sp. Kane`ohe Bay is listed as the
type locality for this species (Bishop Museum Collection no. 3756). Another species, Hymenocera
elegans Heller was first collected in Hawai`i in 1934 from a Porites coral head in Kane`ohe Bay.
A hydroid apparently identical with Pennaria tiarella McCrady from the Atlantic coast flourishes in
Kane`ohe Bay - a possible introduction.
Edmondson, C. H. (1935-1936). "Autotomy and regeneration in Hawaiian starfishes." B. P. Bishop Museum
Occ. Pap. 11(8): 1-20.
An investigation to determine the extent of the phenomenon of autotomy among Hawaiian starfishes
and to follow the processes involved in the regeneration after natural or artificial injury. This
investigation covered a period of approximately three years and was conducted on Linckia multiflora,
Linckia diplax and Coscinasterias acutispina from Kane`ohe Bay as well as Pentaceros hawaiiensis
Fisher from Maile Point and Dactyloaster cvlindricus pacificus Fisher and Nepanthia sp. from Black
Point.
Edmondson, C. H. (1937). "Quantitative studies of copepods in, Hawai`i with brief surveys in Fiji and Tahiti."
B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 13(12): 131-146.
A one-year investigation (Sept. 22, 1931 - Sept. 21, 1932) on the determination of the amount of
potential food available at certain localities in the shoal waters about O`ahu as expressed in the
numerical quantity of marine free swimming copepods. The correlation of the amount of growth of the
invertebrates and the amount of the copepods was also considered. Kane`ohe Bay was the center for
all investigations, stations also being run at Waikiki, Pearl Harbor and other areas of O`ahu.
Edmondson, C. H. (1940). "A recent shipworm survey in Hawai`i." Proc. 6th Pacific Science Congress 3:
245-250.
A continuation of previous work on shipworms in Hawai`i with emphasis on wood borers of the genera
Teredo and Bankia. The history of shipworms on the island is reviewed and this paper presents the
results of a re-survey of shipworms which might reveal additions to or shifts in the previously known
population of shipworms on the island. Two of the survey areas were in Kane`ohe Bay. Test blocks of
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various woods were submerged and lifted at intervals to determine species present, their distribution,
rate of growth, periods of spawning, seasonal variation in behavior, larval and postlarval development,
their behavior under normal and abnormal conditions, their preference for certain woods and other
information.
Edmondson, C. H. (1944). "Teredinidae of Hawai`i." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 17(10): 97.
A report dealing with a record of studies and observations of shipworm on the island of O`ahu.
Shipworms from 14 stations on O`ahu were collected and systematically described. The material from
Canton Island and Western Samoa is discussed. Collections in Kane`ohe Bay included:
Station J., pier of Territorial Fish and Game Farm
Teredo parksi
T. bartschi
T. diagensis
Station K., near the middle of Kane`ohe Bay on the reef
T. parksi
T. bartschii
T. millen
T. gregoryi
Station L., shore of Mokapu Peninsula
T. millen
T. medilobata
Edmondson, C. H. (1946). Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Spec. Publ. 22, 2nd
ed.
A revised edition of the earlier 1933 edition. More complete data, new figures and keys was added to
several sections and the nomenclature was brought up to date to conform with intervening
investigations.
Edmondson, C. H. (1954). "Hawaiian Portunidae." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 21(2): 217-274.
A critical study of the portunid crabs in the Bishop Museum collection and in other collections including
descriptions of new forms. Keys and illustrations are included.
Edmondson, C. H. (1962). "Hawaiian Crustacea: Goneplacidae, Pinnotheridaelp Cymopoliidae, Ocypodidae
and Gecarcinidae." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. 23(l): 1-27.
The fourth and the last in a series of revised records of brachyuran crabs recorded in Hawaiian waters.
This report deals with five families, lists only sixteen species, four of which were thought not to exist in
the Hawaiian fauna at the time of publication.
Edmondson, C. H., W. K. Fisher et al. (1925). "Marine Zoology of Tropical Central Pacific ." Bishop Mus.
Bull. 27: 148.
The collective reports of the Tanager expedition 1923-24, including reports on Crustacea, sea stars,
echinoderms other than sea stars, polychaetous annelids and foraminifers. Reference is made to
Kane`ohe Bay in the paper by Clark and many specimens are mentioned as being very common about
the reefs of Hawai`i.
Edmondson, C. H. and W. M. Ingram (1939). "Fouling organisms in Hawai`i." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ.
Pap. 14(14): 251-300.
A report on the fouling organisms found in Kane`ohe Bay and in Pearl Harbor over a period of years,
1935-1939. Attention was given to species, their seasonal succession and ecology. Early
developmental stages in some cases are described and the rate of growth under varied conditions is
recorded. Consideration was also given to surface type of attachment. The majority of experiments
were done with larval and adult barnacles.
Edmondson, C. H. and G. S. Mansfield (1948). "Hawaiian Caprellidae." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Pap.
19(10): 201-218.
A taxonomic report dealing with a small collection of caprellids at the Bishop Museum. Specimens of
Caprella acutifrons Latreille are reported to be very abundant in Kane`ohe Bay.
Edmondson, C. H. and I. Wilson (1940). "The shellfish resources of Hawai`i." Proc. 6th Pacific Science
Congress 3: 241-243.
A review of the shellfish industry in Hawai`i including the number of species occurring in the islands,
species of commercial value and the successes and failures of various transplanting operations. In
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1920, Tapia philippinarum from Japan, were planted in Kalihi Basin, Pearl Harbor and Kane`ohe Bay.
They grew and reproduced in all areas except Kane`ohe Bay. In February 1939,, a shipment of
20,000 young specimens of Cytherea were received from Japan and planted in Kane`ohe Bay where
rapid growth has taken place (to date in 1940). In 1927, a small shipment of abalones were planted in
Kane`ohe Bay where they seemed to do well and then disappeared. Quantities of the American
oyster, Ostrea cucullata have been planted in Kane`ohe Bay (no date given). They died within 6
months. During March 1939, more than one million spat of the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas were
planted in Kane`ohe Bay. Exceptional growth took place and it is hoped that this species may become
permanently established in Hawai`i. Pteria nebulosa is a small native oyster growing luxuriantly in
Kane`ohe Bay. The commercial value of the Hawaiian invertebrates such as squid, gastropods, crabs
and shrimps are discussed but with no reference to Kane`ohe Bay.
Eger, W. H. (1963). An exotoxin produced by the puffer, Arothron hispidus, with notes on the toxicity of other
plectognath fishes. Depart of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 88.
A study of Arothron hispidus to confirm the presence of a toxic substance in the skin secretions and to
establish the site of its production. The author also investigated the character of this exotoxin and
compared it with the endotoxin of the internal organs on a biological, physical and chemical basis. All
of the specimens used in this study were caught either with traps or with a hook and line in Kane`ohe
Bay. It was found that the exotoxin was being secreted by specialized serous glands associated with
the integumentary spines. It is essentially similar to the endotoxin on a biological, chemical, physical
and pharmacological basis.
Eldredge, L. G., III. (1965). The taxonomy of the Diademnidae (Ascidiacea). Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu,
Univ. of Hawai`i.
A descriptive taxonomic study of the 23 diademnid ascidian specie in the central Pacific area.
Eldredge, L. G., III (1966). "A taxonomic review of the Indo-Pacific didemnid ascidians and descriptions of
twenty-three Central Pacific species." Micronesica 2: 161-261.
A systematic description of twenty-three didemnid ascidians species, eight of them new, from the
Central Pacific waters. The taxonomic position of each is considered with reference to other related
Indo-Pacific species and the basis for generic and specific determinations are reviewed and evaluated.
The author provides an appendix with information concerning the distribution of identified species and
a summary of pertinent Indo-Pacific records. A key to the didemnid ascidian species of O`ahu is also
included. Kane`ohe Bay and Moku Manu were among 16 collection sites on O`ahu.
Data for Kane`ohe Bay:
Trididemnum roundup (Sluiter) leeward Sand Island; 1-8-63; 1 colony Coconut Island; 30-7-64; 2
colonies in coral and calcareous algae
Trididemnum savignii (Herdman) Coconut Island; 2-8-61, 29-11-61, 13-12-611, 21-9-629 1-8-63; 20
colonies on wood, glass, sabellid worm tubes, barnacles and solitary ascidians
Didemnum elikapekae n. sp. Coconut Island; 21-11-62; 1 colony on wood
Didemnum edmondsoni n. sp. Coconut Island; 21-6-61, 9-8-61, 29-11-61, 3-12-63, 1-8-63, 16-1163; 50 colonies Buoy No. 8; 29-11-61; 7 colonies Sand Island; 1-8-63; 1 colony on wood, glass,
serpulid wormtubes, solitary ascidians, molluscs, sponges and calcareous algae
Didemnum moseleyi (Herdman) Coconut Island; 14-10-61, 13-12-61; 6 colonies
Didemnum candidum Savigny Coconut Island; 41-10-61, 15-11-61, 29-11-61, 13-12-619 [email protected]
1-8-63, 26-10-63, 16-11-63; 60 colonies on wood, sabellid and serpulid worm tubes, barnacles,
solitary ascidians, bivalve molluscs, sponges, cal. algae
Leptoclinides rufus (Sluiter) Moku Manu; ?-11-62; 2 colonies collected 45 m. on coral and black
coral
Diplosoma (Diplosoma) virens (Hartmeyer) Checker Reef; 10-11-61, 30-7-64; in colonies on coral
and calcareous algae
Diplosoma (Diplosoma) macdonaldi Herdman (nomen conservandum) Coconut Island; 9-8-61, 410-61, 11-10-61, 11-9-61, 29-11-61, 21-11-62, 11-5-63, 1-7-63, 30-7-64; 100 colonies on wood,
sabellid and serpulid worm tubes, barnacle, coral, mollusks, sponges, green algae, calcareous
algae, solitary ascidians
Diplosoma (Lissoclinum)'fragile (Van Name) Coconut Island; 21-11-62, 26-10-63; 6 colonies on
wood, coral and calcareous algae
Eldredge, L. G. (1994). Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific Islands.
Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific Islands. Noumea, New
Caledonia, South Pacific Commission. 1: 1-127.
The purpose of this review is to record the intentional and accidental introduction of aquatic plants and
88
animals to the Pacific Islands (the area encompassed by the South Pacific Commission). Plants and
animals are distributed either intentionally or accidentally.
Eldredge, L. G., III (1995). "First record of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in Hawai`i (Decapoda:
Brachyura)." Occ. Pap. B. P. Bishop Museum 42: 55-58.
Six female specimens of the Atlantic blue crab C. sapidus were trapped in Kane`ohe Bay in 1985-92.
Eley, M. A. (1960). Some visual aspects of behavior in Gonodactylus glabrous Brooks (Crustacea:
Stomatopoda). Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 62.
A study of Gonodactylus glabrous to determine whether this species has form vision and if so, to
discover some of the kinds of forms that it can distinguish and to consider the significance of this ability
on the animals' behavior in nature. All of the animals examined were taken from the north shore of
Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay. Results showed that the animals displayed a spontaneous
preference for certain form patterns. Sexual differences were noted in some of the form patterns. The
author discusses the possible importance of this ability of visual discrimination.
Ely, C. A. (1942). "Shallow water Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea of Hawai`i." Bishop Museum Bull 176: 1-63.
A systematic paper dealing with 40 species of Asteroids, 25 of which are starfishes and 15 are brittle
stars. Among the brittle stars, 3 species were new to science at the time of publication and one of
these was the type of a new genus. Linckia multiflora (Lamarck) is found only in Kane`ohe Bay on
O`ahu.
Emig, C. C. (1981). "Observations sur l'ecologie de Lingula reevei (Davidson) (Brachiopoda: Inarticulata)." J.
Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol 52: 47-61.
In Kane`ohe Bay (O`ahu, Hawai`i), Lingula reevei Davidson inhabits infralittoral sandy bottoms. Its
distribution appears to be related mainly to the nature of substratum, the presence of predators and
diggers, and the food supply. The meiofauna is studied and compared between the stations in which L.
reevei occurs. The stomach and intestinal contents are analysed, for the first time in Lingula: the
nutrients arise mainly from the superficial fauna and flora. L. reevei filters continuously; the
arrangement of the anterior mantle ciliation forming the three characteristic siphons is described more
precisely. No preferential orientation to prevailing currents could be established; however, this cannot
be excluded. The depth of the burial and anchorage conditions depend on the nature of the
substratum. L. reevei, if removed from the substratum, is unable to re-establish itself or to change its
burrow. But this species is capable of upward burrowing through a sediment layer, even if the animal
has to automize the pedicle (a new one then regenerates). A growth rate curve for estimating the age
length in relation to the shell length is proposed and compared to that of L. anatina. L. reevei does not
survive more than a few days exposure to adverse environmental conditions: in extremely diluted
salinities (<15%), after several days, Lingula emerging from the sediment dies, and after body
putrefaction the valves dislocate and fall onto the substratum. In high salinities (>40%) or after
substratum emersion, the animal dies within the burrow. Tolerance to desiccation does not ever reach
3 days.
Environmental Consultants Inc. (1973). Impact studies on the marine environment at Heeia Meadows.
Kane`ohe, Gentry-Hawai`i, Inc.: 1-94.
Environmental surveys of nearshore areas related to potential development of Heeia Meadow area in
Kane`ohe Bay, includes species lists of organisms sighted and sampled.
Environmental Consultants Inc. (1975). Observations on the marine environment at Coconut Island,
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Environmental Consultants, Inc., Kane`ohe: 23.
Environmental Consultants Inc. (1977). Marine environmental reconnaissance survey for Kualoa beach
shore protection project. Honolulu, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: 47.
A qualitative marine survey was conducted.
Erseus, C. and D. Davis (1989). "The marine Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) of Hawai`i." Asian Marine Biology 6:
73-100.
Esquivel, I. (1986a). Short term copper bioassay on the planula of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept.
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 465-472.
A short term copper bioassay was done on the planulae of Pocillopora damicornis and the 24 h, 48 h
89
and 96 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined. Concentrations of copper (added as
CuCl) ranged from 10-1000 ug l-1 (ppb). Comparisons with previous studies show the planulae of P.
damicornis to be more resistant than adults to heavy metal toxicity, surviving in higher concentrations
for longer periods.
Esquivel, I. F. (1986b). Direct retrospective analysis of the reef coral Porites compressa: evidence for sexual
versus asexual origins of reef coral populations. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H.
Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe.
HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 234-239.
Determination of relative importance of asexual reproduction in the reef coral Porites compressa in two
different physical environments on the same reef, reef flat vs reef slope. Radiographic studies of coral
heads revealed a greater percentage of sexually derived colonies on the reef slope, while colonies
formed from asexual fragmentation formed a greater percentage of young colonies on the reef flat.
Evans, C., J. T. Maragos et al. (1986). Reef corals in Kane`ohe Bay. Six years before and after termination
of Sewage discharges (O`ahu, Hawaiian Archipelago). Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R.
H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe.
HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 76-90.
Resurvey of lagoon and coral transects previously conducted in 1971 revealed a remarkable recovery
of corals, especially Porites compressa and Montipora verrucosa in the southern and middle lagoon,
and continued abundance in the northern lagoon. Minor coral species Pocillopora damicornis and
Cyphastrea ocellina also were more abundant in the lagoon. In contrast, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa
algae declined greatly except for a minor increase in the northern lagoon.
Evans, C. W. (1991). Patterns of recovery and change of coral reef communities in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i.
17th Pacific Science Congr., Coral Reefs and Environmental Change -- the Next 100 Years, Honolulu,
Pacific Science Assoc.
Kane`ohe Bay offers an excellent example of a large coral reef ecosystem disturbed by factors
associated with urbanization. Early research in the 1970s showed that eutrophication and
sedimentation caused declines in coral reef communities and an explosive growth of the green alga
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa . In 1983, 6 yr after major sewage discharges were diverted from the bay,
surveys showed a significant decrease in the Dictyosphaeria algal cover and a remarkable recovery of
coral reef communities. Researchers hoped that this pattern of recovery would continue; however, resurveys in 1990 indicate that algal populations may once again be increasing and coral recovery rates
may have slowed or, in some places, reversed. Periodic sewage bypasses and overflows from the old
sewage-treatment facilities in combination with non-point source sewage discharges may be the
cause. Alternatively, natural fluctuations and/or other environmental factors may explain these
changes.
Evans, C. W. (1995). Sewage diversion and the coral reef community of Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i: 1970-1990.
Geography, University of Hawai`i: 175.
Evans, C. W. and C. L. Hunter (1992). "Kane`ohe Bay: An update on coral reef recovery and trends to the
contrary." Proc. 7th Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Guam.
Everson, A. (1994). Fishery data collection system for fishery utilization study of Kane`ohe Bay, two-year
interim report. Honolulu, State of Hawai`i, Dept. Land and Natural Resources, Div. Aquatic Resources.
Fan, P. (1973). Sedimentation. Estuarine pollution in the State of Hawai`i, Vol. 2: Kane`ohe Bay study.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i, Water Resources Research Center: 229-266.
Fee, J. H. (1967). Studies of the direction-finding behavior of the beach hopper, Orchestia platensis (Kroyer)
(Crustacea-Amphipoda). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 57.
A report beach hopper is compared with that of other species. The effect of the northward position of
the sun in the late spring and early summer in the Hawaiian Islands on the direction-finding behavior is
also investigated. Kane`ohe Bay was one of the collecting areas on a beach near the middle of the bay
shore. The amphipod appeared to move vertically up and down the beach as the tide ebbed and
flowed. The amphipods examined in Kane`ohe Bay demonstrated rhythmic behavior, the change of
the angle of orientation with respect to a stationary light source correlated with the daily motion of the
sun. These amphipods were noted to be physically different from 0. platensis and so they may be
another species; the author was not sure.
90
Fellows, D. P. (1966). Zonation and burrowing behavior of the ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus
(Pallas) and Ocypode laevis Dana in Hawai`i. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i:
78.
A study representing the first behavioral study of Ocypode ceratophthalmus in the eastern portion of its
distributional range as well as the first such study for Ocypode laevis. The primary objective was to
determine whether the disparity among the previous reports on the digging behavior of 0.
ceratophthalmus is related merely to habitat diversity, or is, in fact, the result of behavioral differences
among isolated populations of this species. 0. laevis was found to inhabit only one type of burrow. In
contrast, 0. ceratophthalmus was found to dig 4 types of burrows, the structure being dependent upon
the age and sex of the crab. No differences in digging behavior were noticed between the two
species. Sand Island, Kane`ohe Bay, was one area of collection.
Fiedler, G. C. (1990). "Observations on the social behavior of a small population of the butterflyfish
Chaetodon ornatissimus in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 44: 184.
Since May 1988, the population of Chaetodon ornatissimus on a patch reef in Kane`ohe Bay has been
monitored. These fish are territorial corallivores and live in heterosexual pairs. Monogamy in fish is
rare, but among chaetodontids, this seems to be the rule. Observations of C. ornatissimus in groups
larger than two provides an interesting comparison. The work presented here is a portion of an
ongoing project to study this butterflyfish.
Field, S. (1998). Settlement biology of larvae of Montipora verrucosa and Porites lobata in Hawai'i.
Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 117125.
This study investigated the early life histories of Porites lobata and Montipora verrucosa including
determination of substrate preferences for settlement. Following settlement the processes of
survivorship under unfavorable conditions was also examined. The duration of larval viability shows
that M. verrucosa and P. lobata are both capable of lasting extended periods in the water column prior
to discovering a suitable substrate. The metamorphosed larvae showed no substrate testing behavior.
Colonies of M. verrucosa were collected from three sites within Kane`ohe Bay to ensure genetic
diversity: Checker Reef, Kane`ohe Bay Yacht Club and Coconut Island boat channel.
Fisher, W. K. (1906). "The starfishes of the Hawaiian Islands." U. S. Fish Commission Bull. 1903 (3): 9871130.
A taxonomic description of specimens collected by the U. S. Fisheries steamer Albatross from the
Hawaiian Islands during the spring and summer of 1902. Included also is a small collection taken by
the Albatross in 1891 off the south coast of O`ahu. Specimens were taken from the shoreline to the
thousand fathom line. A list of station positions and keys to the families plus a directory of technical
terms is presented in the introduction.
Fisher, W. K. (1907). "The holothurians of the Hawaiian Islands." Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 32: 637-744.
A taxonomic description of the holothurians found in and around the Hawaiian Islands. The material
for this study comes from the dredging stations of the Albatross expedition in 1902 and observations of
reef and shallow water areas near land by the author.
Data for the Kane`ohe Bay areas:
Scotodeima vitreum n. sp. station 3979, vicinity of Bird Island in 222-387 f. on fine white sand,
foraminifers, rocks. bottom temperature 540.
Fitzhardinge, R. (1985). Spatial and temporal variability in coral recruitment in Kane`ohe Bay (O`ahu,
Hawai`i). Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti.
Experiments to investigate coral colonization are underway in Kane`ohe Bay. Seven shallow sites (12m depth) were chosen on three patch reefs. Eight concrete blocks were placed at each site in the
spring of 1983 and again in the spring of 1984. Each set of blocks was examined after 3 and 6 mo.,
and the 1983 blocks were also examined after 15 mo.. The number of recruits differed between sites
each year, and recruitment rates at a given site were not necessarily similar each year. The amount or
species of coral cover present at a site was not a good indicator of the number or species of coral
recruits at that site. Pocillopora damicornis was the only species found on any of the 1983 blocks after
3 mo.. In 1984, Cyphastrea ocellina was also present on some of the blocks after 3 mo.. Cullicia sp.,
an ahermatypic coral was present on some blocks after 6 mo. in 1983 and 1984. Two common
species, Porites compressa and Montipora verrucosa were detected as small colonies (1-5mm) on
some blocks after 6 mo. in 1984. These two species were present on 1983 blocks after 15 mo..
Variation in recruitment may be the result of temporal variability in larval abundance. Spatial variability
in recruitment between sites may be due to a variety of factors including differences in larval
91
production and dispersal, grazing pressure and the composition of the co-occurring epiflora and
epifauna.
Fitzhardinge, R. (1986). Spatial variability in the recruitment of corals and other organisms in Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant
Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 263-285.
Colonization by corals and other organisms on concrete blocks and dead heads of the branching coral
Porites compressa was investigated at seven different shallow water sites in Kane`ohe Bay.
Pocillopora damicornis was the only coral to recruit to either the blocks or the coral heads after three
months. Coral recruitment was highest on the windward edge of a patch reef where territories of
damselfish Stegastes fasciolatus are common. After six months, two other species of coral,
Cyphastrea ocellina and ?Culicia sp. had also colonized the blocks. No recruitment by the two
commonest corals in the bay, Porites compressa or Montipora verrucosa, was detected. At most sites
most individuals of P. damicornis were found on the inside uppermost surface of the blocks. Grazing
fish were most abundant near the margins of reefs except where excluded by S. fasciolatus. At most
sites xanthid crabs were the most common motile invertebrates colonizing the dead coral surfaces. At
one site hermit crabs were very abundant. Trochus intertextus was the only motile invertebrate found
on the outside of concrete blocks. Sessile invertebrates such as tunicates, bryozoans and oysters
were most common on the inner and bottom surfaces of the blocks
Fitzhardinge, R. C. (1988). Coral recruitment: the importance of interspecific differences in juvenile growth
and mortality. Proc. 6th Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Townsville, Australia.
If mortality decreases with increasing size, interspecific differences in growth rate could result in
differential mortality between species. Recruitment, juvenile growth and survival of three Hawaiian
corals were investigated in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Two species, Porites compressa and
Montipora verrucosa are broadcast spawners; Pocillopora damicornis is a brooder. Interspecific
differences in growth e.g. in the rate at which skeleton and new polyps form, were observed. Many
features of the reproductive, larval and juvenile ecology of brooding species such as Pocillopora
damicornis may promote rapid juvenile growth and permit higher juvenile survival than occurs in
broadcast spawning species.
Fitzhardinge, R. C. (1993). The ecology of juvenile Hawaiian corals. Department of Zoology. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i.
A study of coral recruitment, growth and community development at seven sites for three consecutive
years in Kane`ohe Bay. Variability in recruitment was observed both between sites and between
surfaces of the blocks. Temporal variability in recruitment patterns between years also occurred. After
3 mo. immersion, Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding species, was the most abundant coral. Another
brooding species, Cyphastrea ocellina, and the ahermatype Culicia cf. tenella were also detected.
Two spawning species Montipora verrucosa and Porites compressa were not detected until after 6 mo.
immersion. Over 3 yr., the relative abundance of P. damicornis declined at most sites and the relative
abundance of P. compressa increased. M. verrucosa recruits remained uncommon.
Fitzhardinge, R. C. and J. H. Bailey-Brock (1989). "Colonization of artificial reef materials by corals and other
sessile organisms." Bull. Mar. Sci. 44: 567-579.
Benthic community development was compared on coral and materials used to construct artificial reefs
at two sites off O`ahu, Hawai`i, Kane`ohe Bay, and Kahala. The materials tested were concrete, car
tires and metal (painted steel). In Kane`ohe Bay, one series of plates was immersed in winter, another
in summer. At both sites plates were oriented horizontally, and upper and lower surfaces were
examined for corals which were counted, measured, and the number of polyps recorded. Cover of
sessile organisms on the Kane`ohe Bay plates was estimated, and counts of sessile species were
made on some Kahala plates. Highest coral recruitment in Kane`ohe Bay was on metal and least on
tires. A few coral recruits, mostly Porites lobata were found on the Kahala plates. Concrete is
recommended for artificial reef construction because community development was most similar to
coral, it is durable in seawater and it can be shaped to specification. Metal structures which
disintegrate slowly would also be appropriate.
Foster, M. A. (1975). The comparative behavior of several pomacentrid fishes to tropical sea anemones.
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 112.
The heterospecific associations between the fishes of the genera Amphiprion and Dascyllus and the
anemones of the genera Stoichactis and Radianthus were investigated. Dascyllus albisella and
Radianthus papillosa were collected from Kane`ohe Bay along the north side of Sampan Channel and
92
from the sand bar in midbay. The mucus of unacclimated, deacclimated and acclimated fishes and the
mucus of the symbiotic anemones was analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. During the
acclimation sequence a chemical change occurs in the mucus of fishes which may be caused by the
discharge of nematocysts that carry toxin into the fishes. The acclimated fishes possess a protective
substance within their mucus that inhibits nematocyst discharge. A fish with its mucus coating
removed does elicit nematocyst discharge. The acclimation of anemone fishes to anemones is
species specific and is temporarily limited and can be lost through isolation or mucus removal.
Fowler, H. W. (1928). "The fishes of Oceania." Mem. Bernice P. Bishop Museum 10.
A description of the fishes stored in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum embracing some 14,000
specimens. These include the large Hawaiian collections (the local accessions of the museum since
its inception); the collections made by Mr. Alvin Seale in the South Pacific (1900-1903) and in Guam
(1900); those made by Hans G. Hernbostel in Guam (1923); by the Tanager Expedition (1923); and by
the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924.
Reference to the Kane`ohe Bay areas:
Echidnidae - Gymnothorax laysanus Jenkins - from Coconut Island by Jordan and Evermann, U. S.
Fish Comm. Bull. v. 23, p. 93. 1903. (Synonymous with Lycodontis melaegris (Shaw and Nodder)).
Atherinidae - Hepsetia insularum (Jordan and Evermann) - from Koolau Bay, Nov. 1922.
Kyphosidae - Sectator azureus Jordan and Evermann - type loc. is Heeia, O`ahu. Synonymous
with Sectator azureus Jordan and Evermann, U. S. Fish Comm. Bull. 22, only one specimen from
Heeia known in the museum.
Gobiidae - Sicyopterus stimpsoni (Gill) - synonymous with Sicydium stimpsoni Jordan and
Evermann U. S. Fish Comm. Bull. 23 pt. 19 from Hilo, Heeia and Kailua.
Franzisket, L. (1969). "The ratio of photosynthesis to respiration of reef building corals during a 24-hour
period." Forma et Functio 1: 153-58.
The diurnal ratio of apparent photosynthesis to respiration of four dominant Kane`ohe Bay reef-building
corals was measured. Oxygen release during the day by the corals ranged from 2.9 to 4.3 times their
oxygen consumption during the night. The photosynthetic activity of the coral-algal was found to be-of
the same order of magnitude as that of common free-living algae in the same environment.
Franzisket, L. (1969). "Riffkorallen konnen autotroph leben." Die Naturwissenschaften 56(3): 144-145.
(English translation). A significant decision as to the autotrophic or heterotrophic nature of reef corals
could be reached by holding reef corals in a laboratory under well controlled conditions. However, until
now such experiments could not be executed satisfactorily, since the reef corals die relatively soon
when they are kept in running seawater pumped by metal equipment. The Hawai`i Institute of Marine
Biology has installed a seawater supply with non-toxic plastic pumps, pipes and glass fiber tanks.
Collected corals were kept in this system for six months in good condition.
Franzisket, L. (1970). "The atrophy of hermatypic reef corals maintained in darkness and their subsequent
regeneration in light." Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol. 55: 1-12.
Four specimens of each of four principal reef building corals, collected in Kane`ohe Bay, were placed
in two fiberglass tanks (one light, one dark) to study the roles of zooxanthellae and plankton in coral
nutrition. Results showed that some hermatypic corals are able to live from the photosynthetic
products of their symbiotic algae.
Franzisket, L. (1970). "The effect of mucus on respirometry of coral reefs." Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol. 55:
409-412.
The author measured the oxygen consumption of freshly collected mucus from reef corals-in Kane`ohe
Bay. The experimental data cast doubt on the previously published conclusion that mucus respiration
is primarily responsible for oxygen consumption in respirometry experiments with corals.
Franzisket, L. (1973). "Uptake and accumulation of nitrate and nitrite by coral reefs." Die
Naturwissenschaften 60: 552.
The author has shown significant uptake of nitrate by reef corals from Kane`ohe Bay independent of
light. In these waters nitrite was not measurable, but the fact that nitrite is extracted from coral and
algal tissue suggests that the nitrate consumed is possibly reduced by metabolic processes of the
zooxanthellae. It was also found that both the amount of nitrogen compounds and the nitrate/nitrite
ratio in the coral and algal tissues change in the course of the day.
Franzisket, L. (1974). "Nitrate uptake by reef corals." Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol. 59: 1-7.
In specimens of hermatypic coral species and in alga of Kane`ohe Bay, nitrate uptake was measured
93
under light and dark conditions with a flow-through apparatus. The nitrate uptake was measurable in
high-nitrate Kane`ohe Bay water and in low-nitrate open ocean water. The nitrate consumption rates
of both were independent of light. Neither the coral nor the alga showed measurable immediate
uptake in open water of low nitrate concentration after being held previously in the bay water. In the
ocean fixation was dependent on photosynthesis.
Freeman, P. J. (1966). "Observations on osmotic relationships in the holothurian, Opheodesoma
spectabilis." Pac. Sci. 20(1): 60-69.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory in Kane`ohe Bay, with specimens collected from
the Coconut Island reef, to establish by what means the holothurians were able to function in such an
environment where the seawater underwent marked fluctuations in dilution. The easy tolerance of
Opheodesoma to dilute seawater remains puzzling, there are no particular structures devoted to
osmoregulation; there appears to be no adaptive significance in tolerance extending Opheodesoma's
environmental range. It is suggested that tolerance to fresh waters is incidental and is derived from
the slow "turnover" of the comparatively large volume of coelomic fluid with environmental water and to
the habit of steadily ingesting variable quantities of organic material which results in oscillating levels of
digestive end products in the coelomic fluid.
Freeman, W. (1993). Revised total maximum daily load estimates for six water quality limited segments of
O`ahu, Hawai`i. Honolulu, State of Hawai`i, Depart. of Health, Env. Planning Office.
Fujimura, T. (1957-58). Introduction of marine game fishes from areas in the Pacific. Honolulu.
A report dealing with the release of lutjanids and serranids from the Marquesas Islands to O`ahu. The
groupers were released from Brown's Camp O`ahu, and the snappers were released off Coconut
Island, Kane`ohe Bay. Underwater surveys were made to determine the distribution of the released
fish.
Galtsoff, P. (1933). "Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawai`i; hydrological and biological observations." Bishop
Mus. Bull. 107: 1-49.
An account of the discovery in 1927 of a large pearl oyster bed in the Pearl and Hermes Reef and the
resultant hydrological and biological survey of the area, legislation to regulate exploitation and
development of the resource and the possible introduction of the oysters into the waters near
Honolulu. To test the possibility of propagating the oysters on a commercial scale in waters close to
Honolulu, 320 oysters were transported into the area west and south of the southern end of Mokuloe
Island in Kane`ohe Bay. The oysters were examined at yearly intervals afterward and in 1931, 150
oysters remained which indicated that the project was successful.
Gilbert, W. J. (1962). "Contribution to the marine Chlorophyta of Hawai`i I." Pac. Sci. 16: 135-144.
An annotated list of new and previously recorded green algae of the Hawaiian Islands. Kane`ohe Bay
collection: Caulerpa ambigua Okamura Gilbert collection No. 9797 found on Coconut Island and Doty
collection Nos. 8117 and 10100 both found on Coconut Island. This algae appears only among the
Kane`ohe Bay collection from the Hawaiian Islands.
Gilbert, W. J. (1965). "Contribution to the marine Chlorophyta of Hawai`i II. Additional records." Pac. Sci. 19:
482-492.
An annotated list of new or previously recorded marine green algae from the Hawaiian Islands.
Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutzing): Doty, 1947 Gilbert collection no. 97859 was found on Coconut
Island in 1959.
Glenn, E. P. and M. S. Doty (1981). "Photosynthesis and respiration of the tropical red seaweeds,
Eucheuma striatum (Tambalang and Elkhorn varieties) and E. denticulatum." Aquat. Bot. 10: 353-364.
Rates of photosynthesis for 3 Central Pacific forms of Eucheuma ranged from 2031-2685 l O2 /h/g dry
wt. tissue under the conditions used when measured by manometric techniques in the laboratory (24
C, 1600 ft-candles light). Respiration ranged from 471-630 l O2/h/g dry wt. Photosynthesis and
respiration of Tambalang showed diurnal variations and also varied with the position of the tissue
along a branch. Light saturation of photosynthesis (24 C) occurred at 1200 ft-candles for all 3 forms.
Inhibition by light intensity for Tambalang was 18% at 5000 ft-candles compared to the rate at 1000 ftcandles, which was measured in air by the infrared gas analyzer technique. The photosynthetic
capacity of Tambalang was found to decrease with increasing water depth, at a site in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i. Maximum rates of photosynthesis for all 3 forms occurred at 30 C with Q10 values of ca. 3.0
between 20 and 30 C at 1600 ft-candles of illumination. Inhibition of photosynthesis occurred above 32
C. The response of respiration to temperature showed 2 peaks of activity at 25 C and 40 C for all 3
94
Eucheuma species. Tambalang had a carbon dioxide compensation point of 29-32 ppm when
measured in recirculated air at 25 C and 1000 ft-candles illumination by the infrared gas analyzer
technique.
Glenn, E. P. and M. S. Doty (1990). "Growth of the seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii, Kappaphycus striatum
and Eucheuma denticulatum as affected by environment in Hawai`i (USA)." Aquaculture 84: 245-256.
Three commercial gel-producing seaweed species native to the Philippines were grown experimentally
in pens on an algal reef-flat in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Growth rates and environmental
conditions were measured for 55 consecutive weeks. The normal northeast trade winds created a flow
of water through the 272-m-2 farm, one side of which faced northeast. Upstream thalli of Kappaphycus
alvarezii grew at an average relative growth rate of 5.06%/day, whereas K. striatum and Eucheuma
denticulatum grew at 3.50%/day. These growth rates and the overall productivity of 20.8 tonnes dry
wt/ha per year, similar to those obtained on Philippine reef-flat farms. Growth rates tended to be
independent of season, and correlations between growth rates and environmental variables were low.
The study suggested a range of conditions under which these eucheumatoids can be productive in a
farm setting: temperature maxima of 24-30 degree C and minima of 21-22 degree C; nitrogen levels of
2-4 mu-g-atm/l; phosphate levels of 0.5-1.0 mu-g-atm/l; and high solar energy levels. The pH and
salinity were near 8.0 and 32 ppt, respectively, throughout the study period. The degree of water
motion per se was not correlated with growth rate but the direction of wind across the farm was
important. Downstream thalli generally appeared unhealthy and grew at half the rate of upstream thalli.
When the normal trade winds reversed, the (formerly) upstream thalli grew poorly. None of the
measured environmental factors was correlated with the downstream growth reduction, and its cause
remains unknown.
Glenn, E. P. and M. S. Doty (1992). "Water motion affects the growth rates of Kappaphycus alvarezii and
related red seaweeds." Aquaculture 108: 233-246.
Tagged thalli of three eucheumatoid seaweed species were grown in five locations comprising a
natural gradient of water motion on a reef flat in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. The gradient of water motion
was related to the wind-shadow effect of a small island on the reef which sheltered part of the reef
from the prevailing trade winds. Three experiments were conducted at different times of year in which
growth rates, water motion, and other environmental factors were measured weekly in the pens for 8 to
12 weeks. In all three experiments significant (P<0.05) correlations were found between the growth
rates of the seaweeds and the amount of water motion measured by the dissolution rate of calcium
sulfate clod cards placed in the pens. Growth rates increased up to the highest water motion velocities
-1
measured in the pens, 15 cm s . It was concluded that culture of these species requires high levels of
water motion provided by strong and consistent trade winds under reef farming conditions. The results
support the mulfifactorial hypothesis of seaweed growth regulation.
Glynn, P. W., L. S. Howard et al. (1986). Preliminary investigations into the occurrence and toxicity of
commercial herbicide formulations in reef building corals. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel,
R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology,
Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01):
473-485.
Controlled tolerance experiments testing herbicides 2,4-D phenoxy acid, MCPP and Tergitol (a
dispersent) on Pocillopora damicornis demonstrated dramatic effects of tissue sloughing and death on
corals at 2, 4-D in concentrations near those in affected field specimens ( 0.02 ppm).
Glynn, P. W. and D. A. Krupp (1986a). Feeding biology of a Hawaiian sea star corallivore, Culcita
novaeguineae Muller and Troschel. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and
R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept.
No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 330-349.
The sea star Culcita novaeguinae preferentially fed on pocilloporid corals (Pocillopora damicornis and
P. meandrina) over the nonpocilloporid species Porites compressa, Montipora verrucosa and Fungia
scutaria in both laboratory experiments and in the field. Field studies suggested that C. novaeguinae
is not present in sufficient abundance to exert a significant effect on reef growth in Hawai`i.
Glynn, P. W. and D. A. Krupp (1986b). "Feeding biology of a Hawaiian sea star corallivore, Culcita
novaeguineae Muller & Troschel." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 96: 75-96.
Several traits were examined in four potential coral prey species (colony form, organic matter content,
caloric density, tissue accessibility, mucus release, cnidocyst composition, toxicity, and colony defense
by crustacean coral guards) to help understand the feeding preference of the Hawaiian asteroid
corallivore Culcita novaeguineae Muller & Troschel.
95
Gochfeld, D. J. and G. S. Aeby (1997). "Control of populations of the coral-feeding nudibranch Phestilla
sibogae by fish and crustacean predators." 130: 63-69.
The aeolid nudibranch Phestilla sibogae (Bergh) is a specialist predator on corals of the genus Porites.
Predation by this gregarious nudibranch causes extensive damage, ultimately mortal, to colonies of
Porites compressa (Dana) kept in laboratory tanks at the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology. In
contrast, individuals of
Phestilla sibogae are seldom found on Hawaiian reefs, even in areas of high coral cover by Porites spp., and
evidence of predation by Phestilla sibogae, such as feeding scars on corals, is rarely encountered. We
tested the hypothesis that predation by coral reef fishes and crustaceans on P. sibogae is an important
factor controlling populations of this nudibranch under natural reef conditions. Survival of nudibranchs
was determined in the presence and absence of two species of reef fishes, a carnivorous wrasse,
Thalassoma duperrey (Quoy and Gaimard), and an omnivorous butterflyfish, Chaetodon auriga
(Forsskal). Both species significantly reduced survival of P. sibogae. T. duperrey was a more efficient
predator on large (1.5 to 3.0 cm length) than on small (0.7 to 1.4 cm length) nudibranchs, while C.
auriga fed equally effectively on both size classes. These differences may be related to foraging
behavior of the fish. Four species of crustaceans were found in abundance within colonies of Porites
compressa, and fed readily on small nudibranchs. The largest and most abundant of these species,
the xanthid crab
Phymodius monticulosus, also consumed large nudibranchs. This combination of
predation by fishes outside the coral colony and by crustaceans inside the coral colony may control
populations of Phestilla sibogae. At low population densities, P. sibogae does not inflict excessive
damage on its coral prey. In the absence of predators, P. sibogae populations have the potential to
explode, resulting in extensive damage and mortality of coral colonies.
Goh, B. P. L. (1991). "Mortality and settlement success of Pocillopora damicornis planula larvae during
recovery from low levels of nickel." Pac. Sci. 45: 276-286.
Gordon, J. A. and P. Helfrich (1970a). An annotated bibliography of Kane`ohe Bay. Hawai`i. Kane`ohe,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology: 260 pp.
This publication is an extensive annotated bibliography of research and related activities conducted in
and around Kane`ohe Bay. A companion listing of species is recommended as a cross-reference
(Gordon and Helfrich, 1970, HIMB Tech. Rep. No. 21).
Gordon, J. A. and P. Helfrich (1970b). Bibliographic species list for the biota of Kane`ohe Bay. Kane`ohe,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology,: 70.
This publication contains a bibliographic list of the species found in the Bay as recorded in the papers
and reports listed in the accompanying Bibliography of Kane`ohe Bay (Gordon and Helfrich, 1970,
HIMB Tech. Rep. No. 20).
Gordon, M. S. and H. M. Kelly (1962). "Primary productivity of an Hawaiian coral reef: a critique of flow
respirometry in turbulent waters." Ecology 43(3): 473-480.
This study describes the results of a new study of coral reef productivity as estimated by changes in
oxygen content in the water flowing over an Hawaiian coral reef. The reef studied is demonstrated not
to be autotrophic. A comparison of the results obtained by both calculation methods, also limitations
apparent in the present data, demonstrate that estimation of productivity of benthic communities
covered by turbulent flowing water is more difficult than had been realized. The reef investigated was
a small fringing reef on the southeast side of Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Gorlick, D. L. (1978). Cleaning symbiosis: factors controlling host species preference and preference change
in Labroides phthirophagus Randall. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 197.
This study investigated the mechanisms for preference behavior between the cleaner wrasse
Labroides phthirophagus and various host fishes at three stations observed in Kane`ohe Bay in 1973.
Radio tracer studies indicated that L. phthirophagus ingests considerable amounts of mucus from the
surfaces of its host. Analysis of the quantity and gross chemical composition of host mucus revealed
species specific differences. Host mucus probably serves as a reliable energy source for L.
phthirophagus and may be important in determining preference under conditions of low ectoparasite
availability. Cleaners also fed more frequently on parasite infected host fish. Ectoparasites may
provide most of the cleaner's protein and are probably the preferred food of L. phthirophagus when
they are available. There was evidence the the presence of ectoparasites led to increased posing by
certain host species.
Gorlick, D. L. (1980). "Ingestion of host fish surface mucus by the Hawaiian Cleaning Wrasse, Labroides
96
phthirophagus (Labridae), and its effect on host species preference." Copeia 80: 863-868.
Gorlick, D. L. (1984). "Preference for ectoparasite-infected host fishes by the Hawaiian cleaning wrasse,
Labroides phthirophagus (Labridae)." Copeia 3: 758-762.
Experiments demonstrated that the Hawaiian cleaning wrasse Labroides phthirophagus showed a
distinct preference for host fishes with crustacean and trematode ectoparasites compared to those that
were ectoparasite free. Cleaners spent more time with, and fed more frequently on, ectoparasiteinfected host fishes. Cleaners also changed preference from one host species to another when the
host carrying ectoparasites was changed to one without ectoparasites. These results suggest that
ectoparasites are an important factor determining preference among host fish species by L.
phthirophagus. Ectoparasites may not be a reliable food source, however, in comparison to host-fish
surface mucus.
14
Gosline, J. M. (1971). Kinetics of incorporation of C-Proline into mesogleal protocollagen and collagen of
the sea anemone Aiptasia. Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V.
Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press: 146-156.
By taking advantage of two unique aspects of collagen, it is possible to investigate the kinetics of
mesogleal collagen formation in the sea anemone Aiptasia. Anemones of Aiptasia sp. were collected
from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Data showed that the presence of disulfide linkages may be common to
many coelenterate nematocysts and tend to support previous findings that the capsule wall of
coelenterate nematocysts is composed of disulfide-linked collagens.
14
Gosline, J. M. and H. M. Lenhoff (1968). "Kinetics of incorporation of C-proline into mesogleal
protocollagen and collagen of the sea anemone Aiptasia." Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 26: 1031-1039.
By taking advantage of two unique aspects of collagen, it is possible to investigate the kinetics of
mesogleal collagen formation in the sea anemone Aiptasia. Anemones of Aiptasia sp. were collected
from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Data showed that the presence of disulfide linkages may be common to
many coelenterate nematocysts and tend to support previous findings that the capsule wall of
coelenterate nematocysts is composed of disulfide-linked collagens.
Gosline, W. A. (1953). "Hawaiian shallow-water description of a new fishes of the family Brotulidae with a
genus and notes on brotulid anatomy." Copeia 4: 215-225.
A review of the shallow-water brotulids known from the Hawaiian Islands with notes on their anatomy.
Microbrotula rubra sp. nov. Holotype; U. S. N. M. No. 162710, a male, 38.3 mm in standard lengths
taken in a rotenone station in about three feet of water over an area of mixed coral and sand in
Kane`ohe Bay on the north coast of O`ahu, October 2. 1948 by Gosline and class.
Gosline, W. A. (1965). "Vertical zonation of inshore fishes in the upper water layers of the Hawaiian Islands."
Ecology 46: 823-831.
A summary of information regarding the vertical distribution of fishes in Hawaiian waters making
reference to the reef in Kane`ohe Bay. The pools in the splash zone contain very few but well
differentiated species of fish. On exposed rocky shores just above sea level,, the herbivorous blenny
is the only fish found among the seaweed. Six meters below sea level are found the herbivores
grazing on the short algal stubble. In the quiet water offshore in the coral zone, there is a greater
diversity of species. Data on the zonation of the fishes below this point is scarce. Preliminary
information suggests that the differentiation of the species at deeper levels is far more gradual and that
there is still a considerable number of species found to at least half a mile in depth.
Gosline, W. A. (1968). "Considerations regarding the evolution of Hawaiian animals." Pac. Sci. 22: 267-273.
A discussion of some aspects of the evolution of oceanic animals. The author explains the occurrence
of insular evolution on oceanic islands and the possibility that this might be a small-scale model of
what has happened on the continents. The details of insular evolution are somewhat unclear and so
the author attempts to explain some of them. With the rapid decimation of many native insular
habitats, soon many of them will be impossible to study. Reference is made to the introduction of the
Marquesan sardine into the waters of Kane`ohe Bay.
Gosliner, T. M. (1980). "The systematics of the Aeolidae (Nudibranchia: Mollusca) of the Hawaiian Islands,
with descriptions of two new species." Pac. Sci. 33: 37-76.
Greenfield, D. W. and J. E. Randall (1999). "Two new Eviota species from the Hawaiian Islands (Teleostei:
Gobiidae)." Copeia 199: 439-446.
Eviota epiphanes has been the only Eviota species known from the Hawaiian Islands, but two
97
additional undescribed species have been discovered. Eviota susanae n. sp. is described from
shallow, sheltered habitats within Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, and Eviota rubra n. sp. from deeper spur and
groove or ledge habitats outside Kane`ohe Bay. Both species share a possible synapomorphy, rugose
genital papillae in both males and females. Both species also differ from E. epiphanes by having a
short, unbranched fifth ray on the pelvic fins and the absence of the IT pore.
Grigg, R. W. (1995). "Coral reefs in an urban embayment in Hawai`i: a complex case history controlled by
natural and anthropogenic stress." Coral Reefs 14: 253-266.
Grottoli, A. G. (1999). "Variability of stable isotopes and maximum linear extension in reef-coral skeletons at
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Mar. Biol. 135: 437-449.
Stable-isotope and growth records of coral skeletons are often used to reconstruct tropical
13
paleoclimate, yet few surveys have systematically examined the natural variability in coral skeletal C,
18
O and maximum linear skeletal extension (MLSE) across depth. Here, interspecific, intraspecific, and
13
18
geographical variations in coral skeletal C, O, and MLSE were examined in the corals Porites
compressa, P. lobata, and Montipora verrucosa grown at 1.7, 5.0, and 8.3 m depth from August 1996
to March 1997 at The Point Reef and Patch Reef #41 field sites in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i.
13
Coral skeletal C values significantly decreased with depth and differed between species, but did not
18
vary between field sites. O values were not significantly different across depth within a species, but
did differ among species and field sites. High-resolution analysis of the intra-annual variation in
13
18
skeletal C and O in P. compressa at 2.0 m depth confirms that these isotopes reflect changes in
solar irradiance and temperature, respectively. Changes in MLSE across depth were consistent within,
but highly variable among, species. Peak MLSE occurred at 1.7, 5.0, and 8.3 m for P. lobata, P.
compressa, and M. verrucosa, respectively. Such interspecific variation in MLSE patterns may be
attributable to one or more of the following: increases in zooplankton in the diet, changes in metabolic
processes, or changes in growth form with depth. Overall, these results imply that natural inter- and
13
18
intraspecific variability in coral skeletal C, O, and MLSE should be considered when interpreting
and comparing coral-based tropical paleoclimate data from various coral species, depths, and field
sites.
Grovhoug, J. G. (1976). A preliminary evaluation of environmental indicator systems in Hawai`i. San Diego,
Ca.
Grovhoug, J. G. and E. R. Rastetter (1980). Marine fouling dynamics in Hawaiian nearshore ecosystems. A
suggested technique for comparison and evaluation. 5th Int. Cong. on Mar. Corrosion and Fouling,
Graficas Orbe, Madrid.
Study of fouling assemblages performed in Pearl Harbor and Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Guinther, E. B. (1970). Biology of some Hawaiian Epitoniidae. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i
Institute of Marine Biology.
A study of four species of Epitonium in Kane`ohe Bay and their associated coelenterates: E. fucatum
Pease (with Maracanthea cookei); E. hyalinamokulensis Pilsbry (with Boloceroides lilae); E. ulu Pilsbry
(with Fungia scutaria); and a species resembling E. costulatum Sowerby (also with F. scutaria). E.
fucatum maintains one large population in Kane`ohe Bay associated with the anemone on which they
feed. Individuals collected in Kealakekua Bay were not in association with any anemone although they
will eat M. cookei, E. hyalina is rare in Kane`ohe Bay although its associated anemone is quite
abundant. E. ulu is the most common species of this genus in the bay. Only three individuals of E.
costulatum were found during the study.
Guinther, E. B. and M. L. Bartlett (1986). A note on comparative quadrat sampling for infaunal and epifaunal
invertebrates, 1968-71 and 1983 Coconut Island reef flat, Kane`ohe Bay. Coral Reef Population
Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Institute
Marine Biology Technical Report No. 37/U. H. Sea Grant Cooperative Report UNIHI-SG-CR-86-01:
111-122.
Lists invertebrates and densities (number/square meter) found in 1968-71 and 1983 surveys of
Coconut Island reef flat. Dramatic changes occurred in infauna and epifauna following termination of
sewage disposal in the bay in 1978, shown by a sharp reduction in numbers of crabs, bivalves and
various filter feeding invertebrates. Sewage abatement apparently reduced the amount of food
available to these species.
Guinther, E. B. and R. Bowers (1976). Kane`ohe Bay urban water resources study: Benthic Biota. Kane`ohe
98
Bay Water Resources Data Evaluation Appendices I and II. Honolulu, U.S. Army Corps. of Engineers.,
Pacific Ocean Division.
Gundersen, K. R. (1973). Microbiology. Estuarine pollution in the State of Hawai`i, Vol. 2: Kane`ohe Bay
study. D. C. e. a. Cox. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i, Water Resources Research Center: 327-341.
The bacterial distribution in Kane`ohe Bay is covered in this study. Ten stations in the bay were
monitored weekly and biweekly in 1968-1969. Fairly complete data are available for the distribution of
total bacteria, fecal coliforms, and enterococci. Nitrification in Kane`ohe Bay was also investigated.
Gundersen, K. R. and D. B. Stroupe (1967). Bacterial Pollution of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu (June through
August 1967). Honolulu, University of Hawai`i, Water Resources Research Center, Manoa: 12 pp.
From June through August 1967, a thorough investigation was made presence and numbers of
coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci), and bacteria capable of growing on peptone-seawater agar. In
contrast to the low count of fecal bacteria in most parts of Kane`ohe Bay, rather high counts of
coliforms, and especially enterococci, were found at several stations in shallow water in the middle
sector. In addition to the study of bacterial pollution of Kane`ohe Bay, data were collected from the
sea south of the island of Maui and surrounding the island of Kauai.
Gupta, K. C. (1967). Marine Sterols. Chemistry. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 185.
A systematic investigation of the sterols of marine invertebrates chiefly the sterols of members of the
family Zoanthidae, phylum Coelenterata, and those of members of the phylum Echinodermata.
Zoanthids for the study were collected during 1964-1967 from various locations including the islands of
O`ahu (Coconut Island), Tahiti, Maui, Eniwetok Atoll and the Marshall Islands.
Gust, G. and J. T. Harrison (1981). "Biological pumps at the sediment-water interface: mechanistic
evaluation of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi and its irrigation pattern." Mar. Bio. 64: 71-78.
Deep-burrowing crustaceans are common on all coasts. In a series of model experiments conducted
at the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology from March to October 1977 on specimens collected from
Kane`ohe Bay, the effect of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi Banner and Banner, on material
fluxes across the sediment-water interface has been determined. Viewed as a "biological pump," the
shrimp's irrigation pattern was not random, but intermittent, with a mean period of 6 min activity and
2
16 min resting. In microcosm experiments with 177 cm burrow-system surface, the pumping of one
shrimp enhanced the release of silica from the pore water by an average factor of 5 compared to
concentration gradient-driven flux across the sediment-water interface in a control core with the same
dimensions but without a shrimp. Data suggest that "real-world models" of interfacial fluxes without
inclusion of the macro-infauna as biological pumps will be unrealistic.
Hadfield, M. G., E. A. Kay et al. (1972). "The Vermetidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Hawaiian Islands."
Mar. Biol. 12: 81-98.
The Hawaiian vermetid fauna comprises 8 species, 7 of which are here described as new. The generic
distribution includes 5 species of Dendropoma and 1 each of Petaloconchus, Vermetus and
Serpulorbis. The species descriptions rely little on conchology, stressing instead descriptions of
animals, habitats and reproductive and developmental characteristics. Feeding is accomplished in all
species by a combination of mucous nets and detrital collection by ctenidial cilia. Only in the single
species of Vermetus, an inhabitant of quiet waters, does ciliary feeding predominate. The Hawaiian
vermetids are very abundant in some localities, with densities ranging from up to 60,000/m2 in one
species of Dendropoma. Reproduction is continuous in all Hawaiian vermetids, most of which produce
small hatching juveniles rather than swimming veligers. Larval or juvenile size is correlated with
available nurse yolk, not with egg size.
Haley, S. R. (1982). "Zonation by size of the Pacific mole crab, Hippa pacifica Dana (Crustacea: Anomura:
Hippidae), in Hawai`i." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 58: 221-231.
Hanson, R. B. (1974). Biological nitrogen fixation in a subtropical eutrophic estuary of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu,
Hawai`i. Dept. of Microbiology. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 127 pp.
Biological nitrogen fixation was investigated in Kane`ohe Bay. Nitrogen fixation was measured by the
acetylene reduction method which was confirmed by the 15-N2 method. The south sector receives
primary and secondary sewage from two treatment plants. A great deal of the sewage-enriched water
escapes to the ocean through the Southeast Channel, some of it reaches the middle sector and mixes
with open ocean water. The north sector water receives nutrient-enriched freshwater run-off from
streams and land drainage. Three major communities were measured for nitrogen fixation: the
estuarine water, the periphytic and the benthic communities. Nitrogen fixation was not found in the free
99
water community. The periphytic algal community showed higher fixation activity in the middle sector;
the benthic bacterial community showed higher rates in the south and north sectors. Nitrogen fixation
in dead coral communities was about 1000 times greater than in live coral.
Haramaty, L. (1991). "Reproduction effort in the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae: Calorimetric analysis of food
and eggs." Pac. Sci. 45: 257-262.
Phestilla sibogae, a nudibranch living on corals of the genus Porites, is rarely found on the reef at
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, although Porites compressa is a dominant coral there. This is probably due to
massive predation on juveniles and adults. Such predation pressure would force this species to put
high effort into reproduction. In this work I found that P. sibogae laid eggs amounting to up to 17% of
their body weight each day. Furthermore, based on a 100% conversion efficiency for ingested coral
tissue, 51-78% of the calories each individual ate daily were channeled into egg production.
Photosynthetic activity of zooxanthellae in the nudibranch's tissue suggests that the algae may provide
some of the energy required by the animal's metabolism.
Harrigan, J. F. (1972). The planula larva of Pocillopora damicornis: lunar periodicity of swarming and
substratum selection behavior. Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
Swarming of the planulae was analyzed according to five physical environmental factors: moon phase,
temperature, tides, photoperiod, and rainfall. Measurements were also made to determine if there is
any relationship between the number of planulae released and the size of the coral head to determine
the distribution of planulae on a coral head.
Harrington, M. E. and G. S. Losey (1990). "The importance of species identification and location on
interspecific territorial defense by the damselfish, Stegastes fasciolatus." Exp. Bio. of Fishes 27: 139145.
The Hawaiian damselfish, Stegastes fasciolatus, defends an all-purpose territory on shallow-water
reefs. By conceptually dividing each territory into 3 horizontal and 2 vertical zones, each intruder into
the territory was recorded by species, zones violated, and reaction of the resident. Species of the
intruder and their position in the territory had an additive effect on the chase response, with position in
the territory as the less important factor. The ecological implications of these results are discussed.
Harrison, J. T. (1981). The influence of Alpheus mackayi on ecosystem dynamics in Kane`ohe Bay. Dept. Of
Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 112 pp.
Field and laboratory studies of lagoon floor sedimentary infauna were performed in Kane`ohe Bay. In
particular, the role of the Alpheus mackayi in the cycling of dissolved nutrients between the sediments
and the water column was examined. Material fluxes from in situ incubations, substratum
manipulations, sediment traps, and specific laboratory experiments were considered in the context of
extant data on ecosystem dynamic processes. Samples were collected from the bottom sediment
throughout the bay.
Hartman (1966). "Polychaetous annelids of the Hawaiian Islands." Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 23: 163-25.
A report assembling all published records of polychaetous annelids named from the Hawaiian Islands.
Some unpublished records are included based on collections from littoral regions. Descriptions are
given of two new species and one new genus.
Harvey, W. A. (1974). The utilization of urea, ammonium and nitrate by natural populations of marine
phytoplankton in a eutrophic environment. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 61 pp.
The utilization rates of urea, ammonium and nitrate have been determined for natural populations of
marine phytoplankton in the South sector of Kane`ohe Bay. The uptake rate of ammonium and nitrate,
in addition to urea, were monitored by time series nutrient analysis. The distribution of phytoplankton
biomass appears to result from the mixing processes associated with wind stress and the tidal prism.
The C/N ratio indicates that the phytoplankton community is less nitrogen deficient than previous
studies reported and therefore may not be nitrogen limited. Based on the relative nutrient uptake rates,
the order of preference was found to be ammonium > urea > nitrate. Mass balance calculations
indicate that the sewage effluent and stream run-off into the South sector contribute only 2.6% of the
total mean uptake rate, but provide the primary nutrient source for maintaining the phytoplankton
concentration.
Harvey, W. A. and J. Caperon (1976). "The rate of utilization of urea, ammonium, and nitrate by natural
populations of marine phytoplankton in a eutrophic environment." Pac. Sci. 30: 329-340.
The utilization rates of ammonium, nitrate ion, and urea were determined for 18 samples of water from
the southern sector of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands. The samples were collected from 14
100
May through 23 Aug 1974. The mean daytime uptake rates for this period were 0 . 040, 0 . 033, and 0 .
h -1
for ammonium, urea, and nitrate, respectively. Dark uptake rates for ammonium, urea, and
013
nitrate from 2 samples were approx 50, 30, and 0% of the daytime uptake rates. The uptake data
indicate that the phytoplankton growth rate is not limited by the availability of fixed N. This conclusion
is supported by the data on the C:N ratio of the phytoplankton, which show that the plants were more
heavily enriched in nitrogen than they had been during previous studies of this part of the bay. Mass
balance calculations show that the supply of fixed N to the nutrient pool from stream runoff and
municipal waste discharge was only 3.5% of the total uptake rate by phytoplankton, and, therefore,
suggest that the in situ regeneration of nutrients is far larger than the new nutrients added to the bay
from these sources
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology (1978). Kane`ohe Bay sewage relaxation experiment, pre-diversion
report. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology: 166 pp.
Hazlett, B. A. (1970). "Interspecific shell fighting in three sympatric species of hermit crabs in Hawai`i." Pac.
Sci 24(4): 472-482.
Interspecific competition is often difficult to measure due to lack of a definitive limiting factor for two (or
more) species. The gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab gives protection to the soft abdomen
but also elicits ritualized shell fighting behavior patterns of hermit crabs. This study was designed to
measure the extent of interspecific competition and investigate the behavioral basis of the results
obtained. Using data from this and other studies, several competition coefficient values based upon
shell inhabitation are obtained and compared. All the individuals used were collected from the
northeast side of a small sandbar, Gravel Island, in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Hazlett, B. A. (1971). "Interspecific fighting in three species of brachyuran crabs from Hawai`i." Crustaceana
20(3): 308-314.
Interspecific agonistic interactions can serve as a direct means of ecological competition. Such direct
competition may result in physical injury, but can also result in a spacing out of individuals as a
consequence of exchanges of ritualized signals. Reports on agonistic interactions between crustacea
of different species have not been common. While working on the sensory physiology of decapod
crustacea in Hawai`i, it was noted that the aggressiveness of certain portunid crabs toward the
experimenter varied greatly from species to species. Initial observations were designed to determine
the relationships between size of interactions and outcome of interspecific aggressive interactions
between three species of crabs obtained from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Agonistic interactions readily
occurred between the crabs of different species, although they were usually brief and involved just a
few behavioral acts.
Hazlett, B. A. (1972). "Shell Fighting and Sexual Behavior in the Hermit Crab Genera Paguristes and
Calcinus, with Comments on Pagurus." Bull. Mar. Sci. 22: 806-823.
The behavioral patterns executed by hermit crabs during shell fights and during sexual behavior are
described for eight species in the genus Calcinus and ten species in the genus Paguristes. The shell
fighting patterns of eight species of Pagurus are also described. The variability in Pagurus is compared
with the consistency seen in Calcinus and Paguristes.
Hazlett, B. A. (1989). "Mating success of male hermit crabs in shell generalist and shell specialist species."
Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 25: 119-128.
The reproductive behavior of two species of diogenid hermit crabs was studied in Hawai`i. In the shell
generalist, Clibanarius zebra, male reproductive success varied little with size, although the largest
males were less successful in obtaining copulations than were medium-large males. Male and female
size were positively correlated, in successful pairs, thus larger males had the potential to fertilize more
eggs when they were successful in obtaining a copulation. In the shell specialist, Calcinus seurati,
which is found primarily in Nerita shells as an adult, males in Nerita shells were quite successful.
Hazlett, B. A. (1990). "Disturbance pheromone in the hermit crab Calcinus laevimanus (Randall, 1840)."
Crustaceana 58(3): 314-316.
The experiments were designed to test for the existence of analogous chemical communication
systems in an unrelated marine crustacean. The intertidal hermit crab Calcinus laevimanus (Randall,
1840) was studied in Hawai`i using specimens collected from Kane`ohe Bay in 1988.
Helfrich, P. (1963). "Fish poisoning in Hawai`i." Hawai`i Medical Journal 22: 361-372.
A review of the categories of fish poisoning, their symptomology, treatment and other information of
value to the public and to physicians. The review makes reference to investigations on the causes of
101
ciguatera being carried out at the Hawai`i Marine Lab, Kane`ohe Bay, and to investigations on tetradon
poisoning using female specimens of Arothron hispidus collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Helfrich, P. and A. H. Banner (1960). "Hallucinatory mullet poisoning - a preliminary report." J. Tropical
Medicine and Hygiene April: 1-4.
Two species of mullet, Mugil cephalus L. and Neomyxus chaptalli (Eydoux and Souleyet) and two
species of goatfish Mulloidichthys samoensis (Gunther) and Upeneus arge (Jordan and Evermann)
have been reported in Hawai`i to cause a type of intoxication termed 'hallucinatory mullet poisoning' by
the authors. Afflictions are sporadic rather than general which has led people to believe that quantities
of the blue-green algae, Lyngbya majuscula, eaten by the fish causes poisoning. However, Lyngbya is
found abundantly in areas where there has been no toxic reports, such as Kane`ohe Bay.
Helfrich, P. H. (1958). The early life history and reproductive behavior of the maomao, Abudefduf
abdominalis (Quoy and Gaimard). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study of the embryonic, larval and adult stages of the maomao with respect to various elements in
the environment which may affect the survival of each stage. Factors controlling the spawning cycle,
fluctuations in abundance and fecundity are also reviewed to determine how they might influence the
reproductive potential of this species. The reproductive activities of the maomao were observed in
Southwest Point and Tuna Road, two shallow water spawning areas on Coconut Island, Kane`ohe
Bay. Results showed the habitat of the maomao to be varied, extending over a considerable range of
depth and substrate type with the exclusion of extensive muddy and sandy areas. The maomao is
broadly omnivorous. Coloration includes two categories - normal adaptive coloration and nuptial
coloration. The structure of the reproductive system is similar to other teleosts with external
fertilization. The sex ratio noted in this study was 68.16% male and 31.4% female but there is
evidence of selective sampling. The fecundity of female maomao was not determined although a
single female was estimated to spawn an average of 21,400 eggs at one time spawning cycle
continued throughout the year with increased spawning from mid-December to September and a peak
in May or June. Eggs are described, mortality, development, rearing and adult rearing behavior as
well as mating behavior .
Helfrich, P. H. and S. J. Townsley (1964-1968). Biology of Palythoa and related forms, U.S. Army Edgewood
Arsenal Laboratories.
A study involving three annual reports, nine quarterly reports, and twenty four monthly reports on the
biology of the Palythoa and related forms. Numerous references to collections of zoanthids from
Kane`ohe Bay are made including a draft of a taxonomic revision of the family Zoanthidae from
Hawai`i.
Data for Kane`ohe Bay:
Zoanthus nitidus Goat Island
Zoanthus confertus Coconut Island on the reef flat, boat channel, lagoon and edge of reef
Palythoa vestitus Coconut Island on reef edge, lagoon and sand flat
Palythoa tuberculosa Coconut Island in the lagoon
Edwardsia sp.
Coconut Island in the lagoon
Epizoanthus ?
Coconut Island on the reef flat
Zoanthus ?
Coconut Island on the reef flat
Palythoa ?
Turtle Island
Palythoa ?
Chinaman's Hat
Henderson, R. S. (1982). "In situ and microcosm studies of diel metabolism of reef flat communities." Proc.
4th Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Manila 1: 679-686.
Diel fluxes of dissolved nutrients and oxygen were determined for shallow benthic communities of coral
rubble and sandy silt. Communities were monitored both in situ using plexiglass domes as enclosures
on reef flat in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i and in flow-through tank microcosms at two nearby research
facilities. Gross production to respiration ratios (P/R's) were below 1.0 for all in situ communities, with
rubble being nearly 30% less productive than silt. Microcosm P/R's were 1.5 to 2.7 times greater than
the corresponding in situ values apparently because of thick algal mats that developed in the
microcosms under reduced grazing pressure. In situ rubble communities released significant amounts
of PO4, NO2 + NO3 and NH4
Henderson, R. S. (1992). A natural resources survey of the nearshore waters of Mokapu Peninsula,
Kane`ohe Marine Corps Air Station. Kane`ohe, Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance
Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Hawai`i Lab: 47 pp.
102
Henderson, R. S. and S. M. Salazar (1996). Flowthrough bioassay studies on the effects of antifouling TBT
leachates. Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects. M. A. Champ and P. F. Seligman. London,
Chapman & Hall: 281-303.
Henderson, R. S. and S. V. Smith (1978). Flow-through microcosms for simulation of marine ecosystems:
Changes in biota and oxygen production of semi-tropical benthic communities in response to nutrient
enrichments. Kane`ohe, NOSC
HIMB, UH: 39 pp.
A flow-through seawater system supplying a series of experimental tanks was constructed in 1974 to
augment laboratory studies of joint marine biological investigations by the Naval Ocean Systems
Center (NOSC) and the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB). This facility draws near-oceanic
seawater from the seaward side of Mokapu peninsula and complements a similar facility drawing water
from the relatively higher-nutrient estuarine environs of Kane`ohe Bay.
Henderson, R. S., S. V. Smith et al. (1976). Flow-through microcosms for simulation of marine ecosystems:
Development and intercomparison of open coast and bay facilities. Kane`ohe, Naval Undersea Center
Technical Paper: 80 pp.
A low-nutrient flow-through seawater facility was constructed on the seaward side of Mokapu
Peninsula (Ulupau Head), O`ahu, Hawai`i. This facility complements a system of similar design
existing in the nearby high-nutrient environs of Kane`ohe Bay. The double-plumbing innovation
introduced at the newer facility has been very successful in reducing antifouling maintenance. A
calibration test was performed to determine interfacility differences in source water chemistry,
organism recruitment, and growth of biota in the tanks. The bay source water generated a diverse,
near-climax community within 60 days. At the oceanic facility succession was much slower and
community productivity was significantly lower than in the bay microcosms. The principal difference in
4
source water macronutrients between the two facilities was the PO content, the bay values being
about double those of the oceanic source. NH3 and NO3 contents were nearly the same, but showed
large fluctuations which correlated with tide and surf conditions.
Herbert, D. A. (1986a). "The growth dynamics of Halophila Hawaiiana." Aq. Bot. 23: 351-360.
Herbert, D. A. (1986b). "Staminate flowers of Halophila Hawaiiana: Description and notes on its flowering
ecology." Aq. Bot. 25: 97-102.
The staminate flowers of the Hawaiian endemic seagrass Halophila Hawaiiana Doty and Stone are
reported from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu and described for the first time. These flowers are highly
ephemeral and anthesis appears to occur only at night. The observation of staminate flowers for
Halophila Hawaiiana leaves only H. johnsonii Eiseman with unreported staminate flowers.
Heyward, A. (1988). "Comparative coral karyology." Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Conf., Tahiti 6: 47-51.
Scleractinian corals investigated in Australia and Hawai`i collected from Kane`ohe Bay all exhibited a
similar pattern of external development. In all species, early cleavages occurred usually every 60
minutes or less. Such externally developing coral embryos provide a source of rapidly dividing cells
which enabled good chromosome preparations to be made. The karyotype of 4 species, representing
3 families, is presented. Preliminary results suggest that karyptypic data will be useful for higher level
systematics. The use of externally developing coral embryos has application to the majority of coral
species and opens the way for extensive cytogenetic investigation of the Anthozoa.
Heyward, A. J. (1986). Sexual reproduction in five species of the coral Montipora. Coral Reef Population
Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of
Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHISEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 170-178.
The timing and scale of sexual reproduction were investigated in five Hawaiian corals of the genus
Montipora. All species were simultaneous hermaphrodites. M. verrucosa and M. dilitata were
observed to shed gametes following the new and full moon, respectively, in July. Spawning was also
inferred for M. studeri and M. verrilli following the July full moon.
Heyward, A. J. and J. A. Stoddard (1985). "Genetic structure of two species of Montipora on a patch reef:
conflicting results from electrophoresis and histocompatibility." Mar. Biol. 85: 117-121.
Spatial patterns of graft acceptance and rejection were different for two species of the coral Montipora
from Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Electrophoretically distinct tissues were capable of fusing, indicating that
clonal identity is not necessarily inferred by acceptance of grafts. For M. dilatata, 18 of 40 cases of
fusion were between dissimilar genotypes and for M. verrucosa, 3 of 7 cases. In one case, fusion
103
occurred between genotypes which shared no alleles. A greater understanding of the genetics of
invertebrate immunology is required before histocompatibility criteria can be used independently to
assess population genetic structure with confidence.
Hiatt, R. W. (1948). "Records of rare Hawaiian decapod crustacea." Pac. Sci. 2: 78-80.
A taxonomic study of some rare or previously unknown decapod crustacea from Hawai`i. Hymenocera
elegans Heller was found in a Porites coral head in Kane`ohe Bay.
Hiatt, R. W. (1951). "Food and feeding habits of the nehu Stolephorus purpureus Fowler." Pac. Sci. 5: 347358.
A study of the food and feeding habits of the nehu in an attempt to learn more of this important baitfish.
Kane`ohe Bay, where the studies were done, provides more than 60% of the total commercial catch
according to statistics of the Territorial Division of Fish and Game.
Results showed that copepods, barnacle nauplii and mysis larvae of shrimps were most important in the diet
of the nehu taken in Kane`ohe Bay, while other animals were more important to nehu in other areas.
The nehu are selective feeders in that they feed only on the crustacean elements in the plankton. The
author concludes that further study on the relation of vigor to size and of size to food available may
indicate the principles underlying the apparent differences in size and vigor of nehu in the various
baiting grounds.
Hidaka, M. (1985). "Tissue compatibility between colonies and between newly settled larvae of Pocillopora
damicornis." Coral Reefs 4: 111-116.
Grafting experiments with newly settled larvae and with adult colonies of Pocillopora damicornis were
performed. Newly settled larvae pairs, when kept in contact fused to form an aggregate even if they
were of different color morphs showing no sign of allogenic rejection. Fusion was observed only when
branches derived from the same colony were paired. The present results suggest that juvenile corals
lack the functional histocompatibility system as shown by adult colonies. Colonies of P. damicornis
were collected from the reef in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Hidaka, M. (1986). Tissue compatibility between colonies and between primary polyps of Pocillopora
damicornis: a preliminary study. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A.
Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37
(Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 151-160.
Higa, G. (1967). A quantitative study of the fixed motor patterns of the shrimp, Stenopus hispidus,
particularly those movements associated with self-grooming. Department of Zoology. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i.
A literature review of shrimp cleaning symbiosis and a quantitative analysis of the fixed motor patterns
in the self-grooming behavior of Stenopus hispidus. To study the latter problems the grooming
behavior of S. hispidus was compared to that of Hippolysmata grabhami to determine the fixed motor
patterns of this behavior in each shrimp. Along with these studies, observations were made on S.
hispidus when one member of the major pair of periopods had been amputated. The research was
conducted on Coconut Island with shrimp from Kewalo Basin and Kane`ohe Bay. Mention is made of
finding six possible new species of shrimp but no descriptions are given.
Higgins, J. H. (1969). Some aspects of the ecology of a bivalve mollusk in Kane`ohe Bay. O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 47 pp.
This study was made 1) to collect relevant ecological data particularly on the distribution and growth of
clams in various parts of the bay in order to determine what limits distribution and any effects pollution
may have on the clam beds; 2) to determine interaction of Tapes with other species, particularly
predators and Lingula reevi, a co-occurring filter feeder; and 3) to study the effects of harvesting on
abundance and population structure. These aspects of the ecology of Tapes were considered in the
light of increasing onshore development in the shores of the southeastern bay and sewage discharge.
The author collected relevant ecological data with emphasis on the distribution and growth of clams
(Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, 1867) in various parts of the bay in order to determine what
limits distribution and the effects (if any) which pollution may have on the clam beds. The author also
determined the interaction of Tapes with other species, particularly predators and L. reevi, and he
studied the effects of harvesting on abundance and population structure. The study was conducted in
the southeastern section of Kane`ohe Bay. Clam distribution was shown to be possibly related to
substratum, circulation, depth and salinity. The larvae settle in the spring, the peak time being
between April and May. The growth rate of the clams varied with location in the bay which may be due
to possible nutritional differences in various parts of the bay. The effects of clammers on the clam
104
population showed the biggest clams on the periphery of the beds were leaving the smaller clams in
the centralized crowded areas. The average weight of the clams dropped 35% (1.7 - 1.1 gms) as
virtually all the clams above the legal size limit (25 mm) were taken. Approximately 50% of the total
clam population was reduced by clammers, 15% of this were clams above the legal size limit,
indicating that smaller clams were being illegally harvested. Several regulations are suggested by the
author to insure the continued harvest of clams.
Hildemann, W. H., C. H. Bigger et al. (1980). "Characteristics of transplantation immunity in the sponge,
Callyspongia diffusa." Transplantation 30(5): 362-367.
Very extensive polymorphism of histocompatibility (H) molecules in the sponge Callyspongia diffusa
was revealed by the incompatibility found among 480 different allogeneic pairings without exception.
This represents some 960 clones utilized as alloparabionts or sources of fitted allografts. Maximal
allosensitization indicated by accelerated second-set reactivity was gradually achieved, as a function
of the interclonal combination, after 2 to 8 days of primary contact. Heightened transplantation
immunity or memory persists for at least 2 to 3 weeks after contact sensitization.
Hildemann, W. H., I. S. Johnson et al. (1979). "Immunocompetence in the lowest metazoan phylum:
transplantation immunity in sponges." Science 204: 420-422.
Isografts of Callyspongia diffusa fuse compatibly, but allografts are invariably incompatible. Extensive
polymorphism of cell-surface histocompatibility markers is evident. The histocompatibility barriers
range from strong to weak depending on the interclonal combination, but early rejection with
conspicuous cytotoxic sequelae is typical. Reaction times of first-set, second-set, and third-party
grafts indicate highly discriminating transplantation immunity with a specific memory component.
Hill, S. D. (1972). "Caudal regeneration in the absence of a brain in two species of sedentary polychaetes."
J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 28(3): 667-680.
Evidence has been obtained showing that unlike the requirements of errant polychaetes studied by
other investigators, at least two species of sedentary polychaetes, Branchiomma nigromaculata and
Chaetopterus variopedatus can undergo caudal regeneration in the absence of a brain. These
experiments suggest that the ventral ganglia rather than the brain are important posterior regeneration
in these species. Polychaetes were collected from the waters around Coconut Island, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Hilton, W. A. (1942). "Pycnogonids from Hawai`i." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 17(3): :43-55.
A taxonomic description of the pycnogonids collected mainly by C. H. Edmondson. A number of new
species and one new genus are described. All the specimens are presently in the Bishop Museum.
Those species collected from Kane`ohe Bay include:
Endeis (Phoxichillus) nodosa n. sp. - collected 1924-1927 from hydroids by V. Pietschmann
Hiromi, J., S. Kadota et al. (1985). "Infestation of marine copepods with epizoic diatoms." Bull. Mar. Sci. 37:
766.
Several copepod species collected in coastal waters of Japan and Kane`ohe Bay of Hawai`i were
heavily infested with epizoic diatoms. Investigation by SEM revealed that these diatoms were
composed of three new species of Diatomaceae and two species of Protoraphidaceae. The authors
report this infestation is more common than previously thought and discuss the ecological significance
of such an association.
Hirota, J. and J. P. Szyper (1976). "Standing stocks of zooplankton size-classes and trophic levels in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands." Pac. Sci. 30(4): 341-361.
Data are presented for the estimated standing stocks of nanozooplankton, microzooplankton, and
macrozooplankton in the southern sector of Kane`ohe Bay. There is evidence that a shift has occurred
in the past decade in the size-composition of the macro- and microzooplankton; during this time the
total amount of zooplankton particulate nitrogen has remained nearly unchanged. The same dominant
species of macro- and microzooplankton still inhabit the bay. We speculate that the historical changes
in the zooplankton of southern Kane`ohe Bay are the result of selection for nanophytoplankton feeders
with rapid rates of metabolic turnover. The size-composition and trophic structure of the southern
Kane`ohe Bay zooplankton and planktivorous nekton in the ecosystem are compared with available
information from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The major differences between these ecosystems
are to be found in the ratio of macrozooplankton:microzooplankton, the predominant trophic level of
zooplankton captured by 0.333-mm mesh nylon nets, and the size of the common epipelagic
planktivorous nekton.
Hixon, M. A. and W. N. Brostoff (1983). "Damselfish as keystone species in reverse: intermediate
105
disturbance and diversity of reef algae." Science 220: 511-513.
Substrates located within the defended territories of Hawaiian damselfish for 1 year were subjected to
intermediate grazing intensity and, as a result, showed greater diversity of algae than substrates either
protected within fish-exclusion cages or exposed to intense fish grazing outside territories. Thus, this
damselfish enhances local diversity on reefs through "intermediate disturbance" effects, and is a
keystone species that decreases rather than increases overall predation intensity relative to areas
where it is absent.
Hixon, M. A. and W. N. Brostoff (1985). " Substrate characteristics, fish grazing, and epibenthic reef
assemblages off Hawai`i." Bull. Mar. Sci. 37: 200-213.
Hodgson, G. (1985a). "Vertical distribution of planktonic larvae of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis in
Kane`ohe Bay (O`ahu, Hawai`i)." Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 4: 349-354.
Preliminary work in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i suggested that planktonic Pocillopora damicornis
planulae more than one day old, may migrate vertically from near the surface to 3-5 m depth during the
day and return toward the surface at night. Differences in planula abundance at the two depths in the
daytime versus the night-time were predicted based on a hypothesis of diurnal vertical migration in
response to light stimulation. Plankton tows were employed to quantify the diurnal, vertical distribution
of Pocillopora damicornis larvae at 0-1 m and 3-5 m depth in Kane`ohe bay. When planulae were
abundant, the average number recovered from the surface tows was significantly greater than the
number recovered from tows taken at 3-5 m depth, both day and night. Predicted differences between
day and night planula abundance at 0-1 m and 3-5 m depth were found on 30% and 55% of the
sample dates respectively. But predicted abundance inversion between depths occurred on 26% of the
days and 62% of the nights. The relatively high abundance at 0-1 m depth was attributed to the
continuous inflow of new planulae released from a nearby reef. This inflow may have masked diurnal
changes in abundance caused by vertical migration alone. A model of the processes affecting the
abundance of coral planulae in the Kane`ohe Bay water column is presented.
Hodgson, G. (1985b). "Abundance and distribution of planktonic coral larvae in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu,
Hawai`i." Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26: 61-71.
A plankton sampling program was designed for the capture of coral planulae. Twelve different types of
cnidarian larvae were recognized. Six were identified as the planulae of the corals Pocillopora
damicornis, Porites compressa, Montipora verrucosa, M dilitata, Cyphastrea ocellina and Fungia
scutaria. Two appear to be the zoanthina larvae of the zoanthids Palythoa vestitus and Zoanthus
pacificus. Limited data indicate that some coral planulae may undertake diurnal migration, residing
near the surface at night and moving to several meters depth during the day. The potential for the
export of large numbers of coral planulae from Kane`ohe Bay is considered high, but whether this
export is significant to recruitment on reefs outside the bay remains to be determined.
Hodgson, G. (1986). Preliminary observations on the abundance and distribution of planktonic coral larvae
in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R.
A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No.
37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 206-233.
A plankton sampling technique designed for capture of coral planulae collected more than 100,000
cnidarian larvae, most of which were scleractinian planulae. Twelve different types of cnidarian larvae
were differentiated. Two appear to be the zoanthina larvae of the zoanthids Palythoa vestitus and
Zoanthus pacificus. Six were identified as the planulae of the corals Pocillopora damicornis, Porites
compressa, Montipora verrucosa, M. dilitata, Cyphastrea ocellina and Fungia scutaria. Peak recovery
generally occurred 3-7 days after the onset of coral spawning or planulation.
Hoffman, K. S. (1987). Daytime changes in oocyte development and plasma estradiol 17 with relation to
the tidal cycle in the Hawaiian saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey. Department of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 98 pp.
Hourly variations in oocyte stages and plasma estradio-17 were measured in association with the
daytime tidal cycle in the Hawaiian saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey during fall and summer
months on fish sampled from Kane`ohe bay. The association of developmental changes with changes
in tide heights of the rate of water movement points to the importance of the tidal cycle or its underlying
lunar influence as a predominant reproductive cue for the wrasse.
Holland, K. N., C. G. Lowe et al. (1992). Growth and movements of the blue and white trevally (Caranx
melampygus and C. ignobilis) in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawai`i Division of Aquatic
Resources, State Department of Land and Natural Resources.
106
Holland, K. N., C. G. Lowe et al. (1996). "Movements and dispersal patterns of blue trevally (Caranx
melampygus) in a fisheries conservation zone." Fish. Res. 25: 279-292.
The short- and long-term movement patterns of blue trevally (Caranx melampygus) were monitored
using a combination of sonic tracking and tag-and-release techniques. All fish were captured and
released on the patch reef surrounding Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, which has
been a no-fishing conservation zone for over 30 years. Sonic tracking produced fine-scale movement
data from five fish for periods spanning up to 18 days. All fish displayed diel movement patterns within
consistent home ranges, which encompassed different parts of the reef during the night than during
the day. Movements were predominantly along the walls of the patch reef, with occasional forays to
nearby sections of adjacent reefs. Four hundred and ten fish were tagged and released on the
Coconut Island reef, and the recapture sites of 85 recaptured fish indicated that most did not move far
from their point of release; 75.5% were recaptured within 0.5 km of their release points. Time at liberty
ranged from 4 to 454 days, and distance between release and recapture sites was not related to time
at liberty. Some fish were observed many times in the same areas over periods of several months.
Both the tracking and recapture data indicate strong site fidelity in this species and low occurrence of
long distance emigration. These behavioral traits suggest that successful husbandry of this species
may be accomplished through the use of management practices such as establishing no-fishing
zones.
Holland, K. N., J. D. Peterson et al. (1993). "Movements, distribution and growth rates of the white goatfish
Mulloides flavolineatus in a fisheries conservation zone." Bull Mar. Sci. 52: 982-992.
The movements, growth rates and distribution of a population of white goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus
were investigated in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, using a combination of tag-and-release and sonic
tracking techniques. The study site was a 137 km super(2) patch reef which has been a no-fishing
conservation zone for over 30 years. The population showed high site fidelity; 93% of recaptures
occurred at the release site, with times at liberty of up to 531 days. Tracking revealed crepuscular
movements away from daytime schooling sites to consistent nighttime foraging groups up to 600 m
away. The route taken between daytime and nighttime habitats was the same each night. Surroundnet quadrats were used to measure goatfish densities on the nighttime feeding grounds. The high site
fidelity and limited range of diel movements of these fish indicate that quite small harvest refugia can
serve to effectively protect populations of mature adults, and that for most of the year, emigration of
adults into adjacent fisheries was minimal.
Holland, K. N., B. M. Wetherbee et al. (1993). "Movements and distribution of hammerhead shark pups on
their natal grounds." Copeia 1993: 495-502.
Ultrasonic telemetry was used to determine the movements and distribution of juvenile hammerhead
sharks (Sphyrna lewini) on their natal grounds in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i (USA). Transmitters
were force fed to six pups which were tracked for periods of up to 12 days. All animals showed a high
fidelity to a shared daytime core area to which they repeatedly returned after exhibiting wider ranging
nocturnal movements. During daytime, the shark pups formed a loose school which moved about
within the core area, hovering about 1.5 m off the bay floor. This daytime refuging behavior may serve
an antipredation function. Nighttime movements covered the bay floor and bases of patch and fringing
reefs and probably represented foraging excursions. Occasional forays away from the core area also
occurred during daytime. The small size of the total activity space may indicate a healthy forage base
for the sharks. Nocturnal swimming speeds were greater than diurnal swimming speeds.
Hollenberg, G. J. (1968). " An account of the species of Polysiphonia of the Central and Western tropical
Pacific Ocean 1. Oligosiphonia." Pac. Sci. 22: 56-98.
A taxonomic account of the Oligosiphonia algae collected by Dr. M. S. Doty (1962) and by the author
in 1948 of the Marshall Islands and in 1964-1965 by Doty of widely scattered central and western
tropical islands in the Pacific Ocean.
Hollenberg, G. J. (1968). "An account of the species of the red alga Herposiphonia occurring in the Central
and Western Pacific Ocean." Pac. Sci. 22: 536-560.
A taxonomic study of fourteen species in the genus Herposiphonia collected in the Central and
Western tropical Pacific Ocean. The nature and arrangement of trichoblasts and of the sexual
reproductive structures as features of taxonomic importance were emphasized. Specimens of H.
parca Setchell were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Hollet, K. J. (1977). Shoaling of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, in the period 1927 to 1976 based on
bathymetric, sedimentological, and geophysical studies, University of Hawai`i, Manoa: 145.
107
Holloran, M. K. (1986). The relationship between colony size and larva production in the reef coral
Pocillopora damicornis. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea
Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 167-169.
The planulation rates of Pocillopora damicornis colonies from throughout the size range in which they
commonly occur in Kane`ohe Bay were experimentally determined. The planulation rate increased
with colony size to a size of 8 cm radius was reached, after which planulation rate decreased with
increasing size.
Holloran, M. K. and W. G. J. (1986). Diurnal periodicity in planula release by the reef coral Pocillopora
damicornis. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University
of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant
Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 161-166.
The hourly planula production rates of the common hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis in
Kane`ohe Bay were measured for three 24 h periods in order to detect any ordered periodicity in the
daily cycle. A single peak in daily production was found which occurred during periods of low tide and
appeared to be independent of photoperiod.
Holly, M. (1935). "Polychaeta from Hawai`i." Bishop Mus. Bulletin 129.
A taxonomic study of the polychaeta collection which was part of a zoological collection made by Dr.
Victor Pietschmann in Hawai`i in 1928. Kane`ohe Bay was one of the collecting sites. Most of the
species described are the pelagic forms of nereids which were captured on the sea surface especially
at night.
Holthus, P. F. (1986). Structural reefs of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i: An overview. Coral Reef Population
Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i
Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) and Sea Grant College Program, Manoa. 37: 1-18.
Systematically describes and characterizes all parts of Kane`ohe Bay from a synthesis of existing
literature.
Holthus, P. F. (1986). Coral reef communities of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i: An overview. Coral Reef
Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i
Institute Marine Biology Technical Report No. 37/U. H. Sea Grant Cooperative Report UNIHI-SG-CR86-. 1: 19-34.
Describes coral reef communities in Kane`ohe Bay, including percent cover for different species and
substrates at six sites throughout the bay.
Holthus, P. F., C. W. Evans et al. (1986). Coral reef recovery subsequent to the fresh water kill of 1965.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers. Kane`ohe, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant
Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 66-75.
The recovery of the coral reef community on a patch reef near Kahaluu in Kane`ohe Bay from a "fresh
water kill' in 1965 was studied by resurveying an a area previously surveyed in 1971. Results show
large increases in the size and numbers of colonies and of coral coverage. Analysis of distribution
reveals an extension of coral coverage further down the reef slope, but with highest abundance in the
upper 5 m. Community diversity decreased slightly as the fast growing Porites compressa became
more dominant.
Holthus, P. F., J. E. Maragos et al. (1989). "Coral reef recovery subsequent to the freshwater kill of 1965 in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i." Pacific Science 43(2): 122-134.
Hoskins, G. P. (1968). The comparative biology and morphology of the parasitic prosobranchs Mucronalia
nitidula Pease, 1860 and Mucronalia n. sp. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i:
117.
A microanatomical study of two species of Mucronalia in an attempt to derive a more satisfactory
description of these molluscs at the familial and subordinal level. Various aspects of the ecology,
zoogeography behavior and physiology as related to nutrient uptake of these two species are also
studied and compared. M. nitidula and its host Holothuria atra, are common in Kane`ohe Bay where
some specimens for this study were collected. Other collection sites included Queens Surf, O`ahu and
the southern coast of Kauai.
108
Houbrick, J. R. and F. V. (1969). "Some aspects of the functional anatomy and biology of Cymatium and
Bursa." Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond. 38: 415-429.
A description of the external anatomy and alimentary canal of two species from the Mesogastropod
superfamily Tonnacea, Cymatium and Bursa with consideration of their food and feeding habits. The
reproductive system of both species is described and their reproductive activity is discussed. An egg
mass with a structure similar to that of Cymatium nicobaricum and containing 400 eggs was dredged
from a hard substratum in Kane`ohe Bay. Three species found in Kane`ohe Bay were studied: Bursa
granularis (Roding, 1789), Cymatium nicobaricum (Roding, 1789) and Cymatium pileare (Linnaeus,
1758).
Houck, J. E., R. W. Buddemeier et al. (1977). "The response of coral growth rate and skeletal strontium
content to light intensity and water temperature." Proc. 3rd Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Miami 2(425431).
Five species of scleractinian corals were maintained in a series of experimental tanks under controlled
conditions for up to eight months. Water temperatures and light intensities were controlled and
monitored continuously. Growth rate was observed to be a function of both temperature and insolation.
Skeletal strontium content decreased linearly with increasing temperature and appeared independent
of insolation. A phylogenetic effect was observed, and separate strontium versus temperature
regression lines for each species were calculated. Conditions of light and temperature stimulating
optimum growth also differed with species.
Howard, L. S., D. G. Crosby et al. (1986). Evaluation of some methods for quantitatively assessing the
toxicity of heavy metals to corals. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R.
A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No.
37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 452-464.
The effects of dissolved copper on respiration, nutrient uptake and release, pigments and
zooxanthellae expulsion were investigated in Montipora verrucosa. The LC50 was determined to be
0.048 mg/L Cu (II). No significant change was detected in any other function after exposure to CU (II)
between 0.01 and 1.0 mg/l, except that polyps were visibly bleached and zooxanthellae expelled in
proportion to copper concentration.
Howe, M. A. (1934). "Hawaiian algae collected by Dr. Paul Galtsoff." Wash. Acad. Sci. 24: 32-42.
The taxonomic report of algae collected by Dr. P. Galtsoff during the summer of 1930 from Kane`ohe
Bay, O`ahu and from Pearl and Hermes Reef, 1200 miles northwest of O`ahu.
Hsiao, S. C. (1965). "Kinetic Studies on alkaline phosphatase from echinoplutei." Limnol. Oceanogr. 10:
R129-R136.
Using mass culture of the sea urchin Tipineustes gratilla eggs, a method was worked out for extracting
fairly large quantities of the phosphomonoesterase alkaline phosphatase. The extracted enzyme
showed a single ultraviolet absorbance band. It showed two characteristics bands in starch-gel
electrophoresis. The optimal temperature for enzymatic action was 25-30C, coinciding with the range
of fluctuations of the animal's ambient temperature.
Huber, M. E. and S. L. Coles (1986). "Resource utilization and competition among the five Hawaiian species
of Trapezia (Crustacea, Brachyura)." Marine Ecol. Prog. Series 30: 21-31.
Crabs of the genus Trapezia and their hosts, the reef corals Pocillopora spp., were collected at 2 sites
on the island of O`ahu, Hawai`i. At one site, Kahe Point, all 5 Hawaiian species of Trapezia were
common, while at Kane`ohe Bay, the other site, only T. intermedia and T. digitalis were abundant.
More than 90% of corals at both sites were inhabited by at least 1 species of Trapezia . Crabs usually
occurred as heterosexual pairs, with a single pair of a given species per coral head. Up to 5 species
were found to co-occur on single coral colonies. T. intermedia is abundant on coral colonies of all
3
sizes, but the other species of Trapezia are largely restricted to colonies larger than 2000 to 4000 cm ,
probably as a result of their aggressive exclusion from small colonies by T. intermedia.
Hunt, J. W., R. Y. Ito et al. (1979). Cooperative Gracilaria Project: Environmental factors affecting the growth
rate of Gracilaria bursapstoris and Gracilaria coronopifolia (Limu). Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea
Grant College Program.
Hunter, C. L. (1985). "Assessment of clonal diversity and population structure of Porites compressa
(Cnidaria, Scleractinia)." Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 6: 69-74.
Intraspecific variability is currently being assessed for a patch reef population of a dominant
hermatypic coral, Porites compressa, in Kane`ohe Bay. Clonemates are distinguishable from allogenic
109
colonies based on corallum morphology and color. Immunocompatibility testing by grafting, and
preliminary electrophoretic analysis have provided corroboration of genetic identity for colonies
representing seven morphotypes. In addition, each morphotype is unique in its total produced
chromatographic signatures characteristic of their particular morphotypes. Variation in UV- absorbing
compounds in this species provides a new method by which individual colonies can be assigned to
different clonal groups. Single colonies tend to dominate large areas (up to 15 m 2), especially on the
seaward side of the patch reef. Even in the most clonally diverse (leeward) areas of the reef, 40% of
the total coral cover is comprised on only three morphotypes, represented by 91 separate colonies.
Asexual (clonal) reproduction, followed by colonization and success due to temporal precedence or
competitive superiority, seems to be an important aspect affecting the population structure of this
species.
Hunter, C. L. (1988). Genotypic diversity and population structure of the Hawaiian reef coral Porites
compressa. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 136.
The assessment of clonal diversity in populations of the endemic Hawaiian coral Porites compressa
was undertaken using four independent assays of genotypic identity: colony morphology,
immunocompatibility testing by tissue grafting, electrophoresis of soluble proteins and chromatography
of ultra-violet absorbing compounds. Experimental specimens were collected from patch reef 43 in
northern Kane`ohe Bay. All methods were corroborative, but electrophoresis of soluble proteins
provided the single most efficacious assay of genotypic diversity, with a 7 locus (21 alleles) system
which was estimated to sufficiently resolve approximately 95% of clonal samples.
Hunter, C. L. (1993). Living resources of Kane`ohe Bay: habitat evaluation section. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, Main
Hawaiian Islands Marine Resource Inventory: 62.
Hunter, C. L. and C. W. Evans (1995). "Coral reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i: two centuries of western
influence and two decades of data." Bull. Mar. Sci. 57: 501-515.
Impacts to Kane`ohe Bay coral reefs have resulted from various effects of natural processes such as
freshwater flooding and erosional runoff. Additional impacts to the reef communities have resulted from
anthropogenic activities concomitant with land use changes.
One of the best documented
anthropogenic changes in Kane`ohe Bay focused on physical and ecological responses during a oneyear period following sewage diversion. After twenty-five years of discharge, two large sewage outfalls
were diverted from the bay in 1977-1978, followed by rapid and dramatic decreases in nutrient levels,
turbidity, and phytoplankton abundance in the previously affected areas. There was a corresponding
change in community structure from one dominated by the green bubble alga, Dictyosphaeria
cavernosa, and filter or deposit feeders, to one or more closely approaching the "coral gardens"
described by Kane`ohe Bay visitors prior to W.W.II. By 1983, D. cavernosa had decreased to 1/4 of its
previous (1970) abundance while coral cover had more than doubled. The last point-source sewage
discharge into the bay was diverted in 1986. Recovery of coral-dominated reef communities in
Kane`ohe Bay was expected to continue with a further decrease in algal cover and an increase in coral
abundance. However, a 1990 survey indicated that, on a baywide basis, 1) algal cover had increased
between 1983-1990 surveys, and 2) the rate of coral recovery established by surveys in 1970 and
1983 had slowed or, in some cases, reversed. Percent cover of D. cavernosa increased at 5 of 15
sites, while live coral showed slight to significant declines at nine sites compared to 1983 levels.
Hunter, C. L. and C. C. Kehoe (1986). Patchwork patchreefs: the clonal diversity of the coral Porites
compressa in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and
R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept.
No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 124-132.
Morphological characteristics were used in conjunction with an immunocompatibility assay to
determine the genetic diversity of a patch reef population of Porites compressa. Virtually identical
colonies which exhibited tissue graft fusion were identified at distances of 0.2 to 100 m across the reef.
In a 2 m X 10 m transect of the reef 49% of the 291 colonies of P. compressa were identified as
belonging to 8 morphologically distinct and immunocompatible groups.
Hunter, C. L., M. D. Stephenson et al. (1995). "Contaminants in oysters in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Mar.
Poll. Bull. 30: 646-654.
Despite past and present concerns about the toxicity and persistence of various environmental
contaminants (heavy metals and pesticides), relatively few studies have documented their
concentrations in tropical or sub-tropical marine ecosystems. In this investigation, a 'mussel watch'
approach was applied in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, to assess the present levels of potential
contaminants in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Geographical gradients of these contaminants
110
were observed and related to what is known about past and present inputs. Concentrations of lead,
copper, chromium and zinc were elevated in oyster tissues near stream mouths in the southern
watersheds of Kane`ohe Bay. Dieldrin and chlordane concentrations in oysters from one of these sites
exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's screening levels to protect human health, and
were much higher than in oysters from the east and Gulf coasts of the temperate mainland USA.
Ingram, W. M. (1937). Fouling organisms in Kane`ohe Bay and Pearl Harbor. Zoology. Honolulu, University
of Hawai`i.
A study concerned with the biological phases of the various organisms which habitually attach
themselves to submerged structures, to note their rate of growth, their relative abundance and
seasonal succession. Because of the economic concern in fouling organisms attention was given to
various experimental and artificial means of preventing or at least discouraging the attachment of
these organisms. The study was centered in Kane`ohe Bay and in Pearl Harbor for 18 and 12 months
respectively starting in September 1935 and October 1935 respectively. The author notes no
important difference in the species between the two areas. The total species list for each area is
given.
Ingram, W. M. (1947). "Hawaiian Cypraeidae." B. P. Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 19(l): 1-23.
A paper 'filling in the gaps in our knowledge' of the twenty-nine species of Hawaiian cowries. An effort
is made to summarize the available published information. Five species of Cypraea are found in
Kane`ohe Bay.
Jander, R., K. Daumer et al. (1963). "Polarized light orientation by two Hawaiian decapod cephalopods."
Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Physiologie 46: 383-394.
A study investigating the orientation behaviour of two small decapods Euprymna morsei and
Sepioteuthis lessoniana, which were caught by night light fishing from the shore of Coconut Island,
Kane`ohe Bay, to determine whether the rhabdom-like structures of the photoreceptors are orientated
to perceive polarized light.
Johannes, R. and L. Tepley (1974). Examination of feeding of the reef coral Porites lobata in situ using time
lapse photography. Proc. 2nd Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Brisbane, Australia.
Porites lobata is not adept at catching zooplankton but does feed both during the night and the day,
with peak feeding activity occurring at dawn and dusk. Observations suggest that zooplankton did not
constitute an important source of energy for P. lobata in outer Kane`ohe Bay during the course of this
study.
Johannes, R. E. (1963). Uptake and release of phosphorus by representatives of a coastal marine
ecosystem. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 42.
An examination of some of the aspects of phosphorus uptake and release in the ecological cycle in the
marine environment. The study also examines the ecological significance of the phosphorus in both
the living and nonliving particles in the sea.- The work was done in part at the marine lab on Coconut
Island. The production and utilization of dissolved inorganic phosphate, soluble organic phosphorus
and detrital phosphorus by representatives of three major trophic levels was studied using diatoms
(producer), amphipod (consumer) and bacteria (transformer). Chemical analyses replaced radiometric
32
analyses where possible using P in an effort to detect small quantities of phosphorus.
Johannes, R. E. (1964a). "Uptake and release of dissolved organic phosphorus by representatives of a
coastal marine ecosystem." Limnol. Oceanogr. 9: 224-234.
A study conducted at Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay concerning the production and utilization of
dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by a diatoms an amphipod and mixed species of marine bacteria.
The amphipod Lembos intermedius Schellberg was collected from seaweed growing at the Hawai`i
Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay. The diatom, Achnanthes subhyalina n. sp. (Dr. P. S. Conger) was
found in a coarse sand . sample of mixed bacteria collected from a subsurface samples 100 meters
east of Coconut Island Kane`ohe Bay. Results showed that over one-third of the soluble phosphorus
released by the amphipod was in organic form (0.79,ug-at DOP/g of animal/hr). Marine bacteria
utilized 80% of this DOP; 30% was hydrolyzed in sterile media, possibly by alkaline phosphotase
released by the amphipods. Bacteria-free diatoms released little DOP during growth, but released
20% of their total phosphorus as DOP after growth has ceased. Growing diatoms reabsorbed 40% of
this DOP; marine bacteria, 92%. No regeneration of dissolved inorganic phosphate from DOP in the
presence of bacteria was noted- Marine bacteria, living or dead, released very little DOP.
Johannes, R. E. (1964b). "Uptake and release of phosphorus by a benthic marine amphipod." Limn.
111
Oceanogr. 9(2): 235-242.
Lembos intermedius releases phosphorus fractions into the water at the following rates: dissolved
inorganic phosphate, 1.4 g-at./g of animal (wet wt) per hr; dissolved organic phosphorus, 0.79 gat./g per hr; particulate phosphorus, 7.9 g-at./g per hr. Both metabolic waste phosphorus and
phosphorus that has not been assimilated but has simply passed through the gut are present in all
three fractions. The total phosphorus release rate drops by more than 50% in 2 hr when the animals
are deprived of food. The physiological turnover time, the time it takes an amount of phosphorus
equal to that in the tissues to pass through the animal whether or not it is assimilated, is 6.6 hr. The
32
dissolved inorganic P taken up by bacteria-free L. intermedius is distributed mainly in the nuclei of
the muscle and hypodermis cells. A higher uptake by nonsterile animals is attributed mainly to their
intestinal flora. This source of phosphorus is insignificant compared with the amphipods' food.
Specimens of L. intermedius were collected from seaweed growing in shallow water beside the
Hawai`i Marine Laboratory in Kane`ohe Bay.
Johannes, R. E. (1974). Sources of nutritional energy for reef corals. Proc. 2nd Int. Coral Reef Symp.,
Brisbane, Australia.
The relative significance of zooxanthellae and external sources of food for hermatypic corals requires
the study of nutritional processes; it cannot be deducted from anatomical or behavioral characteristics
alone. Data are presented showing that the skeleton, tissue and zooxanthellae of some species of
corals grow as fast in filtered seawater as in unfiltered seawater. This study and three other studies
involving a total of nine species of hermatypic coral from the Caribbean and Hawai`i all demonstrate
that reef corals do not always (if ever) require zooplankton as a major source of nutrient energy. Reef
corals have several distinct sources of nutrient energy. Their trophic elasticity helps individuals to
adapt to shifting conditions of food supply. Interspecific variation in the development of specific
feeding mechanisms helps explain the relatively high species richness often observed in relatively
uniform environments. Specimens of Fungia scutaria, Porites compressa, and Montipora verrucosa
were collected from a reef near Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i in June 1969.
Johannes, R. E., J. Maragos et al. (1972). "Oil damages coral exposed to air." Mar. Poll. Bull. 3: 29-30.
Five different types of oil were floated on the water surface over Porites compressa, Montipora
verrucosa and Fungia scutaria collected from Kane`ohe Bay for 2.5 hours. No damage was visible to
these corals over 25 days of observation. However, subsequent experiments at Enewetak indicated
damages to many corals species where the oil was allowed to come into contact with coral surfaces.
This may have been partially due to heating of the corals surfaces which was increased in the black
areas where oil adhered to the corals and temperatures reached 32 deg. C.
Johnson, F. H. (1959). "Kinetics of luminescence in Chaetopterus slime and the influence of certain factors
thereon." J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol. 53: 259-278.
An investigation carried out at Coconut Island on Chaetopterus variopedatus collected from coral in
Kane`ohe Bay to determine the nature and the kinetical properties of the light emitting system,
particularly in the free slime. The initial rate of decay was nearly exponential, but decreased
progressively, ending in a dim, long-lasting glow of luminescence. This decay rate was not altered by
aeration, addition of seawater, FMN, DPNH or by ATP addition. The decay rate was increased by
adding small amounts of decaldehyde to 8 volumes of distilled water. Attempts by various methods to
obtain from the luminescent slime, components active in light emission led to negative or equivocal
results.
Johnson, F. H. and M. M. Johnson (1959). "The luminescent flash of Polycirrus." J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol.
53: 179-186.
A study conducted at Coconut Island with specimens of Polycirrus sp. collected in shallow water from
coral in Kane`ohe Bay to investigate the response of the animal to electrical stimulation. Repeated
inductorium shocks produced a luminescent response consisting of short flashes on the order of a
tenth of a second in duration, with times of slightly over 10 milliseconds to reach half maximum
intensity, and 20 to 24 milliseconds for one half decay at 24-26 deg. C. The rate of decay from
maximum intensity was exponential.
Johnson, G. E. (1965). Behavioral observations of the rock crab, Grapsus grapsus, at Coconut Island,
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Dept. Of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 26.
Johnson, L. R. (1982). Feeding chronology and daily ration of first-feeding larval Hawaiian anchovy,
Stolephorus purpureus. Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i.
Feeding chronologies of 3 size classes of larval anchovy from 2 dates were determined by
112
enumerating the digestive tract contents of specimens taken in hourly plankton tows over periods of 24
hours. The larvae fed only during the daylight hours on both dates. There were no unequivocal trends
in digestive tract fullness during the daytime on either date; aside from very rapid increases and
decreases at sunrise and sunset, respectively, there was no correlation between digestive tract
fullness and incident light measurements.
Johnson, M. M. (1959). "The luminescent flash of Polycirrus." J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol. 53: 179-186.
The luminescent response of Polycirrus sp. to repeated inductorium shocks consists of short flashes,
on the order of a tenth of a second in duration. The response rarely occurred on the first stimulus and
usually 10 or 12 make-break stimuli at one-second intervals were required, though occasionally as
many as forty. The rate of decay from maximum intensity was exponential.
Johnson, V. R., Jr. (1967). Aspects of pair formation in the banded shrimp Stenopus hispidus Olivier.
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 39.
Study of behavior associated with pair formation in Stenopus hispidus on specimens collected from
patch reefs in Kane`ohe Bay and elsewhere on O`ahu.
Johnson, V. R., Jr. (1971). Individual recognition in the banded shrimp Stenopus hispidus (Olivier)
(Decapoda, Stenopodidae). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 113 pp.
The apparent stability of Stenopus hispidus male-female pairs throughout this shrimps range
suggested that it may be capable of individual recognition. This was tested using S. hispidus
specimens collected from patch reefs in Kane`ohe Bay and elsewhere on O`ahu. Results are
interpreted to indicate that S. hispidus can distinguish a singular and particular con-specific animal,
and that it can distinguish its partner from all other con-specific animals.
Johnson, V. R. J. (1969). "Behavior associated
with pair formation in the banded shrimp Stenopus
hispidus (Olivier)." Pac. Sci. 23: 40-50.
A study investigating intraspecific sex recognition and pair formation in Stenopus. Some aspects of
this behavior studied were the quickness with which the shrimps form pairs, whether the pair in the
field is always male and female and how intraspecific sex recognition is accomplished. Shrimp were
caught in the Ala Wai Yacht Harbor, the Diamond Head and Ala Moana reefs and one third of the
specimens were taken from the Kane`ohe Bay reef.
Johnson, V. R. J. (1977). "Individual recognition in the banded shrimp Stenopus hispidus (Olivier)." Anim.
Behav. 25(Reprint No. 32): 418-428.
Mated pairs of the shrimp Stenopus hispidus were given a series of tests in which individuals were
temporarily isolated from conspecifics and subsequently re-paired with either their previous mate or a
stranger. Each stranger was a conspecific of the same size, sex, and apparent appearance as the test
individual's previous mate, but an animal with which the test individual had no previous experience.
Individuals behave differently when re-paired with previous mates than when re-paired with strangers,
indicating that S. hispidus can distinguish previous mates from other conspecifics. Therefore, S.
hispidus is capable of individual recognition, a capability previously demonstrated in several vertebrate
species but only a few invertebrates. In S. hispidus chemical stimuli are the most probable basis for
individual recognition.
Johnston, I. S. (1976). The tissue skeleton interface in newly settled polyps of the reef coral Pocillopora
damicornis. The mechanisms of mineralization in the invertebrates and plants. N. Watabe and K. M.
Wilbur. Columbia, South Carolina, University of South Carolina Press. 5: 249-260.
In order to provide a cytological framework for the development and testing of hypotheses related to
reef-coral calcification is under examination. Initial studies have concentrated on the newly-settled
coral polyp during the first three days of benthic life. The first-formed skeletal elements are flattened
lamellae of organic material produced from one or more of three distinct types of vesicle within the
epithelium. Granules distributed through these lamellae may represent the site of initial calcium
carbonate deposition. Pocillopora damicornis colonies were collected from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Johnston, I. S. and W. H. Hildemann (1983). "Morphological correlates of intraspecific grafting reactions in
the marine demosponge Callyspongia diffusa." Mar. Bio. 74: 25-33.
There are profound differences in the ways that the sponge Callyspongia diffusa reacts to self versus
non-self tissue contact. Allograft rejection reactions in sponges have many of the hallmarks of
histoincompatibility reactions in higher animals. Although there could be different alloimmune
mechanisms operating in different animals, the salient events of allorecognition and antagonistic
rejection appear strikingly similar among diverse multicellular animals.
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Johnston, I. S., P. G. Jokiel et al. (1981). "The influence of temperature on the kinetics of allograft reactions
in a tropical sponge and a reef coral." Biol. Bull. 160: 280-291.
Many tropical sponges and reef-building corals demonstrate highly discriminating transplantation
immunity when grafted with allogeneic tissue. The speed of rejection changes seasonally, therefore
the role of temperature was investigated. Replicate parabiotic allografts of a Hawaiian sponge,
Callyspongia diffusa, and a reef-coral, Montipora verrucosa, (sponges and corals were collected from
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu) were exposed to three different temperature regimens: approximately 23  25 ,
and 27 C. The influence of temperature on the outcome of intraspecific competition suggests that
temperature fluctuations could maintain high levels of genetic polymorphism within individual
populations of sponges and corals.
Jokiel, P. L. (1978). "Effects of water motion on reef corals." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 35: 87-97.
The Hawaiian reef coral Pocillopora meandrina Dana is restricted to turbulent environments. P.
damicornis (L.) is most abundant on semi-protected reefs, while Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck) is
characteristic of very calm environments. These species, collected from Kane`ohe Bay, were grown in
the laboratory under various conditions of water motion. Water motion influenced the growth,
mortality, and reproductive rate, of each species differently. The differences may be attributed to
morphological adaptations of the corals to their normal hydrodynamic environment. Water motion
appears to influence corals by controlling the rate of exchange of material across the interface
between the sea water and the coral tissue.
Jokiel, P. L. (1980). "Solar ultraviolet radiation and coral reef epifauna." Science 207: 1069-1071.
Many "shade-loving" reef organisms show adverse effects when irradiated with full natural sunlight but
not if radiation shorter than 400 nanometers is screened out. Shortwave solar radiation appears to be
an important physical factor controlling the biology of shallow tropical benthic marine communities.
The reefs of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, conform to this depauperate epifauna with photosynthetic
coelenterates well represented] pattern, except where shaded by large piers or wharves.
Jokiel, P. L. (1985a). The photobiology of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis and symbiotic algae.
Department of Oceanography. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 221.
The reef coral Pocillopora damicornis and its symbiotic zooxanthellae show strong biological
responses to subtle changes in the spectrum, intensity and modulation of the natural radiation
environment in the 280 nm to 700 nm range. Corals collected form Kane`ohe Bay and in vitro cultures
of zooxanthellae were grown in full spectrum solar radiation and in filtered sunlight having the same
photosynthetically active radiance. but lacking ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Skeletal growth rate of the
corals was decreased by approximately 50% in the treatment with full solar UV radiation. Corals
grown in the treatment without solar UV radiation contained less of the "S-320" UV-absorbing
substances. In contrast, culture of the algae grown in vitro in UV-transparent quartz vessels were
severely inhibited by solar UV radiation The impact of UV was far more severe in the "shade loving"
genetic strain of zooxanthellae than in the "sun loving" strain.
Jokiel, P. L. (1985b). "Lunar periodicity of planula release in the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis in relation
to various environmental factors." Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti 4: 307-312.
The relationship between lunar phase and time of monthly spawning in the reef coral Pocillopora
damicornis varies between and within different geographic locations. Phase relationship appears to be
controlled by genetic factors. The major environmental factor controlling synchronization and timing of
the monthly cycle is night irradiance. Many other environmental factors including temperature, salinity,
tidal cycle, visible irradiance and ultraviolet radiation influence the number of planulae released per
spawning cycle. This paper is concerned with factors that influence the monthly spawning cycle in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Jokiel, P. L. (1986). Growth of the reef coral Porites compressa on the Coconut Island reef. Coral Reef
Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i
Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHISEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 101-110.
Direct measurement of growth of Porites compressa over four years between 1979 and 1973 yielded
-1
-1
the following values for branch elongation: 1.5 cm yr in a shallow backwater lagoon, 2.4 cm yr on
-1
-1
the windward reef crest, 3.5 cm yr at 3 m depth on the reef slope and 2.8 cm yr at a depth of 7 m.
During this study Hurricane Iwa damaged sections of the reef and revealed a weakened layer of reef
framework that was laid down during the period of sewage pollution ca. 1960-1978
114
Jokiel, P. L. (1998). Energetic cost of reproduction in the coral Pocillopora damicornis: a synthesis of
published data. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu,
HIMB, UH: 41-45.
The Hawaiian reef coral Pocillopora damicornis produces thousands of large larvae on a monthly cycle
throughout the year and represents coral species that divert large amounts of energy into reproduction.
Even so, review of existing data suggests that energetic cost of reproduction in this species represents
only a few percent of net primary production. This is a conservative estimate of the energetic cost of
reproduction because the analysis did not consider heterotrophic sources of energy. It appears that
reproduction is a minor component of the total annual energy budget of reef corals. Data suggest that
cost of maintenance and growth of coral colonies requires most of their energetic resources, with little
being devoted to sexual reproduction.
Jokiel, P. L. and S. L. Coles (1977). "Effects of temperature on the mortality and growth of Hawaiian reef
corals." Mar. Bio. 43: 201-208.
Three common species of Hawaiian reef corals [removed from shallow Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu reef
flats], Pocillopora damicornis (L.), Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck) and Fungia scutaria Lamarck, were
grown in a temperature-regulated, continuous flow sea water system. The skeletal growth optimum
occurred near 26 C, coinciding with the natural summer ambient temperature in Hawai`i, and was
lowest at 21 to 22 C, representing Hawaiian water ambient. The corals showed greater initial
resistance at the lower lethal limit, but ultimately low temperature was more deleterious than high
temperature. Results suggest that a decrease in the natural water temperature of Hawaiian reefs
would be more harmful to corals than a temperature increase of the same magnitude.
Jokiel, P. L., S. L. Coles et al. (1975). Effects of thermal loading on Hawaiian reef corals. Washington D. C.,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Monitoring: 285 pp.
This investigation was initiated to provide predictive information on the effects of heated effluent on
reef corals and associated biota in Kane`ohe Bay. It was begun as a result of HECO's purchase of
land on the shoreline at Heeia Kea for a proposed steam electric generating station. In addition, the
program was directed at providing information required for regulation of the expanding thermal
pollution threat in the many tropical and subtropical locations under the EPA's jurisdiction. Field
surveys and experiments to study the thermal responses of corals were conducted, and the results
were used to construct recommendations.
Jokiel, P. L. and H. P. Cowdin (1976). Hydromechanical adaptation in the solitary free-living coral Fungia
scutaria. Nature. 262: 212-213.
Scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria found on reef flats in Kane`ohe Bay, produces a dense skeleton
that is adapted for stability and abrasion in turbulent water. Of several coral species tested for stability,
F. scutaria, in addition to use of muscular activity, hydromechanical adaptation is a significant factor in
many species of solitary free-living corals.
Jokiel, P. L. and E. B. Guinther (1978). "Effects of temperature on reproduction in the hermatypic coral
Pocillopora damicornis." Bull. Mar. Sci. 23(4): 786-789.
The optimal reproductive temperature for the coral Pocillopora damicornis (L.) in Hawai`i compares
with the 26-27 C optimum previously reported for skeletal growth. The reproductive peak is
approximately ten times stronger than the observed growth response for the species. Temperature
appears to influence abundance of this species primarily through control of the reproductive process.
Experiments were conducted in tanks receiving lowing seawater from Kane`ohe bay and stocked with
corals collected from Kane`ohe Bay reefs.
Jokiel, P. L., W. H. Hildemann et al. (1982). "Frequency of intercolony graft acceptance or rejection as a
measure of population structure in the sponge Callyspongia diffusa." Mar. Biol. 71: 135-139.
The sponge Callyspongia diffusa showed a rate of graft acceptance ranging from 5 to 23% between
colony pairs testing at random from a highly localized population occurring on a small fringing reef flat
in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. The frequency of graft compatibility varied inversely with distance
between the colonies over a range of from 0.1 to 11.9 m. Pairs of colonies in close proximity (5 to 50
m), but from opposite sides of deep channels, were invariably incompatible. Likewise, graft acceptance
was not observed for colony pairs taken from different reefs of the bay and separated by a distance of
from 2 to 3 km. C. diffusa propagates sexually by production of larvae and asexually by means of
branch fragments.
Jokiel, P. L., W. H. Hildemann et al. (1983). "Clonal population structure of two sympatric species of the reef
coral Montipora." Bull. Mar. Sci. 33(1): 181-187.
115
Determination of coral colony derivation in a natural population using immunogenetic tissue grafting
was conducted using several Hawaiian species in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Jokiel, P. L., C. L. Hunter et al. (1993). "Ecological impact of a fresh-water "reef kill" in Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, Hawai`i." Coral Reefs 12(3/4): 177-184.
Storm floods on the night of December 31, 1987 reduced salinity to 15 ppt in the surface waters of
Kane`ohe Bay, resulting in massive mortality of coral reef organisms in shallow water. A spectacular
phytoplankton bloom occurred in the following weeks. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by high
concentrations of plant nutrients derived partially from dissolved material transported into the bay by
flood runoff and partially by decomposition of marine organisms killed by the flood. Within two weeks of
the storm, chlorophyll a concentrations reached 40 mg m-3 one of the highest values ever reported.
The extremely rapid growth rate of phytoplankton depleted dissolved plant nutrients, leading to a
dramatic decline or "crash" of the phytoplankton population. Water quality parameters returned to
values approaching the long-term average within 2 to 3 months. Corals, echinoderms, crustaceans
and other creatures suffered extremely high rates of mortality in shallow water. Virtually all coral was
killed to depths of 1-2 m in the western and southern portions of the bay. Elimination of coral species
intolerant to lowered salinity during these rare flood events leads to dominance by the coral Porites
compressa. After a reef kill, this species can eventually regenerate new colonies from undifferentiated
tissues within the "dead" perforate skeleton. Catastrophic flood disturbances in Kane`ohe Bay are
infrequent, probably occurring once every 20 to 50 years, but play an important role in determination of
coral community structure. The last major fresh water reef kill occurred in 1965 when sewage was
being discharged into Kane`ohe Bay. Coral communities did not recover until after sewage abatement
in 1979. Comparison between recovery rate after the two flood events suggests that coral reefs can
recover quickly from natural disturbances, but not under polluted conditions.
Jokiel, P. L., R. Y. Ito et al. (1985). "Night irradiance and synchronization of lunar release of planula larvae in
the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis." Mar. Bio. 88: 167-174.
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus), which is known to release planula larvae on a monthly cycle, was
grown in full daytime solar irradiance, but with four treatments of night irradiance: (1) natural light
irradiance, (2) shifted-phase (total darkness during nights of full moon with artificial irradiance at lunar
intensity on nights of new moon), (3) constant full moon (full lunar irradiance every night), and (4)
constant new moon (total darkness every night). Populations of corals grown either in the constant full
moon or constant new moon treatment quickly lost synchronization of monthly larva production,
although production of planulae continued. Thus spawning is synchronized by night irradiance. Two
different morphological forms of P. damicornis were used. These two types and others co-occur
throughout Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Jokiel, P. L., M. P. Lesser et al. (1997). "UV-absorbing compounds in the coral Pocillopora damicornis:
interactive effects of UV radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, and water flow." Limnol.
Oceanogr. 42: 1468-1473.
Jokiel, P. L. and J. I. Morrissey (1986). "Influence of size on primary production in the reef coral Pocillopora
damicornis and the macroalga Acanthophora spicifera." Mar. Bio. 91: 15-26.
Size influences the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) relationship in colonies of the branched reef-coral
Pocillopora damicornis and in intact plants of the branched red macroalga Acanthophora spicifera. Net
primary production of an entire colony or plant (or rate per unit area of reef) increases with increasing
size of the canopy. Production efficiency also increases with size. The coral is rigid, symmetrical and
highly organized. Chlorophyll distribution is more stratified in comparison to the macroalga. The coral
shows higher photosynthetic efficiency, as would be expected according to the stratified production
model of Odum et al. (1958). This research was conducted on specimens from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu,
Hawai`i, USA in 1981.
Jokiel, P. L., R. H. Richmond et al., Eds. (1986). Coral Reef Population Biology., University of Hawai`i
Institute Marine Biology Technical Report No. 37/U. H. Sea Grant Cooperative Report UNIHI-SG-CR86-0.
This volume is an edited collection of research conducted during the 1983 Summer Studies Program
emphasizing all aspects of coral reef population biology. Forty-one separate studies are reported,
describing research done by a group of highly distinguished scientists and students who gathered at
the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology on Coconut Island during the summer of 1983 to participate in a
program titled `Coral Reef Population Biology'. It contains papers in the following sections: (1)
introductory material on coral reefs and communities in Kane`ohe Bay, (2) Kane`ohe Bay reef
populations in transition, (3) genetic structure of coral reef populations, (4) patterns of reproduction in
116
coral reef population, (5) interactions among coral reef species, (6) physiology of the coralzooxanthellae relationship, (7) coral reef populations and toxic waste, and (8) mathematical models.
Jokiel, P. L., R. H. Titgen et al. (1991). Guide to the marine environment of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Kane`ohe, Hawai`i, HIMB, UH: 50.
A reference for those involved in the in the interpretation of Kane`ohe Bay, with emphasis on the
marine resources near Heeia State Park. It is a synthesis of extensive scientific literature on the
marine environment of this region. It is written in simplified language for use by non-scientists and
focuses on various facets of significant interpretive and educational value. To date, the primary users
of the Heeia State Park facility (in order of numbers) have been: elementary school pupils, the
community in general, and visitors (Ron Mortimer, pers. comm.). This trend is continuing. Therefore,
the scope of this report is the range of technical and general interest information concerning the
Kane`ohe Bay region that are of interest to the general public.
Jokiel, P. L. and S. J. Townsley (1974). "Biology of the polyclad Prosthiostomum (Prosthiostomum) sp., new
coral parasite from Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 28: 361-373.
This species of polyclad flatworm is an obligate ectoparasitic symbiont of the hermatypic coral
Montipora. Studies have demonstrated an intimate parasite/host association involving the use of host
corals as food and substrate by the parasite. Various aspects of the biology of the parasite are
reported. It is concluded that all aspects of the lift history of this species show adaptations toward host
specificity, representing a rare example of true coral parasitism since most animals known to feed on
coral tissues are considered to be facultative predators. The parasite appears to become a serious
coral pest only in disrupted systems such as artificial laboratory situations or in the stressed portions of
Kane`ohe Bay.
Jonasson, M. W. (1986). Cleaning behavior comparison of two shrimp species (Stenopus hispidus and
Lysmata grabhami). Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea
Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 361-379.
This study was conducted to determine the variance in specialization of fish cleaning behavior
between the banded shrimp, Stenopus hispidus, and the red-backed cleaner shrimp Lysmata
grabhami, two of seven shrimp recognized as cleaners. Shrimp were tested with three host species:
the yellow butterflyfish Chaetodon auriga, the millet seed butterflyfish Chaetodon miliaris and the
yellow surgeonfish Zebrasoma flavescens.
Jones, R. S. (1967). Ecological relationships in Hawaiian and Johnston Island Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes)
with emphasis on food and feeding habits. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i:
245.
An investigation of the ecological relationships of the surgeonfishes of the Hawaiian Islands and
Johnston Island with emphasis on the ecological separation by habitat, foraging methods and food
eaten. In addition, comparative studies of the gross morphology of the alimentary canals of the
species were undertaken in an effort to elucidate possible 'adaptations' in the feeding mechanisms of
the species. The author had four stations in the Kane`ohe Bay area: Moku Manu (no. 9), Kane`ohe
Outer reef (10), Kane`ohe Bay (11). and Kuloa Point (12). Most of the experimental work was done in
La Perouse Bay, Maui, in Kealakekua Bay, Hawai`i, and on Johnston Island.
Jones, R. S. (1968). "Ecological relationships in Hawaiian and Johnston Island Acanthuridae
(surgeonfishes)." Micronesica 4: 309-361.
An investigation of the ecological relationships of the surgeonfishes of the Hawaiian Islands and
Johnston Island with emphasis on the ecological separation by habitat, foraging methods and food
eaten. In addition, comparative studies of the gross morphology of the alimentary canals of the
species were undertaken in an effort to elucidate possible 'adaptations' in the feeding mechanisms of
the species. The author had four stations in the Kane`ohe Bay area: Moku Manu (no. 9), Kane`ohe
Outer reef (10), Kane`ohe Bay (11). and Kuloa Point (12). Most of the experimental work was done in
La Perouse Bay, Maui, in Kealakekua Bay, Hawai`i, and on Johnston Island
Jordan, D. S. and B. W. Evermann (1902). The fishes and fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands: A preliminary
report, U. S. Fish Comm.: 353-380.
A comprehensive report on the fishes and fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands, including a qualitative and
quantitative study of the commercial and shore fishes, molluscs, crustaceans and other aquatic
animals and plants. The methods, extent and history of the fisheries and the fishery laws are also
reviewed and the possibilities of improving methods of fishing, handling and marketing are discussed.
117
When discussing the fishery laws, the shoal areas around Kapapa Island in Kane`ohe Bay are noted
for their abundance of fish (p. 364). This area was put under the protective taboo of the tax officers for
the king at certain times of the year.
Jordan, D. S. and B. W. Evermann (1905). "The shore fishes of the Hawaiian Islands." Bull. U. S. Fish
Comm. 23: 1-574.
A brief summary of ichthyological work on the Hawaiian fauna previous to 1901 and a descriptive
report of the shore fishes found by the U. S. Fish Commission's studies in 1901 and 1902. Field
investigations in 1901 were devoted to shore fishes (of which this is the final report) and in 1902 the
studies were primarily on deeper fauna (in which there was no mention of fish caught in Kane`ohe Bay
area - Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. for 1903,, par-,, 2: 765 pp.). Most of the collecting was done in
Honolulu, although visits were made to Hilo, Lahaina (Maui), Kailua and Molokai and other places.
The Honolulu market was the largest collecting area, while great numbers of specimens were obtained
in shallow water and on coral reefs about Honolulu, Waikiki, Moana Lua, Waianae, Wailua, Waimea
and Heeia. On p. 248 the authors report finding Sectator azureus Jordan and Evermann (family
Kyphosidae) in Heeia, O`ahu . The authors commented that "this species must be very rare being
unknown to the fisherman and only a single specimen having been obtained by us". Type no. 50664,
U. S. N. M. (field No. 03363), 15.25 in. long, being taken off the shore near Heeia,, O`ahu.
Josephson, R. K. and S. C. March (1966). "The swimming performance of the sea-anemone, Boloceroides."
J. Exp. Biol. 44: 493-506.
A study of the swimming ability of Boloceroides and the ways in which the usual anemone organization
has been modified for swimming. The animals were collected in the vicinity of Coconut Island.
Results showed that the anemones swim by a repeated aboral-oral inflection of the tentacles which
make up over 90% of the weight of the anemone. The tentacles at different distances from the mouth
were shown to beat slightly out of phase with each other. The swimming velocity was about 1.9
cm/s6cond. In tethered swimming experiments, it was shown that the maximum forward force
developed during a stroke increases with animal size approximately as the square of the diameter of
the tentacle crown. The average forward force of the flexion cycle is about 5% of the maximum force
due to the rearward recovery portion of the cycle.
Kami, H. (1961). Introduction of marine game fishes from areas in the Pacific, Reef and Inshore Game Fish
Management Research Project.
A study involving the biology of certain Pacific game fish in their native habitat, their transportation to
new habitats and their recovery. Snappers L. vaigiensis were caught in commercially operated mullet
ponds on three occasions in Kane`ohe Bay. Each was tagged and released for later compilation of
growth data.
Kami, H. (1962). Introduction of marine game fishes from areas in the Pacific, Reef and Inshore Game Fish
Management Research Project.
A study in which 7,200 snappers and groupers consisting of 4 species each, were collected at Moorea,
French Oceania and live-shipped to O`ahu where the entire shipment was released at an artificial
shoal site at Maunalua Bay. Live specimens were occasionally recovered by local commercial
fishermen, measured, weighed and tagged and then released for growth rate and migration data.
Reference to Kane`ohe Bay:
40 specimens of Lutjanus gibbus were released into Kane`ohe Bay from Marquesas Islands in 1958 no recoveries.
Epinephelus merra were released into Kane`ohe Bay in 1956 - no recoveries.
Kaneko, J. J., Y. R. et al. (1988). "Infection of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Trewavas), by a marine
monogenean, Neobenedenia malleni (MacCallum, 1927) Yamaguti, 1963 in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i,
USA, and its treatment." J. Fish Dis. 11: 295-300.
A disease of saltwater, cage-cultured tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus , caused by the marine
monogenean, Neobenedenia melleni , is described. Up to 400 parasites were found attached to the
body surface of individual fish. Heavily infected fish showed hyperirritability, heavy mucus secretion
and discoloration. Pathology was most marked on the eye, with corneal opacity initially, followed by
buphthalmos, corneal ulceration and rupture of the eye with subsequent degeneration of internal
structure. The infection was successfully treated using 2 min freshwater dips.
Kaneko, J. J., II, R. Yamada et al. (1988). "Infection of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Trewavas), by a
marine monogenean, Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927) Yamaguti, 1963 in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i, USA, and its treatment." J. Fish Dis. 11(4): 295-300.
118
Kay, E. A., (ed.) (1970a). The biology of molluscs. A collection of abstracts from the National Science
Foundation Graduate Research Training Program, June-September 1968. Kane`ohe, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology: 30 pp.
A collection of 26 abstracts of projects completed during the NSF sponsored Graduate Training
Program on The Biology of Molluscs,, 'held at the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology during the
summer of 1968 - 17 June to 6 September.
Kay, E. A. (1970b). Some common vermetid gastropods of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu and their methods of
feeding. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology: 30 pp.
A description of the feeding methods of six commonly occurring vermetids (Mesogastropods:
Vermetidae) in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Only one, Dendropoma platypus Morch has been previously
recorded in Hawaiian waters; the others, 2 species of Dendropoma, one species of Serpulorbis and
two species of Vermetus appear to be undescribed. All are solitary forms, occurring on coral, sea
walls, etc.
Kay, E. A. (1973). Micromollusks. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: a reef ecosystem under stress. S. V. Smith, K. E.
Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea Grant. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-TR-72-01:
93-97.
This study explores some of the distribution patterns shown by several micromolluscan species in
Kane`ohe Bay. Superficial sediments from 41 stations in Kane`ohe Bay were collected. The shells
were identified, and the dominant species were analyzed in terms of the assemblages in which they
occurred and of their distribution within Kane`ohe Bay. Three maps, which show the distribution of
micromolluscan assemblages and their compositions, are included. does not identify component
species.
Kay, E. A. (1976). Micromolluscan Assemblages in Kane`ohe Bay: Final Report for the US Army Engineers.
Honolulu, Us Army Corps Of Engineers, Pacific Division.
The purpose of this study was to provide a report on the characteristics and distribution of the
micromolluscan fauna of K-Bay which will serve to characterize their potential use as biological
indicators of water quality. The scope of this work included the collection of sediment samples at sites
within K- Bay representing stations from stream mouths, fringing reefs, patch reefs, the barrier reef,
and bay bottom, as well as control sites outside the bay; the analysis of samples for species
composition, standing crop, species diversity and trophic structure; and a study of the biology and life
history of some of the more commonly occurring species.
Kay, E. A. (1979). Hawaiian Marine Shells. Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawai`i. Section 4: Mollusca. D. M.
Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Honolulu, Bishop Museum press. B. P. Museum Spec. Publ. 64(4): 1652.
Description and taxonomic revision of molluscs for Hawai`i, including those collected by author in early
1970s in Kane`ohe Bay.
Kaya, M. H. (1971). The adsorption of phosphorus by Kane`ohe Bay sediment. Honolulu, University of
Hawai`i: 139.
In a study designed for direct application to the state's water pollution control efforts, alluvial sediment
from Kane`ohe Bay near the mouth of Kane`ohe Stream was equilibrated with solutions of phosphorus
free and phosphorus-containing waters. Two equilibration systems were used and the resulting
concentrations of phosphorus were compared with in situ levels at the collection site and with the
maximum permissible level stated in the state's water quality standards for Class AA water. Finally,
the adsorption-desorption phenomena of the sediment was mathematically modeled by the Freundlich
adsorption isotherm.
Key, G. S. (1973). Reef fishes in the bay. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: a reef ecosystem under stress. S. V.
Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea Grant. UNIHI-SEAGRANTTR-72-01: 51-66.
Summary and description of abundance and distribution of the 18 commonest fish species found in the
Bay in surveys conducted 1968-72, with notes on their favored habitats.
Kimmerer, W. J. (1980). Plankton patchiness and ecosystem stability. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu,
Univ. Of Hawai`i: 177 pp.
Spatial and temporal variability in 3 measures of rate functions in Kane`ohe Bay planktonic ecosystem
was determined. Temporal variation was greater than spatial. Transects and point samples were taken
119
in the South Bay.
Kimmerer, W. J. (1983). "Direct measurement of the production:biomass ratio of the subtropical calanoid
copepod Acrocalanus inermis." J. Plan. Res. 5(1): 1-14.
Specific population growth rate or production:biomass (P:B) ratio of the copepod Acrocalanus inermis
was measured by an incubation technique. The principal advantage of this method is that it is siteand time-specific and can therefore be used to determine spatial and temporal patterns in P:B.
Samples were taken from the middle of southern Kane`ohe Bay.
Kimmerer, W. J. (1984). "Selective predation and its impact on prey of Sagitta enflata (Chaetognatha)." Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15: 55-62.
Feeding by a natural population of the chaetognath Sagitta enflata in southern Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i,
was studied over 1 yr. Detailed examination of gut contents led to refinements of previous estimates
of ration and of impact on prey.
Kimmerer, W. J. (1984). "Spatial and temporal variability in egg production rates of the calanoid copepod
Acrocalanus inermis." Mar. Biol. 78: 165-169.
Kimmerer, W. J. and W. W. Durbin, Jr. (1975). The potential for additional marine conservation districts on
O`ahu and Hawai`i. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i Sea Grant: 108 pp.
The patch reefs of Kane`ohe Bay were included in a survey of potential conservation districts but were
not considered suitable because the most noticeable adverse effects of man on the bay are not from
fishing or collecting, which a conservation district could alleviate, but from pollution and silt.
Kimmerer, W. J., T. W. Walsh et al. (1981). "The effect of sewage discharge into a wind-induced plume
front." Estuaries and Nutrients xx: 531-548.
Enhanced concentrations of particulate matter and nutrients are often associated with fronts. In
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, runoff, sewage discharge, and persistent trade winds produced a plume front
which was readily visible because of high chlorophyll concentrations. About 50 percent of the time the
plume advected approximately all of its nutrient supply out of the south sector of the bay into the
apparently more thoroughly flushed central sector. Thus about half of the nitrogen from secondary
treated sewage, discharged until 1978 into the low-density side of the front, was lost to the south
sector almost immediately. Several models of circulation and material flux in the bay have assumed
that the south sector is well mixed and that all of the nutrient input from the sewage and streams
remains there for several weeks. These models should be revised to reflect the loss of about half of
the nutrient input from the south sector. These results also emphasize the importance of wind in
controlling physical events in estuaries.
Kinzie, R. A., III. (1968). "The ecology of the replacement of Pseudosquilla ciliata by Gonodactylus falcatus
(Crustacea: Stomatopoda) recently introduced into the Hawaiian Islands." Pac. Sci. 22: 465-475.
A study investigating the hypothesis that the coral head habitat, once almost exclusively occupied by
Pseudosquilla ciliata, has been taken over completely by Gonodactylus falcatus in about the last nine
years. The origins, possible mode of introduction and mechanism of replacement of this takeover
were also investigated. The paper includes the distribution and notes on the new Hawaiian species,
G. falcatus (Forskal) which was found in Kane`ohe Bay and on G. hendersoni Manning which was not
taken in Kane`ohe Bay.
Kinzie, R. A., III (1993). "Effects of ambient levels of solar ultraviolet radiation on zooxanthellae and
photosynthesis of the reef coral Montipora verrucosa." Mar. Biol. 116: 319-327.
Paired flat plates of the hermatypic coral Montipora verrucosa from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i,
were acclimated to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) only and to full sunlight (PAR + UV) for
several weeks in the summer of 1990. After the acclimation period. photosynthesis, both in PAR-only
and PAR + UV as well as dark respiration were measured. Levels of the UV-absorbing compounds,
"S320", density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a concentration were determined. Corals acclimated
in PAR + UV had higher levels of the UV-protective compounds and lower areal zooxanthellae
densities than corals acclimated in PAR-only. Chlorophyll a per unit volume of coral host and per algal
cell did not differ between corals from the two acclimation treatments. Corals acclimated to PAR + UV
displayed higher photosynthesis in full sunlight than corals acclimated to PAR-only, but when
photosynthesis was measured in the light regime to which the corals had been acclimated, there were
no differences in photosynthesis. Dark respiration was the same for corals from the two acclimation
treatments regardless of the light quality immediately preceding the dark period.
120
Kinzie, R. A., III and T. Hunter (1987). "Effect of light quality on photosynthesis of the reef coral Montipora
verrucosa." Mar. Biol. 94: 95-109.
Pieces of the reef coral Montipora verrucosa (Lam.), collected from Kane`ohe Bay in 1982, were grown
in four low-light treatments (11% sunlight): blue, green, red and the full spectrum of photosynthetically
active radiation (PAR); and at high intensity full PAR (90% sunlight). These acclimated corals were
then tested for photosynthetic ability in blue, green, red, and white light. The photosynthetic
parameters that were measured were; light-saturated photosynthetic rate, the initial slope of the
photosynthesis/irradiance curve, the light intensity where these two lines crossed, and dark respiration.
While acclimation intensity had a pronounced effect, the results also showed that the color of the
acclimation treatment influenced the photosynthetic responses of the corals. The color of the light used
in the measurements of photosynthesis had much less effect on the photosynthetic responses of the
corals.
Kinzie, R. A., III, P. L. Jokiel et al. (1984). "Effects of light of altered spectral composition on coral
zooxanthellae associations and on zooxanthellae in vitro." Mar. Bio. 78: 239-248.
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) and Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck) were collected from Hawaiian
reefs [surrounding Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu]. In two experiments, these reef corals
were grown under sunlight passed through filters producing light fields of similar quantum flux but
different spectral composition.
In vitro cultures of symbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium
microadriaticum Freudenthal) from M. verrucosa were cultured under similar conditions and exhibited
growth rates in light of altered spectral quality that correlated with the responses of the host coral
species. Blue and white light supported significantly greater growth than green light, and red light
resulted in the lowest growth rate.
Kitalong, A. E. (1986a). The microfauna associated with three species of coral and their accessibility to a
reef community. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea
Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 401-413.
Emergent microfauna were collected from a fringing reef adjacent to Coconut Island, Hawai`i from May
24 to August 1, 1983. Four substrates (sand, Pocillopora damicornis, Porites compressa and
Montipora verrucosa) were sampled from three zones. Most microfauna showed no significant
association with a coral species. Burst of fish, crab and shrimp larvae occurred in substantial
numbers. However, several species did show significant association with a given coral species.
Tunicate larvae showed an association with M. verrucosa, tanaids were most abundant over P.
damicornis and Acrocalanus inermis were most abundant over P. compressa. Acrocalanus inermis, a
holoplanktonic calanoid, and Leptochelia dubia, and epibenthic tainaids were ubiquitous throughout
the reef. However, many holoplanktonic animals (cyclopoids, medusae, Oikopleura diocia and
tunicate larvae were mot abundant on the reef front.
Kitalong, A. E. (1986b). A preliminary study on the emergence patterns of microfauna in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant
Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 414-423.
Emergent microfauna were collected over two Porites compressa heads and two Montipora verrucosa
plates on a fringing reef adjacent to Coconut Island, O`ahu, during full moon (July 24-25) and new
moon (August 8-9) 1983. The predominant and most effectively captured microfauna were
holoplanktonic ( Acrocalanus inermis, Oithona simplex, Oithona nana, Sagitta enflata, Oikopleura
diocia and medusae)
Klim, D. G. (1969). Interactions between sea water and coral reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Tech Rept. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of
Marine Biology: 56 pp.
This 8 month study was undertaken to determine if measurable changes in characteristics occur in
seawater passing over a shallow coral reef. The parameters studied include salinity, temperature,
current velocities, dissolved oxygen, pH, dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic and
suspended inorganic carbon. Staining and microscopic observations were made to supplement the
other data. The results showed noticeable increases in oxygen, pH, particulate organic and inorganic
carbon abundance in the central portion of the reef, which were attributed to the influence of extensive
growths of benthic algae found on the seaward edge. Dissolved organic carbon concentration
increased gradually across the reef, and there is evidence that inorganic carbonate is being
accumulated on the leeward side of the reef.
121
Kling, C. J. (1984). A comparative study of Vibrio bacteria in two selected streams discharging into
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Microbiology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
Kobayashi, D. R. (1987). The distribution and abundance of certain reef fish larvae adjacent to adult
habitats in Kane`ohe Bay. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 39.
Plankton samples were taken in the Bay, with a free-fall plankton net to investigate the fine-scale
distribution of larval fishes around coral reefs. Daytime samples indicated that the postflexion larvae of
2 gobiids were significantly more abundant at stations immediately adjacent to reefs than at stations in
open water off the reefs. Postflexion gobiid larvae appear to be capable of resisting
advection/dispersal while remaining in the water column near suitable adult habitats. The larva of an
engraulid and apogonid were significantly more abundant at off-reef stations. Nighttime samples
indicated that the gobiid larva depend on visual cues to remain near the reef. The near-reef
concentrations of the gobiid larvae indicate that reef-based planktivore pressure may be an
unimportant factor in reef fish larval distributions. Typical ichthyoplankton surveys which do not sample
close to adult fish habitats would greatly underestimate the abundance of larvae such as the gobiids.
Kobayashi, D. R. (1989). "Fine-scale distribution of larval fishes: patterns and processes adjacent to coral
reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Mar. Biol. 100: 285-293.
Plankton samples were taken from January to June 1987 in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands,
with a free-fall plankton net, to investigate the fine-scale distribution of larval fishes around coral reefs.
The data suggests that typical ichthyoplankton surveys which do not sample close to adult fish habitats
would greatly underestimate the abundances of larvae such as the gobiids.
Kohn, A. J. (1959). "The ecology of Conus in Hawai`i." Ecological Monographs 29: 47-90.
A study based on the ecological observations of natural populations of Conus in different areas with
emphasis on the Indo-West Pacific region. Twenty-one species of Conus inhabit the coral reefs and
marine benches fringing the Hawaiian Islands. The objectives of the study were to describe the
ecological niches of these species, to determine the extent of isolation between ecologically similar
species and then to elucidate the mechanisms that permit a large number of closely related species to
survive and to retain their identity in a narrow environment.
Kohn, A. J. (1961). "Studies on spawning behavior, egg masses and larval development in the gastropod
genus Conus. Part I. Observations on nine species in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 15(2): 163-179.
Observations were conducted on three specimens of Conus found in Kane`ohe Bay:
Conus leopardus collected 25/4/56 - 19 capsules/cluster - 49-58x34-37 mm
Conus quercinus collected 9/2/56 - 40 capsules/cluster - 19-26xl7-22 mm
C. quercinus collected 9/2/56 - 3 capsules/cluster - 17-19xl8-20 mm, including the number of egg
cluster cluster and the maximum height times the maximum breadth of the capsules.
The complete course of larval development within the egg capsule from spawning to hatching is
described for 4 species. Early cleavage stages occur 1-3 days after spawning, trochophore stage at 26 days and veliger stage at 6-10 days. Freely swimming veligers hatched from egg capsules of 3
species 14-15 days after oviposition. All species have pelagic larvae produced in large numbers.
Hatching in C. pennaceus occurred 16-26 days after oviposition at the advanced veliger or veliconcha
stage. After swimming one day, they settle to the bottom and metamorphose.
Kohn, A. J. and P. Helfrich (1957). "Primary organic productivity of a Hawaiian coral reef." Limnol.
Oceanogr. 2: 241-251.
Kolinski, S. P. (1998). An estimate of energetic value of the reproductive effort of colonies of Montipora
verrucosa in Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P.
L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 45.
The energetic contribution to sexual reproduction in Montipora verrucosa was investigated using a
Phillipson microbomb calorimeter. Corals were gathered from two locations differing in depth and
turbidity (1 m depth, mean NTU=0.713; 3 m depth, mean NTU=1.222). No significant difference was
detected in energetic content between egg-sperm bundles of corals from the two sites. Pooled caloric
values of the gamete bundles averaged 7.74 +/- 0.25 cal per mg AFDW (32.38 +/- 1.046 J per mg
AFDW; n=11 colonies), similar to values published for brooded Pocillopora damicornis larvae. The
median estimated energetic content of an individual bundle was 2.15 cal per bundle (9.00 J per
bundle; n= 7), with a range of 1.26-2.40 cal per bundle (5.26-10.06 J per bundle). A strong correlation
between colony size and fecundity was found (P<0.005, Spearmans rank coefficient = 0.4164, n= 32).
Mean fecundity of colonies from the two sites (normalized by colony volume) did not differ significantly
(P= 0.8134, two sample t-test). The fecundity of 32 colonies with volumes of 0.162 to 1.102 (average
122
= 0.508 l) averaged 2611 bundles (range 0-6729), which corresponds to an mean energetic
investment of 5614 cal per colony (23,488 J per colony) and a maximum value of 14,467 calories
(60,533 J) for the reproductive season. All but one of the colonies released gametes. No corrections
to energetic values were made for the presence of zooxanthellae.
Kosaki, R. (1999). Behavioral mechanisms of coexistence among coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Dept. of
Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 179.
Corallivorous butterflyfishes occupy permanent feeding territories, and all of their metabolic
requirements for growth, maintenance, and reproduction must be supplied by the corals within these
territories. When two or more species maintain overlapping territories, the shared use of space and
food creates the potential for competitive interactions related to use of these resources. A prerequisite
for the occurrence of competition, however, is a resource in limited supply with the potential to limit
populations of its consumers. Even in areas of high coral cover, territories of butterflyfishes are large
relative to their body size. The impacts of their grazing on the growth and abundance of coral in their
territories are unknown. Predator exclusion cages were used to test the hypothesis that predation by
the obligate corallivore Chaetodon trifasciatus may reduce the growth and areal cover of a preferred
coral species, Pocillopora damicornis. As the abundant corallivore on the reef at Coconut Island,
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, grazing by C. trifasciatus
significantly reduced the growth rates of P.
damicornis. This finding provides evidence that coral is a depletable, potentially limiting resource, and
thus competition may occur when two or more species of butterflyfishes must share this resource.
Krasnick, G. J. (1973). Temporal and spatial variation of phytoplankton productivity and related factors in the
surface waters of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i:
91pp.
Data on primary productivity, chlorophyll a, nitrate and phosphate in surface waters were collected on
a 14-month series of biweekly cruises in Kane`ohe Bay.
Krupp, D. A. (1981). The composition of the mucus from the mushroom coral, Fungia scutaria. Proc. 4th Int.
Coral Reef Symp., Manila.
The mucus of the solitary mushroom coral, Fungia scutaria, purified of particulate contamination and
low molecular weight solutes, was assayed for a variety of trophic parameters, including caloric value,
elemental composition (C, N and P), lipid content, total protein content and amino acid composition.
The compositional evidence indicates that the mucus of F. scutaria is relatively low in trophic quality.
Specimens of F. scutaria were collected from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Krupp, D. A. (1983). "Sexual reproduction and early development of the solitary coral Fungia scutaria
(Anthozoa: Scleractinia)." Coral Reefs 2: 159-164.
Fungia scutaria spawned vigorously with a lunar periodicity during the summer months of 1981 to
1982. Spawning activity declined in the fall of both years and was absent in winter and spring (1983).
There was only one short spawning event (in the evening 1-4 days after full moon) per lunar cycle.
Negatively buoyant eggs are expelled similarly to expulsion of spermatozoa by the male and ciliated
planulae develop by the next morning. Within 24 h a mouth begins to develop with probable ability to
feed within 39 h. Zooxanthellae infection occurred 4-5 days following spawning with possible
competence for settlement within 7 days (settlement results were ambiguous). Specimens were
collected from various shallow water locations in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Krupp, D. A. (1984). " Mucus production by corals exposed during an extreme low tide." Pac. Sci. 38: 1-11.
An extreme low tide resulted in the severe exposure of coral on the reef flat surrounding Coconut
island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. The exposed corals produced vast quantities of mucus that
aggregated as mucus ropes near the shoreline. These mucous ropes were heavily laden with
carbonate sediments, amorphous materials, microflora, and microfauna. Compared to the purified
liquid mucus of the coral Fungia scutaria, the consolidated mucous ropes were rich in organic material
and phosphorus. Pure mucus was relatively low in trophic quality. While the pure mucus may provide
corals with some protection against desiccation, it is not a particularly rich source for reef heterotrophs.
Perhaps the most important role of coral mucus is the consolidation of microscopic organic particulates
into macroscopic aggregates of considerably higher trophic quality than pure mucus itself.
Krupp, D. A. (1985). "An immunochemical study of the mucus from the solitary coral Fungia scutaria
(Scleractinia, Fungiidae)." Bull. Mar. Sci. 36(1): 163-176.
The mucus of reef corals may be an important component of coral reef trophic structure. However,
difficulties in the collection, purification and analyses of coral mucus have resulted in inconsistencies
among compositional studies, making interpretations about the trophic importance of coral mucus
123
uncertain. Thus, immunochemical studies were undertaken to understand the biochemistry of the
mucus of the solitary scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria. One component of the mucus may be a
sulfated acid polysaccharide (MAP) strongly associated with protein or peptide. Specimens of F.
scutaria were collected from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Krupp, D. A., P. L. Jokiel et al. (1993). Asexual reproduction by the solitary scleractinian coral Fungia
scutaria on dead parent coralla in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands. Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef
Symp., Guam.
Kruschwitz, L. G. (1967). Some aspects of the ecology and ethology of the shrimp, Saron marmoratus.
Department of Zoology, University of Hawai`i.
An ecological and ethological study of the shrimp, S. marmoratus. The shrimp were observed and
collected in several areas around O`ahu, including a patch reef in Kane`ohe-Bay and Coconut Island.
The habitat, aggregations, social behavior activity patterns and feeding were studied in the field.
These studies provided a basis for the morphological and behavioral studies in the laboratory.
Kuffner, I. B. (1999). The effects of ultraviolet radiation on reef corals and the sun-screening role of
mycosporine-like amino acids. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 163.
The seasonal variation in mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) were investigated for two corals in
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, Porites compressa and Pocillopora damicornis. Regression of MAA
concentration and the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) measured prior to collection date were not
significant for total MAA concentration of either species. However, individual MAAs, shinorine in P.
compressa and palythene in Montipora verrucosa, did show significant correlation with UVR.
Additional experiments were performed testing the combined effects of UVR and water motion on the
MAAs of P. compressa, and the effect of UVR on planulae of Pocillopora damicornis.
Lamberson, P. B. (1974). The effects of light on primary productivity in south Kane`ohe Bay. Dept. of
Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 41 pp.
Over a six-month period vertical profiles of production, plant biomass, light, and temperature were
obtained and the data applied to a production model. The diel changes in surface production were
measured and used to estimate daily production. Samples from the approximate center of south
Kane`ohe Bay were taken to determine primary productivity over the period of the study. Plant
pigments, productivity, illumination and temperature were taken over a depth gradient down to 10 m.
Light appeared to limit production below about five meters depth.
Lamberts, A. E. (1973). Alizarin deposition by corals. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of
Hawai`i: 162.
The hydroquinone dye Alizarin red S was used to visualize sites f calcification in reef corals under
controlled laboratory conditions using the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis and ten other species
collected form Kane`ohe Bay. Corals deposit alizarin in a pattern corresponding to the calcium
deposition during the test period, producing a magenta stain. Deposition was often most marked in
areas far removed from zooxanthellae concentrations. Incorporation of the dye reflects the biological
activity of the corals and was deposited most actively by the youngest growth forms.
Lamberts, A. E. (1974). Measurement of alizarin deposited by coral. Proc. 2nd Int. Coral Reef Symp.,
Brisbane, Australia.
The hydroquinone dye Alizarin red S was used to visualize sites f calcification in reef corals under
controlled laboratory conditions using the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis and ten other species
collected form Kane`ohe Bay. Corals deposit alizarin in a pattern corresponding to the calcium
deposition during the test period, producing a magenta stain. Deposition was often most marked in
areas far removed from zooxanthellae concentrations. Incorporation of the dye reflects the biological
activity of the corals and was deposited most actively by the youngest growth forms.
Landry, M. R., L. W. Haas et al. (1984). "Dynamics of microbial plankton communities experiments in
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 16: 127-133.
The dynamics of the microbial plankton community of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i were investigated in
September 1982 using in situ diffusion chambers and dilution manipulations. Total community carbon
-1
at the time of the experiments was estimated at 86 mu g Cl of which Chlorella sp. accounted for 47%,
autotrophic microflagellates 14%, chroococcoid cyanobacteria 11%, and heterotrophic microflagellates
-1
-1
and bacteria each 9%. Instantaneous growth rates ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 d and 1.4 to 2.0 d and
-1
-1
mortality rates varied from 0.5 to 1.1 d and 0.1 d for heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria,
respectively, yielding net population growth rates of 1.0 to 1.3 and 1.5 to 2.7 doublings d super(-1) for
124
the 2 populations, Chlorella sp., on the other hand, experienced only slight net growth (0.1 to 0.3
-1
-1
doubling d despite a growth coefficient of about 0.9 d . Phagotrophic microflagellates presumed to be
-1
the dominant grazers, consumed about 4.7 times their body carbon d ) and grew at net population
-1
rates of 1.4 to 1.9 doublings d . However, microflagellates were food limited and did not control
bacterial populations.
Larned, S. T. (1998). "Nitrogen- versus phosphorus-limited growth and sources of nutrients for coral reef
macroalgae." Mar. Biol. 132: 409-421.
Recent investigations of nutrient-limited productivity in coral reef macroalgae have led to the
conclusion that phosphorus, rather than nitrogen, is the primary limiting nutrient. In this study,
comparison of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphorus ratio in the water column of Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i, with tissue nitrogen:phosphorus ratios in macroalgae from Kane`ohe Bay suggested that
nitrogen, rather than phosphorus, generally limits productivity in this system. Results of nutrientenrichment experiments in a flow-through culture system indicated that inorganic nitrogen limited the
growth rates of 8 out of 9 macroalgae species tested. In 6 of the species tested, specific growth rates
of thalli cultured in unenriched seawater from the Kane`ohe Bay water column were zero or negative
after 12 d. These results suggest that, in order to persist in low-nutrient coral reef systems, some
macroalgae require high rates of nutrient advection or access to benthic nutrient sources in addition to
nutrients in the overlying water column. Nutrient concentrations in water samples collected from the
microenvironments inhabited or created by macroalgae were compared to nutrient concentrations in
the overlying water column. On protected reef flats, inorganic nitrogen concentrations within dense
mats of Gracilaria salicornia and Kappaphycus alvarezii, and inorganic nitrogen and phosphate
concentrations in sediment porewater near the rhizophytic algae Caulerpa racemosa and C.
sertularioides were significantly higher than in the water column. The sediments associated with these
mat-forming and rhizophytic species appear to function as localized nutrient sources, making
sustained growth possible despite the oligotrophic water column. In wave-exposed habitats such as
the Kane`ohe Bay Barrier Reef flat, water motion is higher than at protected sites, sediment nutrient
concentrations are low, and zones of high nutrient concentrations do not develop near or beneath
macroalgae, including dense Sargassum echinocarpum canopies. Under these conditions, macroalgae
evidently depend on rapid advection of low-nutrient water from the water column, rather than benthic
nutrient sources, to sustain growth.
Larned, S. T. and M. J. Atkinson (1997). "Effects of water velocity on NH4 and PO4 uptake and nutrientlimited growth in the macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa." Mar. Eco. Prog. Ser. 157: 295-302.
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa is a spatially dominant macroalga on coral reefs in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i,
USA, and occupies a range of habitats from low energy reef slopes to a high energy barrier reef flat.
Previous studies demonstrated that D. cavernosa growth is limited by the availability of dissolved
inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Kane'ohe Bay, and that, on protected reef flats and slopes, the rate at
which DIN is supplied to thalli from the water column is too low for sustained growth. Under these
conditions, DIN released from sediments into the water-filled chambers beneath thalli is used for
growth. At exposed sites such as the barrier reef, nutrient-rich sediments do not accumulate but D.
cavernosa is abundant, suggesting that high levels of water motion supply nutrients from the water
column to thalli at rates high enough for sustained growth. To test the hypothesis that nutrient
acquisition by D. cavernosa increases with increasing water velocity, rates of NH4 and PO4 uptake
were measured at a range of water velocities within the range measured in D. cavernosa habitats
(0.02 to 0.13 m s-1). Rates of uptake for both nutrients were positively correlated with velocity and with
concentration. Results from the uptake experiments were used to construct a simple model to predict
the combinations of nutrient concentration and water velocity at which the nitrogen and phosphorus
requirements for growth can be met by uptake from the Kane'ohe Bay water column. The model
predicts that, at sites in Kane'ohe Bay where average water velocities are higher than 0.05 m s-1, DIN
supplied to thalli from the Bay water column can support the specific growth rate measured in the field.
At sites where average water velocities are less than 0.05 m s-1, thalli must utilize DIN supplied from
benthic sources in addition to water column nitrogen to maintain growth rates at field levels. Similarly,
at sites where water velocities are higher than 0.01 M s-1, PO4 supplied to thalli from the water column
can support growth at field levels, while thalli at sites with lower water velocities must utilize PO4
supplied from benthic sources.
Larned, S. T. and J. Stimson (1996). "Nitrogen-limited growth in the coral reef chlorophyte Dictyosphaeria
cavernosa, and the effect of exposure to sediment-derived nitrogen on growth." Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
145: 95-108.
The macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa grows profusely on the reef slopes of Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i, despite low inorganic nutrient concentrations in the water column. Results from tissue
125
nutrient analyses suggested that the nitrogen storage capacity of D. cavernosa is very low; the alga
appears to require a continual supply of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, at a concentration greater than
that of the water column, to sustain growth.
Lau, C. J. (1987). A study on the feeding ecology of two species of shallow-water Hawaiian slipper lobsters.
Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 184.
A model for studies of feeding and consequent growth is reported for two large tropical species of
decapod crustacea. The feeding biology of two shallow-water slipper lobsters, Parribacus antarcticus
(Lund) and Scyllarides squammosus (H. Milne Edwards) was studied by determining the natural diet
from the stomach contents of specimens collected from Kane`ohe Bay. A survey of prey groups
revealed that P. antarcticus fed on a diverse array of slow moving or sedentary benthic organisms. S.
squammosus also fed on benthic invertebrates but was found to be more specialized in the number of
prey groups it was found to ingest. Molluscs were th sole group found in the foregut and bivalves were
especially important.
Lawn, I. D. and D. M. Ross (1982). "The behavioural physiology of the swimming anemone Boloceroides
mcmurrichi." Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B216: 315-334.
The Indo-Pacific sea anemone, Boloceroides mcmurrichi, swims by coordinated lashing of tentacles
and can cast off tentacles by autotomy. A predator of Boloceroides, the aeolid Berghia major, makes a
lunge into the tentacles and causes the anemone to detach its pedal disc, autotomize seized tentacles
and swim away, a response apparently due to a chemical substance in the aeolid. Two adaptations,
swimming and autotomy, while not preventing predation, keep it to levels easily countered by
regeneration. In electrophysiological studies on Boloceroides, the pulses associated with the
conduction systems in other anemones (NN, SS1 and SS2) were not detected. Pulses that were
detected (TBP, FTP, STP, SAP and TCP) reflect the behavioural capacities and the special
adaptations of this atypical anemone, but pulses associated with overall coordination remain to be
discovered. B. mcmurrichi were collected from Coconut Island and sandy reef flats from Kane`ohe
Bay, O`ahu.
Laws, E. A. (1985). Nutrient and energy cycling among phytoplankton, bacteria, and zooplankton. Kane`ohe,
Univ. of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Inst. Mar. Biology: 102.
During the summer of 1985 students and senior faculty who participated in the HIMB Summer Studies
Program (Kane`ohe Bay) utilized a variety of experimental techniques to study nutrient and energy
cycling among phytoplankton, bacteria, and zooplankton.
Laws, E. A., C. B. Allen et al. (1996). "Water quality in a subtropical embayment more than a decade after
diversion of sewage discharges." Pac. Sci. 50: 194-210.
Concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), particulate carbon and nitrogen (PC and PN, respectively),
inorganic nutrients, and Secchi depths were measured from October 1989 to June 1992 in Kane'ohe
Bay, an embayment on the windward coast of O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands. Results were compared with
values reported in 1978-1979, the year immediately following diversion of two sewer outfalls from the
southeast sector of the bay. Nutrient enrichment experiments indicated that the bay is now distinctly
nitrogen limited. In many respects the water column appears more oligotrophic now than in 1978-1979.
Inorganic nitrogen and phosphate concentrations now border on the limit of detection by colorimetric
methods. Chl a concentrations have declined by 35-40% (0.3-0.5 mg m-3) and Secchi depths have
increased by 15-35% (1.0-1.5 m) in the southeast sector of the bay since 1978-1979. This has
happened despite a population increase of 7,762 persons in the watershed from 1980 to 1990.
Characteristics of the water column are now remarkably similar in all sectors of the bay. About 40% of
the phytoplankton Chl a is accounted for by picoplankton. Pigment analyses indicate that diatoms and
cyanobacteria make up ca. 45 and 25%, respectively, of the phytoplankton biomass. It is postulated
that the drawdown of inorganic nutrient concentrations and increase in PN/Chl a and PC/Chl a ratios
reflect a shift of the phytoplankton community toward smaller species characteristic of oligotrophic
environments. An increase of PN in the central and northwest sectors of the bay is postulated to have
been caused by an increase in nitrogen fixation and export from the barrier reef. There is no evidence
that human population growth has altered nutrient loading from stream runoff.
Laws, E. A. and D. G. Redalje (1979). "Effect of sewage enrichment on the phytoplankton population of a
subtropical estuary." Pac. Sci. 33: 129-144.
Phytoplankton primary production; concentrations of chlorophyll a, particulate carbon and nitrogen,
adenosine triphosphate, inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; and secchi depths were measured at four
stations in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, on a biweekly basis for 20 months prior to diversion of sewage
discharges from the bay. Nutrient enrichment experiments designed to determine biomass limitation
126
indicated that phytoplankton biomass, as measured by chlorophyll a, was nitrogen-limited in all parts of
the bay, and that phosphorus was simultaneously limiting in the sector of the bay furthest from the
sewer outfalls. Nitrogen recycling was estimated to account for 80% of phytoplankton nitrogen uptake
in the part of the bay receiving direct sewage inputs, and for over 90% of phytoplankton nitrogen
uptake in the other sectors of the bay. Living carbon was found to vary by a factor of 3-4 between the
sewage-enriched and unenriched sectors of the bay. Estimated detrital carbon concentrations of
inorganic nitrogen were uniform throughout the bay, as were the measured concentrations of inorganic
nitrogen. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the population of microorganisms,
both bacteria and phytoplankton, are substrate-limited in all sectors of the bay.
Laws, E. A. and D. G. Redalje (1982). "Sewage Diversion Effects on the Water Column of a Subtropical
Estuary." Mar. Environ. Res. 6.
A study of the phytoplankton community and water column chemistry in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu,
Hawai`i, before and after the diversion of secondary treated sewage from the bay has shown that
changes in total nutrient concentrations in the water column cannot be accurately predicted without
taking into account water column-benthos interactions. During the first year after sewage diversion, the
decomposition of about 400 tonnes of benthic organisms, primarily filter feeders, resulted in water
column dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations roughly an order of magnitude
higher than those expected in the absence of such interactions. The biomass of phytoplankton
appears to have been N-limited both before and after sewage diversion, with internal nutrient recycling
accounting for 70-99% of phytoplankton nutrient uptake. Both the biomass and growth rate of the
phytoplankton declined as a result of the sewage diversion, with post-diversion growth rates evidently
well below nutrient-saturated values. Since the principal stresses on the bay's coral reef community as
a result of the sewage discharges appear to have resulted from the elevated concentrations of
plankton in the water, various measures of seston concentration appear to be the most ecologically
significant indicators of nutrient enrichment in this system.
Leary, D. F. and G. I. Murphy (1975). "A successful method for tagging the small, fragile engraulid,
Stolephorus purpureus." Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 104(1): 53-55.
Survival of anchovies (Stolephorus purpureus), held in tanks for 30 days after being tagged with a tiny
wire implanted automatically by a new device, was 80.5% and tag loss 14.7%. Both criteria were
superior to those reported for engraulids tagged by other methods. Advantages of the new tag are
small size, internal location, ease of implantation, and capability of being detected automatically.
Leary, D. F., G. I. Murphy et al. (1975). "Fecundity and length at first spawning of the Hawaiian anchovy, or
nehu (Stolephorus purpureus Fowler) in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu." Pac. Sci. 29: 171-180.
Fecundity, length at first spawning, and spawning seasonality of Stolephorus purpureus were
determined by examining preserved ovarian eggs and fish captured throughout a 4 year period.
Fecundity was estimated from the number of eggs in the most advanced ovarian mode after it was
determined that all these eggs hydrated and were spawned. Fecundity (Y) was related to fish weight
(X) by the fish having a weight equal to the mean for the population contains 566 eggs/g of fish weight.
Large variations in fecundity from year to year were attributed primarily to environmental factors whose
influence on reproduction by Stolephorus purpureus has not been studied. Spawning occurred year
around but the incidence was higher during the spring and summer than during the remainder of the
year.
Leber, K. M. (1995). "Significance of fish size-at-release on enhancement of striped mullet fisheries in
Hawai`i." J. World Aquaculture Soc. 26: 143-153.
A tag-release-recapture study was conducted to evaluate size-at-release impacts upon recruitment of
cultured, juvenile striped mullet, Mugil cephalus released in inshore habitats of O`ahu, Hawai`i, USA.
In June and July 1990, 85,848 juvenile mullet were graded into five size groups (ranging from 45 to
120 mm in length), identified with binary-coded wire tags, and released into two estuaries (2 times 5
factorial design). Of the tagged fish, 42,822 were released into Kane`ohe Bay on the east (windward)
coast of O`ahu; 43,026 were released into Maunalua Bay on O`ahu's dryer south shore. The fish were
released into both bays simultaneously. Releases were blocked in time across 5 release lots. To
evaluate growth and survival rates of released mullet, both bay systems were sampled monthly with
cast nets over a ten-month period after release. Overall, 733 tagged M. cephalus were recaptured, 277
from Kane`ohe Bay and 456 from Maunalua Bay. Overall proportions of tagged fish in samples
declined from 33.4% (+-25.2%) of the total M. cephalus catch at week 5 to 1.88% (+-0.95%) by week
23. From week 23 on, tagged fish averaged 2.09% (+-0.23%) of the striped mullet in monthly samples.
Within 9 wk after releases, recapture frequencies were clearly skewed in favor of fish that were larger
at the time of release. Fish smaller than 70 mm when released were rare or absent in collections within
127
18 wk after release. This confirms results of a smaller-scale pilot study in Maunalua Bay and shows
that fish size-at-release can have a major impact on the success of hatchery releases in marine
habitats. Pilot studies to identify minimum fish size-at-release should be conducted at all sites targeted
for full-scale marine hatchery releases.
Leber, K. M. and S. M. Arce (1996a). "Stock enhancement in a commercial mullet, Mugil cephalus L., fishery
in Hawai`i." Fish. Manage. Ecol. 3: 261-278.
This study showed that cultured striped mullet, Mugil cephalus L., released as juveniles can make a
significant contribution to landings in an island commercial fishery. Following pilot hatchery releases
from 1990 to 1993, striped mullet fisheries in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, USA, were sampled to recover
cultured fish from the bay-wide catch. Direct sampling of 181 fishing trips resulted in recovery of 211
cultured striped mullet. By autumn 1994, cultured fish comprised 13.0% (+- 2.8%) of the commercial
mullet catch in Kane`ohe Bay, and the percentage was increasing logarithmically. This study
corroborated predictions from previous studies of juveniles about effects of release strategies on
survival of cultured mullet. Following summer releases, recapture rates were strongly affected by fish
size-at-release, with a critical release size of 60 mm total length (the smallest size released that was
subsequently detected in the fishery). Over 30 000 juveniles stocked in 1990 (but not in a nursery
habitat preferred by striped mullet) apparently suffered complete mortality.
Leber, K. M., S. M. Arce et al. (1996b). "Marine stock-enhancement potential nursery habitats of striped
mullet, Mugil cephalus, in Hawai`i." Fish. Bull. 94: 452-471.
Results from pilot experiments were used to modify release strategies to test marine stock
enhancement potential in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Of 80,507 native, cultured, striped mullet fingerlings
tagged with coded wire and released during spring and summer, 2,642 fish were recovered by cast-net
sampling during 11 months. Recapture rate increased 600% compared with initial studies in Kane`ohe
Bay. This increase was the result of confining releases to the vicinity of fresh-water streams and of
imposing a minimum size of 70 mm TL during summer releases. After 11 months, cultured fish
represented 50% of the striped mullet in collections at the release site, 20% in a nursery habitat 1 km
to the north, and 10% in a nursery 3 km north. The location of releases (stream mouth vs. upstream
lagoon) significantly affected dispersal patterns but did not affect growth or recapture rate. This study
corroborated earlier results which showed that the smallest fish released (45-60 mm) could survive
relatively well if released in spring. At least three measures were needed to describe hatchery effect:
1) hatchery contribution (% cultured fish in samples), 2) catch per unit of effort for cultured and wild
striped mullet, and 3) recovery rate (no. captured/no. released). This study documents that survival of
cultured fish in coastal nurseries can be significantly improved by using information from pilot release
experiments to revise release parameters.
Leber, K. M., H. L. Blankenship et al. (1997). "Influence of release season on size-dependent survival of
cultured striped mullet, Mugil cephalus, in a Hawaiian estuary." Fish. Bull. 95: 267-279.
The concept that depleted populations of marine fishes can be revitalized by releasing cultured fish is
being tested in Hawai`i. In this study we evaluated effects of interaction between release season and
size-at-release on recapture rates of cultured striped mullet, Mugil cephalus, released into Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i. Over 90,000 cultured M. cephalus fingerlings, ranging in size from 45 to 130 mm total
length, were tagged with binary coded-wire tags. Half were released in spring, the remainder in
summer. In both seasons, releases were made in three replicate lots. In each replicate, five size
intervals of fish were released at two nursery habitats in Kane`ohe Bay. Monthly cast-net collections
were made in 6 nursery habitats over a 45-week period to monitor recapture rates, growth, and
dispersal of cultured fish. Recapture rate was directly affected by the seasonal timing of releases.
Greatest recovery of the smallest fish released (individuals lt 60 mm) occurred following spring
releases and coincided with peak recruitment of similar-size wild M. cephalus juveniles. In contrast,
recovery of fish that were 60 mm at release was very poor after summer releases. Overall survival was
similar at both release sites. We hypothesize that survival of released cultured fish will be greater
when releases are timed so that fish size-at-release coincides with modes in the size structure of wild
stocks. To optimize effectiveness of stock enhancement as a fishery-management tool, pilot releaserecapture experiments should be conducted to evaluate effects of release season on size-dependent
recovery of released animals.
Leber, K. M., N. P. Brennan et al. (1995). "Marine enhancement with striped mullet: are hatchery releases
replenishing or displacing wild stocks?" Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 15: 376-387.
The hypothesis that marine hatchery releases can increase fish abundances has at least two
corollaries that need to be tested: (1) cultured fish can survive and grow when released into coastal
environments; and (2) cultured fish do not displace wild individuals. Both are being tested in Hawai`i.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate whether hatchery releases of striped mullet Mugil
cephalus actually increase abundances or displace wild stock. In summer 1993, 5,811 wild striped
mullet were captured, tagged, and released in three lots back into two primary nursery habitats in
Kane`ohe Bay. Three weeks later, quantitative sampling with cast nets was conducted in several
striped mullet nursery habitats within the bay to evaluate pretreatment dispersal of wild fish. Following
those initial collections, cultured striped mullet were released to establish the primary treatment
condition, a hatchery release. A total of 29,354 cultured striped mullet were tagged and released, but
at only one of the nursery sites (treatment site). Monthly monitoring was conducted over an 8-month
period to determine if there was greater dispersal of wild fish at the treatment site. There was no
significant difference in the dispersal rates of wild fish from the treatment site compared with the
control (no hatchery release) site. As expected, based on earlier pilot hatchery releases, a majority of
tagged and released cultured and wild striped mullet remained within those nursery habitats where
they were released. Hatchery releases in this study did not result in displacement of wild individuals
from the principal nursery habitat in Kane`ohe Bay. The cultured fish released there increased
abundances of striped mullet at the treatment site by around 33%. Thus it appears that even smallscale releases could help replenish the depleted striped mullet fishery in Kane`ohe Bay; conducting
small-scale hatchery releases in several nursery habitats in Kane`ohe Bay should increase overall
striped mullet abundances in this estuary. This study also corroborated earlier experiments in Hawai`i
showing a direct relationship between fish size at release and recapture rate. These results indicate
hatchery releases can increase abundances of targeted inshore fish populations in Hawai`i. If a careful
approach is used, marine stock enhancement appears to have considerable potential as an additional
fishery management tool.
Leber, K. M. and C. S. Lee (1997). "Marine stock-enhancement potential with striped mullet, Mugil cephalus,
in Hawai`i." Bull. Nat. Res. Inst. Aquaculture. 0 (SUPPL. 3).
Three common methods have been used to replenish depleted stocks: regulating fishing effort;
restoring degraded nursery and spawning habitats; and increasing recruitment through propagation
and release. Declines in world fishery landings have prompted new interest in using cultured fishes to
help replenish depleted stocks. With advances in tagging methods and aquaculture technology for
marine finfish, stock enhancement through the release of hatchery-produced juveniles is becoming
one of the solutions for replenishing depleted coastal fishes. The hypothesis that hatchery releases
can increase population size has at least two corollaries that need to be tested: (1) released cultured
fish survive, grow and contribute to natural recruitment, and (2) cultured fish do not displace wild
stocks. The concept that depleted populations of marine fishes can be revitalized using cultured fish is
being tested in Hawai`i, where landings of coastal species have declined by 80% since the turn of the
century. Striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) and Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis) have been
selected as top priority species for stock enhancement research. Intensive studies on striped mullet
stock enhancement have been carried out at The Oceanic Institute in cooperation with the State of
Hawai`i. The research approach in Hawai`i followed three steps: select test species, evaluate release
strategies with pilot releases, and conduct a test release using optimal release protocol. During pilot
releases, three important factors (fish size-at-release, release habitat and release season) were
evaluated. To evaluate the initial success of hatchery releases in Hawai`i, we tracked survival of
released fish prior to and after their entry into the fishery. Each year, beginning about 2 weeks after
releases, monthly cast-net collections were made in six nursery habitats over about a 10-month period
to monitor recapture rates, growth and dispersal of the juvenile cultured fish. Recapture rate of cultured
fish during the juvenile nursery stage of the life cycle was directly affected by the release site, fish sizeat-release and the seasonal timing of releases. Over 30,000 juveniles stocked in 1990 (but not in a
nursery habitat preferred by striped mullet) apparently suffered complete mortality. However, there was
good survival of fish when they were released into documented nursery habitats of wild mullet.
Greatest recovery of the smallest fish released (individuals <60 mm) occurred following spring
releases, which coincided with peak recruitment of similar-size wild M. cephalus juveniles. After
summer releases, recapture rates were strongly affected by fish size-at-release, with a critical release
size of 60 mm total length (the smallest size released that was subsequently detected in the fishery).
We hypothesized that survival of released cultured fish will be greater when releases are timed so that
fish size-at-release coincides with modes in the size structure of wild stocks. Following pilot hatchery
releases from 1990 to 1993, striped mullet fisheries in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, were also sampled to
recover cultured fish from the bay-wide catch. Direct sampling of 181 fishing trips resulted in recovery
of 211 cultured striped mullet. By. autumn 1994, cultured fish comprised 13.0% (+-2.8%) of the
commercial mullet catch in Kane`ohe Bay, and the percentage was increasing logarithmically. To
optimize effectiveness of stock enhancement as a fishery-management tool, pilot release-recapture
experiments should be conducted to evaluate effects of release protocol on recovery of released
animals. For example, In Hawai`i, hatchery production cost-per-fish-caught in the fishery was lower for
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releasing 70-85mm size fingerlings compared to 45-60mm fingerlings when releases were conducted
in summer. By refining release protocol over a 3-year period, proportions of cultured fish in nursery
habitats 10 months after release increased from 3% to 10% and finally to 50% of the total striped
mullet (wild and cultured) collected in net samples. At least three measures were needed to describe
hatchery effect: (1) hatchery contribution (% cultured fish in samples), (2) catch-per-unit-effort for
cultured and wild striped mullet, and (3) recovery rate (no. captured/no. released). Our studies
demonstrate how survival of cultured fish in coastal nurseries can be significantly improved using
information from pilot release experiments to revise release parameters. Results at The Oceanic
Institute have shown that the targeted inshore fish population can be increased through the release of
hatchery-produced juveniles. However, to provide adequate conservation of the wild stocks we are
attempting to replenish, a responsible approach should be used for any stock enhancement activities.
Lee, K. H. and E. G. Ruby (1994). "Effect of the squid host on the abundance and distribution of symbiotic
Vibrio fischeri in nature." Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 1565-1571.
Euprymna scolopes, a Hawaiian species of bioluminescent squid, harbors Vibrio fischeri as its specific
light organ symbiont. The population of symbionts grew inside the adult light organ with an average
doubling time of about 5 h, which produced an excess of cells that were expelled into the surrounding
seawater on a diurnal basis at the beginning of each period of daylight. These symbionts, when
expelled into the ambient seawater, maintain or slightly increase their numbers for at least 24 h.
Hence, locations inhabited by their hosts periodically receive a daily input of symbiotic V. fischeri cells
and, as a result, become significantly enriched with these bacteria. As estimated by hybridization with
a species-specific luxA gene probe, the typical number of V. fischeri CFU, both in the water column
and in the sediments of E. scolopes habitats, was as much as 24 to 30 times that in similar locations
where squids were not observed. In addition, the number of symbiotic V. fischeri CFU in seawater
samples that were collected along a transect through Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, decreased as a function
of the distance from a location inhabited by E. scolopes. These findings constitute evidence for the first
recognized instance of the abundance and distribution of a marine bacterium being driven primarily by
its symbiotic association with an animal host.
Lee, M. H. (1973). Establishment and characterization of a marine fish cell line, Caranx mate (Omaka).
Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i.
A cell-line of larval Caranx mate tissue was produced and characterized. Larvae where collected from
surface waters around Coconut Island.
Lee, R. S. K. (1963). "The structure and reproduction of Dudresnaya hawaiiensis sp. nov. (Rhodophyta)."
Amer. J. Bot. 50: 315-319.
A taxonomic description of sp. nov., the first time that this genus has been reported from the Hawaiian
Islands. The gross vegetative structure of this new species is unique and the basal structures involved
in post-fertilization which are typical of the genus are described. The typical locus for this species in
Hawai`i is in Kane`ohe Bay. Specimens were collected in May, 1959 (Doty no. 19041) and in March,
1961 (Soegiarto no. 137).
Leis, J. M. and J. M. Miller (1976). "Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae." Mar. Biol. 36:
359-367.
An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced
inshore/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species
are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species
are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with nonpelagic eggs are most abundant close to shore, while those of reef species with pelagic eggs are most
abundant offshore. Finally, the larvae of offshore (primarily mesopelagic) species show no clear
pattern but frequently occur in high numbers nearshore. Within any group, variation in pattern was
often evident. These findings indicate to the inshore adult habitat to obtain a complete picture.
Lenz, P. H. and D. K. Hartline (1999). "Reaction times and force production during escape behavior of a
calanoid copepod, Undinula vulgaris." Mar. Biol. 133: 249-258.
Lesser, M. P. and S. Lewis (1996). "Action spectrum for the effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis in the
hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis." Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 134(171-177).
Colonies of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis were collected from the shallow reefs of
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, to assess the wavelength-dependent effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on
photosynthesis. Measurements of photosynthesis and respiration were made while corals were
exposed to different UV irradiances, keeping visible radiation constant, using long-band pass filters. A
130
differential action spectrum (biological weighting function) for the inhibition of photosynthesis by UV
radiation was then determined for P. damicornis. The action spectrum revealed an increase in the
wavelength-dependent effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis between 290 and 310 nm that is
greater than those increases reported for action spectra on natural assemblages and uni-algal cultures
of marine microalgae. The greater effect at these wavelengths is a result of the high biologically
effective doses of UV radiation experienced by these corals on shallow reefs, and the decrease in the
absorbance of UV radiation by UV absorbing compounds found in the host tissues and algal symbionts
between 290 and 310 nm. The irradiances of wavelengths in the region between 290 and 310 nm are
those which will increase in the event of any decrease in stratospheric ozone over equatorial regions. If
the observed sensitivity of P. damicornis in this spectral region is common in other species, it may
have important consequences for growth, reproduction, and occurrence of the bleaching phenomenon
for shallow water corals.
Lesser, M. P., V. M. Weis et al. (1994). " Effects of morphology and water motion on carbon delivery and
productivity in the reef coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus): diffusion barriers, inorganic carbon
limitation, and biochemical plasticity." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 178: 153-179.
Levy, O. (1998). Preliminary experiments on the effects of wavelength on growth, survival and settlement of
larvae of Pocillopora damicornis. Reproduction in reef corals. Cox, E. F., D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel.
Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 105-111.
Survival, settlement and growth of larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis at different wavelengths
were studied. The mean number of surviving larvae in the three treatments after 18 days was
significantly different, with lower survivorship under the green filter (480-600 nm) than the blue filter
(400-550 nm) or Photosynthetically Active Radiation treatment (PAR, 400-700 nm). In the settlement
experiments there were no significant differences among the three wavelength treatments, and it
appears that there is no connection between spectrum of light and settlement behavior after 18 days.
During this study of larval growth at three wavelengths (PAR, 663 nm, 447 nm) and in the dark, there
was a significant difference in growth among the treatments in the first trial, but only between the dark
and the PAR treatments. I propose that there may be competition for carbon dioxide between the
zooxanthellae, which use the carbon for photosynthesis, and the coral which uses the carbon for
calcification. The results from these trials also show that larvae can continue to grow for 3 days in the
dark. Larvae were collected from P. damicornis collected from the reefs surrounding Coconut Island,
Kane`ohe, O`ahu.
Lewis, A. G. (1963). "Life history of the caligid copepod Lepeophtheirus dissimulatus Wilson, 1905
(Crustacea: Calogoida)." Pac. Sci. 17: 195-242.
A descriptive histological study of the life history of Lepeophtheirus dissimulatus which were collected
from host material, the Hawaiian acanthurid (surgeon) fishes, in Kane`ohe Bay.
Lewis, C. R. (1980). Sessile invertebrate colonization of a coral patch reef: a study of two reefs in Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i. Department of Biological Sciences. DeKalb, Northern Illinois University: 132.
Marine invertebrate colonization for a complete annual cycle was examined on two patch reefs in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. PVC panels provided the substratum for settlement along windward to
leeward transects on both reefs. Counts of individual organisms and area covered by colonies
provided data for site and inter-reef comparisons of temporal and spatial colonization trends. Over
80% of total invertebrate settlements could be ascribed to five taxonomic groups: oysters, barnacles,
serpulid worms, bryozoans and tunicates. The greatest numbers of new settlements consistently
occurred at the shallow windward site of each reef, whereas the least amount of colonization occurred
in the middle of the study reefs. Five months into the study, all the fishes were removed from the
smaller of the two patch reefs, providing a temporary means of examining the effects of fish on
invertebrate colonization. Due to the rapid recolonization of the reef, particularly by dominant
herbivores, major effect on invertebrate colonization patterns by fishes were not detected.
Lindstedt, K. J. (1971). Valine activation of feeding in the sea anemone Boloceroides. Experimental
Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press: 9299.
Evidence is presented showing chemical control of feeding in an anthozoan coelenterate; the feeding
response of the Hawaiian swimming actinian, Boloceroides sp., is controlled by the branched amino
acid valine. Specimens were collected from reefs at the northern end of Coconut Island, Kane`ohe
Bay, O`ahu. Feeding appears to require mechanical stimulation along with chemical activation which
suggests that cilia along the body surface are influenced by the feeding activator. The amino acid
valine when dissolved in seawater did not elicit a feeding response unless the animal experienced
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mechanical stimulation.
Lindstedt, K. J., L. Muscatine et al. (1968). "Valine activation of feeding in the sea anemone Boloceroides."
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 26: 567-572.
Evidence is presented showing chemical control of feeding in an anthozoan coelenterate; the feeding
response of the Hawaiian swimming actinian, Boloceroides sp., is controlled by the branched amino
acid valine. Specimens were collected from reefs at the northern end of Coconut Island, Kane`ohe
Bay, O`ahu. Feeding appears to require mechanical stimulation along with chemical activation which
suggests that cilia along the body surface are influenced by the feeding activator. The amino acid
valine when dissolved in seawater did not elicit a feeding response unless the animal experienced
mechanical stimulation.
Lloyd, M. (1970). Distribution and abundance of the common vermetids of Checker Reef, Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, Hawai`i (Abstr.). Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i institute of Marine Biology.
A description of the distribution and abundance of vermetid gastropods (mesogastropoda: Vermetidae)
which form the dominant component of the molluscan fauna of Checker Reef, Kane`ohe Bay. They
commonly occur on hard, silt-free substrate from the water surface to a depth of six meters. Relative
abundances of the vermetid species differed considerably on the Porolithon ridge, dead coral heads
and on Porites heads.
Losey, G. S., Jr. (1982). "Ecological cues and experience modify interspecific aggression by the damselfish,
Stegastes fasciolatus." Anim. Behaviour 81: 14-37.
Aggression between species has been established as an important biological process. This report is
an extension of the results presented by Losey (1981). The purpose of this study was to determine the
cause of interspecific aggression of Stegastes fasciolatus.
Losey, G. S. (1971). Communication Between Fishes in Cleaning Symbiosis. Aspects of the Biology of
Symbiosis. T. C. Cheng. Baltimore, Univ. Park Press: 45-76.
In the interactions between some cleaner and host fishes, the following list of stimuli act as
communicative signals and increase the possibility of the response shown in parentheses;
morphology, coloration, and general swimming movements of the cleaner (host-pose), morphology,
coloration, and general swimming movements of the host (cleaner-inspect), host-pose (cleanerinspect), and cleaner-inspect (host-pose). Cleaning is a distinct type of symbiotic behavior and yet the
highly developed communication system suggests that it is much more than just a casual relationship.
Losey, G. S. (1972). "The ecological importance of cleaning symbiosis." Copeia 1972(820).
The removal of most of the cleaner fish, Labroides phthirophagus, from a reef resulted in an increase
in cleaning behavior by the remaining cleaners and changes in the behavior and distribution of the host
fish. After the removal of all of the L. phthirophagus there was no increase in the ectoparasitic
infestation of the host fish as compared with a similar control reef. The form of the behavioral changes
and the lack of change in ectoparasites removal, the proximate causal factors are not related to
ectoparasites. Thus, in some areas, the relationship of the cleaner to the host may become
commensal or even parasitic.
Losey, G. S. (1977). "The validity of animal models." Biology of Behavior 2: 223-238.
Experiments were conducted to test the critical assumption that responses to a model of a cleaning
fish depends on much the same causal system as response to the natural stimulus. The assumption
was supported by two lines of evidence: 1-Three measures of the tendency to respond to the natural
stimulus all correlated with strength of response to the model. 2-Exposure to either the model or the
cleaner induced changes in subsequent responses to the other. In addition, a higher relative response
to the model appeared to suggest that it is a supernormal stimulus. But this interpretation is not
favored because the differences in response appeared to result from the model lacking certain
aversive stimuli that were experienced in interaction with the cleaner
Losey, G. S., Jr. (1979). "Fish cleaning symbiosis: proximate causes of host behavior." Anim. Behaviour 27:
669-685.
Proximate causes for response to a cleaner fish were studied in two host fishes, Chaetodon auriga and
Zebrasoma flavescens. Response to a model of a cleaner fish indicated whether ectoparasites,
deprivation of exposure to the model, and aversive stimulation had any effect on cleaning symbiotic
behaviour. An evolutionary scheme is suggested in which some cleaner fish have exploited their
hosts' tendency to respond to rewarding tactile stimuli. Adult fish were captured on reefs in Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i.
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Losey, G. S., G. H. Balazs et al. (1994). "Cleaning symbiosis between the wrasse, Thalassoma duperry, and
the green turtle, Chelonia mydas." Copeia 1994: 684-690.
Losey, G. S. and L. Margules (1974). "Cleaning symbiosis provides a positive reinforcer for fish." Science
184: 179-180.
Chaetodon auriga, a common marine fish in Hawai`i, can be conditioned by presentation of a moving
model of a cleaner fish as a positive reinforcement on an instrumental schedule. Reinforcement is
probably through tactile stimulation and might help to shape the response of fish to cleaners. Tactile
stimulation might serve as valuable reinforcer in studies of fish learning.
Lutnesky, M. (1989). "Stimulation, inhibition, and induction of "early" sex change in the pomacanthid
angelfish Centropyge potteri." Pac. Sci. 43: 196-197.
Centropyge potteri is a protogynous hermaphrodite occurring in discrete social groups (harems) of 1
male with 1-8 females. Early sex change (ESC) is sex change in the presence of a male. The purpose
of this study is to describe the socio-demographic patterns of C. potteri in high- and low-density
populations; introduce encounter rate threshold hypotheses for the proximate control of ESC; and test
if ESC can be induced in captivity. Socio-demographic patterns of C. potteri were measured in high
and low-density populations offshore of and inside Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Current hypotheses (sex
ratio threshold, size ratio threshold, and inhibition hypotheses) of the proximate control of sex change
in fishes suggest that females assess the social environment (e.g., sex ratio) as a cue to change sex.
Introduced here are 3 encounter rate threshold hypotheses.
MacCaughey, V. (1917). A footpath journey. Mid-Pacific Magazine. 14: 181-196.
A narrative of a tramp from Honolulu to the Mokapu Peninsula on O`ahu. A map of O`ahu depicts a
pineapple cannery, old mill and coral gardens as well as Coconut Island near the shores of Kane`ohe
Bay. The terrain, flora and fauna of the area are described. The author also draws a map of the
western portion of Mokapu Peninsula showing Hawai`i Loa Crater and ancient ruins.
MacCaughey, V. (1918). "A survey of the Hawaiian coral reefs." Am. Naturalist 52: 409-438: 409-438.
A paper on the natural history of the Hawaiian coral reefs. The author combines a mass of scattered
literature which was until this time, unavailable to the general reader. Kane`ohe Bay is described as
essentially a drowned valley region. In addition to the geology of the region, the author describes the
flora and fauna of the bay.
MacDonald, C. D. (1976). "Nesting rhythmicity in the damselfish Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus
(Perciformes, Pomacentridae) in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 30: 216.
The nesting frequency of a total of 70 nesting males of P. johnstonianus was continuously recorded at
6-day intervals for 19 months in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Two peaks in the spawning frequency
of nesting males occur annually from Sept through Oct and again from Feb through May. Time series
analyses by periodogram indicated that 3 oscillatory components of approximately 120-, 180-, and
360-day periods are responsible for the observed rhythmicity. A lunar component does not exist. It is
anticipated that several differentially phased, interrelated environmental cues will be found to be
responsible for the entrainment of this rhythm in adults. There is also some agreement between
periods of peak production of damselfish larvae and the periodic maximum densities of microcopepods
upon which the larvae presumably prey.
MacDonald, C. D. (1981). Reproductive strategy social organization in damselfishes. Dept. of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
The purpose of this research was to develop and test a series of hypotheses based upon life history
and sociobiological theory that explains the evolution of reproductive strategies in 2 sympatric
damselfishes. The co-evolution of behavioral adaptations and life history
characteristics are stressed.
MacDonald, C. D. (1985). Oceanographic climate and Hawaiian spiny lobster larval recruitment. HOE, The
Hawaiian Ocean Experiment. Proceedings of the Aha Hulikoa Hawaiian Winter Workshop, University
of Hawai`i, Honolulu, Hawai`i, University of Hawai`i at Manoa.
Mackaye, A. C. (1915). "Corals of Kane`ohe Bay." Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1916: p. 135-139.
A description of coral life in Kane`ohe Bay. The author describes the bay as originally being "a deep
pit of an immense crater" which had one side blown to the sea and the coral animaculae of the waters
have built up the reefs within the crater. Over a hundred varieties of corals are known to exist in
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Kane`ohe Bay being colored yellow, red, green, brown, and lavender.
Mackaye, D. C. G. (1945). "Notes on the aggregating marine animals of Hawai`i." Ecology 26: 205-207.
Notes on the aggregations of certain marine invertebrates on O`ahu as observed by the author during
1941-42. Sedentary animals such as colonial protozoans, hydroids, bryozoans, teredos, tunicates and
serpulid worms have been purposely left out as have aggregating fishes. The purposes of such
behavior cannot be guessed at and the author ventures no guesses but refers the reader to Allee
(1931). Mackaye notes that the brittle star, Ophiactis saviqnyi (Muller and Troschel) is a cosmopolitan
species which lives in the canals of sponges, crevices in dead coral or in tangled masses of seaweed
and is common in Kane`ohe Bay.
MacNamee, C. G. (1961). Life history, morphology habits and taxonomy of Haplocarcinus marsupialis
Stimpson (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Decapoda). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of
Hawai`i: 64.
A study of Haplocarcinus marsupialis examining the complete external morphology of the female and
male noting the variations other than size between the juvenile and mature females and the life history.
giving the developmental and larval stages. A correlation is made between the morphological features
of the species and their ecological requirements and behavior. Specimens were collected from the
reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, particularly on the windward reef of Moku 0 Loe Island, Checker Reef and the
Channel Island Reef.
Maginnis, L. A. (1970). Osmotic and ionic regulation of the Hawaiian anchovy, Stolephorus purpureus. Dept.
of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 95 pp.
This study examines some of the osmoregulatory processes of the anchovy under controlled
laboratory conditions. Nehu were exposed to a variety of sea water concentrations and the variables;
mortality, body water, and serum salts were then analyzed to provide indices of tolerance and
regulatory ability. Sampling was conducted in Kane`ohe Bay at various locations but the exact dates of
collections are unknown (the study was conducted from August to December, 1969).
Maginnis, L. A. and M. J. Wells (1969). "The oxygen consumption of Octopus cyanea." J. Exp. Biol. 51: 607.
Mahi, C. A. (1969). Food and feeding habits of the kumu, Parupeneus porphyreus. Zoology. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i.
Mainland, G. B. (1939). Gobioidea and freshwater fish on the island of O`ahu. Department of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A two-year study (1937-1939) of the habitats and distribution of the fresh water fish and marine gobioid
fish found on O`ahu. Collections were made on the mud flats of Kane`ohe Bay, the streams and
brackish water areas of Kaaawa and Waihee and many other areas of O`ahu.
Major, P. F. (1977). "Predator-prey interactions in schooling fishes during periods of twilight: a study of the
silverside Pranesus insularum in Hawai`i." Fish. Bull. 75: 415-426.
Observations of free living and captive silversides were made in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, in October
and November 1972 and September 1973. The silversides demonstrated changes in schooling
behavior associated with changes in light levels during the periods of twilight. During morning twilight,
individual silversides formed schools, which in some areas moved from deep water to shallow water
over reefs. All silversides remained in large inactive schools in shallow water or along the edge of
channels throughout the day. During evening twilight, schools left the reef and/or broke up, with
individual silversides spreading out to feed near the surface. Predation upon the silversides, as
evidenced by their jumping behavior, was most intense during the twilight periods as schools formed
and broke up. Captive silversides, when not in the presence of predators, tended to increase their
interfish distance when in diurnal schools. The formation and breakup of schools of these silversides
appear to be very similar to behavioral patterns of related and unrelated species of fish in many parts
of the world. The formation and break up of silversides schools appear to be related to the threat of
predation, the availability of the silverside's food, and the visual sensitivity and thresholds of both the
silversides and their predators
Mann, D. A. and P. S. Lobel, . (1998). "Acoustic behavior of the damselfish Dascyllus albisella: behavioral
and geographic variation." Env. Biol. Fishes 51: 421-428.
Behavioural and geographic variation in animal communication has been well-studied in insects, frogs,
birds and mammals, but little is known about variation in fishes. We used underwater audio-video
recordings of the behavior and associated sounds produced by the domino damselfish, Dascyllus
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albisella, at Johnston Atoll and Hawai`i, which are separated by 1000km, to study behavioral and
geographic variation in communication sounds. Males produced pulsed sounds during the courtship
behavior known as the signal jump, visiting by females (during pseudospawning), mating, aggression
to heterospecifics and conspecifics, and nest preparation. Females made only aggressive sounds. The
following features of the sounds were measured: number of pulses, pulse rate, pulse duration, interpulse interval, dominant frequency, and frequency envelope. The only difference between visiting and
mating sounds was a small difference in pulse duration. Two types of aggressive sounds were
produced, pops and chirps. Pops contained only one or two pulses and were more commonly made
towards heterospecifics than conspecifics. Aggressive chirps had between 3-11 pulses and were
made most often towards conspecifics. The pulse rate of aggressive chirps was faster than signal jump
sounds. The only difference in signal jump sounds made by males from Johnston Atoll and Hawai`i,
was a small difference in pulse duration, which was likely due to differences in the depths of the
recording environment and not in the sounds produced.
Manning, R. B. and M. L. Reaka (1981). "Gonodactylus aloha, a new stomatopod crustacean from the
Hawaiian Islands." J. Crustacean Biol. 1: 190-200.
Maragos, J. E. (1972). A study of the ecology of Hawaiian reef corals. Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of
Hawai`i: 290.
The importance of various environmental factors in regulating the growth, survival, and other
responses of reef corals is investigated in this study. Numerous locations were first surveyed to
determine the abundance and distribution of reef coral species in Kane`ohe Bay. In the latter portion
of this study, coral specimens of six species were transplanted at 25 localities in Kane`ohe Bay.
Information on growth, survival, water properties, substrate composition, and weather were obtained
over a year-long period. The results of the growth studies and regression analysis performed on the
gathered data as well as other pertinent topics are comprehensively discussed.
Maragos, J. E. (1973). Distribution and abundance of reef corals. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: a reef ecosystem
under stress. S. V. Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam, University of Hawai`i, Sea Grant Advisory
Program, Manoa: 37-49.
The regional abundance and distribution of coral reefs in Kane`ohe Bay are controlled by local
circulation, water chemistry patterns and substrate type. The maps in this section contain data for all
corals observed and for nine of the more frequently observed species in terms of percent cover or
presence-absence. A brief discussion of the survey results is presented.
Maragos, J. E. (1974). Coral transplantation: a method to create, preserve, and manage coral reefs.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea Grant Program.
The feasibility of using transplanted coral as a method to shorten the recovery time of stressed corals
and to create new coral reefs is investigated. Two coral species, Porites compressa and Montipora
verrucosa, were transplanted in three areas of Kane`ohe Bay and were monitored for growth and
survival over an 18-month period. Results show that transplantation may be an effective procedure for
preserving and creating coral reefs in certain areas.
Maragos, J. E. (1976). The status of available information on reef coral populations in Kane`ohe Bay.
Honolulu, Us Army Corps Of Engineers, Pacific Division: App. 2.17.
Maragos, J. E. and K. E. Chave (1973). Stress and interference of Man in the Bay. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: a
reef ecosystem under stress. S. V. Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam, University of Hawai`i, Sea
Grant Advisory Program, Manoa: 119-123.
The regional abundance and distribution of coral reefs in Kane`ohe Bay are controlled by local
circulation, water chemistry patterns and substrate type. The maps in this section contain data for all
corals observed and for nine of the more frequently observed species in terms of percent cover or
presence-absence. A brief discussion of the survey results is presented.
Maragos, J. E., C. Evans et al. (1985). "Reef corals in Kane`ohe Bay six years before and after termination
of sewage discharges (O`ahu, Hawaiian Archipelago)." Proc. Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 4: 189194.
Watersheds surrounding Kane`ohe Bay were dominated by rural and agricultural use before 1939.
Reef coral communities flourished on lagoon reef slopes and were protected from the open ocean by a
large barrier reef. After 1939, military dredging and filling, residential development, and population
growth occurred, especially in and around the confined southeast bay. As population grew, sewage
discharges into the lagoon increased, culminating in the construction of large sewage outfalls in the
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southeast bay by 1963. After 1965, the scientific community, including Maragos (1972), began to study
changes in the lagoon. It was speculated that eutrophication and sedimentation, as a result of
urbanization and construction, were the cause of an observed decline in lagoon coral communities in
the south lagoon and explosive growth of the green algae Dichtyosphaeria cavernosa, which was
smothering coral, in the middle lagoon. Reef corals in the bay's northwest lagoon remained abundant
and appeared unaffected. Pressure from the public and scientific community compelled the local
government and military to terminate large sewage discharges in the southeast lagoon by 1978. Now
only a minor amount of sewage is discharged in the northwest lagoon. In 1983, we re-surveyed the
lagoon and coral transect sites of Maragos (1972) using the same methods. These surveys revealed a
remarkable recovery of corals, especially, Porites compressa and Montipora verrucosa, in the southern
and middle lagoon and continued high coral abundance in the northern lagoon. Minor coral species,
Pocillopora damicornis and Cyphastrea ocellina, also were more abundant in the lagoon. In contrast,
Dichtyosphaeria declined greatly except for a minor increase in the northern lagoon. This study and
other recent investigations corroborate that sewage was a major stress to lagoon corals and a
stimulant to Dichtyosphaeria growth. In addition, these studies indicate that the detrimental effects of
sewage on corals are generally magnified in confined embayments with restricted circulation.
Marine Research Consultants (1988). Marine environmental survey in the vicinity of the Waikane Golf
Course, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Waikane Golf Course
Project, Waikane, Ko'olaupoko District, O`ahu, Hawai'i, Volume II. November 1988. Honolulu, Marine
Research Consultants.
Marine Research Consultants (1990). Environmental assessment He'eia wastewater collection system.
He'eia, Koolaupoko, O`ahu, Calvin Kim and Assoc, Inc.
Gerald Park, Urban Planner: 76.
This report includes an environmental assessment of He'eia, Koolaupoko, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Marine Research Consultants (1993). Baseline assessment of the nearshore marine environment of
Kane`ohe Bay in the vicinity of the airfield pavement repairs, Kane`ohe Marine Corps Air Station,
O`ahu, Phase I. Honolulu, Marine Research Consultants.
Marine Research Consultants (1994). Airfield pavement repairs, phase 1. H. Helber, and Fee. Kane`ohe,
O`ahu, Dept. of the Navy: 50.
A baseline assessment of the nearshore environment fronting the project site was conducted by
Marine Research Consultants in April and June 1993.
Mariscal, R. N. (1971a). The chemical control of the feeding behavior in some Hawaiian corals.
Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, University
of Hawai`i Press: 96-113.
This study investigated the chemical stimuli that elicit mouth opening and feeding behavior in the
Hawaiian coral Cyphastrea ocellina, and, to a lesser degree, Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis,
Tubastrea manni, Pocillopora meandrina, and Leptastrea bottae. The corals were collected from the
reefs in Kane`ohe Bay.
Mariscal, R. N. (1971b). Effect of a disulfide reducing agent on the nematocyst capsules from some
coelenterates, with an illustrated key to nematocyst classification. Experimental Coelenterate Biology.
H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Press: 157-168.
This study tested the action of dithioerythritol (DTE) on the nematocysts of five species of corals, one
zoanthid, one scyphozoan and one hydroid collected form Kane`ohe Bay.
Mariscal, R. N. and H. M. Lenhoff (1968). "The chemical control of feeding behavior in Cyphastrea ocellina
and in some other Hawaiian corals." J. Exp. Bio. 49: 689-699.
This study investigated the chemical stimuli that elicit mouth opening and feeding behavior in the
Hawaiian coral Cyphastrea ocellina, and, to a lesser degree, Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis,
Tubastrea manni, Pocillopora meandrina, and Leptastrea bottae. The corals were collected from the
reefs in Kane`ohe Bay.
Mariscal, R. N. and H. M. Lenhoff (1969). "Effect of a disulfide reducing agent on coelenterate nematocyst
capsules." Experientia 25(3): 330-331.
Recent work has revealed the presence of a single hydroxyproline-rich, collagen-like protein linked by
disulfide bonds in the microbasic mastigophore nematocyst capsule of a sea anemone. Subsequently,
other workers have confirmed this in a different species of sea anemone. Since the presence in
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protein of the amino acid hydroxyproline is diagnostic of collagens, and since collagens were thought
to be devoid of disulfide bonds, the above discovery is of considerable interest. Because of this and
because of the great complexity and diversity of these intracellular organelles, the present study was
undertaken to determine how widespread was this phenomenon among the various classes of
coelenterates. This study tested the action of dithioerythritol (DTE) on the nematocysts of five species
of corals, one zoanthid, one scyphozoan and one hydroid collected form Kane`ohe Bay. The
coelenterates used were collected in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Marsh, J. A. (1968). Primary productivity of the reef-building calcareous red algae. Department of Zoology.
Athens, GA, University of Georgia: 84.
A study of the biological role of calcareous red algae in the life of a reef. It presents a determination of
their primary productivity and an evaluation of their contribution to the total reef economy. The study
was done at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands and at Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Primary productivity was studied using polarographic oxygen electrodes and before-and-after Winkler
titrations. Gross productivity was found to be .048-.002 mg 02 cm- 2 hr-1. Photosynthesis was found
to increase with increased light intensity up to approximately 100 foot-candles and was constant
between 1000 and 8000 foot-candles. Water circulation increased respiration and photosynthesis by a
factor of 3 over the rates in still water. Gas exchange in flowing water showed no correlation with
water velocity. Estimated productivity of the zones dominated by algal growth was noted to be lower
than the productivity reported in the literature for other reef zones on atolls. All in all, this study
indicates that calcareous algae are less important as primary producers than expected.
Marsh, J. A., Jr. (1970). "Primary productivity of reef-building calcareous red algae." Ecology 51: 255-63.
Samples from the reefs of Eniwetok Atoll and Kane`ohe Bay were put in a closed system, and oxygen
exchange was measured in the light and the dark. Daily patterns of photosynthesis were calculated for
populations of calcareous algae living on the submarine faces of the windward sides of atolls. The
results indicate that island reefs are less productive than previously studied inter-island reefs.
Martin, W. E. (1958). "Hawaiian helminths 1. Trigoncryptus conus n. gen., n. sp. (Trematoda:
Fellodistomidae)." Pac. Sci. 12: 251-254.
A description of a new species and new genus of trematode found in the stomach of the balloon fish,
Tetraodon hispidus L., collected at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay.
Martin, W. E. (1960). "Hawaiian helminths, Part III. New Opecoelid trematodes." Pac.-Sci. 14: 411-415.
Descriptions of opecoelid trematodes found in fishes caught in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu:
Coitocaecum banneri - in the gall bladder of wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey (Quoy and Gaimard)
Coitocaecum hawaiensis - in the gall bladder of wrasse T. duperrey Quoy and Gaimard)
Coitocaecum norae - in the gall bladder of Ctenochaetus strigosus
Opecoelus lanceolatus - in the intestine of goatfish Mulloidichthys samoensis (Gunther)
Pseudopecoelus tenuoides - in the intestine of Priacanthus cruentatus
Martin, W. E. (1960). "Hawaiian helminths, Part IV. Paracardicola hawaiensis n. gen., n. sp. (Trematoda:
Sanguinicolidae) from the balloon fish, Tetradon hispidus L." J. Parasitology 46: 648-650.
Description of a new species and new genera of Trematode found in the mesenteric veins of the
balloon fish, Tetraodon hispidus collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Mate T., J. L. (1998a). New reports on the timing and mode of reproduction of Hawaiian corals.
Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 7.
Seven Hawaiian scleractinian corals were monitored in the laboratory to observe spawning during the
months of June-September 1997.
Mate T., J. L. (1998b). Genetic relationships between two scleractinian reef-corals in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i: Pavona varians Verrill and Pavona duerdeni Vaughan. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox,
D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 127.
Pavona is a very common and conspicuous coral genus with a distribution that ranges from the Red
Sea and western Indian Ocean to the far eastern Pacific. Approximately twenty-two Pavona species
are known worldwide. Two Pavona species are found within Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i: Pavona varians
and P. duerdeni. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to study the genetic relationships
between and within two populations of P. duerdeni and six populations of P. varians. An initial survey
of these species have showed differences in enzyme banding patterns on 12 loci (8 enzyme systems)
using 2 buffer systems. Eight loci were polymorphic: GTDH-1, GTDH-2, TPI-2,HK, PGDH, MDH-1,
MDH-2, GPI, LVP, LPP-2, while two loci are monomorphic: TPI-1, LPP-1. Preliminary results indicated
137
a fixed difference between P. varians and P. duerdeni at the TPI-2 locus. This fixed difference
between both Pavona species indicates a lack of genetic exchange between both species and as such
validates the species status for P. varians and P. duerdeni.
Mate T., J. L., J. Wilson et al. (1998c). Fertilization dynamics and larval development of the scleractinian
coral Montipora verrucosa in Hawai'i. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L.
Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 27-39.
Sexual reproduction, fertilization dynamics and larval development were studied in the Hawaiian coral
Montipora verrucosa from June 1997 to August 1997. Intraspecific crosses yielded very high
fertilization rates compared to the extremely low or zero rates of self-fertilization. Sperm concentration
and water motion appear to be critical to the fertilization success of M. verrucosa. The inability to
culture large numbers of M. verrucosa planulae had been a major barrier to post-larval studies in this
species. We have developed a larval raising technique that allow large number of planulae to be
obtained relatively easily. Preliminary results suggest that crustose coralline algae may be an
important requirement in the settlement of M. verrucosa larvae. Coral specimens were collected from
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Mather, J. A., D. L. Mather et al. (1997). "Cross-species associations of Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849
(Mollusca: Cephalopoda)." Veliger 40: 255-258.
Casual observation of several Octopus species suggested that the modification of the habitat involved
in construction of sheltering dens might attract other animal species, sometimes called "den
associates." A study comparing the presence of motile epibenthos in areas around dens of O. cyanea
with nearby control areas quantified this assumption. One species group, juvenile Scarus parrotfish,
was significantly less likely to be found around O. cyanea dens, possibly because den construction
disrupted growth of algae on which the parrotfish fed. Two species, the wrasse Thalassoma duperrey
Quoy & Gaimard, 1824, and the hermit crab Calcinus latens Randall, 1839, were more likely to be
found at dens of O. cyanea. Both species appeared to be scavenging on the remains of prey left by
octopuses, and their presence thus appeared to indicate an opportunistic but loose association.
Matsuda, C. (1973). A shoreline survey of free-living intertidal barnacles (class Crustacea; subclass
Cirripedia; order Thoracica) on the island of O`ahu, Hawai`i. Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of
Hawai`i: 60 pp.
This thesis summarizes the findings of a shoreline survey conducted from June 1972 to August 1973
to update the literature on the Hawaiian barnacle fauna. The barnacles were classified according to
abundance, size, water clarity, salinity, wave action; and substrata. A number of sites were located in
Kane`ohe Bay.
Matthews, D. C. (1951). "The origin, development, and nature of the spermatophoric mass of the spiny
lobster, Panulirus penicillatus (Oliver)." Pac. Sci. 5(4): 359-371.
Although many thorough investigations of crustacean spermatozoa have been made, few have
included more than desultory accounts of the spermatophores. The material presented in this paper
not only extends our knowledge of the biology of the spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus (Oliver)
through an account of the origin, development, and nature of its spermatophoric mass, but also
suggests the method by which its spermatophora are liberated. Specimens of P. penicillatus taken in
the vicinity of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, between July, 1947, and January, 1948, were used in this study.
Matthews, D. C. (1953). "New Hawaiian Records of Folliculinids (Protozoa)." Trans. Am. Micro. Soc. 72:
344.
A paper recording the occurrence of two additional species to the Hawaiian Islands: Metafolliculina
andrewsi Hadzit growing on oyster (Crassostrea virginica) valves near Coconut Island, and Lagotia
simplex Dons found growing on a small alga (Chondria tenuissima) on the reef at the marine
laboratory in Kane`ohe Bay.
Matthews, D. C. and S. J. Townsley (1964). "Additional records of Hawaiian Platyctenea (Ctenophora)."
Pac. Sci. 18: 344-351.
A previous study of Platyctenea in Hawai`i revealed the finding of Coeloplana dubosequii on the alga,
Hvpnea nidifica in Kane`ohe Bay and other platyctenids found on spines of Echinothrix diadema on
Buoy no. 8 in Kane`ohe Bay. In this study, three more urchins were found to be hosts for platyctenids:
C. echinicola Tanaka on Tripneustes pileolus
C. willeyi Abbott on Heterocentrotus mamillatus
C. willeyi Abbott on Echinothrix diadema
138
May, R. C. (1967). Larval survival in the maomao, Abudefduf abdominalis (Quoy and Gaimard). Department
of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
The larvae of the maomao were studied both in laboratory and in field conditions to investigate the
factors influencing the mortality of the species during the larval stage, especially during the apparent
'critical period'. The work was divided into three stages: a general description of the fish and certain
aspects of its spawning behavior; laboratory rearing attempts and finally, laboratory work utilizing a
rearing net designed by P. Helfrich to study the mortality of the fish under semi-natural conditions. The
author includes data on the frequency of spawning of this species at Coconut Island.
May, R. C., . : (1976). Studies on the Culture of the Threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, in Hawai`i. Tech. Conf.
on Aquaculture, Dec. 1975, Rome, FAO.
A 2-year study of the aquacultural potential of Polydactylus sexfilis was carried out in Hawai`i. Fish
maintained in a suspended net enclosure displayed spontaneous spawning with a lunar rhythm over a
6-month spawning season. Larvae were reared from captive-spawned eggs to the juvenile stage.
Juveniles and adults could be conditioned to feed on dried artificial rations, including floating pellets,
and food conversion rates were favorable. Measurements of growth in small cages showed that
marketable fish of 300 g. could be produced from 9 g. fry in 300 days at ambient temperatures in
Hawai`i. Growth rates could be increased by maintaining temperature and salinity within optimal
ranges. These results indicate that this species has high potential for aquaculture in Hawai`i, where it
fetches a high market price. It is suggested that the culture of Polydactylus sexfilis, and perhaps other
polynemid fishes, may also be feasible in other parts of the Indo Pacific.
May, R. C., G. S. Akiyama et al. (1979). "Lunar spawning of the threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, in Hawai`i."
Fish. Bull. 76: 900-904.
Juvenile P. sexfilis were captured on unspecified reef flats in Kane`ohe Bay and raised to maturity in
tidal ponds. Spawning coincided to lunar phases in these tanks from May to October. Spawning
usually took place between 2030 and 2130 h during the spawning season and was unrelated to time of
sunset or moonrise. Spawning behavior is described.
McDermid, K. J. (1991). Survey of benthic marine algae on the fringing reef adjacent to the planned Malulani
Sports Complex, Heeia, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Honolulu, Marine Research Consultants.
McMahon, J. J. (1975). Estimation of selected production parameters for iao, Pranesus insularum insularum.
Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 83.
The present study was designed to determine selected production parameters for iao in Kane`ohe
Bay. Of particular interest were: growth rate spawning season, the relationship between length and
weight, and feeding periodicity. Estimates of sampling variability and food passage rate through the
digestive tract were obtained as necessary precursors to the above. Field sampling was continued for
one year to obtain estimates of seasonal variation in the parameters studied.
Medvick, P. A. (1976). Temperature selection and growth of three Hawaiian reef fishes and their distribution
in an area of heated effluent. Dept. Of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 136 pp.
The selected temperature of three species of Hawaiian reef fishes, Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis
(manini), Abudefduf abdominalis (maomo) and Chaetodon multicinctus (pebbled butterflyfish) were
determined under several experimental regimes in an electronically controlled temperature selection
apparatus. Experiments were designed to evaluate difference: 1) of median selected temperature
between juveniles and adults, 2) induced by shelter changes and 3) induced by a food ration.
Medvick, P. A. (1979a). "Growth rates of juvenile maomao, Abudefduf abdominalis, at constant and cyclic
temperatures." Amer. Fish. Soc. 108: 293-298.
Growth rate and growth efficiency of juvenile maomao are related to temperature. I grew isolated fish
at six temperature regimes (constant: 23.4, 26.4, 29.4, 32.4 C; daily cyclic: 23.4-29.4 C, 26.4-32.4 C)
and at three food rations. Growth rates (wet weight) of fish fed ad libitum were greatest at the two
highest constant temperatures which are near the species' preferred temperature of 30.1 C. At two
lower rations fastest growth occurred at 26.4 C. Growth rates in cyclic temperatures were not
significantly different from those at constant temperatures equivalent to the mean temperature of the
cycle. Maomao fed limited rations at cyclic temperatures which bracketed the preferred temperature
grew at rates near the maximum for limited rations, indicating little, if any, energy penalty for living at
cyclic temperatures.
Medvick, P. A. and J. M. Miller (1979b). "Behavioral thermoregulation in three Hawaiian reef fishes." Env.
Biol. Fish. 4(1): 23-28.
139
The preferred temperature of three Hawaiian coral-reef fishes - Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis,
Abudefduf abdominalis, and Chaetodon multicinctus - were determined in two-chambered tanks that
permitted the fish to regulate behaviorally tank temperature. Median selected temperatures over 72 h
were as follows: adult C. multicinctus, 24.0 C; juvenile C. multicinctus, 27.0 C; adult A. abdominalis,
25.9 C; juvenile A. abdominalis, 30.2 C; adult A. triostegus, 29.2 C; juvenile A. triostegus, 29.3 C.
Juvenile A. abdominalis selected significantly higher median temperatures than the adults. C.
multicinctus and juvenile A. abdominalis selected higher median temperatures during the day than at
night.
Menez, E. G. (1962). The ecology and taxonomy of Polysiphonia in Hawai`i. Department of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study to evaluate the taxonomy of Polysiphonia previously reported from the Hawaiian Islands and to
determine and describe any new species. Some of the ecological factors thought to determine the
distribution of Polysiphonia were tides and light, temperature and salinity, turbulence, pH, oxygen,
P04-P, and N03-N. Measurements were made on these parameters from October - December, 1959.
Menez, E. G. (1964). "The taxonomy of Polysiphonia in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 18: 207-222.
A taxonomic study of the genus Polysiphonia in Hawai`i. Six species of Polysiphonia have been
reported in the literature from Hawai`i.
Miller, B. (1970). Preliminary studies on the biology and ecology of Terebra gouldii Deshayes (Abstr.).
Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology.
Preliminary studies on the distribution abundance, migration habits, reproduction and feeding
preferences of the toxoglossan gastropod, Terebra gouldii on the sand flats of Ahu 0 Laka, Kane`ohe
Bay. T. gouldii is primarily a carnivore, feeding exclusively on the enteropneust, Ptychodera flava and
feeding mainly at night. T. gouldii is preyed upon by the gastropod Natica macrochiensis and by the
sand crab Calappa hepatica. The terebrid can crawl 1-2 m a night over the hard sand. Spawning is by
means of egg capsules, there is no planktonic stage.
Miller, B. A. (1975). "The biology of Terebra gouldi Deshayes, 1859, and a discussion of life history
similarities among other Terebrids of similar proboscis type." Pac. Sci. 29(3): 227-241.
Although gastropods of the family Terebridae are common in subtidal sand communities throughout
the tropics, Terebra gouldi, a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, is the first terebrid for which a
complete life history is known. Unlike most toxoglossan gastropods, which immobilie their prey
through invenomation, T. gouldi possesses no poison apparatus and captures its prey with a long
muscular proboscis. It is a primary carnivore, preying exclusively on the enteropneust Ptychodera
flava, a nonselective deposit feeder. The sexes are separate, and copulation takes place under the
sand. Six to eight spherical eggs are deposited in a stalked capsule, and large numbers of capsules
are attached in a cluster to coral or pebbles. There is no planktonic larval stage. Growth after
hatching is relatively slow. Young individuals may grow more than 1 cm per year, but growth rates
slow considerably with age. Adults grow to a maximum size of 8 cm and appear to live 7-10 years.
Other terebrids with a proboscis nearly identical in structure to that of T. gouldi exhibit similar life
history aspects, including habitat preference and prey choice. It is suggested that proboscis types may
be useful in predicting basic life history aspects throughout the family.
Miller, B. A. and R. A. Croker (1972). "Distribution and abundance of an isolated population of Terebra
gouldi (Gastropoda: Teribridae) on a Hawaiian subtidal sand flat." Ecology 53: 1120-1126.
Species of the carnivorous gastropod genus Terebra are common members of tropical subtidal sand
associations. Despite superficially uniform sand habitats, these species occupy well-defined population
centers. The distributional pattern of Terebra gouldi, an endemic Hawaiian species, and the physical
and biological factors influencing this pattern, were studied on a subtidal sand flat surrounding Ahe O
Laka Island in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. The species was not widely distributed around this sand flat,
but rather was concentrated in two sub-populations located on the windward and leeward sides of the
island, where densities were as high as 15 animals per square meter. Of more than 40 associated
infaunal species, only the prey, Ptychodera flava, appeared to have an important effect on T. gouldi
distribution. Two hypotheses are advanced to explain observed intra-population density gradients.
These are chemoreceptive locomotory activity in response to prey, and life history factors including
recruitment of young in high density adult population centers, followed by gradual dispersal of maturing
animals.
Miller, J. M. et al. (1973). "A quantitative push-net system for transect studies of larval fish and
macrozooplankton." Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 175-178.
140
A surface plankton sampler that quantitatively samples contiguous segments of a transect has
characteristics that include operability in shallow water by two investigators, paired, self-cleaning nets,
a minimum of obstructions preceding the nets, and a high ratio of filtering area to mouth area.
Miller, J. M. and B. Y. Sumida (1974). "Development of eggs and larvae of Caranx mate (Carangidae)." Fish.
Bull. 72(2): 497-514.
The development of eggs and larvae of omaka (Caranx mate) is described from approximately 2h after
fertilization to day 36 after hatching. The pelagic, spherical eggs (700-740 diameter) had a single oil
droplet and hatched after about 26 h incubation at 24.5 C. The average growth rate in culture was
0.44 mm/day; feeding began four days after hatching. Fin development and ossification of omaka
occurred at smaller sizes, but in the same sequence as jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) off
California. Of the body proportions measured, body depth was most useful in separating omaka from
at least two other species of carangid larvae. The pigment pattern was also of diagnostic value.
Reared larvae were indistinguishable from similar-sized field specimens. Omaka eggs can be taken
with fair regularity from March through September from the surface waters of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Miller, J. M., W. Watson et al. (1973). Larval fishes. Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: a reef ecosystem under stress.
S. V. Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea Grant. UNIHISEAGRANT-TR-72-01: 101-105.
Species and relative abundances of larval fishes sampled in Kane`ohe Bay 1971-72 are listed.
Occurrences of certain species is attributed to two factors: presence of reefs and incoming tides
transporting water from offshore. Larval fish fauna of Kane`ohe bay is therefore a mixture of
transported species and species from eggs spawned in Kane`ohe Bay.
Miller, J. M. e. a. and Annotation: (1979). "Nearshore abundance of tuna (Pisces: Scombridae) larvae in the
Hawaiian Islands." Bull. Mar. Sci. 29: 19-26.
Ichthyoplankton surveys of the nearshore waters of the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, O`ahu, and Maui
and more
intensive sampling at Kahe Point, O`ahu disclosed abundances of tuna (Scombridae) larvae as high as
3
441/1000 m , and frequently one or two orders of magnitude higher than those typical of the Central
Pacific Ocean. Inter-station spatial variability was higher than 1-h temporal variability at a single
station. Both the abundance of larvae and the variability increased toward shore. Leeward catches
were significantly greater than windward. It appeared most likely that large numbers of tuna larvae are
upwelled along leeward coasts by wind-driven nearshore currents from horizontal strata containing
even higher densities of larvae.
Miller, M. A. (1941). "The isopod crustacea of the Hawaiian Islands. II. Asellota." B. P. Bishop Museum
Occ. Papers 16: 305-320.
A taxonomic study of the superfamily Asellota (Aselloidea) of the crustacean order Isopoda which is
represented in Hawai`i by four new species belonging to four genera and to three families.
Moberly Jr., R. and J. Campbell (1969). Hawaiian shallow marine sand inventory. Part I. Introduction Part II.
Ahu O Laka sand deposit, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of
Geophysics: 24.
Moehring, J. L. t., , . (1972). Communication systems of a goby-shrimp symbiosis. Department of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
The behavioral symbiotic association between a gobiid fish and 2 species of alpheid shrimp was
studied using information theory and correlated chi-square analyses. In this association, the gobies
use the burrows shrimp dig as shelters. One goby, or a pair, sit at the burrow entrance apparently alert
to danger, while two or three shrimp dig and maintain the burrow. If disturbed, the goby gives a barely
visually perceptible tail flick. If the disturbance persists, the goby flees into the burrow, always after the
shrimp. Animals for study were collected from Kane`ohe Bay, however the locations of these
collections are unknown.
Moffitt, R. B. and F. A. Parrish (1996). "Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper,
Pristipomoides filamentosus." Pac. Sci. 50: 371-381.
Eteline snappers are an important component of commercial demersal fisheries in the central and
western Pacific, but there is a substantial gap in the knowledge of their life histories, specifically the
larval and juvenile stages. Juvenile pink snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes), ranging
in size from 7 to 25 cm fork length, inhabit a nearly featureless plain offshore of Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu,
at depths of 65-100 m. Bottom samples and underwater video footage showed the bottom to be
141
uniformly composed of fine, silty sand with little relief. Conductivity-temperature-depth data indicate
that an internal tide brings cold water over the bottom on a tidal basis. Telemetric studies show that
juveniles undergo small-scale crepuscular migrations from deeper daytime locations to shallower
nighttime locations but move relatively little during day and night periods. Analysis of length frequency
distributions obtained over a 17-month period resulted in an estimate of the von Bertalanffy growth
-1
constant (K) of 0.21 yr .
Monger, B. C. and M. R. Landry (1991). Size-selective grazing by heterotrophic nanoflagellates: An analysis
using live-stained bacteria and dual-beam flow cytometry. 5th Int. Workshop on the Measurement of
Microbial Activities in the Carbon Cycle in Aquatic Environments, Helsinger (Denmark), Advances in
Limnology. Stuttgart.
The effect of prey size on clearance rates of a direct-contact feeding chrysomonad (HNAN-1) was
examined using dual-beam flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescently-labelled prey prepared from living
and heat-killed cultures. Over the range in prey sizes used in These experiments (0.7 to 1.4 mu m
diameter, clearance rate increased approximately linearly with prey diameter. These results are
consistent with model predictions based on the balance of hydrodynamic (repulsive) and van der
Waals (attractive) forces. The high precision of FCM analysis allows unequivocal rejection of sizedependencies with exponents greater than 1.8. HNAN-1 does not discriminate between living
Synechococcus cells or polystyrene micospheres of comparable size, or between living and heat-killed
preparations of the heterotrophic bacteria Vibrio damsela and Pseudomonas diminuta . Significantly
higher clearance rates were observed for HNAN-1 feeding on a small, living bacterial isolate from
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, USA compared to heat-killed cells from the same culture or any of the larger
prey used in our experiments.
Morrey, C. E., M. Nakamura et al. (1998). "P450scc-like immunoreactivity throughout gonadal restructuring
in the protogynous hermaphrodite Thalassoma duperrey." Int. J. Dev. Biol. 42: 811-816.
Morris, J. E. (1960). Some relationships of the physical environment to self- and cross-fertilization and to
early development in an Hawaiian tunicate, Herdmania momus. Department of Zoology. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i: 50.
A study divided into three main sections: the anatomy and physiology of the gonads and gametes with
special emphasis on the fertilization membrane; the technique used in the self-sterility experiments
and results of such experiments; and the anatomy of the development and the effect of temperature on
development rate. Specimens were collected from various areas on O`ahu, but all the experimental
animals were obtained from pilings and rocks on the leeward side of Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay.
Morris, R. A. and G. H. Balazs (1994). "Experimental use of cryosurgery to treat fibropapillomas in the green
turtle, Chelonia mydas." NOAA Tech. Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC 341: 111-114.
Morrisey, J. (1985). Carbon flow through fleshy algae on coral reefs. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu,
Univ. Of Hawai`i: 136.
Pathways of carbon flow through coral reef fleshy algae were investigated by an annual study of
biomass, primary production, detritus production and degradation on Checker reef in Kane`ohe Bay.
the selected species were Acanthophora spicifera and Sargassum echinocarpum. Biomass harvesting
and respirometry experiments were conducted monthly. Macroalgal detritus production was assessed
routinely with detritus nets and sediment traps. Degradation was investigated in static incubation
systems and supplemented by data from outdoor flow-through experiments and field observations.
Moynihan, M. (1983). "Notes on the behavior of Euprymna scolopes (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae)." Behaviour
85: 25-41.
18 individuals of the sepiolid Euprymna scolopes were collected in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
They were observed in the laboratory for a brief period. They were found to be non-gregarious and
primarily nocturnal. It was possible to study feeding and defensive behavior. The species seems to
prefer shrimps as prey. It is often cryptic. Among the adaptations for crypsis are color changes to
match backgrounds (substrates), sand burrowing, and the cementing of sand grains to the back of an
individual itself. The grains presumably are held in place by adhesive secretions of the skin. The
captive animals also produced patterns which were conspicuous rather than cryptic. They were highly
visible, occasionally intricate, combinations of light and dark. Some of them were distinctive. A single
copulation was peculiar in certain respects (the spatial positions of the performers), but reminiscent of
true cuttlefishes of the genus Sepia in other respects (color displays of both male and female).
Muir, B. S. and A. J. Niimi (1972). "Oxygen consumption of the euryhaline fish aholehole (Kuhlia
142
sandvicensis) with reference to salinity, swimming, and food consumption." J. Fish. Res. Bd. 29: 67-77.
Active and standard metabolism of Kuhlia sandvicensis increase with fish weight to a power of about
0.8 and active is nine times standard. No significant difference was found between experiments in
sea water at 23 C. At low swimming speeds the fish may be unable to
fresh water and 30 
physically take up as much oxygen as at higher speeds. Swimming activity may be essential to
circulatory adequacy. Elevated oxygen consumption lasted for 42 hr following a ration of 2.3% of body
weight and for 60 hr after one of 4.5%. It amounted to about 76 mg O2/g ration, equivalent to about
16% of the energy of the ration, in both cases. For a nonswimming fish the highest oxygen
consumption observed following the maximum daily ration is no more than half of the difference
between active and standard rates. Specimens of aholehole were caught by angling in Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu.
Muir, D. G. (1997). "New records of pericarid Crustacea in Hawai`i (Crustacea: Pericarida)." Occ. Pap. B. P.
Bishop Museum 49: 50-54.
Murdock, G. R. (1971). The formation and assimilation of alcohol-soluble proteins during intracellular
digestion by Hydra littoralis and Aiptasia sp. Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L.
Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press.
Coelenterate intracellular digestion has been well documented, but there is little information on the
chemical changes actually taking place within the food vacuole. In this study observations on Hydra
littoralis and on Aiptasia sp. are discussed in which a labeled protein of ingested food is degraded and
radioactively traced. Sea anemones of Aiptasia sp., were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Murdock, G. R. and H. M. Lenhoff (1968). "Alcohol soluble proteins: Their formation and assimilation during
intracellular digestion in Hydra littoralis and Aiptasia sp." Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 26: 963-970.
Coelenterate intracellular digestion has been well documented, but there is little information on the
chemical changes actually taking place within the food immense . In this study observations on Hydra
littoralis and on Aiptasia sp. are discussed in which a labeled protein of ingested food is degraded and
radioactively traced. Sea anemones of Aiptasia sp., were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Murphy, C. (1972). An annual cycle of phytoplankton populations in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Dept. Of
Botanical Sciences. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 109 pp.
The present study, planned as a quantitative investigation of the phytoplankton of Kane`ohe Bay, over
a period of one year, was undertaken to supplement present knowledge of seasonal, distributional,
floristic and ecological features of the phytoplankton in the Bay. The objectives were to 1) identify and
enumerate phytoplankton collected at selected stations at regular intervals over a period of on year;
attempt to determine the factors that control variations in the qualitative and quantitative makeup of the
phytoplankton; and 3) relate the quantitative data obtained in this study with other ecological data
obtained by other investigators in a concurrent study.
Murphy, G. I. (1960). "Introduction of the Marquesan sardine, Harengula vittata (Cuvier and Valenciennes) to
Hawaiian waters." Pac. Sci. 15: 185-187.
A report on the introduction of the Marquesan sardine, Harengula vittata, into Hawaiian waters in the
hopes of supplementing the supply of the nehu Stolephorus purpureus Fowler, used as a baitfish in the
tuna industry. The report includes data on releases and recoveries during 1955 to 1958. Several
recoveries were made in Kane`ohe Bay although no releases were made in the Bay.
Murphy, G. I. and R. I. Clutter (1972). "Sampling anchovy larvae with a plankton purse seine." Fish. Bull. 70:
789-798.
A sampling purse seine (100 ft by 21 ft) was constructed of 333 micron Nitex. It was used in Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i, together with a 1-m plankton net constructed of the same material in order to evaluate
the sampling efficiency of the towed plankton net on anchovy larvae (Stolephorus purpureus). The
results show that during the day, the purse seine is at least an order of magnitude more efficient for
larvae over 5.5 mm in length. The largest larvae caught by the plankton net was 14.5 mm and by the
purse seine 29.5 mm. At night the plankton net was relatively more effective than during the day,
catching about 60% as many larvae as the purse seine over the interval 3.5-19.5 mm. The maximum
size taken increased to 21.5 mm, but the maximum taken by the purse seine increased to 50 mm. An
attempt was made to rationalize the difference between the day plankton net and purse seine catches
by a geometric model involving alarm distance and larval swimming speed.
Muscatine, L. and E. Cernichiari (1969). "Assimilation of photosynthetic products of zooxanthellae by a reef
coral." Biol. Bull. 137: 506-523.
143
14
14
This paper describes experimental studies on the metabolism of C02, the in situ translocation of C
and its assimilation by the Hawaiian reef coral Pocillopora damicornis in Kane`ohe Bay. Included area
data on specific labeled substrates in the algae and animal tissues, the magnitude of heterotrophic
14
fixation, the nature of the translocated material, and the acquisition of C by the skeleton of
4
Pocillopora. Intact corals were exposed to C02 in the light and dark for varying lengths of time up to
14
24 hours, and then the amount and nature of the fixed C within the coral was ascertained.
Muscatine, L. and C. F. D'Elia (1978). "The uptake, retention, and release of ammonium by reef corals."
Limnol. Oceanogr. 23(4): 725-734.
Of several genera tested, only those Pacific reef corals symbiotic with zooxanthellae take up and retain
ammonium. Uptake and retention are enhanced by light, and the normal daylight period is sufficient to
sustain ammonium retention during the night. Ammonium uptake kinetics for several species indicate
that a two-process mechanism may be involved. If a correction is made for diffusion, uptake kinetics
can be characterized by the Michaelis-Menten equation. Incubations of Pocillopora damicornis and
Tubastrea aurea from Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i were successful as well as symbiotic corals tested in
other locales.
Muscatine, L., C. Ferrier-Pages et al. (1998). "Cell-specific density of symbiotic dinoflagellates in tropical
anthozoans." Coral Reefs 17: 329-337.
Nakamura, E. L. (1970). Synopsis of biological data on Hawaiian species of Stolephorus. The Kuroshio. J.
C. Marr. Honolulu, East-West Center Press, University of Hawai`i: 425-46.
Data on identity, distribution, bionomics, and life history, population, and exploitation of the nehu
(Stolephorus purpureus) are summarized. Used as live bait for skipjack tuna, the nehu is found in
abundance in Kane`ohe Bay. Data on the identity and distribution of the roundhead (Stolephorus
buccaneeri), a second Hawaiian engraulid, are also summarized.
Nakamura, M., T. F. Hourigan et al. (1989). "Histological and ultrastructural evidence for the role of gonadal
steroid hormones in sex change in the protogynous wrasse Thalassoma duperrey." Env. Bio. Fishes
24(2): 117-136.
The process of sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, was investigated
through histological and ultrastructural observations on the gonads of females changing sex to male.
Changes in plasma steroid levels concommitant with structural changes were measured by radioimmunoassay. The process of sex change from ovary to testis was divided into six stages on the
basis of changes in the structure of the germinal and somatic elements. Fish were collected in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Nakamura, R. (1968). "An additional contribution to the biology of the aholehole, Kuhlia sandvicensis
(Steindacher)." Pac. Sci. 22: 493-496.
Growth and age of a common inshore species, the aholehole, collected from a population of
individually marked fish over a period of a year in a pond on Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay. Length
and weight measurements taken monthly with scale samples for a study of scale growth.
Nandi, J. and H. A. Bern (1960). "Corticosteroid production by inter-renal tissue of teleost fishes."
Endrocrinology 66: 295-303.
Investigation on the secretion of adrenocortical steroid hormone by the interrenal glands of teleost
fishes and the tentative identification of these hormones by chromatographic methods. The study was
conducted at the Dept. of Zoology and its Cancer Research Genetics Laboratory, University of
California, Berkeley. Specimens of Mugil cephalus, caught by commercial seining in Kane`ohe Bay,
were supplied by the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory.
Neves, E. G. (1998). Histological analysis of reproductive trends of three Porites species from Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 9-22.
Gonad development and synchrony among Porites compressa, P. lobata and P. evermanni colonies,
collected in Kane`ohe Bay during the summer of 1997, were histologically examined and compared.
All three species are gonochoric broadcast spawners, releasing gametes predominantly in the full
moon during the breeding season. Histological sections of fertile polyps confirmed the maturity of
gonads and the presence of zooxanthellae, surrounding the oocytes and moving into the ooplasm of
the mature eggs before spawning.
Newbury, T. K. and E. F. Bartholomew (1976). "Secondary production of microcopepods in the southern,
144
eutrophic basin of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands." Pac. Sci. 30: 373-384.
The microcopepods function as an important herbivorous group in the planktonic community of the
southern, sewage-rich portion of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands. Most of the microcopepod
biomass was composed of a rapidly producing species of Paracalanidae. The Paracalanidae
population production rate was calculated with the field population stage composition, the length:dry
weight relationship, and the species development rate in both laboratory and in situ containers. The
population production rate:biomass ratio equaled 78% per day during summer 1968. For all of the
-3
microcopepods, secondary production was estimated to be 1.8 mg nitrogen/m /day
Newman, W. A. (1961). "On certain littoral species of Octolasmis (Cirripedia, Thoracica) symbiotic with
decapod Crustacea from Australia, Hawai`i and Japan." Veliger 4: 99-107.
A paper concerned with the reinstatement of Octolasmis neptuni (MacDonald) long held in synonymy
with 0. lowei (Darwin) - Australian and Japanese subspecies are designated. The paper also reports a
remarkable new species of Octolasmis from Hawai`i (Kane`ohe Bay). Analysis of the ontogeny and
adult morphology suggests a new interpretation of the origin and the phylogeny of this and other
related forms.
Octolasmis (Octolasmis) indubia Newman spec. nov. Coconut Island. Numerous specimens were
found of the mouth parts of a single specimen of Scyllarides squamosus (Milne-Edwards). The gills of
this specimen were infected with Octolasmis lowei (Darwin). Holotype of 0. indubia, U.S.N.M. Cat. no.
107'310; paratypes, U.S.N.M. Cat. no. 1071311 and 1071312.
Nishioka, R. S. (1959). A comparative histology of the male reproductive system of 3 portunid crabs.
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 70.
A study attempting to ascertain if the manner of spermatophore elaboration bears similar relationship
in 3 species of portunid crabs - Portunus sanquinolentus, Podophthalmus vigil and Lissoncarcinus
orbicularis. All three species were found in Kane`ohe Bay. Results showed that the morphological
microscopical anatomy of the male reproductive systems of these 3 species were identical except for
two very minor characteristics. These features provide the basis of a more exact method of
classification than the present use of external morphological characteristics.
Nutting, C. C. (1905). "Hydroids of the Hawaiian Islands collected by the steamer Albatross in 1902." U. S.
Fish. Comm. Bull. for 1903 Part 3: 931-959,.
The first major taxonomic report on hydroids from the Hawaiian Islands, 29 of the 49 species collected
were new to science. The specimens were collected by the U. S. Fisheries steamer Albatross in 1902.
The author includes a systematic discussion of the hydroids in the introduction.
Olla, B. L. (1962). The perception of sound in small hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini. Department of
Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study dealing with the response of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith) to sound. The objectives were to train
young hammerhead sharks to associate sound with an unconditioned stimulus and to determine what
range of frequencies at relative intensity thresholds can be detected. The sharks were caught by hook
and line in Kane`ohe Bay and the experimental work was conducted at the marine laboratory on
Coconut Island from June 1961 to September 1961. Results showed that small hammerhead sharks
could be trained to develop an association between sounds of certain frequencies and an aversive or
punishment stimulus consisting of a yank on a cord connected through the dorsal fin. Sound
frequencies between 250 cps and 750 cps can be perceived, but they may be able to perceive sounds
higher
Olsen, D. A. (1971). The potential for an abalone fishery in Hawai`i. Dept. Of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. Of
Hawai`i: 136.
In an attempt to predict the outcome of a proposed introduction of the green abalone Haliotis fulgens to
Hawai`i, an investigation of the Hawaiian biota and the physiology of the abalone was undertaken.
The species diversity of Hawaiian corals, intertidal mollusks and benthic marine algae was
investigated. The equitability component of species diversity was near the biological minimum,
indicating biotic instability, and low resistance to invasion. Potential competition between abalone and
three Hawaiian urchin species was demonstrated and could limit abalone numbers. Fish predation
would probably be important.
Ostergaard, J. M. (1928). "Fossil marine mollusks of O`ahu." Bishop Museum Bull. 51.
A study comparing the fossil animals and plants with those living in the surrounding water in an
attempt to throw light on the ecological conditions under which the emergent limestones of Hawai`i
were built up. Discussion is restricted to the phylum Mollusca and in particular the classes Gastropoda
145
and Pelecypoda. One of the 22 stations on O`ahu was the Mokapu peninsula in Kane`ohe Bay.
Strombus ostergaardi Pilsbry was found in this area.
Ostergaard, J. M. (1950). "Spawning and development of some Hawaiian marine gastropods." Pac. Sci. 4:
75-115.
A taxonomic study of the spawning habits and development of some Hawaiian marine gastropods.
This is the first such study to be published in this area. Included is a key to the spawn of the
gastropods described.
Ostergaard, J. M. (1955). "Some opisthobranchiate Mollusca from Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 9: 110-136.
Taxonomic descriptions of some opisthobranchs from Hawai`i. Found in Kane`ohe Bay:
Placobranchus ianthobapus Gould - found on mud flats near Coconut Island.
Oyama, S. (1964). The morphological and histological structure of the digestive tracts and diverticula of the
brachiopod, Lingula reevi Davidson, with additional studies on their physiological activity. Department
of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 71.
A study of the gross and histological anatomy of the digestive tract of the inarticulate brachiopod,
Lingula reevi, and to compare it with that of Lingula unquis (Linne) described by Chuuang. The roles
of the various digestive organs in digestion and absorption of food materials were investigated from the
standpoint of their anatomy, histology and physiology. Using labeled C14 glucose and diatoms,
attempts were made to study the rate and site of absorption within the digestive tract of L. reevi. Using
specific cytological staining techniques, differences in the digestive organs cells between fed and
starved animals were examined.
Palaki, A. (1998). The effect of salinity on fertilization and larval survivorship and settlement in Fungia
scutaria and Pocillopora damicornis. Reproduction in reef corals. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 73-82.
Gametes and larvae of Fungia scutaria and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed to lowered salinity
by dilution of Kane`ohe Bay water ( 34 ppt) with freshwater. Below 20 ppt there was no fertilization in
F. scutaria, and no larvae survived or settled during a 20 day exposure to 20 ppt. P. damicornis larvae
exposed to 20 ppt showed 100% mortality. Exposure to reduced salinity, below 24 ppt, lead to
depressed fertilization success, larval survival and larval settlement.
Papagni, D. (1967). Some aspects of the behavioral ecology of three species of hermit crabs from Kane`ohe
Bay. Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 47.
A study to determine whether a social dominance hierarchy exists between sympatric species of
hermit crabs, to look for social interactions which might reveal interspecific dominance and to look at
some aspects of the behavioral ecology of the hermit crabs studied. The crabs Calcinus laevimanus,
C. latens and Clibanarius zebra were studied in the field and collected for lab experiments from a coral
rubble reef northeast of Coconut Island. The adults were found in the shells of Trochus sandwichensis
and Turbo intercostalis. The three test shells used were Tegula finebralis, Acanthina spirata and
Olivella biplicata. Results indicated a 3 rank hierarchy with C. laevi first, followed by C. latens and then
C. zebra. Species membership may take precedence over other factors in determining dominance, but
it may become to individual differences such as body weight.
Pararas-Carayannis, G. (1967). The barium content in the calcareous skeletal materials of some recent and
fossil corals of the Hawaiian Islands. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study involving ion concentrations in the skeletal materials of some corals. The amount of aragonite
decreases with depth in the fossil corals confirming the theory that age and increasing temperatures
and pressures gradually convert aragonite to calcite and that at greater depths, complete
recrystalization occurs. The barium content in the skeletal materials of living corals varies considerably
even in species that belong to the same family. Fossil corals do not contain detectable amounts of
barium. A linear relationship between aragonite content and barium concentration was found. It is
suggested that barium possibly behaves in the same manner that was shown for strontium, in that it
acts as an inhibitor for the aragonite-calcite conversion.
Pardy, R. L. (1971). The feeding biology of the gymnoblastic hydroid Pennaria tiarella. Experimental
Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press: 8491.
This chapter discussed the role in food capture of the nematocysts on the filiform and capitate tentacle
of Pennaria tiarella as well as the identification of a feeding activator. Colonies of P. tiarella were
collected from encrusted docks in front of the marine station (HIMB, Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu).
146
Pardy, R. L. and H. M. Lenhoff (1968). "The feeding biology of the gymnoblastic hydroid, Pennaria tiarella."
J. Exp. Zoo. 168(2): 197-202.
This study discusses the role in food capture of the nematocysts on the filiform and capitate tentacle of
Pennaria tiarella as well as the identification of a feeding activator. Colonies of P. tiarella were
collected from encrusted docks in front of the marine station (HIMB, Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu).
Park, C. and M. R. Landry (1993). " Egg production by the subtropical copepod Undinula vulgaris." Mar. Biol.
117: 415-421.
Egg production by Undinula vulgaris, collected off Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i (USA), was measured under
field and laboratory conditions on 16 occasions from June to December 1991. In situ rates ranged from
0 to 15.7 eggs female-1 d-1, with a mean of 6.4 eggs female-1 d-1, 2.1% female body carbon d-1.
Maximum in situ production was 53 eggs female-1 d-1, 17.2% C d-1. Average egg production (Y eggs
female-1 d-1) was related to the concentration of particulate carbon (X, mu-g C l-1) by the Ivlev
function, Y = 13.9(1-e-0.0097(X-10)), with R-2 = 0.96. Individuals with the same feeding history
produced more eggs at lower temperatures in the laboratory. Egg production was not significantly
correlated with dry weight, and no noticeable temporal trend was found. Despite the elevated habitat
temperatures (26 to 27 degree C) of this subtropical copepod, maximum fecundity of U. vulgaris was
comparable to, but average rates were lower than, egg production rates of similarly-sized, temperate
and boreal species of the genus Calanus. Our results caution against broad extrapolations of the
temperature-growth relationship for temperate coastal copepods to species from poorly studied,
oligotrophic regions of the oceans.
Parker, B. W. (1835-1862). Kane`ohe Missionary Station Reports.
In the 1836 report, Rev. Parker notes the census of the whole population of the Kane`ohe station,
which was recorded during the previous year. The census was 4636, "351 less than in 1831". The
records of births and deaths commenced in January of 1836, 14 births and 28 deaths in a period of
January 1 to June 1, when Rev. Parker submitted his report.
In the 1841 report, the population is stated to be 4000 according to the census of the district taken in
the previous year.
In the 1846 report, a register of births and deaths at Kane`ohe among a population of 1000 inhabitants
for the last six years is given. Rev. Parker mentions that there is some evidence of a diminution in the
population although it is not very rapid.
In 1845, the increase in the death rate was due to an epidemic which spread through the islands in
.April of that year. There has been no census of the entire population associated with the station
although the number was not far from 6000 according to Rev. Parker.
In the 1849 report, the census was 2813 compared with the census of 4987 in the year 1832.
In the 1862 report, mention is made of the beginnings of rice cultivation in the area by foreigners.
Pearse, V. B. (1971). Sources of carbon in the skeleton of the coral Fungia scutaria. Experimental
Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i
Press: 239-45.
In order to examine further the possibility that some skeletal carbonate may originate from metabolic
14
C02, the author fed C-labeled mouse tissue to small individuals of the coral Fungia scutaria in
14
Kane`ohe Bay. The experiments offer direct evidence that metabolic C02 is incorporated into
skeletal carbonate in this coral. Also presented are data on the effects of light and starvation on
calcification and information concerning the origin of the coral matrix.
Peterson, W. T. (1969). Species diversity and community structure of the zooplankton of Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, Hawai`i. Department of Oceanography. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 91.
A study considering both the micro- and the macrozooplankton communities in quantitative terms for
all of Kane`ohe Bay. The study involved the distribution and abundance of all component species; the
description of communities in pre-defined areas in terms of various distributional statistics; the analysis
of community structure in terms of community and of feeding habits of the components, the food chain
and the probable pathways of energy flow. Results of this study are important in the pollution aspects
of the bay and in a general understanding of the dynamics of the Kane`ohe Bay ecosystem.
The environmental gradient was shown to extend from the southern section of the bay, where the
3
standing stock of macrozooplankton was 1104/m , to the northern section, where the standing stock
3
was 82/m . Certain species were found abundant in certain sections of the bay, while others were
ubiquitous. In terms of probable energy flow through the proposed food chain and the relative
147
abundances of the major components, the southern section of the bay was shown to be the most
simply structured area of the bay - this structure is governed by only 2 primary consumers and 2
secondary consumer species. Pollution may theoretically effect this area's flora and fauna, but no
major alterations are expected.
Peterson, W. T. (1975). Distribution, abundance and biomass of the macrozooplankton of Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, Hawai`i, 1966-1971. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology: 122
pp.
This study considers both micro- and macrozooplankton, and defines, describes and analyzes the
macrozooplankton communities in quantitative terms for all of Kane`ohe Bay. All components were
identified, although a generic name could not be assigned to some members. The distribution and
abundance of each component was estimated. Communities in several predefined areas were
described in terms of various distributional statistics of each component. Community structure was
analyses in terms of community diversity and was further studied and discussed in terms of feeding
habits of the components, the food chain and probable pathways of energy flow.
Pierce, M. (1969). The distribution and abundance of diatoms in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Dept. Of
Biology. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 138.
Weekly or bimonthly microplankton samples were taken from 8 stations in Kane`ohe Bay. Counts were
made of diatoms, some dinoflagellates, microcopepods, and nauplii. A detailed study of the distribution
and abundance of diatoms within and around Kane`ohe Bay was made. Special emphasis was placed
on taxonomy of the diatoms and the seasonal distribution of diatoms within the various geographical
sectors. It was found that the highest diatom populations occurred in the south sector; the lowest,
outside the Bay in the neritic zone. The diatom population structure is similar in all sectors except the
North Channel sector and Neritic zone. Skeletonema and Chaetoceros are the dominant diatom
genera. Subblooms and blooms (100,00 cells/l +) occurred in all but North Channel and Neritic Zone.
The majority of blooms and subblooms occurred in the South Sector.
Pietschmann, V. (1938). "Hawaiian shore fishes." Bishop Mus. Bull. 156: 1-55.
A taxonomic study of Hawaiian shore fishes, 1927-1928. The author presents a uniform fish fauna for
the entire islands which may be broken into smaller areas of coastline. Many new species are listed.
Pillai, C. S. G. and G. V. Scheer (1973). "Bemerkungen uber einige Riffkorallen von Samoa und Hawai`i."
Zool. Jb. Syst. 100: 466-76.
Two coral collections were gathered, one from Kane`ohe Bay in 1968. Altogether 33 specimens were
present belonging to 27 species from 15 genera, with 7 species from Kane`ohe Bay. The corals were
treated systematically and supplied with notes about geographical distribution.
Pilsbry, H. A. (1917). "Marine mollusks of Hawai`i, IV-VII." Proc. Nat. Sci. Phil. 69: 309-333.
A continuing study of Hawaiian marine mollusks (first paper, Proc. Nat. Sci. Phil. 6-9: 207-230)
including an important collection made by Prof. Wm. Alanson Bryan and Mrs. Bryan. Most of the
shells are from Kauai, O`ahu and Molokai.
Pilsbry, H. A. (1917). "Marine mollusks of Hawai`i, VII-XIII." Proc. Nat. Sci. Phil. 72: 296-328.
A taxonomic description of material submitted to the author by Mr. D. Thaanum, W. A. Bryan, J. M.
Ostergaard and material collected by the author in 1913. Included in the work also are keys to the
Hawaiian Terebra and a partial key to Mitra and Vexillum.
Pilsbry, H. A. (1927). "Littoral barnacles of the Hawaiian Islands and Japan." Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 79:
305-317.
Descriptions of the shore barnacles in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, from Hawai`i and Japan
collected by the Tanager Expedition.
Piyakarnchana, T. (1965). The plankton community in the southern part of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, with the
special emphasis on the distribution, breeding season and population fluctuation of Sagitta enflata
Grassi. Dept. Of Zoology, Univ. of Hawai`i: 193.
A one year study (1963-1964) of the zooplankton community in Kane`ohe Bay emphasizing the
ecological relationships of the members of the community and some aspects of the biology of Sagitta
enflata Grassi. The bay was described in terms of temperature, salinity, water temperature, current
patterns and phosphate concentration. Samples were made with a 46.5-cm plankton net towed at the
surface.
148
Polacheck, T. (1978). The population biology of four common Hawaiian corals. Department of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 151 pp.
The population biology of four Hawaiian corals (Porites compressa, Montipora verrucosa, Pocillopora
damicornis and Pocillopora meandrina) was studied to learn the factors that are important in
structuring the composition of coral communities, P. meandrina was studied on the fore reef, a low
coral coverage community dominated by this species. The other three species were studied on a
patch reef in Kane`ohe Bay which has almost 100% coverage of P. compressa and M. verrucosa.
Portlock, N. (1789). A Voyage Around the World: But More Particularly to the Northwest Coast of America:
Performed in 1785, 1787 and 1788 in the "King George" and "Queen Charlotte." Captains Portlock and
Dixon. London, John Stockdale.
Powers, D. A. (1970). "A numerical taxonomic study of Hawaiian reef corals." Pac. Sci. 24(2): 180-86.
Sixty characters were measured and used in multivariate statistical programs to study the systematics
of 20 species of Hawaiian corals, mostly from Kane`ohe Bay. Correlation and distance phenograms
and a computer-generated, three-dimensional model were used to develop phenetic rankings of
species groups at levels corresponding to the taxonomic categories of genus, family, and,
provisionally, suborders.
Powers, D. A. (1971). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phophogluconate dehydrogenase
activities in coelenterates. Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V.
Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press: 169-175.
A variety of coelenterates were surveyed at the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology to see if the
distribution of the two enzyme activities observed in hydras were specific for the Hydridae, or whether
similar activities could be found in other coelenterates. All of the marine animals were collected off
Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Powers, D. A., H. M. Lenhoff et al. (1968). "Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate
dehydrogenase activities in coelenterates." Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 27: 139-144.
I surveyed a wide variety of coelenterates at the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology in order to see if
the distribution of the two enzyme activities observed in hydras were specific for the Hydridae, or
whether similar activities could be found in other coelenterates. All of the marine animals were
collected off Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Preston, E. M. (1971). Niche overlap and competition among five sympatric congeneric species of xanthid
crabs. Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 25 pp.
Five species of xanthid crabs which are obligate commensals of the branching corals Pocillopora, are
examined. Similarities in microhabitat, food habits, and behavior patterns make these species potential
competitors. This study attempts to characterize the potential competitive interactions among these 5
species and to assess their importance. Specimens were collected from Kane`ohe Bay, however no
detailed collection sites are given.
Preston, E. M. (1973). "A computer simulation of competition among five sympatric congeneric species of
xanthid crabs." Ecol. 54(3): 469-483.
In Hawai`i, five species of xanthid crabs of the genus Trapezia are commensals of the branching coral
Pocillopora meandrina var. nobilis. As adults, crabs are found in heterosexual pairs. Intraspecifc
agonistic interactions typically restrict host occupancy to one pair per species but multiple species
combinations are common. A stochastic computer model of host selection produces species
distributions similar to those observed in the field. In the absence of evidence consistent with
alternative hypotheses, this suggests that interference competition resulting from random encounters
during host selection by adults is sufficient to account for site variability in the distribution patterns of
species of Trapezia. Patch reefs in Kane`ohe Bay were selected as study sites.
Preston, J. L. (1978). "Distribution of crabs in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Anim. Behav. 26(3): 791-802.
Interphyletic communication is quantitatively shown to occur in a behavioral, mutualistic symbiotic
association between the goby Psilogobius mainlandi and two species of shrimps, Alpheus rapax and
2
A. rapacida, by the use of information theory and x analyses. Communication between gobies and
shrimps is primarily tactual. Gobies use as shelter burrows dug and maintained by shrimps. Gobies
sit at the burrow entrance and warn shrimps of danger by a flick of the tail. Shrimps communicate their
presence outside the burrow by touching gobies with their antennae. Gobies never give warning
signals in the absence of shrimps. It is postulated that the spacing of the burrows in nature is a result
of the complex interaction of three communication systems; tactual communication among shrimps
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and between gobies and shrimps and visual communication among gobies. It is suggested that the
analysis techniques used here be applied to the analysis of other symbiotic associations.
Preston, J. L. (1978). "Communication systems and social interactions in a goby-shrimp symbiosis." Anim.
Behav 26: 791-802.
Interphyletic communication is quantitatively shown to occur in a behavioral, mutualistic symbiotic
association between the goby Psilogobius mainlandi and two species of shrimps, Alpheus rapax and
2
A. rapacida, by the use of information theory and X analyses. Communication between gobies and
shrimps is primarily tactual. Gobies use as shelter burrows dug and maintained by shrimps. Gobies sit
at the burrow entrance and warn shrimps of danger by a flick of the tail. Shrimps communicate their
presence outside the burrow by touching gobies with their antennae. Gobies never give warning
signals in the absence of shrimps. It is postulated that the spacing of the burrows in nature is a result
of the complex interaction of three communication systems: Tactual communication among shrimps
and between gobies and shrimps and visual communication among gobies. It is suggested that the
analysis techniques used here be applied to the analysis of other symbiotic associations.
Pritchard, A. W. (1953). The oxygen requirements of Hawaiian tuna baitfish. Department of Zoology.
Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study analyzing the oxygen requirements of the baitfish to obtain basic information which will be of
value in preventing the high mortality of baitfish in the livebait tuna industry. Oxygen consumption
under various conditions was noted with special emphasis on the effects of temperature flow rates,
degrees of crowding and oxygen concentration of the water. Experiments were also conducted to
determine the lethal value of oxygen for the fish. The baitfish were caught in Kane`ohe Bay and
experiments were conducted on Coconut Island.
Results showed that the oxygen consumption in the iao fluctuated hour to hour even when there were
no outward signs of increased or decreased activity of the fish. No rhythmic cycle of metabolic rate
could be demonstrated. Oxygen consumption increased with an increase in flow rate. The critical
oxygen level could not be precisely delimited but lay somewhere between 1.5 and 2.5 cc/l. Individual
iao showed marked differences in resistance to oxygen deficiency. Lethal values of oxygen ranged
between 0.50 to 1.58 cc/l. Oxygen consumption increased slowly at first and then more rapidly at the
higher temperatures between 190 and 290. Lethal values for oxygen showed a greater increase
between 260 and 310C.
Pritchard, A. W. (1955). Oxygen requirements of some Hawaiian baitfish. Honolulu, U. S. Dept. Interior Fish and Wildlife Service.
A study to analyze in the laboratory, the oxygen requirements of the local tuna baitfish, the nehu
Stolephorus purpureus Fowler and the iao Pranesus insularum (Jordan and Evermann) with emphasis
on the effects of temperature, flow rates, degrees of crowding, oxygen concentration of the water and
the lethal level of oxygen for the fish. The fish were seined in the shallow waters and maintained at the
Hawai`i Marine Laboratory on Coconut Island. This was a paper published from a doctoral thesis of
the same title finished in 1953. Results of the work are included in Pritchard, 1953. The oxygen
consumption of the iao fluctuated hourly without activity of the fish. No rhythmic cycle in metabolic rate
could be demonstrated. Oxygen consumption did increase with an increase in flow rate, this effect
being more pronounced in the summer months. The critical oxygen level could not be determined
exactly, but it lay in the region of 1.5 and 2.5 cc/l. Lethal values ranged from 0.50 to 1.58
cc/l.
o
Over the temperature interval of 19-29 the rate of oxygen consumption increased slowly at first and
then more rapidly; lethal values of oxygen measured over the same range also showed a greater
o
o
increase between 26 and 31 C.
Quan, E. L. (1969). Some aspects of pollution in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu and its effect on selected
microorganisms. Department of Microbiology, University of Hawai`i, Manoa: 140.
A study of surface water quality in the waters of the southeastern section of Kane`ohe Bay undertaken
between February and mid-April 1968 in an attempt to determine the impact of surface runoff on water
quality in the Bay; the chemical and bacterial quality of wastewater emerging from the two sewage
treatment plants outfalls and whether the overall water quality standards imposed by the State were
met as a result of the preceding investigations. High rainfall and surface runoff in this area of the Bay
introduce high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and fecal streptococci in the lower areas of Keaahala
o
and Kane`ohe Streams; the water temperature is lowered by 2 C over dry weather flow and siltturbidity is caused along the nearshore waters of the Bay. Although surface runoff does not contribute
significantly to the phosphates in the Bay, the phosphate-phosphorus concentrations averaged 0.046
mg/l at the Kane`ohe sewage treatment plant and 0.033 mg/l at the Kane`ohe MCAS, exceeding the
limit established for class A waters by 0.021 and 0.008 mg/l respectively.
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Dissolved oxygen and pH adequately met the quality standards at all stations except for two low
dissolved oxygen readings in Keaahala Stream. From the mid-Bay region to the northern portion of
the Bay, the overall water quality met the standards for both class AA and class A waters.
Radtke, R. L. (1985). "Life history characteristics of the Hawaiian damselfish, Abudefduf abdominalis defined
from otoliths." Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 5: 397-401.
The otoliths of juvenile damselfish, Abudefduf abdominalis, were analyzed structurally and chemically
to define their use as indicators of life history events. Morphometric measurements of all three otoliths
(sagita, lapillus, asteriscus) established their species specificity and that fish size and possibly
individual growth were related to otolith size. Examination of otolith micro-structure by light and
Scanning Electron Microscopy indicated that rhythmic patterns were present which were assumed to
be daily. Discrete micro-structure architecture was considered to be a result of settlement on to the
reef and had a change from the postlarval to the juvenile life history stage. Examination of otolith
micro-structure suggested that they have a larval life of 20 to 28 days and grow rapidly once recruited
to the reef. Chemical analyses of stable isotopes and Ca/Sr concentrations suggest that fish recruit
from cold waters and progressively encounter cooler waters as they mature. Use of structural and
chemical analyses made it feasible to relate growth to life history events
Ralston, S. (1976). "Anomalous growth and reproductive patterns in populations of Chaetodon miliaris
(Pisces, Chaetodontidae) from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands." Pac. Sci. 30: 395-403.
Specimens of Chaetodon miliaris collected in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, during a 15-month study
appeared to be reproductively inactive and were smaller than were those from other Hawaiian study
areas. Additionally, they lacked calanoid copepods in their diet, the main food consumed elsewhere. It
is suggested that the absence of this food in their diet resulted in a dietary deficiency leading to poor
growth and reproductive inactivation.
Ralston, S. V. (1975). Aspects of the age and growth, reproduction, and diet of the millet-seed butterflyfish,
Chaetodon miliaris (Pisces: Chaetodontidae), a Hawaiian endemic. Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ.
of Hawai`i: 102 pp.
Aspects of the growth, reproduction and diet of Chaetodon miliaris, the millet-seed butterflyfish, were
studied in an effort to characterize populations of fish exploited by the aquarium fish industry. Age
determinations were accomplished by examination of daily growth rings within otoliths. Age estimates
were corroborated by growth experiments, analysis of a size-frequency distribution, and the
determination of the onset of reproductive maturity. Estimates of the duration of the larval stages were
also obtained from study of the otoliths. Individuals from Kane`ohe Bay were small and appeared to be
reproductively inactive when compared to fish from other areas.
Randall, J. E. (1955). "A revision of the surgeon fish genera Zebrasoma and Paracanthurus." Pac. Sci. 9:
396-412.
A taxonomic study of surgeon fish in the two genera, Zebrasoma and Paracanthurus in all known
localities. A 18 mm post larval specimen of Zebrasoma veliferum was collected by Joseph E. King of
the Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations on 26/12/51 offshore from Kane`ohe Bay in an oblique haul
from the surface to 200 m with a 6 foot trawl.
Randall, J. E. (1958). "A review of the labrid fish genus Labroides with descriptions of two new species and
notes of their ecology." Pac. Sc. 12: 327-347.
A taxonomic study of four species of labrid fishes including underwater observations on their food habit
of removing ectoparasites from other fishes.
Randall, J. E. (1961). "A contribution to the biology of the convict surgeonfish of the Hawaiian Islands,
Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis." Pac. Sci. 15: 215-272.
A study involving aspects of habitat, environmental extremes, predators, parasites, food habits and the
digestion, reproduction, growth, development and behavior of the convict surgeonfish, A. triostegus
sandvicensis - conducted in part at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Randall, J. E. (1999). "Review of the dragonets (Pisces: Callionymidae) of the Hawaiian Islands, with
descriptions of two new species." Pac. Sci. 53: 185-207.
Randall, J. E. and L. Taylor (1988). "Revision of the Indo-Pacific fishes of the serranid genus Liopropoma,
with descriptions of seven new species." Indo-Pacific Fishes 16: 1-47.
Rastetter, E. B. and W. J. Cooke (1979). "Response of marine fouling communities to sewage abatement in
151
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i." Mar. Biol. 53: 271-280.
Rathbun, M. J. (1906). "The brachyura and macura of the Hawaiian Islands." U. S. Fish Comm. Bull. for
1903, Part III: 827-930.
A taxonomic description of the known brachyura and macura of the Hawaiian Islands. There are 314
known species to date, the majority of these specimens were collected by the U. S. Fish Commission
explorations carried out in connection with a cable survey between California and Hawai`i, and the
remainder of the specimens were collected by the Albatross, expedition of 1902. Moku Manu is the
type locality for Thalamita auauensis n. sp.
Reaka, M. L. (1975). "Molting in stomatopod crustaceans. I. Stages of the molt cycle, setagenesis and
morphology." J. Morph. 146: 55-80.
Reaka, M. L. (1976). "Lunar and tidal periodicity of molting and reproduction in stomatopod crustacea: a
selfish nerd hypothesis." Biol. Bull. 150: 468-490.
Reaka, M. L. (1979a). "Patterns of molting frequencies in coral-dwelling stomatopod crustacea." Biol. Bull.
156: 328-342.
Reaka, M. L. (1979b). The evolutionary ecology of life history patterns in stomatopod crustacea.
Reproductive Ecology of Invertebrates. S. E. Stancyk. Columbia, SC, Univ. of South Carolina Press:
235-260.
Overview of ecological study of stomatopods, including those sampled in Kane`ohe Bay
Redalje, R. C. (1976). The responses of two species of hermatypic corals and their zooxanthellae to
changes in light intensity. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 42 pp.
The effects of four experimental light treatments on pigment response and zooxanthellae density were
investigate for two species of hermatypic corals, Cyphastrea ocellina, a shallow reef species, and
Leptoseris incrustans, a deep or shade dwelling coral.
Reed, L. K. (1986). Effect of varying solar radiation intensities and ultraviolet radiation on growth rates of
Symbiodinium microadriaticum isolated from different hosts. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L.
Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology,
Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01):
430-439.
Growth rates of zooxanthellae isolated form five different hosts were determined at five levels of
incoming solar radiation. The various strains differed significantly in their growth rates, as well as in
their abilities to adapt to low and high irradiance, and did not appear to be correlated with solar
radiation intensities in the environments from which they were isolated. The effect of UV radiation on
zooxanthellae growth rates was also monitored. Full incoming UV radiation was shown to completely
inhibit growth in three of four stains tested
Reed, M. (1906). The economic seaweeds of Hawai`i and their food value. Honolulu, Hawai`i Agricultural
Experimental Station: 61-88.
A collection of notes and observations from various sources including a personal study of the markets
and beaches wherever the limu gatherers were at work collecting or preparing the algae. Methods of
gathering, preparing and serving seaweeds, the popular varieties, methods of cultivation, the chemical
properties and the food value are all discussed. Apparently, limu pakaelaewaa or Grateloupia filicina
was planted in Kane`ohe Bay many years ago by a chief who brought it from Hawai`i. At the time of
publications the author reports it to be growing luxuriantly on the rocks near the shores of the Bay.
Reed, S. A. (1971a). Some common coelenterates in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Experimental
Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i
Press: 35-44.
This list of the more common coelenterates found in Kane`ohe Bay contains comments on identifying
characteristics, interesting points of natural history, and information on specific collecting sites of those
species that are not generally distributed or easily located on the reefs.
Reed, S. A. (1971b). Collection and maintenance of planula larvae and newly settled polyps of the colonial
coral Pocillopora damicornis. Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L.
V. Davis. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Press: 58-62.
Techniques for collection, maintenance, and feeding of the planula larvae and polyps of corals are
152
described. Also included are some general comments that may be useful to those who are Interested
in using these organisms in research.
Rees, J. (1971). Paths and rates of food distribution in the colonial hydroid Pennaria. Experimental
Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press:
119-128.
Methods are described for measuring the rate and paths of distribution of radioactive food in the
colonial hydroid Pennaria tiarella. Colonies of P. tiarella were collected from floating docks at the
HIMB, Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Food fed to the terminal hydranth appeared as a
gradient, decreasing in proportion to the distance where fed with the central stem as the most
radioactive part of the colony.
Rees, J., L. V. Davis et al. (1970). "Paths and rates of food distribution in the colonial hydroid Pennaria."
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 34: 309-316.
Methods are described for measuring the rate and paths of distribution of radioactive food in the
colonial hydroid Pennaria tiarella. Colonies of P. tiarella were collected from floating docks at the
HIMB, Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Food fed to the terminal hydranth appeared as a
gradient, decreasing in proportion to the distance where fed with the central stem as the most
radioactive part of the colony.
Reese, E. S. (1962a). "Shell selection behaviour of hermit crabs." Animal Behaviour 10: 347-360.
An analysis of the behavioral pattern of shell selection by the hermit crab in an effort to determine
whether the hermit crabs were capable of discriminating one species of shell from another and to what
extent the behaviour was composed of acquired and innate components by rearing the crabs from
eggs through the pelagic larval stages to the stage in their ontogeny when shells are first taken by
young crabs. Calcinus laevimanus was studied in Kane`ohe Bay where they were collected from the
coral rubble in the intertidal regions of the Bay. Results showed that the natural occurrence of hermit
crabs in certain species of shells was explicable by at least two factors - an actual preference for
certain species of shells and the relative abundance of shells of different species in different habitats.
Dominance relationships may play a part in this behaviour.
The hermit crabs tested were able to distinguish between at least 3 different species of shells
regardless of previous experience with these shells. The hermit crabs were able not only to distinguish
between shells of the same species but also of different weights; they chose a shell of a specific
weight relative to their own weight. The behaviour associated with entry into shells appears to be
composed of innate components and is fully expressed in the glaucothoe stage. The ability to
discriminate between shells of different weights and also between shells of different species does not
appear to depend on experience with shells.
Reese, E. S. (1962b). "Submissive posture as an adaptation to aggressive behavior in hermit crabs."
Sonderdruck aus Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 19: 645-651.
Description of the aggressive behavioral patterns of the hermit crab, Calcinus laevimanus, studied in
the coral reefs of Kane`ohe Bay and also in the laboratories of the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory,
Kane`ohe Bay.
Reese, E. S. (1962c). "The behavioral mechanisms underlying shell selection by hermit crabs." Behavior 21:
78-126.
A study conducted in part at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory with animals collected from Kane`ohe Bay,
on some of the behavioral mechanisms underlying shell selection by hermit crabs, Pagurus sameulis
and Calcinus laevimanus. Aspects of the behavior such as the sense organs and motor structures
involved, and the properties of the shells releasing such behavior and the variability of the pattern were
studied. Previous rearing experiments showed that the shell behavior is fully and completely
expressed the first time it is released. A functional scheme is presented which explains a selection
process which is not dependent upon previous experience with the stimulus objects. Weight and
internal configuration of the shell appear to contribute to the total determination of the total stimulus
value of the shell. Other shell properties may release specific fixed motor patterns as well as
contribute to the evaluation of the shell as a stimulus object.
Reese, E. S. (1968). "Annual breeding seasons of three sympatric species of tropical intertidal hermit crabs,
with a discussion of factors controlling breeding." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2: 308-318.
A paper examining the annual breeding seasons of three sympatric species of intertidal hermit crabs
from Kane`ohe Bay - Calcinus laevimanus, C. latens and Clibanarius zebra and these results are
compared with the known knowledge of breeding seasons of hermit crabs from tropical as well as
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north temperate seas. In addition, the breeding seasons of related anomuran crustaceans, 2 species
of Emerita and 3 species of Petrolisthes are discussed.
Reese, E. S. (1969). "Behavioral adaptations of intertidal hermit crabs." American Zoologist 9: 343-355.
As an ecotone, the littoral environment is often complex and is generally rich in numbers and species
of organisms. The disadvantages of the biotope in terms of exposure to physical factors of both the
marine and terrestrial environments are patent, but the advantages are not so evident. The continual
replenishment of food brought from the sea, particularly for detritus-feeding animals such as hermit
crabs, coupled with the possibility and ability to establish microhabitats with microclimatic conditions
may constitute the principal advantage. Escape from specialized predators may also be important.
Hermit crabs have successfully exploited most intertidal environments. As members of the "benthic
detritus-feeding guild" food is abundant, and by utilizing their shells in conjunction with movements
within the littoral zone they have met successfully most of the rigors of the environment. The shell also
provides some protection from predation, particularly from non-specialized predators. Indeed, the
behavioral patterns associated with living in shells which permit the shell to serve as a microhabitat
constitute the major adaptation enabling the hermit crabs to exploit the intertidal environment so
successfully.
Reese, E. S. (1977). "Co-evolution of corals and coral feeding fishes of the family Chaetodontidae." Proc.
3rd Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Miami 1: 267-274.
Field observations of the feeding behavior and the nature of the substrata to which the feeding
behavior is directed reveal that species of chaetodontids belong to one of three feeding categories:
coral feeders, omnivores which feed on benthic invertebrates other than corals, and plankton feeders.
The coral feeders are subdivided into obligative and facultative species. Stomach content analyses
confirm the behavioral observations. Data are presented from three geographical areas: Hawai`i,
Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, and Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef. Laboratory studies
on two species of chaetodontids presented with three species of corals, indicate that certain species of
corals may be preferred to others as food. Co-evolution of corals and coral feeding fishes is discussed.
Coral feeding chaetodontids are candidates as indicator organisms for the "health" or coral reefs.
14
Reimer, A. (1971). Uptake and utilization of Glycine by Zoanthus and its coelenteric bacteria. Experimental
Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ. Hawai`i Press:
119-128.
14
This paper describes the uptake of C-glycine solution by Zoanthus sandwichensis and the bacteria
living in the animal's coelenteron, and the metabolic fate of glycine in these organisms. Specimens
were collected from Kane`ohe Bay.
Richmond, R. H. (1983). Reproduction, larval physiology and dispersal potential of the coral Pocillopora
damicornis. Depart. of Biolog. Sciences. Stony Brook, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook: 118 pp.
Colonies of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis have been found to release brooded planulae
larvae in excess of several thousand per month at Enewetak Atoll. Marshall Islands and in Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i. A monthly periodicity in larval release was found in 1980, with Enewetak colonies
peaking between the new moon and the lunar first quarter, with two sympatric Hawaiian types (type
"Y" and type "B") peaking at the lunar third quarter and between the first quarter and the full moon,
respectively.
Richmond, R. H. (1985a). "Variations in the Population Biology of Pocillopora damicornis across the Pacific."
Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 6: 101-106.
The scleractinian hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis is widely distributed across the tropical
Pacific. Major differences occur in the life history characteristics and population biology of P.
damicornis between widely separated populations of this coral. These include differences in fecundity,
reproductive allocation, growth rate, age specific mortality and interspecific competitive ability. Data
collected on Pocillopora damicornis from Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i and
eastern Pacific reefs of Panama support the hypothesis that differences between populations are the
result of divergent evolution via adaptation to local biotic and abiotic factors.
Richmond, R. H. (1985b). "Reversible metamorphosis in coral planula larvae." Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 22: 181185.
When planktonic planula larvae of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis settle, they secrete a
calcareous exoskeleton for substrate attachment and metamorphose into a benthic polyp complete
with mouth, tentacles, and mesenteries. If, however, these polyps are stressed within 3 d of
settlement, they can retract all tissue from the skeleton and revert to a motile planktonic form
154
resembling the initial larval stage. These 'secondary larvae' are capable of resettling and once again
metamorphosing into a benthic polyp. Also, planulae may undergo a pelagic metamorphosis to a
planktonic polyp with mouth and tentacles. This developmental plasticity permits an enhanced
microhabitat selection ability, and has likely contributed to the broad dispersal of this pan-Pacific
species. Planulae used in this study were collected from adult colonies of P. damicornis from both
Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, and Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Richmond, R. H. (1986). "Energetics, competency and long distance dispersal of planula larvae of the coral
Pocillopora damicornis." Mar. Bio. 93: 527-533.
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) were collected from Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, in 1980-1981,
and Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, in 1982. Their planula larvae contained 17% protein, 70% lipid, and 13%
carbohydrate by dry weight. Calculations based on stored energy reserves and daily metabolic
expenditure indicate that planulae could survive approximately 100 d and still settle successfully.
Competency experiments demonstrated that larvae settled and metamorphosed after 103 d. This
period of time is sufficient to allow immigration of larvae from the Central Pacific to the eastern Pacific,
and supports the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal of larvae for the origin of present eastern
Pacific populations of P. damicornis.
Richmond, R. H. (1987). "Energetic relationships and biogeographical differences among fecundity, growth
and reproduction in the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis." Bull. Mar. Sci. 41: 594-604.
Data on larval production versus colony growth for the pan-Pacific coral Pocillopora damicornis
indicate major differences exist in allocation between geographically separated populations. At
Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, P. damicornis releases planula larvae throughout the year.
Measured growth rates ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 cm per year, while the caloric value of planulae
released ranged from 20.2% to 167.4% of colony caloric content on a yearly basis. In the eastern
Pacific (Panama), colonies did not release planulae over the 2-year period sampled, but exhibited a
higher growth rate of 3.6 to 6 cm per year. Colonies from both Enewetak and the eastern Pacific
allocate similar amounts of colony caloric content to biomass production annually (80% to 100%). At
Enewetak, the majority of this energy is represented by planulation, while in the eastern Pacific, the
energy is allocated to colony growth and subsequent fragmentation.
Richmond, R. H. and P. L. Jokiel (1984). "Lunar periodicity in larva release in the reef coral Pocillopora
damicornis at Enewetak and Hawai`i." Bull. Mar. Sci. 34: 280-287.
Simultaneous daily measurements of planulation in the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis at Enewetak,
Marshall Islands and Kane`ohe Bay, showed phase differences between and within populations. At
Enewetak, the time of maximum larva release occurred consistently between new moon and first
quarter. In Hawai`i, two morphological variants of this species were studied. The first type showed
peak release of larvae near the lunar third quarter. The second consistently showed a peak between
first quarter and time of full moon. A positive relationship was found to exist between environmental
variability and degree of variation in the pattern of larval release.
Rodgers, K. (1997). "O`ahu's invasive algae." Aliens 6: 10.
Since 1950, at least 18 species of macroalgae have been introduced and became established on the
island of O'ahu in the Hawaiian archipelago. Commercial, experimental, and accidental introductions
have resulted in the establishment of alien species from several South Pacific locations, as well as
Florida, California and Japan. Kane`ohe Bay is one of many O`ahu locations where some algae have
established and become particularly successful.
Rodgers, R. G. (1967). Aspects of the reproduction of the Hawaiian limpet Cellana exarata (Reeve)
(Mollusca: Gastropoda). Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 27.
A study of certain aspects of the reproduction of the Hawaiian limpet, Cellana exarata. Gonad
development, spawning cycle, maturation and sex proportions of C. exarata were examined over a two
year period, August 1960 - August 1962. Field collections were made on Pyramid Rock, Kane`ohe
Bay. Results showed that both males and females matured at the same time when the shell length
was 15-22 mm. There is a change in sex proportion of males and females with the males
predominating in the smaller sizes and females more abundant at larger sizes. The sex proportion for
the whole community of males to females was 1:4:1. Spawning occurred from April to August. The
spawning cycle was described using 4 methods - mean egg diameter/month; visual stages of gonad
development; egg diameter frequency/ month; and the gonad/body volume ratio.
Rodgers, S. K. and E. F. Cox (1999). "Rate of spread of introduced Rhodophytes Kappaphycus alvarezzii,
Kappaphycus striatum, and Gracilaria salicornia and their current distributions in Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu,
155
Hawai'i." Pac. Sci. 53(3): 232-241.
Spread of the introduced macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezzii (Doty), K. striatum Schmitz, and
Gracilaria salicornia C. Ag. was measured on reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. The red algae
K. alvarezii and G. salicornia were introduced to specific sites in Kane`ohe Bay in the 1970s. Since
that time their distributions have increased, and the algae have spread through the bay. To assess the
current extent of these algae in the bay and determine their rate of spread, we performed surveys with
a manta tow board. In addition, abundance of these species was determined by detailed reef
transects in the central bay in three habitats: barrier reef, patch reef, and fringing reef. All three species
have become well established. These algae were found in all areas of Kane`ohe Bay. Distributions
are not uniform within the central bay. Abundance of Kappaphycus spp. was highest on patch reefs in
shallow water. G. salicornia was most abundant on the fringing reef. K. alvarezii and K. striatum have
spread 6 km from their points of introduction in 1974, an average rate of spread of approximately 250
m per yr. G. salicornia has spread over 5 km since its introduction in 1978, an average rate of spread
of approximately 280 m per yr. High abundance of these introduced species appears to be associated
with moderate water motion.
Rodgers, S. K., N. A. Sims et al. (2000). "Distribution, recruitment, and growth of the black-lip pearl oyster,
Pinctada margaritifera, in Kane`ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i." Pac. Sci. 54(1): 31-38.
Stocks of Hawaiian black-lip pearl oysters, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758), appear to have
been depleted by overfishing and environmental degradation. Permanent survey transect sites were
set up in Kane`ohe Bay in 1989 to monitor changes in the status of stocks. Only 17 pearl oysters were
found in 1989. Transects were resurveyed in 1997, and 22 pearl oysters were counted. Most were
found on the slopes of patch reefs around the Sampan Channel in 2-6 m depth. Recruitment is low.
Standing stock estimated from observed densities on transects in 1997 and the extent of available
habitat is about 950 individuals. The size distribution of pearl oysters on transects indicates that they
are fished, despite legal protection. Growth of P. margaritifera in Kane`ohe Bay is comparable with
that in other locations. The prospects for commercial culture of black pearls in Kane`ohe Bay are
limited by environmental constraints and the heavy recreational use of the bay.
Romano, S. L. (1988). "Evolutionary game theory applied to interspecific aggression among corals: Are
corals really bullies?" Pac. Sci. 42: 131.
The hierarchy of aggression among the five most common reef flat species of coral in Hawai`i was
determined by observing interspecific interactions in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Colonies of Pocillopora
damicornis, Porites compressa, Cyphastrea ocellina, Montipora verrucosa , and Fungia scutaria were
paired on the reef flat of Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay. F. scutaria was found to be the dominant
aggressor followed by C. ocellina , P. compressa and M. verrucosa , and P. damicornis . Of the
interactions, 87% resulted in unilateral damage by the species of higher rank to the species of lower
rank. A coral does have the ability to identify the aggressive rank of another colony with which it comes
in contact. This ability is used so as to fight only when there is a very high probability of winning. These
observations seem to support the hypothesis that corals have evolved the strategy of a bully for
interspecific interactions. Whether this is an evolutionarily stable strategy depends on the relative costs
and benefits of a contest.
Rosa, A. E. (1969). " Territoriality and the Establishment of Dominance by means of Visual Cues in
Pomacentrus jenkinsi (Pisces: Pomacentridae)." Z. Tierpsychol 26: 825-845.
Pomacentrus jenkinsi is a coral reef inhabiting fish which is territorial for its entire life, juvenile as well
as adult (male-male) and (female-female) holding feeding territories which are strongly defended
against conspecifics and other fish species. Fights between juveniles are displays where there is little
or no physical contact between the partners, the fight being won or lost by visual cues afforded by
changes in dorsal fin position and eye color, fright motivation being indicated by the raising of the
dorsal fin and aggressive motivation by the darkening of the normally yellow eye. The function of
territoriality in this species is thought to be a natural selection mechanism by which reproduction can
only take place between the strongest and most aggressive of the males and females, since
unsuccessful territory holders are not sexually ripe by the time the breeding season starts.
Ross, R. M. (1981). "Experimental evidence for stimulation and inhibition of sex change in the Hawaiian reef
fish Thalassoma duperrey." Proc. 4th Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Manila 2: 575-580.
The saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, is a diandric protogynous hermaphrodite. The adults
consist of both initial phase (IP) females and males, and terminal phase (TP) males. Females and IP
males spawning groups while females and TP males spawn in pairs on the reefs of Kane`ohe Bay.
Ross, R. M. (1982). Sex change in the endemic Hawaiian labrid Thalassoma duperrey (Quoy and Gaimard):
156
a behavioral and ecological analysis. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 171 pp.
A field and laboratory study was conducted in Kane`ohe Bay to determine the factors that cause sex
change in the saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, a diandric protogynous hermaphrodite.
Unlike other sequential hermaphrodites that have been studies, this species is non-haremic and nonschooling. The adults consist of both initial phase (IP) females and males, and terminal phase (TP)
males. Females and IP males spawning groups while females and TP males spawn in pairs on the
reefs of Kane`ohe Bay. The results show that sex change is socially controlled in T. duperrey,
depends on stimulation from small conspecifics and is inhibited in the presence of larger conspecific
females.
Ross, R. M. (1983). "Annual, semilunar, and diel reproductive rhythms in the Hawaiian labrid Thalassoma
duperrey." Mar. Bio. 72: 311-318.
Reproduction of the labrid Thalassoma duperrey was studied for the population in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i, from 1978 to 1981. Field observations of female reproductive behavior and histological study
of the ovaries revealed annual, semilunar, and diel cycles. The percentage of females with ripe ova
was greatest in winter and least in summer; moreover, the percentage of females spawning each day
in summer was low in comparison to the rest of the year. A semilunar cycle was superimposed on the
annual cycle, since the percentage of ripe, spawning females was greatest at new and full moons and
least during the first and third quarters. On a daily basis, the percentage of ripe, spawning females
was greatest during daytime high tide. The reproductive strategies of this and other species of
shallow-water labrids are interpreted as evolutionary responses to both predation pressure and the
need for short-range, within-habitat dispersal. A winter reproductive peak probably reduces the loss of
pelagic larvae from the reef habitat due to weak oceanic currents. A semilunar reproductive peak on
new and full moons probably maximizes short-range, within-habitat dispersal due to strong tidal
currents. Spawning on the high tide should maximize the distance between newly spawned eggs and
reef planktivores and may be the most effective anti-predator tactic available to daytime broadcast
spawners.
Ross, R. M. (1984a). "Anatomical changes associated with sex reversal in the fish Thalassoma duperrey
(Teleostei: Labridae)." Copeia 1: 245-248.
Few studies clearly show developmental changes in the entire reproductive tract during sex reversal.
Here I describe anatomical changes in both the gonads and associated gamete transport systems of
Thalassoma duperrey, a protogynous labrid abundant throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. I also
discuss the significance of these changes in the context of social organization and the sex change
mechanism. Fish were taken from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i between 1978 and 1981.
Ross, R. M. (1984b). "Growth and sexual strategies in the fish Thalassoma duperrey (Labridae), a
protogynous hermaphrodite." Env. Bio. Fishes 10(4): 253-259.
Adults of the fish Thalassoma duperrey, a protogynous hermaphrodite, were collected and growth
observed in captivity to study the relationship between growth and reproduction among primary males,
females, and secondary males. Sexual maturity is reached at about 60 mm standard length, probably
less than 1 year after fertilization. Gonosomatic index in both males and females peaks at about 120
mm, nearly 2 years later. Shortly thereafter females typically change sex, and both primary and
secondary males undergo color change. At the same time gonosomatic index falls abruptly and
remains low in large fish. The above changes appear to reflect differences in reproductive effort over a
lifetime and are interpreted as the optimum strategy given the social and mating system of this fish.
Unless they cannot acquire enough food to develop large gonads, small individuals put a much greater
proportion of energy into growth than reproduction apparently to minimize the period of low fitness.
Intermediate-sized males and females generally invest heavily in gametes, though some retain small
gonads. Large individuals (both primary and secondary males) greatly reduce their investment in
gametes, probably trading the energy required to maintain reproductive territories for it. This kind of
gonad ontogeny involving gonad regression, as in T. duperrey and other labrid fishes, is unique among
vertebrates. The data consist of gonad weights and indices, as well as histological observations, of T.
duperrey taken from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i from 1978 to 1981.
Ross, R. M. (1986). Social organization and mating system of the Hawaiian reef fish Thalassoma duperrey
(Labridae). Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes. Indo-Pacific fish biology, Tokyo,
Ichthyological Society of Japan.
Ross, R. M. (1987). "Sex-change linked growth acceleration in a coral-reef fish, Thalassoma duperrey." J.
Exp. Zoo. 244: 455-461.
Environmental factors are known to affect the growth rates of fishes through most of their adult life. In
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the hermaphroditic saddleback wrasse (Thalassoma duperrey), the effects of social factors on growth
were studied experimentally by subjecting individuals in submerged enclosures to various social
environments that induce sex change. The results showed that social factors may either stimulate or
inhibit the growth of adult fish. Individuals with one or more pen mates grew better than isolated
individuals. Conspecifics stimulated more growth than heterospecifics. In paired fish, larger
individuals inhibited the growth of smaller individuals. Growth rates were independent of both the sex
and color phase of associates. Placing a tactile barrier between fish did not alter growth rates, but a
tactile-visual barrier did. Increasing the space available to a fish did not increase the growth rate.
Dominance relationships based on relative size and visual stimuli best explain the results obtained.
Since all fish that showed growth acceleration also changed sex, a unitary, hypothalamically mediated,
causal system is suggested. From an evolutionary perspective, sex-change linked growth acceleration
may reduce the cost of changing sex by shortening the nonreproductive interim in species in which
males must be large to compete successfully for multiple matings. Fish were taken from coral reefs in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, from September 1979 to June 1980.
Ross, R. M., G. S. Losey et al. (1983). "Sex change in a coral-reef fish: dependence of stimulation and
inhibition on relative size." Sci. 221: 574-575.
The removal of a single dominant individual has been shown to trigger a sex change in some coralreef fish. In the saddleback wrasse (Thalassoma duperrey), however, female-to-male sex change
requires visual stimulation from smaller conspecifics. This change is not dependent on the sex or color
of the stimulus fish and can be inhibited by larger conspecifics. On the reef, a female probably
changes sex when the relative numbers of larger and smaller conspecifics change within her home
range. Fish were taken from coral reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Roth, A. A., C. D. Clausen et al. (1982). "Some effects of light on coral growth." Pac. Sci. 36(1): 65-.
45
The rate of coral growth under varied light regimes was tested using Ca uptake while temperature
was held constant. Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora formosa, respectively, were used in Hawai`i
and Enewetak under natural and artificial light conditions. Light intensity and spectral distribution
patterns were determined for all experiments. P. damicornis were collected from a depth of 6-11 m in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Rowe, M. D. (1971). Some aspects of the feeding behavior of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. Dept. of
Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 62 pp.
Oikopleura longicauda and barnacle nauplii seem to be the major food of Pleurobranchia pileus in
Kane`ohe Bay. Both of these prey animals have contagious distributions in the guts of the ctenophores
indicating the presence of nonrandom processes. Three such processes are observed: (1) differences
in vertical movements between predator and prey; (2) clumping of predator and prey; and (3)
nonrandom feeding by the ctenophores. Pleurobranchia regulates its feeding rate by changing the
average size of its tentacles. Four types of feeding result from different concentrations of Artemia
salina nauplii.
Roy, K. J. (1970). Change in bathymetric configuration, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, 1882-1969. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Geophysics: 226.
This report contains the results of a detailed bathymetric survey conducted in 1969. The data of this
survey are compared to those of surveys done in 1882 and 1927, and changes-in the bathymetry of
Kane`ohe Bay are noted. It was determined that the lagoon landward of the barrier reef had shoaled
an average of 5.4 feet since 1927.
The composition of the lagoon sediments is characterized, and the results are included in the
discussion of sedimentation in Kane`ohe Bay.
Russell, D. J. (1983). "Ecology of the imported red seaweed Eucheuma striatum Schmitz on Coconut Island,
O`ahu, Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 37(2): 87-107.
The introduced alga Eucheuma striatum Schmitz was studied regarding its spread, control, and
ecology in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Its distribution in Kane`ohe Bay during May 1976 was
nearly the same as when it was originally planted 2 yr earlier. It lacked the ability to disperse over
shallow depressions both in the reef and in deep water, and it did not colonize neighboring reefs
without the help of man. Depth was the single most important physical factor limiting its dispersal.
Data support the conclusion that the population on the reef edge was maintained only by a steady
influx of thallus fragments that escaped from enclosed experimental plantings on the reef flat. When
the experimental plantings were removed the population could not maintain itself and soon
disappeared. E. striatum did not compete with native algal macrophytes and appeared to be the basis
of a community richer in animal species than adjacent reefs. It provided 10-20 tons/mo of food for
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grazing fish, shelter, and a substratum for numerous invertebrates. E. striatum did not attach to corals,
but it did cause their death by shading.
Russell, D. J. (1992). The ecological invasion of Hawaiian reefs by two marine red algae, Acanthophora
spicifera (Vahl) Boerg. and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Ag., and their association with two native
species, Laurencia nidifica J. Ag. and Hypnea cervicornis J. Ag. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp.
Acanthophora spicifera, a red seaweed, which was introduced to Hawai`i in the 1950s, is well
established on all the Hawaiian islands except Hawai`i. It has a heterogenous distribution limited
primarily by water motion between DIF 10-80 and temperature (25-27 C). Salinity has been less
limiting (19-36 / ). Competition between Acanthophora and two native algal species (Laurencia
spp. and Hypnea cervicornis) is discussed. Another introduction, Hypnea musciformis entered the
Laurencia niche in 1977 and has partially displaced H. cervicornis. Changes within the Laurencia
niche due to the introduction of two alien species are discussed.
Russell, D. J. and G. H. Balazs (1994). "Colonization by the alien marine alga Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen)
J. Ag. (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales) in the Hawaiian Islands and its utilization by the green turtle,
Chelonia mydas L." Aquatic Bot. 47: 53-60.
In Hawai`i, the alien red algae, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Ag., was originally planted on reefs in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, in January 1974, but has since spread to many other locations on O`ahu and to
other Hawaiian islands. This alga, along with the previously introduced alien seaweed, Acanthophora
spicifera (Vahl) Boerg., is now being prominently used as a food source by the green turtle (Chelonia
mydas L.) in the Hawaiian Islands. This is the first known documentation of introduced algae being
incorporated into the diet of the green turtle, a species considered endangered world-wide.
Ryan, E. P. (1965). A study of the reproductive biology of the haole crab, Portunus sanguinolentus (Herbst)
(Brachyura: Portunidae). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 194.
A reproductive study of the crab, P. sanquinolentus, including morphology, morphometry and number
of sexually mature instars; changes in the gross and histological anatomy of the reproductive systems
of the pre-adult and adult instars; functions of parts of the reproductive systems during the
reproductive cycles and during copulation; reproductive behavior and determination of site of
fertilization and method of ova attachment. The crabs were collected from the southern part of the bay
from January 1962 to June 1964.
Ryan, E. P. (1966a). Structure and function of the reproductive system of the crab Portunus sanquinolentus
(Herbst) (Brachyura: Portunidae) 1. The male system. Proc. Symp. on Crustacea, Mar. Biol. Assoc.
India, part II.
A complete gross and histological study of the anatomy of the male reproductive system of Portunus
sanquinolentus. Crabs were investigated during the molt cycle in pre-adult and the 3 adult instars.
Function of each part of the reproductive system was ascertained during the reproductive period and
during the process of copulation. Vital staining and the usual histological staining techniques were
used to study the systems, experimental methods were used for the remaining studies. Crabs were
collected from Kane`ohe Bay, January 1962 to June 1964.
Ryan, E. P. (1966b). Structure and function of the reproductive system of the crab Portunus sanquinolentus
(Herbst) (Brachyura: Portunidae) II. The female system. Proc. Symp. on Crustacea, Mar. Biol. Assoc.
India, part II.
A complete study of the gross and histological anatomy of the female reproductive system of the crab
Portunus sanquinolentus. Crabs were investigated during the molt and reproductive cycles of the preadult and two adult instars. The function of each part of the reproductive system was ascertained
during the reproductive cycle and during the process of copulation. The system was studied using vital
staining and usual histological techniques; experimental methods were used for studying copulation
and ovulation. Captive individuals were reared after breeding to determine the ovarian cycle. Crabs
were collected in Kane`ohe Bay in wire traps from January 1962 to June 1964.
Ryan, E. P. (1966c). The morphometry of sexually mature instars in the crab, Portunus sanquinolentus
(Herbst) (Brachyura: Portunidae). Proc. Symp. on Crustacea, Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, part II.
A study conducted over a two-year period in Kane`ohe Bay to establish the morphometric and
morphological criteria for the determination of two sexually mature instars in females and three in
males of Portunus sanquinolentus (Neptunus sanquinolentus). Morphometric and morphological
changes were ascertained from crabs which molted in captivity. Criteria of sexual maturity in males
were verified by breeding experiments. Crabs were collected by traps set in Kane`ohe Bay from
January 1962 to June 1964.
159
Ryan, E. P. (1966d). Pheromone: evidence in a decapod crustacean. Science. 151: 340-341.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory on Portunus sanquinolentus collected from
Kane`ohe Bay involving the possible release of a sex-attractant pheromone in the urine of a premolt
female. Experiments indicated that a pheromone in the form of a sex attractant permitted the males to
detect the premolt condition of the females. It was also indicated that the pheromone was released
through the excretory pores. Origin of the pheromone its chemical nature and the way it is detected by
the males remains to be determined.
Sakuda, H. (1986). Estuarine fisheries in Hawai`i. Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission Expert Consult. on
Inland Fisheries of the Larger Islands, 4-9 Aug, 1986, Bangkok, FAO, Rome.
Details are given of the fisheries of 3 estuarine habitats typical of Hawai`i: Pearl Harbor, Kane`ohe Bay
and Hilo Bay
Sale, P. F. (1969). "A suggested mechanism for habitat selection by the juvenile manini Acanthurus
triostegus sandvicensis Street." Behavior.
Santavy, D. (1986). A blue pigmented bacterium symbiotic with Terpios granulosa, a coral reef sponge.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept.
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 380-393.
Symbiosis between a blue-pigmented bacterial symbiont and its marine sponge host Terpios
granulosa Bergquist was examined. Sensitivity to ultraviolet and full spectrum solar radiation indicated
a requirement for a cryptic habitat, as occurs on Hawaiian coral reefs. Exposure to 50% UV radiation
resulted in mortality of bacterium and, ultimately, sponge cells.
Santerre, M. T. (1974). Effects of temperature and salinity on the early eggs and larvae of the omaka Caranx
mate (Pisces: Carangidae) in Hawai`i. Department of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 163
pp.
Omaka (Caranx mate) eggs obtained from the plankton of Kane`ohe Bay and incubated in the
o
laboratory between temperature of 17.2 and 30.1 C and salinities between 20 and 40 ppt showed the
following processes to be inversely proportional to temperature: incubation times, durations of the yolk
sac stage, times to functional eye and jaw development and times to the attainment of maximum
o
length during the yolk sac stage. Unfed omaka larvae attained the largest size at 25 C. Salinity had
very little effect on the time to functional eye and jaw development.
Santerre, M. T. (1976). "Effects of temperature and salinity on the eggs and early larvae of Caranx mate
(Cuv. & Valenc.) (Pisces: Carangidae) in Hawai`i." J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 21: 51-68.
Eggs and larvae of the carangid fish, Caranx mate, were incubated at various temperature (17.2 to
33.1°C) and salinity (10 to 42 ppt) combinations in five experiments. The following rates were directly
proportional to temperature: embryonic development, yolk absorption, eye and jaw development, and
increase in length. Unfed C. mate larvae attained a maximum size at 25°C and 20°C . Eyes and jaws
of larvae were functional by the end of the yolk sac stage at all temperature and salinity levels tested.
Hatching success and larval survival at the end of the yolk sac stage were generally greater than 50%
between 20 and 32°C. Hatching success and larval survival at the end of the yolk sac stage were
reduced at salinity combinations. The frequency of morphological abnormalities was also high at
extreme temperatures and salinities. The incipient upper thermal TLm for unfed C. mate larvae
acclimated to 23.8°C increased from 31.5°C for newly hatched larvae, to 34.2°C for 72 h larvae, but
decreased to 32.0°C for starving larvae after the exhaustion of the yolk supply. C. mate eggs were
collected by surface plankton hauls in the southern sector of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Santerre, M. T. and R. C. May (1977). "Some effects of temperature and salinity on laboratory reared eggs
and larvae of Polydactylus sexfilis (Pisces: Polynemidae)." Aquaculture 10: 341-351.
Effects of temperature and salinity on eggs and yolksac larvae of Polydactylus sexfilis (Cuvier and
Valenciennes) were examined in laboratory experiments. Data on developmental rates as influenced
by temperature are presented. Larval length at 95% yolksac absorption was maximized between
23.8°and 28.6°C. Based on the development of functional eyes and jaws were judged functional.
Temperature and salinity effects on hatching success, survival at the end of the yolksac stage, and
morphological abnormalities were studied in a 10 x 5 ( temperature x salinity) array of treatments. In
34°C sea water, normalized larval survival at the end of the yolksac stage was greater than 50%
between temperatures of 21.9 and 28.0°C. Larval survival decreased at lower temperatures and
salinities. Proportions of abnormal larvae increased at temperature and salinity extremes, and normal
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development was maximized between 26 and 34°C. Larvae (74 h after fertilization) were more tolerant
to extreme high temperatures than were newly fertilized eggs. Upper salinity tolerance limits of 42-h
larvae were greater at 26.2°C than at 23.5 or 29.2°C, and lower salinity was less tolerated at the two
extreme temperatures. Based on the results, recommended temperatures and salinities for rearing P.
sexfilis eggs and early larvae are 24-28°C and 26-34°C.
Sather, B. T. (1965). Studies in the mineral metabolism of the Hawaiian crab, Podophthalmus (Fab.)
throughout the ecdysis cycle. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 147.
A study on the metabolism of the Hawaiian crab during the entire molt cycle with records of the
concentrations and distributions of the minerals during times of calcification and decalcification.
Consideration is given to the controlling factor of the calcification process and the distribution of the
factors involved during the calcification process. In regard to the latter problem, the chromium ion is
considered. Crabs were collected in Kane`ohe Bay by the use of crabs nets in the southern portion of
the Bay between Kane`ohe Stream and the Kane`ohe Bay marina.
Sather, B. T. (1966). "Observations on the molt cycle and growth of the crab, Podophthalmus vigil (Fabricus)
(Decapoda: Portunidae)." Crustaceana 11: 185-197.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory using animals collected from Kane`ohe Bay
noting the duration of the molt stages, the frequency of molting in a wild population and the effects of
some environmental factors on the frequency of molting as well as growth measurements during
molting. Results showed that 12 hours after: ecdysis calcification had begun in the principle layer; 24
hours after: the crabs were sufficiently calcified to commence near-normal activity; 2-3 days after
molting: about half of the skeleton was sclerotized and 4-5 days after: the skeleton was completely
calcified. Intermolt stage lasted 2 days. Percentage durations of the molt stages of other crabs
studied by other authors are given for comparison. It was difficult to determine exactly what
o
o
o
temperature inhibited molting as the annual temperature fluctuated only 6.3 C (22.3 - 28.6 C).
Sather, B. T. (1967). "Studies in the calcium and phosphorus metabolism of the crab, Podophthalmus vigil
(Fabricus)." Pac. Sci. 21(2): 193-209.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory with specimens collect in Kane`ohe Bay. The
calcium and total phosphorus concentrations of the carapace, mid-gut gland, gills and muscles were
followed during the molt cycle. Calcium content was determined by the spectrophotometric analysis of
Geyer and Bowie in the ashed samples and by the method of Ferro and H with the blood samples.
Phosphorus content in both the ashed and blood samples was determined by the method of
Bernhardt, Chess and Roy. The carapace had the greatest inorganic fluctuations. The mid-gut gland
and muscle tended to increase in both organic and inorganic matter during premolt, suggesting that
these organs may serve as reservoirs for these components.
Sather, B. T. (1969). "A comparative study of amylases and proteinases in some decapod Crustacea."
Comp. Biochem. Physiol 28: 371-379.
Amylase, protease and cathepsin activities in midgut gland extracts of six decapod crustaceans were
determined. The amylase pH optimum of the crab, Metapograpsus messor, was 8.0. The protease
and cathepsin pH optima of the portunid crab, Podophthalmus vigil, were 7.9 and 6.0, respectively.
Comparison of the digestive enzymatic activities revealed that the three omnivores had greater
amylase and proteinase activities than did the carnivores. Food preference in two sympatric species,
P. vigil and Portunus sanguinolentus, may be due to difference in catheptic activities. The
semiterrestrial and marine decapods were collected from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i; the crayfish
were collected from Kane`ohe Stream.
Satoru, T. and E. A. Laws (1989). Periodic blooms of the silicoflagellate Dictyocha perlaevis in the
subtropical inlet, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, U.S.A. Red Tides: Biology, Environmental Science, and
Toxicology. T. Okaichi, D. M. Anderson and T. Nemoto. Honolulu, Elsevier Science Publishing Co.,
Inc.: 69-72.
The silicoflagellate Dictyocha perlaevis was collected weekly for a period of one year at a station in the

subtropical inlet of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, USA. Cell density was usually less than 5 cellsl

with maximum cell density of 47 cellsl . Periodic blooms occurred 11 times during the year. The
occurrence of blooms seems to be associated with high nutrient-saturated growth rates as a result of
favorable light and temperature conditions or other factors and not to a change in the degree of
nutrient limitation.
Scelfo, G. (1985). The effects of visible and ultraviolet solar radiation on a UV absorbing compound and
chlorophyll a in a Hawaiian zoanthid. Proc. Fifth Inter. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti.
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Methanolic extracts from Zoanthus pacificus, a zoanthid living on Hawaiian coral reef flats contain a
material absorbing strongly in the UV-B regions (280-340 nm) with an absorption maximum at 320 nm.
By analogy to the zoanthid Palythoa tuberculosa this material is believed to consist primarily of the
mycosporine-like amino acid palythine, which is reputed to have a protective UV-screening function. I
investigated the effects of visible and UV solar radiation on the production of palythine and chlorophyll
a content by transplanting zoanthids from the reef flat to aquariums with controlled light regimes. The 4
experimental light regimes included full intensity sunlight with and without UV, and shaded conditions
with and without UV. After one month, palythine concentration had increased dramatically in zoanthids
in all light conditions including controls that were handled but immediately replaced to the original field
site. This suggests that mechanical stress may stimulate palythine production. UV radiation may be
required for continued production, however, as zoanthids shielded from UV apparently decreased in
palythine after 2.5 months, while those receiving UV did not. Chlorophyll a concentration was affected
by visible light intensity, but not by UV. Chlorophyll a decreased in full sunlight and increased in the
shade, regardless of UV. This study was conducted on Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Scelfo, G. (1986). Relationship between solar radiation and pigmentation of the coral Montipora verrucosa
and its zooxanthellae. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea
Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 440-451.
Colonies of Montipora verrucosa were transplanted from 3 m and 10 m depths to shallow aquaria (20
cm) and exposed to solar radiation with and without ultraviolet (UV) radiation under full intensity and
shaded conditions. M. verrucosa from 3 m had much higher concentrations of a UV absorbing
compound than the colony from 10 m. The 10 m colony did not survive in full sunlight, while the 3 m
colony survived the increased light intensity and UV radiation. A significant increase in the
concentration of UV absorbing pigment was evident for all surviving corals and was greater for corals
in full sunlight than for those in the shade. Corals exposed to UV radiation had at least double the
amount of S320 pigment as corals receiving the same light intensity but without UV.
Schwarz, J. (1998). Late development and acquisition of zooxanthellae in larvae of Fungia scutaria.
Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 113118.
In this paper, I build on the work of Krupp (1983) by describing several features of late larval
development in Fungia scutaria, including feeding behavior, timing and mechanisms for acquisition of
symbionts, and developmental progression from planula through metamorphosis. Larvae were
gathered from F. scutaria maintained at HIMB, Coconut Island, Kane`ohe, O`ahu.
Shaklee, J. B. (1984). "Genetic variation and population structure in the damselfish, Stegastes fasciolatus, in
the Hawaiian Archipelago." Copeia 3: 629-640.
Samples of the Pacific damselfish, Stegastes fasciolatus, were collected from localities throughout the
Hawaiian Archipelago (Midway, Maro Reef, French Frigate Shoals, O`ahu, and Hawai`i) and
subjected to starch gel electrophoretic analysis of 44 enzyme-coding loci. Eight loci were polymorphic.
With one exception, all loci at all localities were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The average
heterozygosity across all loci was 0.046 for the species. Allele frequencies at all eight loci were stable
over a 12-month period and were remarkably constant throughout the Archipelago - a linear distance
of approximately 2,500 km. Furthermore, with the exception of a few very rare alleles, all populations
exhibited the same spectrum of alleles at each locus. Whether the localities are analyzed pairwise or
as two major groups - 'main' Hawaiian Islands (O`ahu and Hawai`i) vs Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
(Midway, Maro Reef, and French Frigate Shoals) - the data provide no evidence of subpopulation
differentiation. Indeed, the homogeneity of allele frequencies at the eight polymorphic loci argues
strongly for the existence of a single large panmictic population of Stegastes faciolatus throughout the
Hawaiian Archipelago.
Shaklee, J. B. and P. B. Samollow (1984). "Genetic variation and population structure in a spiny lobster,
Panulirus marginatus, in the Hawaiian Archipelago." Fishery Bulletin 82(4): 693-702.
Shashar, N., A. T. Banaszak et al. (1997). "Coral endolithic algae: life in a protected environment." Pac. Sci.
51: 167-173.
Endolithic algae living inside skeletons of living corals are exposed to very low light intensities. Assays
carried out on the coral Porites compressa revealed drastic diurnal fluctuations in pH and O sub(2)
levels within the skeleton, dominated mainly by coral photosynthesis by day and respiration at night.
Enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase and catalase, as well as photosynthetic adaptations to low
light level and low metabolic activity rates, enable the algae to grow in this unique habitat.
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Shashar, N., S. Kinane et al. (1996). "Hydromechanical boundary layers over a coral reef." J. Exp. Mar. Biol.
Ecol. 199: 17-28.
Three hydrodynamic boundary layers were measured over a coral reef, dominated by Porites
compressa and Montipora verrucosa corals, in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. These measurements were
used to evaluate the applicability of present models describing boundary layers and to define the range
in which processes governed by them takes place. The Diffusion Boundary Layer (DBL), related to
diffusion-limited processes such as respiration and photosynthesis, was thicker over M. verrucosa than
over P. compressa (2.00 +- 0.6 and 1.42+-0.4 mm, respectively). The Momentum Boundary Layer
(MBL), controlling water movement in the proximity of the sessile organisms, was thicker over M.
verrucosa than over P. compressa as well (97 +- 27 and 58 +- 24 mm, respectively), corresponding to
the stronger requirement for water motion by the former, and was thicker by an order of magnitude
than the DBL. The Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL), controlling the interactions of the reef with the open
sea waters, was found to be more than 1 m thick and was characterized by a roughness height of 31
cm and a shear velocity (u.) of 0.42 cm s-1. The BBL was composed of three distinguished segments,
a lower sublayer with slow water motion throughout its height, an inner sublayer up to the height of the
coral knolls, and a fully developed outer BBL. This structure of the BBL suggests that: (1)
sedimentation at the lower segment of the BBL is contributing to the patchy structure of this reef; and
(2) high corals colonies increase sedimentation while reducing water motion and food supply from
lower colonies located within the lower and middle segments of the BBL.
Sims, N. A. and D. J. Sarver (1994). "Hatchery culture of the black-lip pearl oyster in Hawai`i--stock reestablishment and expansion of commercial pearl culture throughout the region." J. Shellfish Res. 13:
350.
The establishment of a commercial hatchery for black-lip pearl oysters (Pinctada margaritifera) at the
OTEC facility in Kona, Hawai`i, has significance for the preservation of threatened populations, as
well as opening up commercial pearl culture potential for Hawai`i and other Pacific Islands. The
Hawaiian variety of black-lip (P. m. galtsoffi) was over-fished in the past, and is now rare to the point of
being protected by the State. Relict stocks in Pearl and Hermes Reef, Kane`ohe Bay, and along the
Kona Coast show no signs of recovery. Hatchery culture would allow a stock re-establishment
program. Ocean-based pearl farming options are being explored at several sites throughout the
Hawaiian Islands. Land-based pearl culture is also being developed at the OTEC plant in Kona. The
feasibility of using pathogen-free deep-OTEC water for broodstock maintenance, larval culture and
early spat rearing has been proven in trials with Marshall Island pearl oysters. These techniques
remove the risks of inadvertent transfer of exotic organisms (pathogenic or benign) and genetic mixing
between stocks. Pacific Islands with small quantities of broodstock can now use this system to provide
spat for stock re-establishment or development of commercial pearl culture. With this technology, the
natural scarcity of pearl oysters in a lagoon is no longer a principal constraint to the development of
pearl farming. The Kona facility can operate as a regional hatchery for the central Pacific, obviating the
need for expensive construction and operation of pearl oyster hatcheries on each island group.
Skolnick, M. S. (1965). Aggressive behavior of the adult portunid crab, Portunus sanquinolentus (Herbst).
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study of various aggressive behaviors plus three display patterns - threat, submissive and defense
patterns of the crab, Portunus sanguinolentus. In the laboratory, hierarchy in behavior was studied
using small samples. The crabs were collected in the vicinity of Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay.
Results showed these aggressive displays to be visual and therefore occurred during daylight.
Dominance-subordinance situations result from these aggressive encounters in the laboratory while
these hierarchies are probably temporary in the field. Size is the most important factor in affecting
dominance in intra-sexual situations. Size and sex are both important in inter-sexual encounters.
Phase of molt-cycle, individual differences and prior experience also function in determining
dominance. P. sanquinolentus appears to be capable of distinguishing on specifics by visual and
tactile senses but itdoes not appear to distinguish between individuals.
Skyring, G. W. (1985). "Anaerobic microbial processes in coral reefs sediments." Proc. Fifth Inter. Coral
Reef Cong., Tahiti 3: 421-425.
Microbial anaerobic processes occur in sediments associated with coral reefs even though many
appear to be well aerated by physical mixing or bioturbation. Bacterial sulfate reduction, a strictly
anaerobic respiration process, is the most easily demonstrated indicator of anaerobic processes in
marine sediments. It results in the production of sulfide which has been shown to occur in the
sediments of Kane`ohe Bay, Bermuda, Jamaica, Lizard Island and Davies Reef. Sulfate reduction
rates in these sediments are low when compared to those for most other marine environments. A
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maximum of around 8mmol m-2 day-1 was measured for the top 5cm of the sediment from the back
lagoon of Davies Reef. In the back reef lagoon, 90% of the sulfate reduction occurred in the top 2cm
sediment. Up to 60% of the 35S recovered in the sulfide fractions, occurred in a tin-reducible fraction.
Smith, A. A. C. (1994). The effects of nutrient loading on C:N:P: rations of marine macroalgae in Kane`ohe
Bay, Hawai`i. Oceanography. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
Smith, C. R. and H. Kukert (1996). "Macrobenthic community structure, secondary production, and rates of
bioturbation and sedimentation at the Kane`ohe Bay lagoon floor." Pac. Sci. 50: 211-229.
The Kane'ohe Bay lagoon floor is one of the largest shallow-water, muddy habitats in Hawai'i and is a
major repository for sediments and, possibly, pollutants from the Kane'ohe watershed. Nonetheless,
macrobenthic community structure, secondary production, and particle-mixing rates at the lagoon floor
remain largely unstudied. During 1990-1991, we surveyed macrobenthic community structure at four
stations 12 m deep at the lagoon floor and evaluated macrobenthic secondary production, as well as
particle mixing and sedimentation, at one representative station. Macrobenthic abundance in the
lagoon during our survey was high (44,000-100,000 individuals m-2), with very small deposit-feeding
polychaetes dominating the community. This low-diversity assemblage was relatively similar
throughout the bay and resembled the communities found in highly depositional environments (e.g.,
river deltas, and zones of active erosion and redeposition). Macrobenthic secondary production at the
representative station was low, with a best estimate of 4.9 g m-2 yr-1 ash-free dry weight (reasonable
range 1.2-20 g m-2 yr-1); this appeared to be enough production to support 2% of the annual fish yield
in Kane'ohe Bay. Tracer-particle experiments at the representative station, sampled after 7 months
and 1 yr, indicated low sediment-mixing rates (diffusive mixing coefficient apprx 0.9 cm-2 yr-1), little
size dependence in particle mixing, and relatively high short-term rates of sedimentation (6-7 cm yr-1).
After corrections for sediment compaction, these short-term sedimentation rates (2.7-3.7 cm yr-1) are
about three-fold higher than longer-term (decadal) sedimentation rates (approx. 1.0 cm yr-1) estimated
using Pb-210 geochronology at a nearby site; the discrepancy may be caused by sediment transport
from nearby fringing reefs, resuspension of bottom sediments by alpheid shrimp, or interannual
variability of sediment flux into the bay. We conclude that the Kane'ohe Bay lagoon harbors a lowdiversity, low-productivity macrobenthic assemblage largely structured by high gross sedimentation
rates. In addition, we conclude that sand-sized particles entering the bay are rapidly (within months)
sequestered below the sediment-water interface, where they remain for at least 1-yr time scales.
Smith, C. R. and G. M. McMurtry (1995). Rates of sedimentation in Kane`ohe Bay lagoon based upon Pb210 geochronology and Cs-137 penetration depth. Final Report. Honolulu, State of Hawai`i,
Department of Land and Natural Resources.
Smith, J. E., C. L. Hunter et al. (In press). "Distribution and reproductive characteristics of nonindigenous
and invasive marine algae in Hawai`i." Pac. Sci.
Smith, L. C. (1986). Larval releases in the sponge Callyspongia diffusa. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L.
Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology,
Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01):
286-291.
Release of larvae from Callyspongia diffusa was noted in early August, 1983 at Coconut Island in
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. The larvae swam about a finger bowl propelled by their surface cilia for about
16 h and were found settled on the bottom of the bowl the following day. Histological observations of
the larvae forming within the parent sponge were more consistent with that of embryo development
than with gemmule formation.
Smith, S., R. E. Brock et al. (1980). Kane`ohe Bay sewage diversion experiment: perspectives on
ecosystem responses to nutritional perturbation. Kane`ohe, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of
Marine Biology,: 229 pp.
Smith, S. V. (1977). "Kane`ohe Bay: A preliminary report on the responses of a coral reef/estuary ecosystem
to relaxation of sewage stress." Proc. 3rd Intern. Coral Reef Symp., Miami 2: 577-583.
Data are in terms of budgets. No time period of sampling indicated. Some data divided into northwest,
central and southeast regions of the Bay.
Smith, S. V. (1979). Kane`ohe Bay: nutrient mass balance, sewage diversion, and ecosystem responses.
Advances in Marine Environmental Research, Environmental Protection Agency.
Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, is a coral reef/estuary ecosystem presently subjected to stresses from sewage
164
discharge and runoff. The sewage discharge is scheduled to be diverted from the bay. This
"relaxation" of sewage stress will be a major ecosystem perturbation: the termination of a chronic
stress which has been imposed, with increasing intensity, on the bay over the past two decades. We
are treating this sewage diversion event as a controlled experiment designed to ascertain ecosystem
responses to such environmental perturbation. The experiment is being performed by means of timeseries field monitoring, discrete field studies, and laboratory experiments. The stream runoff imposes
short-term, catastrophic stress from fresh water and sediment influx. The sewage accounts for about
90 percent of the land-derived nutrient delivery to the bay, thus imposing an influence which stimulates
biological activity. The sediments in the bay have been a major repository for nutrients discharged into
the bay; nutrient release from the sediments has been, and will continue to be, a significant process
affecting the ecosystem. When the sewage stress is relaxed, planktonic responses to that event will be
more rapid than benthic responses; both because the plankton are immediately responsive to the
point-source sewage discharge, and because of characteristic high biomass, efficient nutrient cycling,
and limited mobility of benthic organisms.
Smith, S. V. (1981). Responses of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, to relaxation of sewage stress. Estuaries and
Nutrients. B. J. a. C. Neilson , L. E., Humana Press: 391-410.
Kane`ohe Bay is a subtropical coral reef/estuary complex which was subjected to increasing sewage
loading; that sewage was diverted in 1977 and 1978. We have treated the loading and diversion as a
controlled, total-ecosystem experiment to evaluate the chemical and biological responses to external
subsidy of nutrients. We here consider the bay's response to sewage loading and to its diversion
largely in the context of a nitrogen budget. Even the most heavily impacted portion of the bay showed
only moderate increases in dissolved nitrogen levels within the water column. Particulate materials
including plankton biomass, as well as dissolved inorganic phosphorus, were elevated substantially.
The benthos showed increased biomass and metabolic rates, especially of heterotrophs responding to
fallout of organic particulate materials. Nutrient recycling within the bay was the major immediate
source for the nutrients for the observed rapid metabolic activity. Sewage accounted for approximately
80 percent of the inorganic nitrogen and 90 percent of the inorganic phosphorus delivery to Kane`ohe
Bay. Diversion lowered the land-derived inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus input to the bay by 70-80
percent. Virtually all components of the system have responded to this diminished nutrient subsidy, but
the water column nutrient washout and biological recovery are predictably occurring more rapidly than
the benthos responses.
Smith, S. V., R. W. Buddemeier et al. (1979). "Strontium-calcium thermometry in coral skeletons." Science
204: 404-407.
The strontium to calcium ratio of skeletal aragonite in three genera of reef-building corals varies as a
simple function of temperature and the strontium to calcium ratio of the incubation water. The
strontium/calcium distribution coefficients of coral aragonite apparently differ from the corresponding
coefficient of inorganically precipitated aragonite. With some care, coral skeletons can be used as
recording thermometers.
Smith, S. V., K. E. Chave et al. (1973). Atlas of Kane`ohe Bay: A Reef Ecosystem Under Stress. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i, Sea Grant Program: 128 pp.
Preliminary report on the results of the first comprehensive marine environmental study of Kane`ohe
Bay, conducted 1968-72, during the period when secondary treated sewage in the south bay was near
or at its maximum. Sampling include detailed surveys of substratum, reef corals, reef fishes, and
benthic algae, and limited surveys or summaries of micromollusks, pelagic and larval fish and general
invertebrates.
Smith, S. V. and D. T. O. Kam (1973). Substrate of the bay. Kane`ohe Bay: A Reef Ecosystem Under
Stress. S. V. Smith, K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea Grant. UNIHISEAGRANT-TR-72-01: 23-36.
Description of distribution of primary substrata of Kane`ohe Bay, summarized as mud, sand, hard
bottom, live coral, dead coral, and coral rubble, generalized maps of sediment calcium carbonate
content, percent aragonite and changes in bay depth 1982-1927 and 1927-69.
Smith, S. V., W. J. Kimmerer et al. (1981). "Kane`ohe Bay Sewage Diversion Experiment: perspectives on
ecosystem responses to nutritional perturbation." Pac. Sci. 35: 279-402.
The bay received increasing amounts of sewage from the 1950's through 1977. Most sewage was
diverted from the bay in 1977 and early 1978. This investigation, begun in Jan. 1976 and continued
through August 1979, described the bay over that period, with particular reference to the responses of
the ecosystem diversion. The sewage was a nutritional subsidy. All of the inorganic nitrogen and most
165
of the inorganic phosphorus introduced into the ecosystem were taken up biologically before being
advected from the bay. The major uptake was by phytoplankton, and the internal water-column cycle
between dissolved nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, microheterotrophs, and detritus, supported a
rate of productivity far exceeding the rate of nutrient loading.
Snidvongs, A. E. (1988). "Effect of nutrient enrichment on the zooxanthellae of a reef coral, Pocillopora
damicornis." Pac. Sci. 42: 132-133.
Pocillopora damicornis, a symbiotic coral, was kept in the following 4 controlled nutrient regimes for 8
weeks: ambient unfiltered Kane`ohe Bay seawater; nitrogen addition as ammonium chloride to
approximately equals 15 mu m above ambient level; phosphorus addition as potassium phosphate
(monobasic) to approximately equals 1 mu m above ambient; and both nitrogen and phosphorus
addition to the levels of 2 and 3. In the control treatment atomic N:C and P:C ratios of symbiotic
zooxanthellae were well below Redfield ratio, suggesting nutrient limitation. Nitrogen enrichment
resulted in an increased cellular nitrogen content. When only phosphorus was added, both C and P
per cell decreased, suggesting the possibility of smaller cell, and thus, higher cell division rate. Under
these experimental conditions, zooxanthellae did not respond to elevated phosphorus by increasing
cellular phosphorus content and P:C ratio. Possibly, the in situ availability of phosphorus was not
enhanced by the same mechanism as nitrogen.
Soegiarto, A. (1969). Primary productivity of benthic algae in a tropical bay. Botanical Sciences. Honolulu,
University of Hawai`i: 53.
Soegiarto, A. (1969). Preliminary checklist of marine algae collected from Kane`ohe Bay. Honolulu, Sea
Grant Program, University of Hawai`i.
A preliminary report on the algae of Kane`ohe Bay for the Coral Reef Project which was funded by the
federal Sea Grant Program. Soegiarto lists seventy-nine species, some of which are rare: Scinaia
hormoides and Gibsmithia Hawaiiana, Rosenvingea orientalis and Cladosiphon novaecaledoniae, the
latter two algae being new records for Kane`ohe Bay.
Soegiarto, A. (1972). The role of benthic algae in the carbonate budget of the modern reef complex,
Kane`ohe Bay. Dept. Botanical Sciences, Univ. of Hawai`i: 313.
In the course of this study, 364 stations were occupied in order to assess the role of benthic algal
communities in the carbonate production of this bay. A correlation coefficient matrix was constructed
for the 68 taxa of algae and other organisms recorded at 5% or more of the stations. The factor
analysis performed on the data isolates four factors governing the distribution of the Kane`ohe Bay
organisms. They are identified as "reef slope", "high energy environment", "pollution-intolerance" and
"pollution-tolerance" factors. Only the last 3 are significantly correlated with the distribution of the
benthic algae. The first factor correlates only with the distribution of a few species of corals and fishes.
Together, these 4 factors account for only about 42% of the total variance. A Sargassum community
dominates the high-energy environment, whereas an Acanthophora-Halophila community occupies the
low energy environment shoreward of the barrier reef.
Soegiarto, A. (1973). Benthic algae in the bay. Kane`ohe Bay: a reef ecosystem under stress. S. V. Smith,
K. E. Chave and D. T. O. Kam. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i Sea Grant: 67-90.
Brief description of the most common algae species in Kane`ohe Bay in 1968-72 and maps
summarizing their distributions.
Sorokin, Y. I. (1972). "Bacteria as food for coral reef fauna." Oceanology 12: 169-77.
his investigation was undertaken to determine the degree to which the microflora of a coral reef and
the microflora of the waters above it can serve as a source of food for fauna occupying a marine
biocoenosis, such as that in Kane`ohe Bay. Judging by the data presented, the microflora in the water
and sediments of the coral biocoenosis may be a principal source of nutrition for most of the fauna of
mud-eating and filter-feeding invertebrates. Calculations show that the microflora of a coral reef is an
intermediate trophic link by which the energy of primary production and detritus is included in the
production process.
Soule, D. F. and J. D. Soule (1968). "Bryozoan fouling organisms from O`ahu, Hawai`i with a new species of
Watersipora." Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 67: 203-218.
A study of the bryozoan fouling organisms found on fixed and floating docks, rafts, and boat hulls in
Kane`ohe Bay, the Ala Wai Yacht Harbor, the Ala Wai Marine Ltd and from metal test panels and glass
slides mounted in screened racks suspended in Kane`ohe Bay. The authors refer to the University of
Hawai`i and to the B. P. Bishop Museum collections. Included is a bibliography of fouling organisms of
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O`ahu and a key to the fouling bryozoans of O`ahu
Soule, D. F. and J. D. Soule (1987). Phyla Entoprocta and Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). Reef and Shore Fauna of
Hawai`i. Section 2:Platyhelmihtes through Phoronida. D. M. Devaney and L. G. Eldredge. Honolulu,
Bishop Museum Press. B. P. Museum Spec. Publ. 64(2): 83-166.
Southward, A. J., R. S. Burton et al. (1998). "Invasion of Hawaiian shores by an Atlantic barnacle." Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser. 165: 119-126.
A largely vacant niche in the upper mid-littoral zone of sheltered Hawaiian shores is now occupied by
Chthamalus proteus Dando & Southward, 1980 (Crustacea, Cirripedia), otherwise found in the
Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil. The identity of the species was established by
morphological details and confirmed by allozyme electrophoresis. Previously, chthamaline barnacles
have rarely been found fouling hulls of ships; this is the first recorded instance of regular occurrence
on ships as well as of remote dispersal in the genus. While the introduction of C. proteus apparently
has had little impact so far, there is a need to step up monitoring programs so as to prevent rather than
simply detect future introductions.
Sparks, A. K. (1963). Survey of the oyster potential of Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawai`i Depart. Land and Nat.
Resources: 44.
An investigation of Pearl Harbor and Kane`ohe Bay including a survey of the extent and status of the
oyster beds, analysis of the size and age composition of the oysters on the bed, box counts,
examination of boxes for evidence of predation, a study of associated fauna, study of the condition
index of marketability, species composition and consideration of problems associated with fecal
contamination. A secondary phase of the investigation was to consist of a cursory survey of selected
shore areas around the islands of O`ahu, Kauai, Hawai`i, Maui and Molokai to determine the suitability
of these areas for the stocking of oysters and/or other shellfish such as clams.
Plantings of Crassostrea virginica were made in Kane`ohe Bay in 1923, 1924 and 1940. Apparently
none of these ventures were successful. The Japanese C. gigas was imported in 1939 to Coconut
Island and Mokapu and they are still found in Kane`ohe Bay. The Australian C. commercialis was
introduced into Kane`ohe Bay in 1929 but the stock died within 6 months of planting. C. amasa from
Australia was introduced into Coconut Island in 1956. Present studies indicate that the original
population has died out.
Preliminary examination of Kane`ohe Bay on March 13, 1963 from the Yacht Club Basin to Coconut
Island to Matson's Point and back along Heeia fishpond showed a heavy set of C. gigas in the eastern
portion of the bay and scattered individuals elsewhere. No C. amasa were seen. The study
recommended that C. virginica could grow in Kane`ohe Bay. Trans-plantings were made from beds in
West Loch to hard bottom areas in the western side of Kane`ohe Bay so that their survival, rate of
bacterial loss and condition could be determined. Results were not included in this report.
Stambler, N., N. Popper et al. (1991). "Effects of nutrient enrichment and water motion on the coral
Pocillopora damicornis." Pac. Sci. 45: 299-307.
Stanton, F. G. (1985). Temporal patterns of spawning in the demersal brooding blackspot sergeant
Abudefduf sordidus (Pisces, Pomacentridae) from Kane`ohe Bay (Hawai`i). Proc. 5th Intern. Coral
Reef Congr., Tahiti.
The spawning activities of the blackspot sergeant were studied for 22 months. Time series analysis of
these data indicates that spawning is related to biotic as well as abiotic environmental cycles. An
annual seawater temperature cycle regulates the onset and duration of the breeding season. The lack
of spawning synchrony between adjacent study sites indicates that temporal cycles of less than 30
days are closely related to biotic factors rather than abiotic factors in the environment.
Stanton, F. G. (1988). "Response to supplemental feeding by a non-breeding wild population of maomao,
Abudefduf abdominalis (Pisces: Pomacentridae)." Pac. Sci. 42: 133.
Commercial fish food was provided to colonies of maomao (Abudefduf abdominalis), testing the
hypothesis that supplemental feeding would induce spawning in a non-breeding colony. The study was
conducted at (Coconut Island) in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Daily spawning activities were recorded at
experimental and control sites 6 weeks prior to, during, and 6 weeks after the treatment. Samples of
liver, gut, gonad, and muscle tissues from fish collected before and after the treatment indicated that
the experimental group in the non-breeding colony accumulated more lipids than a control population
that was not fed supplemental fish food. Spawning in the non-breeding colony was not induced during
the six-week period of supplemental feeding, however when spawning began three weeks after the
feeding ended, the experimental colony had more clutches than the control colony. A breeding colony
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was also fed additional food and responded immediately with an increase in spawning.
Steen, R. G. (1987). "Evidence for facultative heterotrophy in cultured zooxanthellae." Mar. Biol. 95: 15-23.
Using zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium sp.) isolated from the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella
collected from Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, the effect of various potential organic substrates on growth in
vitro was assessed. Zooxanthellae maintained at 5 to 7 mu E m super(-2) s super(-1) (below
compensation irradiance) grew heterotrophically when supplied with 100 mu M glycerol, glycolate,
acetate, malate, or propionate, and grew in darkness on 100 mu M propionate. Zooxanthellae exposed
to irradiance below compensation were able to utilize sources in the unsupplemented ES medium.
Zooxanthellae incubated for 10 wk in unsupplemented ES at 5 to 7 mu E m super(-2) s super(-1) were
capable of growth at this low irradiance, but were also capable of net photosynthetic oxygen
production at higher irradiances. This suggests that zooxanthellae can be photoautotrophic or
facultatively heterotrophic. An estimate for the duration of mitosis (t sub(d)) is made on the basis of
growth rate of cultured zooxanthellae in log-phase; this estimate of t sub(d) = 4.88 h is < 1/2 the
estimated t sub(d) for zooxanthellae in situ.
Steinhilper, F. A. (1970). Particulate organic matter in Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'I. Honolulu, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Geophysics: 53 pp.
In this study on particulate organic matter, the bay was divided into 2 basins on the basis of circulation
and topography and eight stations along the length of the bay were sampled at 5 m intervals.
Particulate organic carbon concentrations varied temporally, ranging at the sewer outfall from a high of
686 ug/l to a low of 121 ug/l. Concentrations were constant with depth and decreased with increasing
distance from the sewer outfall. Particulate nitrogen displayed the same trends as POC, ranging from
117 ug/l to 27 ug/l at the outfall. A carbon budget was calculated for the southern basin. Circulation
and primary production were determined to be important factors in the high organic carbon
concentrations in the bay; sewage discharge and runoff were secondary sources. Sewage discharge is
indirectly an important source of bay carbon as the effluent's high nutrient content results in high
productivity.
Stephens, G. C. (1960). "Uptake of glucose from solution by solitary coral, Fungia." Science 131: 1532.
l4
Removal of glucose from seawater by the solitary coral, Fungia, was followed with D-glucose C , at
varying concentrations and rates. The Fungia were collected from Kane`ohe Bay. Results showed
that the labeled glucose (1 mg/l concentration) was taken up by the coral at a rate of 5.3 +0.68
counts/min. The author concludes that if the naturally occurring carbohydrate in the seawater is
utilizable and is taken up at the rate observed for glucose, Fungia can obtain sufficient material to
account for maintenance metabolism in selected locations.
Stephens, G. C. (1962). "Uptake of organic material by aquatic invertebrates. I. Uptake of glucose by the
solitary coral, Fungia scutaria." Biol. Bull. 123: 648-659.
A study conducted at the Hawai`i Marine Laboratory using specimens collected from Kane`ohe Bay to
determine whether the coral Fungia scutaria, could remove glucose from a dilute solution at a
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significant rate. This was accomplished by adding measured amounts of uniformly labeled glucose C
to a measured volume of seawater and monitoring the radioactivity of the ambient seawater and of
suitable extracts. The data supports the conclusion that Fungia is capable of removing several small
organic molecules of biological significance from a very dilute solution. In addition to glucose, tyrosine,
lysine, aspartic acid, glycine and lactate were absorbed.
Stevenson, R. A. (1963). Life history and behavior of Dascyllus albisella Gill, a pomacentrid reef fish.
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i,: 221.
A study of the life history and habits of Dascyllus albisella, including reproduction, growth and food.
The author also tried to associate distribution of the species with physical and biological influences in
the environment, including temperature, salinity, water movement and predation. The fish are
particularly abundant in Kane`ohe Bay where they occur along the sloping sides of the shallow reef
platforms and around the masses of living coral heads found in the deeper portions of the bay.
Although the adults are free-living, they are found mainly in the vicinity of the coral, Porites.
Stevenson, R. A. (1963). "Behavior of the pomacentrid reef fish Dascyllus albisella Gill in relation to the
anemone Marcanthia cookei." Copeia 1963: 612-614.
Fishes of the genus Dascyllus usually are identified as commensal with certain species of coral.
However, the Hawaiian endemic, Dascyllus albisella, is occasionally found living with the anemone
Marcanthia cookei. Aquarium observations show that juvenile fish have a characteristic behavior
pattern by which they become acclimated to their anemone host. This behavior is not shown in the
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presence of their more common coral head host. The similarity between this behavior pattern and the
behavior pattern by which the anemone fish Amphiprion percula develops an immunity to the
nematocysts of its host shows the intimacy of the association.
Stimson, J. (1990). "Stimulation of fat-body production in the polyps of the coral Pocillopora damicornis by
the presence of mutualistic crabs of the genus Trapezia." Mar. Biol. 106: 211-218.
A mutualism exists between the xanthid crabs of the genus Trapezia and their host corals, Pocillopora
damicornis . It has previously been established that these obligate coral residents benefit the coral
hosts by defending them against echinoderm predators and by increasing the survival of polyps
located deep between the coral branches. In turn, the corals apparently benefit the crabs by producing
lipid-filled structures on which the trapezid crabs feed; these fat bodies may contain some of the lipid
which in previous studies of coral metabolism has been termed "excess". It was determined by
experiments conducted at the Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology that the presence of crabs in
colonies of P. damicornis stimulates the polyps to produce the lipid-filled fat bodies; removal of crabs
causes corals to cease producing fat bodies. A structure very similar to the fat bodies of P. damicornis
has been reported in Acropora durvillei . Both of these coral genera ordinarily possess xanthid-crab
mutualists.
Stimson, J. (1997). "The annual cycle of density of zooxanthellae in the tissues of field and laboratory-held
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus)." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 214: 35-48.
Stimson, J., S. Larned et al. (1996). "Seasonal growth of the coral reef macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa
(Forsskal) Borgesen and the effects of nutrient availability, temperature and herbivory on growth rate."
J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 196: 53-77.
The green alga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forskal) Borgesen competes with corals for space on the
slopes of patch and fringing reefs in Kane`ohe bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Macroscopic algae rarely occur on
pristine coral reef slopes, but are increasingly common at sites of anthropogenic nutrient input and
overfishing. A field study of D. cavernosa growth rates indicated that, in the absence of grazing, an
annual cycle occurs with maximum growth rates in fall and minimum growth rates in spring. This
pattern corresponded more closely to annual changes in water temperature than to annual changes in
irradiance or water column nutrient concentrations, yet laboratory experiments showed that growth
rates do not vary with temperature within the annual range for Kane`ohe bay reef habitats. Enrichment
experiments conducted in outdoor laboratory tanks supplied with running seawater indicated that D.
cavernosa growth is nitrogen-limited at nutrient levels measured in Kane`ohe bay. Inorganic nitrogen
and phosphorus levels are significantly higher in enclosed spaces or chambers created by the growth
of D. cavernosa thalli than in the adjacent water column. It is hypothesized that nutrient regeneration
from sediments beneath thalli, and/or excretion by animals inhabiting these chambers contribute to the
elevated nutrient levels. Nutrient regeneration rates appear to be temperature dependent, and
seasonal changes in nutrient availability beneath thalli may explain the annual growth pattern observed
in D. cavernosa.
Stimson, J., S. T. Larned et al. (2001). "Effects of herbivory, nutrient levels, and introduced algae on the
distribution and abundance of the invasive macroalga
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i." Coral Reefs 19: 343-357.
Since the 1960s, and possibly earlier, the macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa has overgrown and
displaced corals on reef slopes and outer reef flats in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. This shift in reef
community composition is generally attributed to nutrient enrichment resulting from sewage discharge.
Following the diversion of most of the sewage effluent in 1977-1978, it was expected that D. cavernosa
growth would become nutrient-limited and its abundance would consequently decline, but the alga
remains abundant in much of the bay. One explanation for its persistence is that nutrients are once
again high enough to support the alga's growth. An alternative explanation is that there has been a
reduction in grazing intensity in the bay. In this study we resurveyed the distribution and abundance of
D. cavernosa at 120 reef slope sites originally surveyed in 1969. We conducted additional surveys to
estimate the biomass of herbivores and the areal coverage of D. cavernosa and other macroalgae on
reef slopes and flats. Field experiments were used to determine spatial and temporal patterns of
grazing intensity on and growth rates of D. cavernosa and the introduced macroalga Acanthophora
spicifera. Laboratory experiments were used to examine preferences among herbivores for some of
the most abundant macroalgae on Kane`ohe Bay reefs. Twenty years after sewage diversion, D.
cavernosa cover on reef slopes has decreased substantially in southern Kane`ohe Bay, the site of
most of the historical sewage discharge. D. cavernosa cover has changed less in other regions,
remaining high in the central bay and low in the north bay. D. cavernosa thalli protected by grazer
exclusion cages sustained positive growth rates on reef slopes and flats throughout the bay. Reduced
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nutrient concentrations may have caused a reduction in D. cavernosa growth rates, and a consequent
reduction in D. cavernosa abundance in the south bay shortly after sewage diversion. Measurements
of grazing intensity and surveys of herbivorous fish abundance suggest that the continued abundance
of D. cavernosa is the result of a reduction in grazing intensity. Reduced grazing intensity on D.
cavernosa may in turn be the result of a historical reduction in herbivore biomass or the establishment
of several introduced macroalgae on reef flats. The introduced species are preferred by herbivorous
fishes over D. cavernosa, as indicated by preference tests. The hypothesis that reduced grazing
pressure on D. cavernosa is related to the establishment of introduced species is supported by the
observation that D. cavernosa cover is highest on reef slopes where the cover of preferred introduced
macroalgae on the adjacent outer reef flat is also high. Conversely, D. cavernosa cover is low or zero
on reef slopes where the cover of introduced macroalgae on the adjacent reef flat is low or zero.
Stimson, J. S. (1978). "Mode and timing of reproduction in some common hermatypic corals in Hawai`i and
Enewetak." Mar. Biol. 48(2): 173-184.
Common Hawaiian and Enewetak corals were examined to determine the method and timing of
reproduction. Of the 7 Hawaiian species examined for the release of planulae, only 2 have planulated
in captivity, Pocillopora damicornis and Cyphastrea ocellina. Both planulate year-round and both are
characteristic of reef flats. Four of the five species which did not planulate were found to contain eggs,
but not planulae, when polyps were examined microscopically. These 5 species do not usually occur
on reef flats. In previous studies and in this one, coral species which have released planulae are
characteristic of shallow-water environments such as reef flats. Most of the 10 species reported on
here which failed to planulate in captivity are not commonly found on reef flats. The failure to detect
planulation in so many species, particularly those of deeper water, suggests that common hermatypic
corals may not all reproduce in the same way, and that mode of reproduction may be related to
habitat. Most colonies examined in Hawai`i were obtained from the fringing reef fronting Kapiolani
Park, Honolulu, O`ahu, or from patch reefs in northwest Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Stimson, J. S. (1987). " Location, quantity and rate of change in quantity of lipids in tissue of Hawaiian
hermatypic corals." Bull. Mar. Sci. 41: 889-904.
The location, quantity, and rate of change of quantity of lipids were assessed in polyps of six of the
major species of Hawaiian reef corals in order to understand how corals use the large quantities of
lipid they possess. Lipid occurs in the mesoglea of the column and base of some polyps, in the
endoderm of some polyps, in the coelenteron of planulae, in the endoderm of polyps adjacent to eggs,
in eggs, and in "fat bodies" that develop from the stomodaeum and which eventually appear loose in
the coelenteron of polyps of Pocillopora spp. Lipid, as a percentage of dry tissue weight, constitutes
between 30 and 40% of tissue in Hawaiian corals collected in shallow water. Inter-species
comparisons indicate that there are significant differences in the quantity of lipid in the tissues of the
five species tested. Lipid content is high in both planulating and spawning species. Evidence
presented here suggests that the large amount of lipid found in shallow water corals constitutes an
energy reserve.
Stoddart, J. A. (1983). "Asexual production of planulae in the coral Pocillopora damicornis." Mar. Biol. 76:
279-284.
The reproduction of scleractinian corals through planular larvae has traditionally been viewed as a
strictly sexual process. Here, the results of an electrophoretic study of a ubiquitous Indo-Pacific coral,
P. damicornis, show an exact inheritance of parental genotypes by brooded planulae, demonstrating
the existence of an asexual mode of production of planular larvae. Comparisons of the genetical
structure of a number of populations with structures predicted for sexual reproduction suggest that,
although there is probably also a sexual form of reproduction, asexually produced planulae can be of
major importance in the maintenance of populations of this species.
Stoddart, J. A. (1986). Biochemical genetics of Pocillopora damicornis in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept.
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 133-150.
Within and between reef patterns of biochemical genetic variation were assessed for Pocillopora
damicornis from eight sites in Kane`ohe Bay. Electrophoretic banding patterns observed for a number
of enzymes confirm the exact inheritance patterns of adult allozymes by planulae and suggest that
polyploidy may be involved. Phenotypic diversity was low on reefs, which were usually dominated by a
single clone comprising 30-60% of individuals. There is little apparent biochemical differentiation
associated with asychronous planulation.
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Stoddart, J. A. (1988). "Coral populations fringing Islands: larval connections." Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res.
39: 109-115.
The ubiquitous Indo-Pacific coral Pocillopora damicornis utilizes two modes of larval dispersal; one
operates over short distances and involves a brooded, asexually-produced, planula; the second acts
over longer distances and involves a sexual propagule. When examined genetically, larval
connections between definable populations were weaker between fringing reefs around an island than
they were between patch reefs in an embayment of similar dimensions. Differing regimes of water
circulation were inferred to explain this pattern. One implication for management is that populations on
fringing reefs are more likely to contain singularities than those on patch reefs and will thus contribute
more to the total genetic diversity within a species. Growing tips of coral branches were collected from
8 sites within Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Stoner, D. S. (1986). The role of fragmentation in the colonial, algal-bearing didemnid ascidian, Diplosoma
similis. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant
Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 240-262.
Growth rates of the colonial, algae bearing ascidian Diplosoma similis were measured while artificially
increasing fragmentation. As hypothesized, genets which fragmented more frequently had faster
growth rates than more intact genets. Clone member growth rates also decreased proportionally with
size, indicating that fragmentation increases genet growth rates.
Stoner, D. S. (1989a). Life history and population biology of the colonial ascidian Diplosoma similis. Depart.
of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 172.
This thesis examines two issues related to the ecological and evolutionary consequences of sexual
and asexual reproduction in colonial marine invertebrates. The first two chapters explore the extent to
which planktonic larval phase limits the distribution and abundance of a colonial ascidian Diplosoma
similis. The third chapter examines some of the fitness consequences of alterations in the pattern of
asexual reproduction by colony fragmentation in D. similis. All research was carried out on the fringing
reef surrounding Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i.
Stoner, D. S. (1989b). "Fragmentation: A mechanism for the stimulation of genet growth rates in an
encrusting colonial ascidian." Bull. Mar. Sci. 45(2): 277-287.
As a result of fragmentation the colonial ascidian, Diplosoma similis, grows as a clone of
physiologically isolated colonies. This study experimentally tested the hypothesis that one of the
advantages of fragmentation is that it stimulates growth of the genetic individual, or genet, by dividing
the genet into small colonies which have higher relative growth rates than larger ones. The hypothesis
was tested by comparing the growth rates, over a two week period, of different sized colonies derived
from 41 presumed genets. The relationship between growth (change in zooid number) and initial size
was modeled as a power function, the exponent of which represents the rate of change of the function.
The rate of change was empirically determined to be significantly less than one, 0.89 +/- 0.03,
indicating that relative growth rates decline with increasing colony size and supporting the hypothesis
that fragmentation stimulates genet growth rates. This study was conducted on a reef located in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Stoner, D. S. (1992). "Vertical distribution of a colonial ascidian on a coral reef: the roles of larval dispersal
and life-history variation." Am. Naturalist 139: 802-824.
Stoner, D. S. B. (1994). "Larvae of a colonial ascidian use a non-contact mode of substratum selection on a
coral reef." Mar. Biol. 121: 319-326.
The rate at which larvae successfully recruit into communities of marine benthic invertebrates is
partially dependent upon how well larvae avoid benthic predators and settle on appropriate substrata.
Therefore, to be able to predict recruitment success, information is needed on how larvae search for
settlement sites, whether larvae preferentially settle on certain substrata, and the extent to which there
are adequate cues for larvae to find these substrata. This article describes how larvae of the colonial
ascidian Diplosoma similis find settlement sites on a coral reef. Direct field observations of larva
settlement were made on a fringing reef in Kane`ohe bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, between September 1985
and April 1986. A comparison of the substrata that larvae contacted prior to settlement relative to the
percentage cover of these substrata on the study reef suggests that larvae are using a non-contact
mode of substratum identification to locate suitable settlement sites. This mode of substratum
identification allowed 74% of larvae to evade predation by benthic organisms who would otherwise
have eaten larvae if they had been contacted. Of those larvae that evaded predation, 88%
subsequently settled on the same two substrata upon which most adults are found (dead coral or the
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green alga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa). This pattern of settlement was probably a result of active
selection, since the two substrata cover only 14.4% of the reef's surface and currents had little effect
on the direction in which larvae swam. An important contributing factor to the high success rate of
larval settlement on suitable substrata was the lack of any temporal decay in substratum preference. It
is concluded that for Diplosoma similis larval supply is a sufficient predictor of larval settlement rate.
However, for marine invertebrates whose larvae are passively dispersed and exhibit a greater
temporal decay in substratum preference, larval settlement should generally have a greater
dependency on spatial variation in the abundance of benthic predators and suitable substrata.
Straughan, D. (1969). "Intertidal zone formation by Pomatoleios kraussi (Annelida: Polychaeta)." Biol. Bull.
136(3): 469-482.
Pomatoleios kraussi forms a well-defined intertidal zone in many areas of its Indo-Pacific distribution
(for details of this distribution see Straughan 1967a). However, Straughan (1968) noted that this
species settles and survives subtidally, and in artificial habitats (for example water cooling systems)
that are continually submerged. Hence the intertidal distribution of Pomatoleios is not the result of
differential larval settlement. The following study was designed to determine the factors contributing to
the formation of an intertidal zone by Pomatoleios in Hawai`i. Experimental studies were conducted on
the protected side of Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay-furthest from the open sea.
Straughan, D. (1969). "Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from O`ahu, Hawai`i." Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci
68(4): 229-240.
Twelve species from seven genera are recorded from various habitats on the island of O`ahu in the
Hawaiian group. Nine have a cosmopolitan tropical distribution, two have an eastern Pacific
distribution, and only one has an Indo-Pacific distribution. The Serpulidae key for O`ahu.
Sunn Low Tom & Hara (1976). Kane`ohe Bay urban resources study: Kane`ohe Bay water resources data
evaluation. Honolulu, US Army Engineer Div., Pacific Ocean Environmental Resources Section.
This study is part of the Kane`ohe Bay Urban Resources Study that is being conducted under the
auspices of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This study is designed to summarize and evaluate the
existing data concerning the pertinent physical, chemical and biological aspects of Kane`ohe Bay and
its drainage basin in order to gain a sufficient understanding of the interaction of human activity and
bay environmental quality to allow the formulation of control measures.
Sunn Low Tom and Hara (1975). Annotated bibliography of Kane`ohe Bay 1969 to 1975. Honolulu, U. S.
Army Corps Of Engineers, Pacific Division: 54 pp.
This is an annotated bibliography of the literature concerning Kane`ohe Bay from 1969 to 1975,
supplementing the previous bibliography by Gordon and Helfrich (1970). Listings are in alphabetical
order by authors, with a subject index.
Swerdloff, S. N. (1970). The comparative biology of two Hawaiian species of the damselfish genus Chromis
(Pomacentridae). Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
The damsel fish genus Chromis (Pomacentridae) is represented in Hawai`i by four sympatric species.
The biologies of two coexisting endemics, C. ovalis (Steindachner) and C. verater Jordon and Metz,
were investigated to define and compare elements of their respective niches. Over 800 C. verater and
500 C. ovalis were collected by spear and poison from seven O`ahu study sites. Approximately 350
hours of SCUBA diving were required for observations and collecting, to depths of 40 m. The Kendall
Coefficient of Concordance (W Test) and the Test of Electivity were used to compare diet
compositions and food preferences. Embryos and larvae were reared in the laboratory from fieldcollected zygotes and artificially-fertilized eggs. Niche differentiation was found in length of the
spawning season, fecundity, degree of exposure of nest sites, size and age at recruitment to juvenile
populations, and vertical distribution of both adults and juveniles. There was no evidence that C. ovalis
and C. verater compete at a critical level. Coexistence may be the result of nonlimited common
resources (e.g., food, shelter, spawning sites) and niche differentiation, especially with regard to
reproductive parameters and vertical range. Larval mortalities may be sufficient to maintain population
densities below critical levels.
Szyper, J. P. (1972). Zooplankton grazing in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu,
Univ. of Hawai`i: 27 pp.
Grazing rates of several abundant zooplankters in Kane`ohe Bay were measured at different
concentrations of natural phytoplankton. The concentration by volume of suspended particles, as
determined with an electronic particle counter, was used as the estimate of food concentration. The
relationship between grazing rate per animal and concentration of particulate food conformed closely
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to a hyperbolic model widely used to describe an organism's rate of uptake of food or other needed
substrate as a function of the concentration of the substrate. Maximum observed grazing rates in the
eutrophic south sector of the bay are near the maximum rates predicted by the model. The
concentrations of particles in other areas of the Bay do not appear to be high enough to permit grazing
rates to approach their maximum levels. There appears to be no preference by the grazers for
particles of a size other than the size most abundant in the environment.
Szyper, J. P. (1976). The role of Sagitta enflata in the Southern Kane`ohe Bay ecosystem. Dept. Of
Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. Of Hawai`i: 147 pp.
Sagitta enflata dominates the standing stock of macrozooplankton, and of planktonic carnivores in the
south bay. During 1973-74, sampling with vertical net hauls showed no horizontal patchiness in the
population. The abundance varied temporally, mainly over periods of months. Between 1968-69 and
1973-74, both the stock and the dominance of Sagitta in the community increased; both may be
related to enrichment of the basin with sewage. Individual Sagitta eat an average of 7 prey items per
animal per day. Sagitta's predation has little impact on the prey populations, other than Oikopleura,
which is the main food of larger Sagitta. Despite its abundance and dominance of macroplankton
stock, Sagitta is only a minor contributor to nutrient regeneration in the south Bay.
Szyper, J. P. (1978). "Feeding rate of the chaetognath Sagitta enflata in nature." Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 7:
567-575.
The feeding rate of the chaetognath Sagitta enflata in its natural environment, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i,
was estimated from the frequency of animals in preserved samples having food in their guts, and from
the average digestion times for live animals in the laboratory. The average feeding rate was estimated
at 7.4 prey items per Sagitta per day; the chaetognath population sampled by 0.33 mm mesh removed
about 4800 prey/m3 from the waters of the Bay daily. The prey consisted mainly of; small copepods,
too numerous and productive to be much affected by the predation; Oikopleura, whose populations
could be seriously affected; and Sagitta itself, with a rate of cannibalism about 17% of the population
per day.
Szyper, J. P. (1981). "Short term starvation effects on nitrogen and phosphorus excretion by the
chaetognath Sagitta enflata." Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 13: 691-700.
Freshly captured Sagitta enflata exhibited specific excretion rates of ammonium and phosphate that
were not significantly related to the size of the individual animals. The degree of crowding in
experimental vessels was positively correlated with specific excretion rates of ammonium.
Szyper, J. P., J. Hirota et al. (1974). Nutrient regeneration by the larger net zooplankton. Honolulu, US Army
Corps of Engineers, Pacific Div.
Four experiments were performed during Feb. 1974 with mixed zooplankton. Mean specific excretion
rates, multiplied by the estimated average standing stocks, give estimates of addition to the bay waters
of ammonia, phosphate, dissolved organic N and dissolved organic phosphorus.
Szyper, J. P., J. Hirota et al. (1976). "Nutrient regeneration by the larger net zooplankton in the Southern
Basin of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i." Pacific Science 30(4): 363-372.
Four experiments were performed during February 1974 with mixed zooplankton collected with 0.33mm mesh in the southern basin of Kane`ohe Bay. The mean specific excretion rates multiplied by the
estimated average standing stocks of the animals provided estimates of addition to the bay waters of
ammonia, phosphate, dissolved organic phosphorus. The specific excretion rates were not significantly
affected by the concentrations of animals in experimental vessels, by the estimated concentrations of
food in the environment on the days of the experiments, nor by incubation periods of up to 4.5 hours.
The rates are comparable to those obtained from zooplankton of this general size in environments that
have rather different temperature and food levels, indicating that size-dependent metabolic rates are
the major determinant of specific excretion rates. The animals from the net hauls excreted phosphate
more slowly and dissolved organic nitrogen more rapidly than did those from the seine catches.
Taguchi, S. (1980). Sedimentation in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. T. Report. Kane`ohe, University of
Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology.
Taguchi, S. (1982). "Seasonal study of fecal pellets and discarded houses of Appendicularia in a subtropical
inlet, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." Est. Coastal Shelf Sci. 14: 545-555.
Fecal pellets and discarded houses of Oikopleura longicauda Vogt were collected every week with
sediment traps for a 13-month period in a subtropical inlet, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. The annual
average fecal pellet production rate per animal was 243 +/- 105 pellets per day (95% confidence
173
limits). The annual average house production rate per single O. longicauda was 5.3 +/- houses per
day. Each house contained 65 +/- pellets. The present study concludes that the high carbon content
of fecal pellets and discarded house and their high abundance have significant nutritional values in a
subtropical inlet system.
Taguchi, S. and E. A. Laws (1987). "Patterns and causes of temporal variability in the physiological condition
of the phytoplankton community in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." J. of Plankton Res. 9(6): 1143-1157.
Primary production rates, the percentage of photosynthetically fixed carbon allocated to protein,
production/biomass (P/B) ratios and water quality parameters were measured on a weekly basis over
1 year in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. The temporal sequence of virtually all parameters measured, with
the exception of phosphate and ammonium concentrations, was significantly non-random (P less than
or equal to 0.05). Some of the parameters showed clear evidence of seasonality (e.g. nitrate and
silicate concentrations, temperature, irradiance). However, the non-random nature of
the temporal
sequence in many parameters was typically due to 3- to 4-week periods during which the
phytoplankton community composition and physiological state showed little variation. Both the
percentage of fixed carbon allocated to protein and P/B ratios were negatively correlated with the
phytoplankton size during all seasons, a result which suggests that the smaller cells were growing
more rapidly than larger cells in both a relative and an absolute sense. Ammonium concentrations
were consistently higher than nitrate concentrations, but of the nutrients measured only nitrate
concentration was consistently correlated with per cent protein and P/B ratios. It is suggested the influx
of nitrate to the system influences the supply of all forms of nitrogen via recycling within the food web,
and the flux of nitrate is positively correlated with nitrate concentration. (DBO)
Taguchi, S. and E. A. Laws (1989). "Biomass and compositional characteristics of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu,
Hawai`i (USA), phytoplankton inferred from regression analysis." Pac. Sci. 43: 316 331.
Concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), particulate carbon (PC), and particulate nitrogen (PN)
measured on weekly basis in the picoplankton and nano-plus-microplankton size fractions over a 2-yr
period from 1986 to 1988 at a station near a former sewage outfall in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i,
were compared to similar data collected in 1970, 1972, 1974, and 1976-1977 while sewage was being
discharged into the bay, and in 1978-1979 immediately after diversion of the sewage. Particulate
concentrations showed considerable temporal variability both within and between years. High
concentrations were associated with periods of above-average rainfall. Heavy rains that occurred
during two successive periods of spring tides produced chl a concentrations of over 40 mg m-3 in
January 1988, almost four times the highest concentration measured during the period of sewage
discharges. Nutrients from land runoff as well as from decomposition of organisms killed by salinity
stress were the apparent cause of this spectacular bloom. The bloom consisted almost entirely of
nanoplankton and microplankton, but picoplankton accounted for 45 +- 14% of the Chl a during the
remainder of the 1986-1988 study. Phytoplankton C:N ratios were apparently unaffected by diversion
of sewage from the bay and averaged within 10% of the Redfield ratio. This result implies that
phytoplankton were growing at close to nutrient-saturated rates both before and after the sewage
diversion. Nutrient budget calculations indicated that most of the growth has been supported by
recycling within the bay. Phytoplankton of C:Chl and N:Chl ratios estimated by regression analyses
increased after the sewage diversion, apparently in response to the increase in average irradiance in
the water column caused by the decline in seston concentrations. C:N ratios of picoplankton and nanoplus-microplankton under nutrient-saturated conditions were about 4.6 +- 0.3 and 6.2 +- 0.8,
respectively; the difference probably reflected the high concentration of nitrogen-containing pigments
in some picoplankton.
Taguchi, S. and E. A. Laws (1989). Periodic blooms of the silicoflagellate Dictyocha perlaevis in the
subtropical inlet, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, U.S.A. Red Tides, Biology, Environmental Science, and
Toxicology. T. Okaichi, D. M. Anderson and T. Nemoto. New York, Amsterdam & London, Elsevier:
69-72.
Taguchi, S., E. A. Laws et al. (1993). "Temporal variability in chlorophyll a and phaeopigment concentrations
during incubations in the absence of grazers." Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 101: 45-53.
Changes in chlorophyll a (Chl a) and phaeopigment concentrations during 24 h incubations in water
prefiltered through 2.0 mu m Nuclepore filters were determined on a weekly basis over a period of 13
mo using water from Kane`ohe Bay, a subtropical inlet in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. In bottles
illuminated at a constant irradiance of 4.0 E m2/h, both Chl a concentrations declined at a lower rate in
dark bottles than in light bottles. There was no evidence of a change in phaeopigment concentrations
in dark bottles. There was no temporal pattern in the exponential decay rates of phaeopigments in light
bottles over the course of the 13 mo study, the median value being 0.016 m2/E. There was, however,
174
evidence of a nonrandom temporal pattern in the Chl a decay constants. Winter values were about
twice as large as summer values, a result presumably reflecting changes in the physiology and/or
species composition of the phytoplankton community. In about 30% of the incubations phaeopigment
concentrations were higher than initial values at intermediate time points, in some cases by as much
as a factor of 2 to 3 during the first 4 to 8 h of the incubations.
14
35
Taguchi, S., E. A. Laws et al. (1985). " CO and SO incorporation into protein by marine phytoplankton
under light-dark cycle conditions." Bull. Mar. Sci. 37: 777.
35
The effect of light-dark cycles on and SO4 incorporation into protein was examined with cultures
14
35
isolated from Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, USA. Both CO2 and SO4 were incorporated into protein
during both light and dark periods. The incorporation rate showed a diel periodicity and decreased
14
during the dark period. The percent of CO2 incorporated into protein, however, showed little variation
throughout light and dark periods with the coefficient of variation between similar to 15%. Calculated
ratios of CO2 and SO4 incorporation into protein were 73 plus or minus 13 by weight. The ratios were
similar to protein C:S ratios calculated from the amino acid composition of algae.
Tarrant, A. M. (1998). Uptake of estradiol 17 by Montipora verrucosa during an incubation and
observations of spawning. Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel.
Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 63-69.
Estradiol-17 is a steroid essential to reproduction and development in vertebrates and has been
reported in many invertebrates. To determine whether corals could absorb estrogens from seawater
and to determine the effects of estradiol on spawning, colonies of Montipora verrucosa were incubated
in aquaria containing estradiol. The concentration of estradiol in a control tank containing no coral
remained constant over one week, but estradiol was rapidly removed from tanks containing coral. In
the high dose tank, the estradiol concentration dropped from 5 g per l to 0.5 g per l during the first
day of the experiment. Spawning among the treatments was variable, emphasizing the need for
extended observation and larger sample sizes. More colonies spawned and produced a larger volume
of gametes in the low and medium doses relative to the high dose and controls. Future experiments
are needed to determine if this observation represents a consistent trend and whether coral
reproduction may be affected by estrogenic chemicals in the water column. M. verrucosa were
collected from the Coconut Island reef flat and nearby patch reefs (Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu) on June 27
and 28.
Tarrant, A. M., S. Atkinson et al. (1999). "Estrogen and estradiol-17 concentration in tissue of the
scleractinian coral, Montipora verrucosa." Elsevier Sci.: 85-92.
Estradiol-17 is a steroid essential to reproduction and development in vertebrates and has been
reported in many invertebrates. To determine whether corals could absorb estrogens from seawater
and to determine the effects of estradiol on spawning, colonies of Montipora verrucosa were incubated
in aquaria containing estradiol. The concentration of estradiol in a control tank containing no coral
remained constant over one week, but estradiol was rapidly removed from tanks containing coral. In
the high dose tank, the estradiol concentration dropped from 5 g per l to 0.5 g per l during the first
day of the experiment. Spawning among the treatments was variable, emphasizing the need for
extended observation and larger sample sizes. More colonies spawned and produced a larger volume
of gametes in the low and medium doses relative to the high dose and controls. Future experiments
are needed to determine if this observation represents a consistent trend and whether coral
reproduction may be affected by estrogenic chemicals in the water column. M. verrucosa were
collected from the Coconut Island reef flat and nearby patch reefs (Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu) on June 27
and 28.
Taylor, J. B. (1975). Planktonic prosobranch veligers of Kane`ohe Bay. Dept. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of
Hawai`i: 599 pp.
More than 200 species of planktonic prosobranch veligers have been described, their temporal and
spatial distribution in the plankton established, the growth patterns of their juveniles examined and the
capacity of veligers of Crucibulum spinosum to withstand heat and detergent stress quantified. It was
found that diversity of species increases from the inner bay to the outer reef areas; abundance
decreases from the southeastern to the northwestern region. Ecological factors which may restrict
species of veligers to defined areas are discussed. Pre-settlement planktonic veligers are described for
the first time for the following families: Neritidae, Phenacolepadedae, Janthinindae, Thaididae,
Mitridae, Conidae and Terebridae.
Te, F. T. (1991). "Effects of two petroleum products on Pocillopora damicornis planulae." Pac. Sci. 45(3):
290-298.
175
Pocillopora damicornis planulae were exposed to different concentrations of benzene and gasoline:oil
mixtures to determine the lethal concentrations and biological responses of the coral larvae. This
study found that corallite formation was significantly influenced by the different concentrations of the
test compound, but no clear correlation between concentration of the test compound and rate of
corallite formation was ascertained. Mortality was minimal in most of the test concentrations utilized in
the experiments. Planulae were gathered from 10 coral heads collected from Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu on
18 June 1989.
Tester, A. C. (1951). "The distribution of eggs and larvae of the anchovy, Stolephorus purpureus Fowler in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i, with consideration of the sampling problem." Pac. Sci. 5: 321-346.
The spatial distribution, as well as sampling efficiency, of nehu eggs and larvae at 23 stations
throughout Kane`ohe Bay was examined. Heterogeneity was found between large and small nets
towed simultaneously and between the two replicates taken at each station. Spawning takes place
throughout the year. The presence of seasonal patterns remain to be determined. Eggs and larvae are
generally more abundant in the southern sector of the bay and least abundant in the north sector.
Eggs were not randomly distributed between stations within sectors; this distribution pattern may be
due to circulation patterns, with eggs being held in eddies. From length frequency distribution of larvae,
it is estimated that growth is approximately 1.5 mm/day. This suggests a rapid recruitment to the
fishery and a rapid overturn in the population.
Tester, A. L. (1955). "Variation in egg and larva production of the anchovy Stolephorus purpureus Fowler, in
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu during 1950-1952." Pac. Sci. 9: 31-41.
The anchovy or nehu is used as baitfish for the skipjack tuna. Populations on O`ahu located in Pearl
Harbor, Honolulu Harbor, Ala Wai Canal and Kane`ohe Bay appear to fluctuate both seasonally and
annually. This study investigates, with the population in Kane`ohe Bay, one possible cause of this
fluctuation: a variation in egg and larva production. Spawning, as indicated by egg and larvae catch,
occurs erratically throughout the year with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. Sampling
showed a large decrease in numbers between the eggs and larva stage. Several explanations are
advanced and the author concludes that the sampling is not adequate to trace the pulses of spawning
from the egg to the larval stages.
Tester, A. L. (1963). "The role of olfaction in shark predation." Pac. Sci. 27: 145-170.
The role of olfaction in several shark species from Enewetak and 3 species from Kane`ohe Bay are
examined with regards to locating prey species. Natural food extracts were used to determine their
relative attractiveness to penned sharks at both locations. Both normal and blinded sharks were
tested. Tests conducted with human blood elicited a moderate to strong attraction with ambient
concentrations estimated at .1 to .01 parts per million of seawater. Human urine and sweat elicited
either no attraction or repulsion. In experiments using water passed through a separate live grouper
enclosure, sharks were attracted to disturbed and dead grouper water but not to quiescent or control
water. Similar results were obtained with mullet water.
Tester, A. L. and R. W. Hiatt (1952). "Variation in the vertebral number of the anchovy (Stolephorus
purpureus) in Hawaiian waters." Pac. Sci. 6: 59-70.
A study of the variation in vertebral number of the nehu in an attempt to determine whether one or
several populations of this valuable baitfish exist in Hawaiian waters. Kane`ohe Bay was one of the
collection sites. The study showed that vertebral data gave some support to the above hypothesis, but
not as much as might have been desired for its adoption as a basis for regulation of the fishery. The
existence of a separate population was shown in the Ala Wai Canal only. For the other areas, the
difference in mean vertebral count between localities could have a risen in random sampling from one
statistically complex biological population.
Tester, A. L. and M. Takata (1953). Contribution to the biology of the aholehole, a potential baitfish.
Honolulu, Industrial Research Advisory Council.
The final report of an investigation (1952-1953) of the essential features of the life history and behavior
of the aholehole with respect to the possibility of its pond cultivation and use as an auxiliary baitfish for
tuna fishing. Studies were conducted on one of the abundant populations in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Tester, A. L. and S. M. Trefz (1954). "The food of the aholehole, Kuhlia sandvicensis (Steindacher) in
Hawaiian waters." Pac. Sci. . 8: 3-10.
Study done in connection with a general investigation of the life history of the species to ascertain
whether or not it could be raised in ponds. Twenty-two samples ascertained whether or not it could be
raised in ponds. Twenty-two samples comprising 202 fish were taken from various places around
176
O`ahu, Kualoa Point in Kane`ohe Bay being one of the areas of collection. The fish were weighed,
measured and analyzed for stomach contents.
There are slight differences in food of small and large, fresh and salt water forms, but generally the
aholehole might be described as omnivorous with a preference for motile animal forms. Algae are
rarely eaten. From a study of natural foods, crustaceans seem to serve as an ideal bait in angling.
Both vegetable material such as bread and poi and animal material such as ground fish and shrimp
may be used to chum aholehole to the surface. The author does not conclude whether these findings
make it possible to rear aholehole in tanks.
Testerman, J. K. (1970). Contribution of symbiotic algae to the oxygen supply and survival of Placobranchus
ocellatus (Abstr.). Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Inst. Mar. Biology.
A study of the oxygen supply and survival of Placobranchus ocellatus occurring commonly in
Kane`ohe Bay. The saccoglossan derives respiratory benefit from symbiotic algae lining the inside
surface of the parapodia and the dorsum. Specimens maintained in the light consistently outlived
those kept in the dark whose oxygen tension was reduced by continuously bubbling nitrogen through
the water. Their activity in their normal environment was noted to be light-dependent, the animal being
strongly photopositive.
Thomas, F. I. M. and M. J. Atkinson (1997). "Ammonium uptake by coral reefs: effects of water velocity and
surface roughness on mass transfer." Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: 881-8.
Thomas, J. D. (1997). "Systematics, ecology and phylogeny of the Anamaxidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda)."
Rec. Australian Museum 49: 35-98.
Thirteen new species and one new genus, including Anamaxis moana from Kane`ohe Bay, are
described in the commensal amphipod family Anamaxidae, bring the total to 33 species in three
genera.
Thomas, J. D. (1997). "Systematics, ecology and phylogeny of the Anamixidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda)."
Rec. Australian Museum 49: 35-98.
Thomson, D. A. (1963). A histological study and bioassay of the toxic stress secretion of the boxfish,
Ostracion lentiginosus. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study concerning the extraction purification and chemical nature of the ichthyotoxin secreted by the
boxfish, Ostracion lentiginosus and a histological study investigating the structure of the various
secretary cells. A comparative histological study on the secretary cells of the cowfish, Lactoria
fornasini, is also reported. The fish were collected in traps in Kane`ohe Bay.
Titgen, R. H. (1987). "New decapod records from the Hawaiian Islands (Crustacea, Decapoda)." Pac. Sci.
41: 141-147.
Twenty-two new species records, nine new generic records, and two new familial records are reported
for the Hawaiian Islands. Most represent widely distributed Pacific or Indo-Pacific species, though one
is an undescribed species of gnathophyllid shrimp and three are also known to occur in the Atlantic
Ocean.
Titgen, R. H. (1989). "Gnathophyllid shrimp of the Hawaiian Islands, with the description of a new species of
Gnathophyllum (Decapoda, Gnathophyllidae)." Crustaceana 56(2): 200-210.
The small caridean family Gnathophyllidae, is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by five species in
four genera.
Two species, Gnathophylloides mineri and Gnathophyllum americanum are
circumtropical in distribution, and a third species, Hymenocera picta, is widely distributed throughout
the tropical Pacific. Of the remaining two species, Levicaris mammillata is known from the Hawaiian
Islands, Ogasawara Islands and Ryukyu Islands (Fujino & Takeda, 1977), and a new species,
described herein, is known only from the Hawaiian Islands.
Tomlinson, J. T. (1963). "Lithoglyptes hirsutus (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica) a new burrowing barnacle from
Hawai`i." Pac. Sci. 17: 299-301.
Samples of Psammocora verrilli Vaughan and Porites compressa Dana revealed this new species of
acrothoracican burrowing barnacles, the first known representative of this group to be reported from
Hawai`i. The corals were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Tomlinson, J. T. (1969). "The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Order Acrothoracica)." U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull.
296: 1-162.
A systematic study of the burrowing barnacles in the order Acrothoracica within the crustacean
177
subclass Cirripedia. The author traveled around the world visiting museums and institutions with
acrothoracican collections and has noted where the specimens he describes may be found. The
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology was one of the institutions visited. Collections in this area included:
Weltneria hirsuta (Tomlinson) in Psammocora verrilli from a depth of 3-6 feet in Sand Bar Reef and in
Porites compressa on the NE side of Checker Reef, Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Townsley, S. J. (1950). Adult and larval stomatopod crustaceans occurring in Hawaiian waters. Department
of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 95.
A systematic study of the stomatopods occurring in Hawaiian waters. The author includes keys to the
genera and species of Hawaiian Squillidae and keys to the genera of larval Hawaiian stomatopods as
well as descriptions of the various larval stages of the five major genera. One male and two females of
Squilla boops were found in the stomach of a black skipjack caught off Moku Manu Island off the
mouth of Kane`ohe Bay.
Townsley, S. J. (1953). "Adult and larval stomatopod crustaceans occurring in Hawaiian waters." Pac. Sci. 7:
399-437.
Larval stages of the stomatopod rank second in importance as a food source for tuna and other
pelagic fishes. In order to assess objectively whether the larval stomatopod stages were found over
reefs are important in attracting the neritic species inshore, a descriptive study of the species involved
is required. This is a descriptive study of both the larval and adult stomatopods found in Hawaiian
waters so they may be both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in the plankton and stomach of
pelagic fishes. Keys to both adult and larval Squillidae are included in this paper. Pseudosquilla ciliata
(Fabricus) was found on the reef flat of Kane`ohe Bay.
Trench, R. K. and R. J. Blank (1987). "Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S.
kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellate symbionts of marine
invertebrates." J. Phycol. 23: 469-481.
Trujillo, E. L. (1973). Distribution of crabs in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ.
of Hawai`i.
The geographic distribution of five species of portunid crabs, along with one calappid species, was
studied in Kane`ohe Bay between June 1972 and April 1973. Salinity and physical parameters,
including water turbidity, temperature, depth, and bottom type, were measured and analyzed as factors
determining the distribution of the crab species.
Tseng, W. (1968). The factors influencing diurnal changes of microzooplankton in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
Keelung, Taiwan, Taiwan Fish. Inst.: 1--13.
General preliminary survey of the abundance of zooplankton in Kane`ohe Bay, with abundance of
microzooplankton related to changes in environmental factors, including tidal current, temperature,
salinity and oxygen.
Tseu, W. S. L. (1953). "Seasonal variations in the physical ecology of the ponds at the Hawai`i Marine
Laboratory and the adjacent waters of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu." Pacific Science 7(3): 278-290.
Tullis, R. E. (1968). Relationship between Stylifera linckiae and its host, Linckia multiflora. Department of
Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
The relationship between the prosobranch gastropod, Stylifera linckiae Sarasin and the starfish,
Linckia multiflora is reviewed. Studies were done on the interaction between the symbiont and its host,
the life cycle of the symbiont and the biochemical interactions occurring during the relationship.
Specimens of parasitized and non-parasitized L. multiflora were collected off the shallow reefs in
Kane`ohe Bay.
Tusov, J. (1967). The influence of environmental factors on the growth of the colonial hydroid, Bougainvillia
sp. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study to extend the methods of previous investigators to the culturing of a marine hydroid under
controlled conditions and to determine how changes in the environment affect the growth rate. A clone
of Bougainvillia sp. was collected on November 1966 at the Hawai`i Marine Lab in Kane`ohe Bay. A
vigorous growth of Bougainvillia sp. was attained using previously developed culture methods. The
culture required a high concentration of seawater and a high absolute concentration of ions for good
growth. A change in growth form was noted when colonies were cultured at high temperatures.
Tusov, J. and L. V. Davis (1971). Influence of environmental factors on the growth of Bougainvillia sp.
178
Experimental Coelenterate Biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ.
Hawai`i Press: 52-65.
A study to extend the methods of previous investigators to the culturing of a marine hydroid under
controlled conditions and to determine how changes in the environment affect the growth rate. A clone
of Bougainvillia sp. was collected on November 1966 at the Hawai`i Marine Lab in Kane`ohe Bay. A
vigorous growth of Bougainvillia sp. was attained using previously developed culture methods. The
culture required a high concentration of seawater and a high absolute concentration of ions for good
growth. A change in growth form was noted when colonies were cultured at high temperatures.
Tyler, W. A. (1988). "Spawning patterns in the Hawaiian sergeant, Abudefduf abdominalis (Family:
Pomacentridae)." Pac. Sci. 42: 136.
The reproductive behavior of two populations of the Hawaiian sergeant or maomao, Abudefduf
abdominalis, have been studied on two patch reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu. Estimates of the
spawning data for each clutch were made by subtracting the age of each developmental stage from
the sampling date. Using autocorrelation and spectral analysis procedures, periods of 1 and
approximately 5 days were consistently observed in the portions of continuous time series data
analyzed for both populations. Social factors may play an important role in the periodicity of spawning
behavior in A. abdominalis. Females may synchronize spawning within a couple of days of each other
during each spawning cycle. With numerous nests active simultaneously within aggregations on the
reef, egg
predators may be hampered by the "cumulative" defense (overlapping defended areas
around nests) of nesting males within a given area, thus increasing the probability of egg survival in
aggregations.
Tyler, W. A. (1989). "Optimal colony size in the Hawaiian Sergeant, Abudefduf abdominalis (Pisces:
Pomacentridae)." Pac. Sci. 43: 204.
The colonial nesting behavior of a coral reef fish, Abudefduf abdominalis (Family Pomacentridae) was
examined on two patch reefs in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Males prepare and defend demersal
nest sites, court females, and then guard nests, containing up to six clutches of eggs, from egg
predators. Males may be found nesting as solitary individuals or in colonies of from 2 to 30 individuals.
Nest loss is a decreasing function of colony size. The number of clutches spawned in intermediatesized colonies is significantly greater than that in either small or large colonies, as is the number of
nests containing three or more clutches. Solitary males and those in small colonies have significantly
more egg predators approaching the nest site and chase more egg predators than do males nesting in
larger colonies. Males in small colonies also spend less time caring for their eggs than do males in
larger colonies. These results indicate that colonies of intermediate size may be optimal for
reproduction in this population.
Tyler, W. A. (1995). "The adaptive significance of colonial nesting in a coral-reef fish." Anim. Behav. 49: 949966.
Tyler, W. A. and R. C. Fitzhardinge (1989). "Comparison of impact of two disturbances on coral
assemblages." Pac. Sci. 43: 204-205.
We have investigated the impact of two disturbances on a coral assemblage dominated by Montipora
verrucosa and Porites compressa. The first disturbance occurred when large quantities of drift algae
were blown onto the leeward side of Coconut Island, O`ahu, Hawai`i, in November 1986. Algae
remained on the reef for over 2 months, gradually decomposing. Corals were killed within a 40-m-wide
stretch of reef. The second disturbance, a freshwater kill that occurred in January 1988, affected
Coconut Island and other fringing and patch reefs in Kane`ohe Bay. Both disturbances resulted in a
change in the relative abundance of P. compressa and M. verrucosa . Previous field observations and
experiments and immunological studies indicate that M. verrucosa can outcompete P. compressa. The
early survival of M. verrucosa , however, is so poor that recruitment rates of this species are lower than
those of P. compressa . We propose that in the absence of disturbances such as the two we have
investigated, M. verrucosa and not P. compressa might be the most abundant coral within Kane`ohe
Bay.
Tyler, W. A. and F. G. Stanton (1995). "Potential influence of food abundance on spawning patterns in a
damselfish, Abudefduf abdominalis." Bull. Mar. Sci. 57: 610-623.
Temporal spawning patterns in coral-reef fishes are thought to be influenced by a variety of
environmental factors including predation on offspring, current and light patterns, colonial nesting and
costs of parental care. Although food availability is known to limit growth and reproduction in some
pomacentrids, its effect on spawning patterns is not understood. Two populations of the Hawaiian
sergeant, Abudefduf abdominalis, in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i, exhibited variable spawning patterns over
179
a 5-year study ranging from patterns synchronized with lunar and semi-lunar cycles when spawning
activity was relatively low, to acyclic spawning patterns when spawning activity was high. Stream
discharge into Kane`ohe Bay and spawning activity increased over the study period. Reproductive
activity was positively correlated with stream discharge on both study reefs. A preliminary feeding
experiment suggests food of adults is limited in Kane`ohe Bay and that food availability may influence
reproductive patterns. These results suggest that variations in food abundance can affect populationlevel spawning patterns and may partly account for intraspecific variability in spawning patterns
observed in damselfishes
Uchida, R. N. (1977). "The fishery for nehu, Stolephorus purpureus, a live bait used for skipjack tuna,
Katsuwonus pelamis, fishing in Hawai`i." Circ., U.S. Dep. Commer., Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm.,
Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv 408: 57-62.
With increasing interest in the baitfish resources and their capacity to support local skipjack tuna,
Katsuwonus pelamis, fisheries, their distribution and relative abundance need to be evaluated. This
paper describes the trends in production of nehu, Stolephorus purpureus, an anchovy used as live bait
in the fishery for skipjack tuna in Hawaiian waters. Kane`ohe Bay and Pearly Harbor, two of the most
important baiting sites in the Hawaiian Islands, produce 71% of the bait. Another important site on
O`ahu, particularly for night baiting, is Kalihi-Keehi Lagoon. Day baiting produced 79% whereas night
baiting produced 21% of the State's nehu catch. Catches and baiting effort showed a downward trend
in the day fishery and an upward trend in the night fishery in 1961-65. In 1966-72, however, catches
and baiting effort increased steadily in the day fishery whereas they declined in the night fishery.
Uchida, T. (1970). "Occurrence of a rhizistome medusa, Cassiopea mertensi Brandt from the Hawaiian
Islands." Annotat. Zool. Jap. 43: 102-104.
Ulbrick, M. L. (1969). "Studies on Crucibulum spinosum (Sowerby)." Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond. 38: 431-438.
A study of certain aspects of the biology of Crucibulum spinosum - shell shape, growth and movement,
habitat, mating behaviour and feeding mechanisms. Most of the specimens used in this study were
found on pieces of dead coral or basalt rocks dredged from the sand and rock bottom at 15-25 feet in
Kane`ohe Bay. The only other described habitat for C. spinosum is in southern California.
Ulbrick, M. L. (1970). Studies on Crucibulum spinosum (Sowerby) (Abstr.). Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i,
Hawai`i Inst. Mar. Biology.
Utinomi, H. p. and S. L. (1960). "On the world wide dispersal of a Hawaiian barnacle, Balanus amphitrite
hawaiiensis Brock." Pac. Sci. 14: 43-50.
A paper presenting the argument that the Atlantic barnacle, Balanus amphitrite var. denticulata Brock
and the Pacific barnacle, Balanus amphitrite hawaiiensis Brock are identical with each other and
possibly with other forms or subspecies. The distribution of these related forms is presented. B.
amphitrite hawaiiensis was reported from Kane`ohe Bay by Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 and
Edmondson, 1949.
Van Heukelem, W. (1966). Some aspects of the ecology and ethology of Octopus cyanea Gray. Department
of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 104.
A study of the description and classification of the behavior of the octopus, Octopus cyanea, in terms
of the ecological significance or the survival value of the behavior to the species. In the course of the
work, data was obtained on the ecology of the species which is included also. All investigations were
carried out in the field or in the lab on Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay. Behaviors studied were the
predatory sequence which was found to consist of 5 steps; natural aquarium behaviors; defense
mechanisms; courtship and copulation behaviors; and their ritualized fighting behaviors.
Van Heukelem, W. F. (1973). "Growth and Life Span of Octopus cyanea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)." J. Zool.,
Lond. 169: 299-315.
The growth of Octopus cyanea was followed from 67 to 6500 g in captivity in an ad libitum diet of live
crabs. Females spawning in captivity always die after their eggs hatch. Males may mate many times
with several different females but do not appear to outlive females. The species spawns throughout the
year; the time of spawning is probably determined by the age of the female. Males stop growing after
suckers at the edge of the web enlarge and gradually lose weight until their death, about two or three
months after maximum sucker enlargement. The life-span of O. cyanea appears to be between 12 and
15 months from settlement. A method of marking animals by branding is described which gives lifetime
scars making it possible to study the growth of individual animals released in the field.
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Van Weel, P. B. (1955). "The problem of smooth muscle." Publ. Staz. Zool. Napoli 27: 10-16.
The maintenance of tonus and the plasticity of smooth muscle are considered in the light of the
theories of Jordan and of Postma. In experiments on holothurian muscle the author shows that the
mechanical properties are largely uninfluenced by nervous block (curare and magnesium chloride)
though the nervous influence is responsible for increased tonus. Plasticity effects recorded for
Opheodesoma tend to support Jordan's concept of the muscle rather than that of Postma
Vandermeulen, J. H. (1974). "Studies on reef corals. II. Fine structure of planktonic planula larva of
Pocillopora damicornis, with emphasis on the aboral epidermis." Mar. Biol. 27: 239-49.
Tissue and cellular organization of the planula larva of the reef coral P. damicornis gathered in
Kane`ohe Bay are detailed ultrastructurally. Emphasis is placed on fine structure of the aboral
(presumptive calicoblast epidermis). The presettling exploratory behavior of the coral larva is
discussed. There is no evidence in the gastrodermis or epidermis of the planktonic larva for presettling
accumulation of calcareous skeletal material. Vesicles containing a highly oriented fibrous material
may represent sites of skeletal organic-matrix precusor buildup.
Vandermeulen, J. H. (1975). "Studies on reef corals. III. Fine structural changes of calicoblast cells in
Pocillopora damicornis during settling and calcification." Mar. Biol. 31: 69-77.
This study presents ultrastructural detail of the calicoblast epidermis of larval and adult stages of the
reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. The discussion is focused upon relating the outstanding
observations of this study to epithelial metamorphosis, desmoidal processes, and calcification. The
coral specimens used were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Vandermeulen, J. H., N. D. Davis et al. (1972). "The effect of inhibitors of photosynthesis on zooxanthellae
in corals and other marine invertebrates." Mar. Biol. 16: 185-191.
Monuron (CMU), Diuron (DCMU), and methyl viologen were used as photosynthesis inhibitors on
intact algal-marine invertebrate symbiotic associations, most of which were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
Observations indicated that CMU and DCMU are potential useful tools for investigation of symbiotic
associations.
Also suggested was that light-enhanced calcification is largely photosynthesis
dependent and probably not dependent on some other photobiological effect.
Vandermeulen, J. H. and N. Watanabe (1973). "Studies on reef corals. I. Skeleton formation by newly
settled planula larva of Pocillopora damicornis." Mar. Biol. 23: 47-57.
Observations were made on sequential skeletal growth stages of newly settled planula larvae,
gathered from the reefs of Kane`ohe Bay during the first 22 days following settling onto glass
microscope slides. Fusion of the primary calcareous elements results in the formation of the larval
basal disc within 48 to 72 hours. With transmission electron microscopy, this disc is found to differ
from subsequent adult calcification in (1) considerably lesser degree of mineralization; (2) smaller
crystal size; (3) more random orientation of the crystals; and (4) the presence of trace amounts of
calcite in addition to aragonite. The basal disc with its septal rudiments constitutes a true larval
skeleton, differing in morphology, microarchitecture, and crystal type from the fibrous growth
characterizing the adult skeleton.
Vaughan, T. W. (1907). "Recent Madreporaria of the Hawaiian Islands and Laysan." U. S. National Museum
Bull. 59: 1-421.
The classical work on the Hawaiian Islands corals. A full taxonomic account of the Madreporaria
collected by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Albatross expedition of 1902. A number of new species are
described.
Vine, P. J. (1972a). "Spirorbinae (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) of the Hawaiian Chain. Part 1, new species."
Pac. Sci 26(2): 140-149.
Tubeworms of the subfamily Spirorbinae occur throughout the world. However, up to this study, no
previous taxonomic study has been made on those from the Hawaiian Islands. Three new species out
of thirteen Spirorbinae are described from Hawai`i. One is from Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu.
Vine, P. J., J. H. Bailey-Brock et al. (1972b). "Spirorbinae (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) of the Hawaiian Chain.
Part 2, Hawaiian Spirorbinae." Pac. Sci 26(2): 150-182.
Von Franzisket, L. (1968). "Zur Okologie der Fadenalgen im Skelett lebender Riffkorallen." Zool. Jb.
Physiol. 74: 246-253.
A study of the coral-algae complex of the filamentous alga, Ostreobium, enmeshed in the skeleton of
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living reef corals in Kane`ohe Bay. The amount of light intensity at several distances below the coral
surface was measured and this was correlated with maximum photosynthesis and respiration. Based
on small biomass and low photosynthetic production, it was concluded that the algae did not contribute
significantly to the primary production of the reef.
Wainwright, S. A. (1963). "Skeletal organization in the coral, Pocillopora damicornis." Quart. J. Micr. Sci.
104(2): 169-183.
A study presenting data and inferences on the major chemical constituents of the skeleton of P.
damicornis collected from the reefs of Porites compressa in Kane`ohe Bay and describing the unit
shapes and sizes, orientation and physical relationships of these skeletons. The skeleton was found to
contain at least 99.9% by weight aragonite, present as submicroscopic crystals in spheric
arrangements. The organic component of the skeleton comprises 0.01 to 0.1% of the total weight and
has 3 microscopic constituents - 1. filaments of lime-boring algae, 2. a dispersed network of fibers l u
in diameter and 3. a transparent, milky, regionally birefringent matrix of chitin. The chitin was observed
to be a spongework of fibrils of average diameter 20 mp. The chitin fibrils were inferred to be randomly
oriented in the plane of the skeletogenic epithelium perpendicular to the direction of growth of the long
axes of the aragonite crystals.
Walsh, G. E. (1967). An ecological study of a Hawaiian Mangrove Swamp. Estuaries. G. H. Lauff.
Washington D. C., AAAS. Publ. No. 83.
A study of an ecological analysis and integration of the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the
Heeia mangrove swamp in the Kane`ohe Bay watershed area. Data includes diurnal, monthly and
seasonal data on physical and chemical factors such as dissolved nitrate, phosphate, oxygen and
salinity and a discussion on the physiological adaptations and food interrelationships of the fauna.
Walsh, G. E. and R. L. Bowers (1971). "A review of Hawaiian zoanthids with descriptions of three new
species." Zoo. J. Linn. Soc. 50(2): 161-180.
This paper gives descriptions of zoanthids collected from coral reefs and shores of the Hawaiian
Islands between June 1965 and June 1967. Isaurus elongatus Verrill (1928) and Palythoa tuberculosa
Esper (1791) are redescribed and Zoanthus vestitus Verrill (1928) is reclassified as Palythoa vestitus.
Zoanthus confertus Verrill (1928) and Z. nitidus Verrill (1928) are combined under the new species
name Zoanthus pacificus. New species described are P. psammophillia, P. toxica, and Z.
kealakekuansis. A list of zoanthid species from the south-western Pacific Ocean is given.
Walters, C. K. (1967). Nest guarding behavior of the male maomao, Abudefduf abdominalis (Quoy and
Gaimard). Department of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 55 pp.
Abudefduf abdominalis demonstrates active parental care in guarding its deposited egg masses. The
protection, fanning and removal of diseased eggs is carried out solely by the male. Parental nest care,
appetititive behavior, freeding behavior, nest defense and mating behavior were seen as the major
activities during the parental care phase of the spawning cycle, with different activities being more
frequent at the various stages of the nest maturity. The location of the nest altered the frequency of
the movements as well as the sequence in which they occur. A flow pattern was quantitatively
established for the parental care phase, deviating occasionally due to various internal and external
factors.
Wass, R. C. (1967). Removal and repopulation of the fishes on an isolated patch coral reef in Kane`ohe
Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 77.
A study in which an entire community of fish on an isolated patch reef was studied, standing crop
determined species classified as herbivore, carnivore or omnivore and % composition of each tropic
category in the total biomass was calculated and compared with previous studies. Recolonization of
the experimental reef was studied to determine which species repopulated first, whether they were
mainly adults and/or juveniles and the time interval involved. The patch reef studied was in Kane`ohe
Bay - 210 27' 58" N longitude1570 48' 55" W latitude.
Results showed that the standing crop of fishes on the experimental reef was 1.117 lbs/acre. Of this
biomass, 1.3% were herbivores, 26.4% carnivores and 72.3% omnivores. The adults and sub-adults
of most reef fishes showed migratory tendencies. Scarids were the dominating re-populating fishes
observed during this study. Repopulation required more than 241 days to achieve complete
equilibrium. The visual census technique is valuable in determining the relative abundance of reef
fishes, provided the investigator is aware of the limitations of the technique.
Watari, L. T. (1973). "Growth rate of a carangid fish, the omaka Caranx mate, in Hawai`i." Trans. Amer. Fish
Soc. 102: 617-20.
182
A study of growth rate was initiated to ascertain the time to marketable size and the feasibility for
aquaculture of the Hawaiian carangid, Caranx mate, a species that is numerous and readily available
seasonally in Kane`ohe Bay. The growth rate calculated for larval C. mate was 18 mm per month; of
juveniles, 7.5 mm per month; and of adults, 2.3 mm per month. marketable size is reached in
approximately seven months.
Watson, M. (1969). Some aspects of the pharmacology, chemistry, and biology of the mid-gut gland toxins
in some Hawaiian sea hares. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i,: 241.
A study of two toxic extracts, termed the 'ether-soluble toxin' and the 'water-soluble toxin', obtained
from the mid-gut gland of four species of Hawaiian sea hares (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Aplysiidae).
Both toxins were extracted from the homogenized mid-gut glands. Both toxins were found stable to
short term temperature changes up to and including 90 deg C, as well as to recurrent freezing and
thawing over a period of 2 years. Both were effective at low to moderate pH levels and were
inactivated above pH 8. Neither toxin was orally toxic to mice, but they displayed potent intravenous
and intreperitoneal effects. These effects are discussed and a possible mechanism of action of the
water-soluble toxin at receptor site(s) is put forward. Specimens were caught by snorkeling at several
places around O`ahu. Kane`ohe Bay was one area of collection. Aplysia pulmonica Gould 1852, was
found on the reef flats directly facing the yacht harbor. They showed seasonal appearances with peak
abundance in mid-October in 1966 and 1967, but not in 1968.
Watson, W. (1974). Diel changes in the vertical distribution of some common fish larvae in southern
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Department of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i.
Nine series of vertically stratified zooplankton tows were made with a closing net at a single station in
southern Kane`ohe Bay between 31 August 1973 and 11 April 1974. Sampling periods occupied from
12 to 36 hours, with tows usually taken at about three-meter intervals between the surface and a
maximum depth of ten meters. A total of 21,254 fish larvae of 49 kinds was collected, the six most
abundant species being Foa brachyrammus Omobranchus elongatus Callionymus decoratus, Caranx
mate, Stolephorus purpureus, and Abudefduf abdominalis. The observed patterns are analogous to
those shown for fish larva in the open ocean on scales of from 50 m to 200 m. It is proposed that
Kane`ohe Bay represents a vertically compressed ocean with respect to the distribution of fish larvae.
Watson, W. and J. M. Leis (1974). Ichthyoplankton of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. A one-year study of fish eggs
and larvae, Sea Grant Technical Report: 178.
A one-year survey of ichthyoplankton yielded 43 types of pelagic fish eggs and 38,505 larvae of 175
types. The tows were made in the Sampan Channel and in south Kane`ohe Bay. The catches did not
reflect abundance of adult fishes in Kane`ohe Bay: larvae encountered in large numbers were from
pelagic bay species, which spawn pelagic eggs, and reef species, which spawn demersal eggs.
Statistically significant relationships were found.between egg abundance, surface water temperature,
and day length. The results of this study are also discussed in regard to spawning, seasonal
variations, and stresses induced by pollution and fishing.
Webber, H. H. (1970). Tolerance to environmental stresses and distribution of Nerita picea (Gastropoda:
Neritidae) (Abstr.). Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i, Haw. Inst. Mar. Biology.
A study of population densities of Nerita picea on two habitats located on the sea wall adjacent to
HIMB, Coconut Island in Kane`ohe Bay. Population density was found to be higher on the protected
2
2
habitat (up to 200 /m ) than on the exposed side (10/m ). Movement during the tidal cycle, resistance
to desiccation and temperature tolerance was studied in Nerita and compared in these respects to
Littorina scabra which also inhabits exposed areas. The author proposes that a functional difference
between Littorina and Nerita permits Littorina to maintain a greater population density in exposed
habitats. Littorina has a mucus thread by which it remains attached to the substrate when it withdraws
into its shell under adverse conditions. Nerita does not have as strong a mucus thread and so it can
be readily dislodged.
Wei, S. L. and R. E. Young (1989). "Development of symbiotic bacterial bioluminescence in a nearshore
cephalopod, Euprymna scolopes." Mar. Biol. 103: 541-546.
Weil, S. M. (1979). The effect of temperature and light on the stable isotopic composition of reef coral
skeletons. Depart. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 102.
The reef corals Pocillopora damicornis and Montipora verrucosa were cultured under various
controlled temperatures and light condition at Ulupau Head microcosm facility. The skeletal carbonate
13
18
deposited under different experimental regimes was analyzed for C and O. Coral skeletal values
13
varied with light dose and correlated with changes in zooxanthelllar pigment. The delta C value of
183
skeletal aragonite seems to be controlled by oxidation of photosynthetically produce organic matter.
Weil, S. M., R. W. Buddemeier et al. (1981). "The stable isotopic composition of coral skeletons: control by
environmental variables." Geochemica et Cosmochimica 45: 1147-1153.
The reef corals Pocillopora damicornis and Montipora verrucosa were cultured under various
controlled temperature and light conditions. The corals were analyzed for growth rate, tissue pigment
13
18
13
content and skeletal C and O. Coral skeletal gamma C values varied with light dose and
correlated with changes in zooxantheller pigment. The gamma 13 C values of skeletal aragonite seem
to be modified by oxidation of photosynthetically produced organic matter. Functionally significant
18
relationships between coral skeletal gamma O values and temperature have been determined. The
18
-1
temperature coefficients of the gamma O values [-4.4 deg. C(%) ] are similar to the first order
18
O values have
coefficient in the equilibrium paleotemperature equation, but the gamma
taxonomically consistent offsets from equilibrium. The offsets may be attributed to the coral
metabolism with slight but statistically significant differences between the two genera. Environmental
18
and metabolic variables other than temperature have little or no effect on skeletal gamma O.
Wetherall, J. A. (1977). "Catch statistics and abundance of nehu, Stolephorus purpureus, in Kane`ohe Bay."
Circ., U.S. Dep. Commer., Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm., Natl. Mar. Fish. Res. 408: 114-118.
Catch and nominal effort statistics from the Kane`ohe Bay day-baiting fishery for nehu, Stolephorus
purpureus, were used to explore hypotheses concerning two sources of variation in baiting success:
(1)nehu stock abundance, and (2)abiotic environmental variables. Baiting success was found to be
positively correlated with streamflow in a major tributary to Kane`ohe Bay, but was unrelated to
nominal baiting effort. However, the assumptions underpinning the analyses cannot be accepted with
confidence, because the available nominal effort data do not provide a good measure of effective
baiting effort. A definitive understanding of nehu stock dynamics will require changes in data collection
practices of the Hawai`i Division of Fish and Game. In particular, detailed information on catch per set
of the bait seine and on size composition of the nehu stock and catch are needed.
Whipple, J. A. (1966). The comparative ecology of the Hawaiian Littorina Ferussac (Mollusca: Gastropoda).
Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 296.
A study concerned with two species of Littorina, L. pintado and L. picta, which are the most abundant
of the five species found in Hawai`i. The study includes their systematics, life historyg substratum,
distribution, density and abundance as well as their ecology.
White, J. K. F. (1980). Distribution, recruitment and development of the borer community in dead coral on
shallow Hawaiian reefs. Depart. of Zoology. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 223 pp.
Twenty seven species of known and suspected coral skeletal borers were identified from dead corals
collected from shallow Hawaiian reefs. In comparison to inventories of the borer communities
collected in other tropical areas Hawaiian corals had an abundance of polychaetes, fewer species of
sipunculids and acrothoracican barnacles and far fwere boring sponges.
Polychaetes were
responsible for the majority of the bioerosion of dead corals collected from Kane`ohe Bay in 1977.
Wiersma, C. A. C. and A. Bush (1963). "On the movements of the eyestalks of crabs, particularly of Calappa
hepatica (L.)." Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Werenschappen Amsterdam Proc. Ser. C, 66: 13-17.
A study conducted at the Waikiki laboratory on specimens collected around Coconut Island, Kane`ohe
Bay. The crabs were operated on and stimulated in various ways with the resulting eye movements
being noted. Although C hepatica is regarded to be more primitive in comparison with other crabs, the
specialization of the eye appears to be very advanced. The eyes are very well protected and no
control adjustments are necessary to compensate for changes in the orientation of visual fields
between the withdrawn and extended positions of the eye.
Wiersma, C. A. G. and S. H. Ripley (1952). "Innervation patterns of crustacean limbs." Physiologia
Comparata et Oecologia 2: 391-405.
A study of the innervation patterns in the limbs of Palinura and Anomura in the hopes of making a
generalized pattern of innervation within these groups. Comparative work was done also on the
Decapod Natantia and Stomatopoda. The crabs were collected in Kane`ohe Bay and the laboratory
work was done at Coconut Island.
The results for each crustacean group agreed with previously reported work except for one or two points.
The differences in musculature and innervation in the legs of the Decapod crustacea support the
division of this group into Natantia and Reptantia, with a subdivision of the latter into 4 tribes: Palinura,
Astacura, Anomoura and Brachyura as opposed to the other classifications which have been used.
184
Wilkes, C. (1845). Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Expedition During the Years of 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841
and 1842, Vol. IV. Philadelphia, Lea and Blanchard.
The account of the U. S. Exploring Expedition to the Hawaiian Islands, 1838 to 1842. In volume four,
p. 76-84, Wilkes makes reference to Kane`ohe--the condition of the land, the mission station, the
harbor of Waialai, and the king's fish ponds.
Williams, S. L. and R. C. Carpenter (1998). "Effects of unidirectional and oscillatory water flow on nitrogen
fixation (acetylene reduction) in coral reef algal turfs, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i." J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.
226: 293-316.
Rates of acetylene reduction (nitrogenase activity) by algal turf communities from Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, Hawai`i, were measured as a function of increasing water flow speeds under unidirectional and
oscillatory flow regimes in an enclosed incubation chamber. Water flow speeds, shear stress, and
turbulence intensities were measured with thermistor probes in the chamber and over the turfs in the
field. The thickness of the boundary layer varied significantly and linearly with bulk water flow speeds
in the field. Although the boundary layer in the chamber also decreased with increasing flow speeds,
turbulence intensity and flow speeds in the chamber were mostly lower than those typically measured
in the field. Rates of acetylene reduction were positively related to water flow speed. Oscillatory water
flow, which increased turbulence intensity five times, resulted in a significant increase in acetylene
reduction compared to unidirectional flow. Even at the lowest mean flow speeds measured in the field
(< 0.1 m s-1), mean rates of acetylene reduction (27 nmol ethylene cm-2 h-1 +- 11 SD) were high
under oscillatory flow. Equivalent high rates under unidirectional flow were not achieved until flow
speed was more than doubled. The slope of log-log linear regressions of acetylene reduction versus
flow speed was 0.5 for both oscillatory and unidirectional regimes. This result suggests that acetylene
reduction rates in the chamber were controlled by mass transfer of a rate-controlling solute, such as
acetylene or oxygen (inhibitory to nitrogenase), through a laminar diffusion boundary layer. Because
coral reefs exist in areas of very low nitrogen availability, nitrogen fixation is fundamentally important
for coral reef primary production and biogeochemistry. Yet, current understanding of nitrogen fixation
on coral reefs has been derived primarily from measurements made under unnatural conditions of no
or low water flow. This study lends support to the importance of water flow as a major control of the
metabolism of organisms occupying coral reefs.
Williams, V. R. (1980). Growth and reproduction of the Marquesan sardine (Sardinella marquesensis) in
Hawai`i. Dept of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 53.
Holding experiments showed that the smallest regular increments found on the sagittae of Sardinella
marquesensis are formed daily. Based on this finding the ages of 106 sardines, ranging from 17 mm
to 122 mm S. L. were determined. Observations of juvenile sardines in the field and the seasonal
changes in the gonad/somatic weight ratio indicated that spawning occurred throughout the year but
probably peaks during the summer months. It is possible that the sardines spawn repeatedly but
frequency, timing, and location remain unknown. Sardines for sex ratio data and prelim. studies on
fecundity and gonad/somatic weight ratio were collected in the southern part of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu,
at night (sardines appeared in catches between 1975-76).
Williams, V. R. and T. A. Clarke (1983). "Reproduction, growth, and other aspects of the biology of the gold
spot herring, Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Clupeidae), a recent introduction to Hawai`i." Fish. Bull.
81(3): 587-597.
The gold spot herring, Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus, was introduced to Hawai`i by unknown means
probably in the early 1970s and apparently spread and increased in abundance very rapidly. On the
island of O`ahu, it has been regularly present in inshore areas since 1976 and has been most
abundant during late spring to early fall. Among adult fishes sampled, females slightly outnumbered
males in seine collections by day in shallow water, but males predominated in nighttime collections
from deeper water. Both sexes began to mature at 75-80 mm SL and females carried distinct size
groups of nearly mature ova by 90 mm SL. Gonad to somatic weight ratios from both sexes indicated
a spring-to-fall spawning season with a midsummer peak. Batch fecundity of females was 1,1006,300. There was no direct evidence of multiple spawning, but secondary size groups of small ova
were observed in some females which also carried a distinct batch of larger ova. Holding experiments
showed that juveniles deposit daily growth increments on sagittae. Age estimates from increment
counts of fish 17-121 mm long indicated that herring metamorphose at about 1 month, mature at 5-6
months, and probably live no more than 1 year. The reproductive life span of females appears long
enough to ripen more than one batch of ova. H. quadrimaculatus were collected in Kane`ohe Bay on
the island of O`ahu.
185
Wilson, J. (1998). The effect of temperature on settlement patterns of Pocillopora damicornis in Hawai'i.
Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 95103.
This study examined the effect of temperatures on patterns of settlement of Pocillopora damicornis in
Hawai`i in July 1997. Four temperatures were used 22, 25, 28 and 31 C. Settlement was highly
variable within and among treatments but was lower at 22 C compared to 28 C. P. damicornis larvae
settled cryptically on the undersurface of tiles in all treatments. In lower water temperature treatments,
a larger proportion of free swimming larvae remained in the water column. This indicates that at lower
water temperatures, dispersal rather than settlement of P. damicornis larvae is favored. Settlement of
larvae may also be affected by microhabitat differences in water motion, or settlement cues on the
surfaces of settlement substrata. These effects may be more important than temperature in the
settlement of coral larvae resulting in the large variances within temperature treatments observed in
this study. Coral planulae were obtained from colonies which had been collected from the reef flat
around Coconut Island, Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i.
Wilson, J. and J. Schwarz (1998). Caloric content of symbiotic and aposymbiotic larvae of Fungia scutaria.
Reproduction in reef corals. E. F. Cox, D. A. Krupp and P. L. Jokiel. Kane`ohe, O`ahu, HIMB, UH: 4754.
A preliminary study of the caloric content of symbiotic and aposymbiotic larvae of the solitary coral
Fungia scutaria was conducted in 1997. Fungia scutaria larvae were obtained during the full moon
spawning in July 1997 from corals collected in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i. A proportion of these larvae
were infected with zooxanthellae three days after spawning. Samples of symbiotic and aposymbiotic
larvae were harvested prior to infection with zooxanthellae and at 36 to 108 hours post infection.
Symbiotic larvae had a higher caloric content per mg ash free dry weight (AFDW) than aposymbiotic
larvae. In apsymbiotic larvae, the caloric content per mg AFDW decreased over time, whereas for
symbiotic larvae, caloric content increased between 36 and 108 hours after infection. However, in this
study, symbiotic larvae were always smaller which resulted in lower caloric values per individual larvae
compared to aposymbiotic larvae. This may have been due to natural variability in larval size or to
differences in activity or metabolism between the two groups. These studies indicate the potential for
symbiosis to contribute to the energy budgets of F. scutaria larvae although further studies are needed
to more accurately determine the role of symbiosis in the larval ecology of corals.
Wilson, W. F. (1922). With Lord Byron at the Sandwich Islands in 1825, Being Extracts from the Diary of
James Macrae, Scottish Botanist. Honolulu, W. F. Wilson.
Extracts from the diary of James Macrae, botanist on Byron's voyage to Hawai`i in 1824-1826
compiled by William F. Wilson. The diary is now in the possession of the Royal Horticultural Society,
London; and the herbarium is either in Kew or in the British Museum in London, This is one of the
earlier accounts of visiting the islands--the author not only describes the scenery, but also the culture
and makes special note of the flora of the islands. On one of his trips around O`ahu, Macrae visted
Kane`ohe. Here, the natives cultured noni or Morinda citrifolia for the sake of its fruits as a yellow color
for tapa and cloths. Macrae noted that Kane`ohe Bay was open, exposed and "full of rocks in many
places above water which renders it unsafe for vessels to anchor. It is full of fish."
Woo, M. (1999). Ecological impacts and interactions of the introduced red algae Kappaphycus striatum in
Kane'ohe Bay, O`ahu. Department of Botany. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
The introduction anbd consequent spread of the red algae Kappaphycus striatum, has become a
management concern and has led to studies that examine ecological impacts and interactions of the
algae. To determine if herbivory plays a role in the abundance of K. stiatum, predator exclosures
wereplaced in areas of high and low algal abundance to estimate diferences in grazing intensity. It
was observed that, in areas of high K. striatum, abundance there was no significant difference in
growth between the caged and uncaged treatment, suggesting that grazing intensity is low and unable
to affect algal biomass. In an area of low macroalgal abundance, however, differences in growth rates
between uncaged and caaged treatments were significant. Growth rates were negative in uncaged
treatments, suggesting that grazing intensity was high. This higher grazing intensity may be due to a
larger grazing popluation or to lack of alternative food sources. Additional studies to assess the ability
of the algae to reproduce vegetatively, as well as a qualitative assessment of the possible impact of
algal overgrowth on live coral, will allow estimation of further spread, habitat alteration and ecological
impact.
Woo, M., C. Smith et al. (1999). "Ecological interactions and impacts of Kappaphycus striatum in Kane'ohe
Bay, a tropical reef." Proc. 1st Nat. Conf Marine Bioinvasions, MIT, Cambridge 1: 186-192.
The introduction anbd consequent spread of the red algae Kappaphycus striatum, has become a
186
management concern and has led to studies that examine ecological impacts and interactions of the
algae. To determine if herbivory plays a role in the abundance of K. stiatum, predator exclosures
wereplaced in areas of high and low algal abundance to estimate diferences in grazing intensity. It
was observed that, in areas of high K. striatum, abundance there was no significant difference in
growth between the caged and uncaged treatment, suggesting that grazing intensity is low and unable
to affect algal biomass. In an area of low macroalgal abundance, however, differences in growth rates
between uncaged and caaged treatments were significant. Growth rates were negative in uncaged
treatments, suggesting that grazing intensity was high. This higher grazing intensity may be due to a
larger grazing popluation or to lack of alternative food sources. Additional studies to assess the ability
of the algae to reproduce vegetatively, as well as a qualitative assessment of the possible impact of
algal overgrowth on live coral, will allow estimation of further spread, habitat alteration and ecological
impact.
Wood, W. F. (1989). "Photoadaptive responses of the tropical red alga Eucheuma striatum Schmitz
(Gigartinales) to ultra-violet radiation." Aquat. Bot. 33: 41-51.
The attenuation of ultra-violet radiation (UV) is described for the waters of Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i.
The attenuation rates for UV varied with water turbidity and were similar, or greater, than that for
photosynthetically active radiation. High concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds were detected in
the red alga Eucheuma striatum Schmitz, growing in natural populations in the bay. The concentration
of these compounds was shown to vary with self-shading and to respond to experimental
manipulations of natural sunlight. Under unfiltered, natural, UV-containing sunlight photopigment
destruction occurred and the concentration of UV-absorbing substances increased. Photopigment
destruction did not occur, nor was there an increase in UV-absorbing substance, when the UV
component of sunlight was selectively removed by UV filters. It is suggested that the production of
UV-absorbing substances by E. striatum is an acclimative response to the ambient UV climate at the
depth at which the plant grows.
Woodbury, D. (1946). Builders for Battle - How the Pacific Naval Air Bases Were Constructed. N. Y., E. P.
Dutton and Co., Ltd.
The story of the construction of the Pacific Naval Air Bases before World War II. On p. 78-91, the
author tells the story of the dredging operations and the building of the Kane`ohe Naval Marine Base
on Mokapu Peninsula. In a period of a month, they removed 175,000 cubic yards of coral and
deposited it on the flat land where the station is now located. Seven million dollars were spent on
building Kane`ohe Base, more than half what Congress had allotted to the whole Pacific group. It
doesn't say exactly where they were dredging, but it mentions working in 10-25 foot seas and heavy
surge; so it must have been outside the reef area.
Worcester, W. S. (1969). Some aspects of the ecology of Lingula (Brachiopoda) in Kane`ohe Bay, Hawai`i.
Oceanography, University of Hawai`i, Manoa: 49.
This study, extending from June 1967 to February 1969, deals with the distribution, limiting factors,
interspecific interactions, feeding, growth and other aspects of the life history of Lingula reevii in the
south Bay. The main objective was to understand the ecological position of L. reevi in respect to
limiting factors, interspecific interactions, distributional pattern and growth, and to use this information
as an aid to understanding the ancient environments in which Lingula is found as a fossil. Results
showed that the distributional pattern was dependent on substrate, predators, food supply and clam
diggers and to be intraspecifically independent. There was no preferred shell orientation; a good
adaptation to sediment instability; and a preference to salinities between 20 and 35%. Portunid crabs
appeared to be the important predators and their predatory effect may account for the absence of the
brachiopod in the deeper parts of the bay. Although L. reevi and the clam Tapes philippinarum cooccur, their niches appeared to be separate. The sex ratio of L. reevi is 1:1 and spawning occurs year
round. Growth was found dependent on food supply and shell length was found to decrease linearly
with increasing size. Longevity is estimated to be 5-8 years. The brachiopod is not considered to be
an important member of the Kane`ohe Bay ecosystem. Fossilization of L. reevi is probably not
occurring in Kane`ohe Bay.
Work, T. M., G. H. Balazs et al. (1998). "Morphological and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from
Hawaiian green turtles." Am. J. Veterinary Res. 59: 1252-1257.
To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas.
Sample Population-26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawai`i and Kane`ohe Bay on the
island of O`ahu. Procedure-Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and
cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl
butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results-6
187
types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and
eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes
were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small
eosinophils. Conclusions-Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies improper nomenclature
reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species
Wright, N. (1986). Aspects of reproduction and planula development in the reef coral Cyphastrea ocellina.
Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R. H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i,
Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe. HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept.
UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 179-192.
Yamamoto, M. and M. Yoshida (1978). "Fine structure of the ocelli of a synaptid holothurian, Opheodesoma
spectabilis, and the effects of light and darkness." Zoomorphologie 90: 1-17.
The ocellus of a synaptid holothurian, Opheodesoma spectabilis, is composed of sensory and
supportive cells and underlain by numerous bundles of tentacular nerve fibers. Pigment cells in the
tentacular nerve envelope the ocellus. A sensory cell is divided into three parts: an apical part from
which a single cilicum and numerous microvilli arise, a slender middle part, and an enlarged basal part
that contains an oval nucleus and gives rise to an axon. The sonemes in the cilia show varying
degrees of remodeling. The following changes result from exposure to light: the microvilli become
shorter and irregularly arranged; plasmalemmal invaginations engulf the microvilli; coated vesicles of
varying appearances and membranous fragments become abundant; microtubules are less evident in
the apical part; and small flat vesicles appear along the plasma membrane in the middle part. The
evolution of photosensory cells and membrane turnover are discussed. O. spectabilis were collected
in the neighborhood of HIMB on Coconut Island, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Yamashita, D. T. (1951). The embryological and larval development of the nehu, an engraulid baitfish of the
Hawaiian Islands. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study of the physical and biological factors affecting the supply of the nehu in the Ala Wai Canal and
in Kane`ohe Bay in order to exploit the population to secure the maximum sustained yield.
The development of the nehu eggs was divided into 8 stages of morphological differentiation from early
cleavage to hatching. The development of the nehu larvae is also described. Field experiments
showed the time of spawning, the duration of incubation period, the development of eggs under
varying temperature conditions and the growth of larvae. There was found to be a significant
difference in both the size of the nehu eggs and the newly hatched larvae between Ala Wai Canal and
Kane`ohe Bay: 1.18 mm 1.35 mm (egg length) and 1.87 mm - 2.12 mm (newly hatched larval length).
In both areas, nehu spawn throughout the year with erratic day to day fluctuations. Rearing
experiments failed, so larval growth rate was estimated by correlating lab and field observations.
Yamazato, K. (1966). Calcification in a solitary coral, Fungia scutaria Lamarck, in relation to environmental
factors. Department of Zoology. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i.
A study concerned with the role of zooxanthellae in calcification of corals which was broken into two
phases: analyzing the effects of some environmental factors on the rate of calcium uptake by F.
scutaria; and obtaining a clear picture of the uptake and release of phosphorus by the same animal
under varying conditions. Fungia scutaria and Porites compressa were collected from a coral reef flat
on the southern coast of Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu.
The author concluded that the zooxanthellae
accelerated calcification in corals under various environmental conditions, and the adverse effects of
environment on calcium uptake is reduced by the presence of zooxanthellae in the coral tissue. This
effect of the presence of zooxanthellae is achieved through 2 processes - the removal of C02 from the
C02-CO3 system and the removal of-phosphorus compounds, a possible inhibitor of calcification, from
the site of CaCO3 deposition.
Yap, W. G. (1974). Population biology of the little-neck clam, Tapes philippinarum, in Kane`ohe Bay,
Hawai`i. Dept. of Oceanography. Honolulu, Univ. of Hawai`i: 66 pp.
The stock of Japanese littleneck clam in O`ahu started with their introduction in 1920. The clams grew
exceptionally well in Kalihi Basin and Pearl Harbor, but not in Kane`ohe Bay. The clams have since
disappeared except in Kane`ohe Bay, where extensive populations were recorded. Heavy harvesting
in the Bay during a succession of open seasons from 1965 to 1968 probably triggered their decline.
The only remaining clam bed in the Bay was studied. The following objectives of this study are to 1)
determine whether the bed is declining or recovering and 2) assess the amount of predation by crabs
and its role as a potential regulatory factor.
Yap, W. G. (1977). "Population biology of the Japanese littleneck clam, Tapes philippinarum, in Kane`ohe
188
Bay, O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands." Pacific Science 31(3): 223-244.
The stock of Japanese littleneck clam in O`ahu started with their introduction in 1920. The clams grew
exceptionally well in Kalihi Basin and Pearl Harbor, but not in Kane`ohe Bay. The clams have since
disappeared except in Kane`ohe Bay, where extensive populations were recorded. Heavy harvesting
in the Bay during a succession of open seasons from 1965 to 1968 probably triggered their decline.
The only remaining clam bed in the Bay was studied. The following objectives of this study are to 1)
determine whether the bed is declining or recovering and 2) assess the amount of predation by crabs
and its role as a potential regulatory factor.
Yarnall, J. L. (1969). "Aspects of the behavior of Octopus cyanea Gray." Anim. Behav. 17(4): 747-754.
The behavior of Octopus cyanea was observed in two reef ponds on Coconut Island for a period of 60
days. Crepuscular activity pattern was noted to peak at 0600 and 1800 hours local time. Hunting trips
may extend up to 50 meters and may last one hour. The feeding method was noted to be speculative
rather than objective. -0. cyanea was concluded to be a major predator on crabs and an important
member of the coral reef community.
Yarnall, J. L. (1970). Aspects of the behavior of Octopus cyanea Gray (Abstr.). Kane`ohe, Univ. of Hawai`i,
Haw. Inst. Mar. Biology.
The behavior of Octopus cyanea was observed in two reef ponds on Coconut Island for a period of 60
days. Crepuscular activity pattern was noted to peak at 0600 and 1800 hours local time. Hunting trips
may extend up to 50 meters and may last one hour. The feeding method was noted to be speculative
rather than objective. -0. cyanea was concluded to be a major predator on crabs and an important
member of the coral reef community.
York, R. H. (1986). Isolation and culture of symbiotic algae. Coral Reef Population Biology. P. L. Jokiel, R.
H. Richmond and R. A. Rogers, University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology, Kane`ohe.
HIMB Tech. Rept. No. 37 (Sea Grant Cooperative Rept. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-86-01): 486-487.
Young, S. D. (1969). Studies on the skeletal organic material in hermatypic corals, with emphasis on
Pocillopora meandrina. Department of Biology. Los Angeles, Univ. of California.
Dissertation on the skeletal organic material in hermatypic corals, especially in Pocillopora meandrina.
The amino acid composition of the matrix of the 14 species from the suborders Astrococoeniina,
Fungiina, Faviina and Dendrophylliina are described; the distribution of C14 in skeleton and tissue of
14
corals incubated with Na2C 03 is described; and the results of experiments testing the hypothesis that
matrix formation is necessary for deposition of calcium carbonate is discussed. Specimens from
Kane`ohe Bay were used in the study. Results indicated that all corals examined have a similar amino
acid composition. Glucosamine is present in varying proportions, but the origin of this compound is
uncertain. Experiments showed that the deposition of a new matrix is necessary for the deposition of
calcium carbonate.
Young, S. D. (1971a). "Organic material from scleractinian coral skeletons-I. Variation in composition
between several species." Comp. Biochem. Phy. 40B: 113-120.
The proportions of amino acids and glucosamine obtained after hydrolysis of matrices in fourteen coral
species representing the suborders Astrocoeniina, Fungiina, Faviina and Dendrophylliina are
presented and discussed in this report. Corals used in this study were collected from Kane`ohe Bay,
O`ahu, Hawai`i or from Eniwetok Atoll.
Young, S. D. (1971b). Organic matrices associated with CaCO3 skeletons of several species of hermatypic
corals. Experimental coelenterate biology. H. M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine and L. V. Davis. Honolulu, Univ.
Hawai`i Press: 260-264.
In this paper the results of analyses of organic matrices from some Hawaiian corals are compare the
data with similar data for the matrices of mollusc shells and brachipod shells. The possible influence
of the organic matrix on coral calcification is discussed.
Young, S. D. (1973). "Calcification and synthesis of skeletal organic material in the coral, Pocillopora
damicornis (L.) (Astrocoeniidae, Scleractinia)." Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44A: 669-672.

Corals were incubated with Na CO in the presence of puromycin to study organic material
production and calcification. A significant coefficient of correlation (+0.63) was found between organic
material synthesis and the deposition of calcium carbonate. The effect of puromycin was not
significant. These data suggest an interaction, before or during deposition, of skeletal organic material
and mineral carbonate.
189
Young, S. D., J. D. O'Connor et al. (1971). "Organic material from scleractinian coral skeletons-II.
14
Incorporation of C into protein, chitin and lipid." Comp. Biochem. Phy. 40B: 945-958.
14
It is possible to use the fixation of C by zooxanthellae, ant the transfer of labelled photosynthate to
the coral to label the organic material of the skeleton. This has been done in the present study to aid
in the identification of the relative proportions of the major organic components of the skeleton and to
explore the avenues of their synthesis. Specimens of Pocillopora damicornis were collected from
Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.
Youngbluth, M. J. (1968). "Aspects of the ecology and ethology of the cleaning fish Labroides phthirophagus
Randall." Z. Tierpsychol. 25: 915-932.
A study of the endemic Hawaiian cleaning wrasse, L. phthirophagus, to quantify aspects of its behavior
and ecology. Research was done in Kane`ohe Bay by skin and SCUBA diving. Ecological studies
included a study of the density and distribution around a patch reefs, an analysis of the diet, an
estimate of the rate of cleaning and a study of depopulation of the species from selected patch reefs.
Aquarium observations provided information on cleaning behavior, the sequence and frequency of the
fixed motor patterns of this behavior, the relationship between the inspecting and feeding of different
areas of the host fish and the relationship between the amount of time inspecting a host fish and the
frequency of feeding. Reproductive behavior was observed in the field from March 1965 to March
1966.
Ziemann, D. (1970). The horizontal distribution of zooplankton in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i. Kane`ohe,
University of Hawai`i, Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology: 56.
Samples were taken with the Longhurst-Hardy plankton sampler in the bay during 1969 to study the
horizontal distribution of the zooplankton. The Bay was divided into six different regions, and samples
were taken in each region. The distributions of the zooplankton were analysed by computer for
deviations from randomness, and these deviations were compared between regions. It was found that
two different types of distributions were present. First, some of the animals had distributions that did
not deviate from randomness. Second, most of the animals were found to have distributions that did
deviate from randomness. The distributions were of two types. Several of the animals found in the
southern sector were found to be associated with 2 bathymetric features, a patch reef and a relatively
isolated cove. The associations of these animals with the bathymetric features is suggested as being
of an active nature. The remaining distributions showed a pattern of deviation from randomness which
was attributed to the effect of mixing of different water masses during the tidal exchange of water
between the bay and the ocean.
Zimmerman, S. T. (1969). The transformation of energy by Lucifer chacei (Borradaile) Bowman (Crustacea,
Decapoda). Department of Zoololgy. Honolulu, University of Hawai`i: 66.
A laboratory study of energy transformations by the pelagic decapod, Lucifer chacei. Three stages
were studied: the zoea-protozoea stage, the combined early and late schizopod stage and the
combined adult stages. Respiration was measured using a micro Winkler technique. Assimilation was
35
determined using S . Dry weight, ash content, calorific values were determined for each stage. The
number of calories/hour ingested, assimilated, and respired were determined for each stage and an
energy flow diagram was constructed. The animals were collected in Kane`ohe Bay.
190
APPENDIX B
Listing of Marine Organisms Reported for All Studies in Kane`ohe Bay
191
ALGAE
Division CYANOPHYTA
Order CYANOPHYTA
Family OSCILLATORIACEAE
Lynbya majuscula Gomont
1959 Banner, 1959
1959 Helfrich and Banner, 1960
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1978 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Division CHLOROPHYTA
Order ULVALES
Family MONOSTOMOATACEAE
Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutzing)
1964 Gilbert, 1965
Family ULVACEAE
Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Ulva fasciata Delisle
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Brock, 1976
1982 AECOS, 1982
Ulva lactuca Linn.
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1972 Franzisket, 1973
1973 Franzisket, 1974
Ulva reticulata Forsskal
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
Order CLADOPHORALES
Family ANADYLOMENACEAE
Microdictyon setchellianum M.Howe
2000 Present study
Family BOODLEAECEAE
Boodlea composita (Harv.) Brand
2000 Present study
Family VALONIACEAE
Valonia aegagropila C. Agardh
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1982 AECOS, 1982
Valonia ventricosa? J. Ag.
2000 Present study
Venticaria ventricosa (J.Agardh) Olsen & West
2000 Present study
Family SIPHONOCLADACEAE
Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskal ) Boergesen
1933 Howe, 1939
1967 Cook, 1971
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1972 Banner, 1974
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1975
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
1984 Maragos, 1985
1985 Stoner, 1986
1985 Alino, 1986
1985 Hunter and Kehoe, 1986
192
1991 Coles and Ruddy, 1995
1993 Larned and Stimson, 1996
1994 Stimson et al., 1996
1994 Hunter and Evans, 1995
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
1995 Larned and Atkinson, 1997
1995 Larned, 1998
2000 Present study
Dictyosphaeria versluysii Web. V. Bosse
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1970 Banner and Bailey, 1970
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Order BRYOPSIDALES
Family BRYOPSIDACEAE
Pseudobryopsis oahuensis
2000 Present study
Family CODIACEAE
Codium arabicum Kutzing
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1978 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
Codium edule Silva
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
2000 Present study
Family CAULERPACEAE
Caulerpa ambigua Okamura
1961 Gilbert, 1962
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1976 Brock, 1976
Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J.Agardh
1995 Larned, 1998
2000 Present study
Caulerpa sertularioides (Gmelin) Howe
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1995 Larned, 1998
2000 Present study
Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Ag.
2000 Present study
Caulerpa verticillata J.Agardh
2000 Present study
Caulerpella ambigua (Okamura)
2000 Present study
Family HALIMEDACEAE
Halimeda discoidea Decaisne
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
1990 Inouye and Crosby, 1991
2000 Present study
Halimeda opuntia (L.) J.V.Lamour
2000 Present study
Halimeda sp.
2000 Present study
Family UDOTEACEAE
Rhipidosiphon javensis Montagne
2000 Present study
Order DASYCLADALES
Family DASYCLADALCEAE
Bornetella sphaerica (Zanardini) Solms-Laubach
193
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
2000 Present study
Neomeris annulata Dickie
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Neomeris van-bossae Dickie
1982 AECOS, 1982
Order PRASIOLALES
Family PRASIOLACEAE
Cladophora sericea (Huds.) Kütz
2000 Present study
Cladophora vagabunda (L.) van den Hoek
2000 Present study
Cladophoropsis membranacea (C.Agardh) Børgesen
2000 Present study
Cladophoropsis sp.
2000 Present study
Division PHAEOPHYTA
Order ECTOCARPALES
Family ECTOCARPACEAE
Ectocarpus indicus J. Agardh
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1980 Hixon and Brostoff, 1983
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
Family RALFSIACEAE
Ralfsia occidentalis Hollenberg
1982 AECOS, 1982
1993 Russell and Balasz, 1994
Order CHORDARIALES
Family CHORDARIACEAE
Cladosiphon novaecaledonia
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
Order SCYTOSIPHONALES
Family SCYTOSIPHONACEAE
Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth) Derbs and Soller
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Hydroclathrus clathratus (Bory) M. A. Howe
1962 Matthews and Townsley, 1964
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
2000 Present study
Rosenvigea intricate (J.Agardh) Børgesen
2000 Present study
Rosenvigea orientalis (J. Ag.) Boerg.
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Order SPHACELARIALES
Family SPHACELARIACEAE
Sphacelaria novae-hollandiae Sond
2000 Present study
Order DICTYOTALES
Family DICTYOTACEAE
Dictyopteris australis Sonder
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1979 AECOS, 1982
Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Dictyota acutiloba J. Agardh
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Dictyota ceylanica
2000 Present study
194
Dictyota divaricata Lamouroux
1982 AECOS, 1982
Dictyota friabilis Setch
2000 Present study
Dictyota sandvicensis Kutzing
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Padina australis Hauck
2000 Present study
Padina commersoni Bory
1933 Howe, 1934
Padina japonica Boergesen
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
1990 Inouye and Crosby, 1991
2000 Present study
Padina sp.
2000 Present study
Spatoglossum solierii (J. Ag.) Kutzing
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Zonaria hawaiiensis Doty and Newhouse
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Order FUCALES
Family SARGASSACEAE
Sargassum echinocarpum J. Agardh
1929 Neal, 1930
1933 Howe, 1934
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1979 AECOS, 1982
1981 Morrisey, 1985
1982 AECOS, 1982
1995 Larned, 1998
2000 Present study
Sargassum obtusifolium J. Agardh
1964 Berrill, 1965
1982 AECOS, 1982 (as S. obtusifrons)
2000 Present study
Sargassum polyphyllum Grun.
1968 Soegiarto, 1969 (as S. polyphyllum fissifolium)
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Division RHODOPHYTA
Order NEMALIALES
Family NEMALIACEAE
Trichoglea subnuda Howe, 1934
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Family BONNEMAISONIACEAE
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delisle) Coll. and Harvey
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969 (as A. sanfordania?)
Family GALAXAURACEAE
Galaxaura cylindica (Ell. And Soland.) Kjellm
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellm
2000 Present study
195
Scinaia hormoides Setchell
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Order GELIDIALES
Family GELIDIACEAE
Pterocladiella capillacea (J.F.Gmel.) Santel. & Hommers.
2000 Present study
Family GELIDIELLACEAE
Gelidiella machrisiana E.Y.Dawson
2000 Present study
Order CORALLINALES
Family CORALLINACEAE
Amphiroa fragilissma (L.) Lamouroux
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Amphiroa sp.
2000 Present study
Hydrolithon reinboldii (Web. -van Bosse & Foslie) Foslie
1968 Soegiarto, 1969 (as Gonolithon reinboldii)
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1980 Hixon and Brostoff, 1983
1982 AECOS, 1982
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
2000 Present study
Jania micarthrodia J.V.Lamour.
2000 Present study
Lithophyllum sp.
2000 Present study
Porolithon gardineria (Foslie) Foslie
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Porolithon onkodes (Heydrich) Foslie
1968 Reese, 1969
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1977 Lewis, 1980
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Porolithon sp.
1990 Inouye and Crosby, 1991
Family SPOROLITHACEAE
Sporolithon erythraeum (Rothpletz) Kylin
2000 Present study
Order CRYPTONEMIALES
Family DUMONTIACEAE
Dudresnaya hawaiiensis Lee.
1962 Lee, 1963
Gibbsmithia hawaiiensis Doty
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Family RHIZOPHYLLIDACEAE
Desmia portieria (Lyngbye) Silva
2000 Present study
Portieria hornemannii (Lyngb.) P.C.Silva
2000 Present study
Family HALYMENIACEAE
Grateloupia filicina (Wulfen) C. Agardh
1905 Reed, 1906
Family KALLYMENIACEAE
Kallymenia sessilis Okamura
2000 Present study
Order GIGARTINALES
Family SOLIERIACEAE
Eucheuma denticulum (Burm) Col and Herv.
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
2000 Present study
196
Introduced
Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty
1989 Glen and Doty, 1990
1991 Glen and Doty, 1992
1995 Larned, 1998
1996 Rodgers and Cox, 1999
1996 Rodgers, 1997
2000 Present study
Kappaphycus sp.
2000 Present study
Kappaphycus striatum (Schmitz) Doty
1974 Russell, 1983 (as Eucheuma striatum)
1988 Wood, 1989 (as Eucheuma striatum)
1989 Glen and Doty, 1990
1990 Glen and Doty, 1991
1991 Glen and Doty, 1992
1996 Rodgers and Cox, 1999
1996 Rodgers, 1997
2000 Present study
Family HYPNEACEAE
Hypnea cervicornis J. Agardh
1979 AECOS, 1982
1991 Russell, 1992
Hypnea chordacea Kütz.
2000 Present study
Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Agardh
1989 Glen and Doty, 1990
1991 Russell, 1992
2000 Present study
Hypnea nidifica J. Agardh
1933 Howe, 1934
1979 AECOS, 1982
1991 Glen and Doty, 1992
Hypnea pannosa J.Agardh
2000 Present study
Hypnea sp.
2000 Present study
Hypnea spinella (C.Agardh) Kütz.
2000 Present study
Hypneocolax stellaris Børgesen
2000 Present study
Order GRACILARIALES
Family GRACILARIACEAE
Gracilaria bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
Gracilaria conferoides (L.) Greville
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Gracilaria coronopfolia J. Agardh
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Gracilaria parvispora I.A.Abbott
2000 Present study
Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh, 1820)
1995 Larned, 1998
1996 Rodgers and Cox, 1999
1996 Rodgers, 1997
2000 Present study
Order AHNFELTIALES
Family GIGARTINACEAE
Chondrocanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq
2000 Present study
Order RHODYMENIALES
Family RHODYMENIACEAE
Botryocladia skottsbergi (Børgesen) Levring
197
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
2000 Present study
Chrysymenia okamurae Yamada & Segawa
2000 Present study
Family CHAMPIACEAE
Champia parvula (C. Agardh) Harvey
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
2000 Present study
Family LOMENTARIACEAE
Lomentaria hakodatensis Yendo
2000 Present study
Order CERAMIALES
Family CERAMIACEAE
Aglaothamnion sp.
2000 Present study
Anontrichium tenue (C.Agardh) Nägeli
2000 Present study
Antithamnion antillanum Børgesen
2000 Present study
Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne
1980 Hixon and Brostoff, 1983
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
2000 Present study
Ceramium clarionensis Setchell and Gardner
2000 Present study
Ceramium fimbriatum Setchell and Gardner
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Ceramium flaccidum Ardissone
2000 Present study
Ceramium sp.
2000 Present study
Diplothamnion jolyi van den Hoek
2000 Present study
Falkenbergia hillebrandii (Ardiss.) Falkenb.
2000 Present study
Griffithsia heteromorpha Kütz
2000 Present study
Griffithsia sp.
2000 Present study
Griffithsia tenuis C. Agardh
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
Polysiphonia apiculata Hollenberg, 1968
1980 Brostoff, 1985
Polysiphonia delicatula Hollenberg, 1968
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
Polysiphonia flabellulata Harvey
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
Polysiphonia flaccidissima Hollenberg
1961 Menez, 1962
Polysiphonia homoia Setchell and Gardner,
1963 Menez, 1964
Polysiphonia howei Hollenberg
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
Polysiphonia mollis Hooker and Harvey
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
Polysiphonia rhizoidea Menez
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
Polysiphonia sp.
2000 Present study
Polysiphonia tepdia Hollenberg
1961 Menez, 1962
Polysiphonia tongatensis Harvey
1963 Menez, 1964
198
Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harv.
2000 Present study
Wrangelia elegantissima R.E.Norris
2000 Present study
Family DELESSERIACEAE
Martensia fragilis Harv.
2000 Present study
Neomartensia flabelliformis
2000 Present study
Taenioma perpusillum J. Agardh (J. Agardh)
1980 Hixon and Brostoff, 1983
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
2000 Present study
Family DASYACEAE
Heterosiphonia crispella (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne
2000 Present study
Family RHODOMELACEAE
Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Boerg
1956 Kohn, 1959
1956 Doty, 1961
1967 Hollenberg, 1968
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Soegiarto, 1973
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Bowers, 1977
1979 AECOS, 1982
1981 Morrisey, 1985
1981 Jokiel and Morrisey, 1986
1982 AECOS, 1982
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
1991 Russell, 1992
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Amansia glomerata C. Agardh
1980 Brostoff, 1985
Chondria simpliciuscula Weber Bosse
2000 Present study
Chondria tenuissima (Good and Woodw.)
1933 Howe, 1934
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1968 Soegiarto, 1969
1993 Russell and Balasz, 1994
Herposiphonia crassa Hollenb
2000 Present study
Herposiphonia nuda Hollenb
2000 Present study
Herposiphonia parca Setchell
1980 Brostoff, 1985
2000 Present study
Herposiphonia sp.
2000 Present study
Laurencia nidifica C. Agardh
1982 AECOS, 1982
1991 Russell, 1992
Laurencia sp.
2000 Present study
Laurencia yamadana Howe
1952 Matthews, 1953b
2000 Present study
Neosiphonia sp.
2000 Present study
Tolypiocladia glomerulata (C. Agardh) Schmitz
199
Introduced
1980 Hixon and Brostoff, 1983
1983 Hixon and Brostoff, 1985
2000 Present study
Ululania stellata Apt & Schlech
2000 Present study
VASUCLAR PLANTS
Division MAGNOLIOPHYTA
Order HYDROCHARITALES
Family HYDROCHARITACEAE
Halophila australis Doty and Stone, 1966
1965 Doty and Stone, 1966
2000 Present study
Halophila hawaiana Doty and Stone, 1966
1965 Doty and Stone, 1966
1985 Herbert, 1986b
1985 Herbert, 1986a
2000 Present study
Order RHIZOPHORALES
Family RHIZOPHORACEAE
Rhizophora mangle Linn.
1961 Walsh, 1967
1990 Marine Research Consultants, 1990
1997 Allen, 1998
2000 Present study
INVERTEBRATES
Phylum CILIOPHORA
Class POLYHYMENOPHOREA
Subclass SPIROTRICHA
Order COLIPHORIDA
Family FOLLICULINIDAE
Eufollinica lignicola (Faure-Fremiet, 1936)
1961 Matthews, 1963
Lagotia simplex Dons
1952 Matthews, 1953b
Metafolliculina andrewsi (Giard, 1883)
Cryptogenic
1952 Matthews, 1953b
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Mirofolliculina limnoriae (Giard, 1883)
1961 Matthews, 1963
Parafolliculina violaceae (Giard, 1888)
Cryptogenic
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Class SPOROZOA
Subclass GREGARINIDA
Order EUGREGARINIDA
Family CEPHALOIDOPHORIDAE
Cephaloidophora carpilodei Ball, 1963
1961 Ball, 1963
Cephaloidophora pinguis Ball, 1963
1961 Ball, 1963
Phylum PORIFERA
Class CALCAREA
Subclass CALCINEA
Order CLATHRINIDA
Family LEUCETTIDAE
Leucetta solida Schmidt, 1862
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
Subclass CALCARONEA
Order LEUCOSOLENIIDA
Family GRANTIIDAE
200
Introduced
Introduced
Leuconia kaiana de Laubenfels, 1951
1976 Brock, 1976
Family HETEROPIIDAE
Heteropia glomerosa (Bowerbank, 1873)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Class DEMOSPONGIAE
Subclass HOMOSCLEROMORPHA
Order HOMOSCLEROPHORIDA
Family PLAKINIDAE
Plakortis simplex Schultz, 1880
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1948 BPBM-C 121
Plakortis sp.
2000 Present study
Subclass TETRACTINOMORPHA
Order ASTROPHORIDA
Family ANCORINIDAE
Zaplethea digonoxea de Laubenfels, 1950
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
Order HADROMERIDA
Family CHONDRILLIDAE
Chondrosia sp.
2000 Present study
Family CLIONIDAE
Cliona vastifica Hancock, 1849
Cryptogenic
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1965 Bergquist, 1967
1975 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1975
1976 Brock, 1976
Family SPIRASTRELLIDAE
Spheciospongia vagabunda (Ridley, 1884)
1960 BPBM-C 291 (as Spirastrella keankaha)
1965 Bergquist, 1967 (as Spirastrella vagabunda)
2000 Present study
Family SUBERITIDAE
Suberites zeteki de Laubenfels, 1936
1947 BPBM-C 117
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Terpios zeteki)
1960 BPBM-C 298
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Terpios zeteki)
2000 Present study
Terpios granulosa Bergquist, 1967
1965 Bergquist, 1967
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1985 Santavy, 1986
Family TETHYIDAE
Tethya diploderma Schmidt, 1870
1947 BPBM-C 119
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
Tethya sp.
2000 Present study
Family TIMEIDAE
Diplastrella spiniglobata (Carter, 1879)
1965 Bergquist, 1967
Subclass CERACTINOMORPHA
Order POECILOSCLERIDA
Suborder MICROCIONINA
Family MICROCIONIDAE
Clathria procera (Ridley, 1884)
Cryptogenic
1965 Bergquist, 1967
Clathria sp.
201
Introduced
1960 BPBM-C 289
1960 BPBM-C 290
1960 BPBM-C 304
Clathria sp. (orange)
2000 Present study
Clathria sp. (red)
2000 Present study
Family RASPAILIIDAE
Eurypon nigra Bergquist, 1967
1965 Bergquist, 1967
Suborder MYXILLINA
Family COELOSPHAERIDAE
Lissodendoryx Hawaiiana (de Laubenfels, 1950)
1947 BPBM-C 106 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1960 BPBM-C 296 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1960 BPBM-C 297 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1960 BPBM-C 306 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1960 BPBM-C 300 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1960 BPBM-C 301 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1961 BPBM-C 308 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1961 BPBM-C 191 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1971 BPBM-C 361 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1978 Caspers, 1980 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1979 AECOS, 1982 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
1983 Caspers, 1985 (as Damiriana Hawaiiana)
2000 Present study
Family CRELLIDAE
Naniupi ula de Laubenfels, 1950
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1948 BPBM-C 110
2000 Present study
Family MYXILLIDAE
Myxilla rosacea (Lieberkuhn, 1859)
1947 BPBM-C 109
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1956 de Laubenfels, 1957
Family PHORIOSPONGIIDAE
Strongylacidon Kane`ohe (de Laubenfels, 1950)
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Xytosiphum Kane`ohe)
1948 BPBM-C 104
2000 Present study
Family TEDANIIDAE
Tedania macrodactyla (Lamarck, 1814)
1947 BPBM-C 112
1965 Bergquist, 1967
Tedania reticulata Thiele, 1903
Cryptogenic
none BPBM-C 319 (as Tedania ignis)
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as T. ignis)
1960 BPBM-C 318 (as T. ignis)
1965 Bergquist, 1967 (as T. ignis)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as T. ignis)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as T. ignis)
1979 Jokiel, 1980 (as T. ignis)
Tedania sp.
2000 Present study
Family DESMACIDIDAE
Iotrochota protea (de Laubenfels, 1950)
1947 BPBM-C 111
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Hiattrochota proteus)
2000 Present study
Suborder MYCALINA
Family DESMACELLIDAE
202
Biemna sp.
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Family MYCALIDAE
Mycale armata Thiele, 1903
2000 Present study
Mycale cecilia de Laubenfels, 1936
1947 BPBM-C 114
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1960 BPBM-C 292
1979 Jokiel, 1980
2000 Present study
Mycale sp.3
2000 Present study
Mycale sp.4
2000 Present study
Mycale sp.5
2000 Present study
Stylinos sp.
2000 Present study
Zygomycale parishii (Bowerbank, 1875)
none BPBM-C 314
1947 BPBM-C 115
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1960 BPBM-C 295
1960 BPBM-C 294
1960 BPBM-C 293
1960 BPBM-C 316
1960 BPBM-C 315
1960 BPBM-C 317
1961 BPBM-C 190
1961 BPBM-C 203
1961 BPBM-C 189
1965 Bergquist, 1967
1965 Banner, 1968
1971 BPBM-C 362
1976 Brock, 1976
1979 Jokiel, 1980
2000 Present study
Order HALICHONDRIDA
Family AXINELLIDAE
Hymerhabdia sp.
2000 Present study
Family HALICHONDRIIDAE
Axinyssa sp.
2000 Present study
Halichondria coerulea Bergquist, 1967
Cryptogenic
1965 Bergquist, 1967
1976 Brock, 1976
Halichondria melanadocia de Laubenfels, 1936
1965 Bergquist, 1967
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Halichondria sp.
none BPBM-C 271
1961 BPBM-C 192
1966 Gupta, 1967 (as Halichondria magnicanulosa)
2000 Present study
Hymeniacidon chlorida (de Laubenfels, 1950)
1947 BPBM-C 116 (as Hymeniacidon chloris)
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Hymeniacidon chloris)
1960 BPBM-C 338 (as Hymeniacidon chloris)
Order HAPLOSCLERIDA
203
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Family CALLYSPONGIIDAE
Callyspongia diffusa (Ridley, 1884)
Cryptogenic
1947 BPBM-C 105
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1978 Hildemann et al., 1979
1979 Jokiel, 1980
1979 Hildemann et al., 1980
1979 Johnston et al., 1981
1981 Jokiel et al., 1982
1981 Bigger et al., 1982
1982 Bigger et al., 1983
1982 Johnston and Hildemann, 1983
1985 Smith, 1986
2000 Present study
Callyspongia sp.
2000 Present study
Family CHALINIDAE
Adocia sp.
none BPBM-C 270
1960 BPBM-C 302
1960 BPBM-C 303
Adocia sp. (orange)
2000 Present study
Chalinidae n.sp. (purple)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Haliclona cf. permollis (Bowerbank, 1866)
2000 Present study
Haliclona sp.
2000 Present study
Sigmadocia caerulea Hechtel, 1965
2000 Present study
Toxadocia sp.
2000 Present study
Toxadocia violacea de Laubenfels, 1950
none BPBM-C 310
none BPBM-C 309
1947 BPBM-C 107 (as Toxadocia mokuoloea)
1947 BPBM-C 108
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Kane`ohea poni)
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Neoadocia mokuoloea)
1948 BPBM-C 113 (as Kane`ohea poni)
1960 BPBM-C 312
1960 BPBM-C 299
1961 BPBM-C 193 (as Toxadocia mokuoloea)
1961 BPBM-C 311
1965 Banner, 1968
1976 Brock, 1976
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 Bigger et al., 1983
Toxiclona sp.
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Toxochalina sp.1
2000 Present study
Toxochalina sp.2
2000 Present study
Family NIPHATIDAE
Gelliodes fibrosa (Wilson, 1925)
2000 Present study
Gelliodes sp.
2000 Present study
204
Introduced
Introduced
Gellius sp.1
2000 Present study
Gellius sp.2
2000 Present study
Order DICTYOCERATIDA
Family SPONGIIDAE
Spongia oceania de Laubenfels, 1950
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
Order DENDROCERATIDA
Family DYSIDEIDAE
Dysidea arenaria Bergquist, 1965
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862)
Cryptogenic
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1948 BPBM-C 101
1960 BPBM-C 305
2000 Present study
Dysidea cf. herbacea (Keller, 1889)
1976 Brock, 1976
Dysidea cf. etheria
Introduced
2000 Present study
Dysidea sp.1
2000 Present study
Dysidea sp.2
2000 Present study
Dysidea sp.3
2000 Present study
Family DARWINELLIDAE
Aplysilla sp.
2000 Present study
Pleraplysilla hyalina de Laubenfels, 1950
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950
1948 BPBM-C 102
Family DICTYODENDRILLIDAE
Dictyodendrilla sp.
2000 Present study
Order VERONGIDA
Family DRUINELLIDAE
Druinella purpurea (Carter, 1880)
none BPBM-C 327 (as Psammaplysilla sp.)
1947 de Laubenfels, 1950 (as Hexadella pleochromata)
1948 BPBM-C 103 (as Hexadella pleochromata)
1965 Bergquist, 1967 (as Psammaplysilla purpurea)
1966 BPBM-C 326 (as Psammaplysilla purpurea)
1966 BPBM-C 325 (as Psammaplysilla purpurea)
Phylum CNIDARIA
Class HYDROZOA
Order HYDROIDA
Family AGALOPHENIIDAE
Lytocarpia niger (Nutting, 1905)
2000 Present study
Family BOUGAINVILLIIDAE
Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863)
Introduced
1970 Cooke, 1977 (as B. ramosa)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as B. ramosa)
Bougainvillia sp.
1966 Tusov, 1967
1967 Tusov and Davis, 1971
1972 BPBM-D 457
Garveia humilis (Verrill, 1928)
Introduced
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Epiphellia humilis)
205
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Family CAMPANULARIIDAE
Campanularia sp.
2000 Present study
Clytia hemisphaerica (Linnaeus, 1767)
Introduced
1970 Cooke, 1977
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Clytia latitheca Millard and Bouillon, 1973
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Obelia bidentata Clarke, 1875
Introduced
2000 Present study
Obelia dichotoma (Linnaeus, 1758)
Introduced
1970 Cooke, 1977
1972 BPBM-D 458
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Family CLAVIDAE
Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771)
Introduced
1967 Powers, 1971 (as C. lacustris)
Turritopsis nutricula McCrady, 1856
Introduced
1972 BPBM-D 456
1972 Cooke, 1977
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Family HALECIIDAE
Halecium sp.
1963 BPBM-D 349
2000 Present study
Family HALOPTERIDIDAE
Antennella secundaria (Gmelin, 1791)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Family HALOCORDYLIDAE
Pennaria disticha (Goldfuss, 1820)
Introduced
1932 Edmondson, 1933a (as Pennaria sp.)
1934 Edmondson, 1935 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1937 Boone, 1938 (as Corydendrium splendidum)
1938 Ingram, 1939 (as Pennaria sp.)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1967 Rees, 1971 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1967 Pardy, 1971 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1967 Pardy and Lenhoff, 1968 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969 (as Pennaria tiarella)
1967 Mariscal, 1971b (as Pennaria tiarella)
1967 Rees et al., 1970 (as Pennaria sp.)
1970 Cooke, 1977 (as Halocordyle disticha)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Pennaria tiarella)
2000 Present study
Pennaria sp.
1927 BPBM-D 182
1935 BPBM-D 532
1936 BPBM-D 216
1939 BPBM-D 230
Family KIRCHENPAUERIIDAE
Ventromma halecioides (Alder, 1859)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Family LAFOEIDAE
206
Anthohebella parasitica
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Family PLUMULARIIDAE
Halopteris polymorpha (Billard, 1913)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Halopteris sp.
2000 Present study
Lytocarpus phoeniceus (Busk)
1904 Nutting,1905
Plumularia diaphana
1972 BPBM-D 459
Plumularia floridana (Nutting, 1905)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Plumularia setacea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Cryptogenic
1970 Cooke, 1977
Plumularia strictocarpa Pictect, 1893
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Family SERTULARIIDAE
Dynamena cornicina McCrady, 1858
Cryptogenic
1970 Cooke, 1977
Dynamena crisioides Lamouroux, 1824
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Sertularella areyi Nutting, 1904
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Sertularella diaphana (Allman, 1885)
Cryptogenic
1970 Cooke, 1977
Sertularella tongensis Stechow, 1919
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Sertularia ligulata Thornely, 1904
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Sertularia sp.
2000 Present study
Tridentata humpferi Broch, 1914
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Tridentata turbinata (Lamouroux, 1816)
Cryptogenic
1970 Cooke, 1977 (as Sertularia ligulata)
Family SOLANDERIIDAE
Solanderia minima (Hickson, 1903)
none BPBM-D 519
Family SYNTHECIIDAE
Synthecium megathecum (Billard, 1924)
1970 Cooke, 1977 (as S. tubitheca)
2000 Present study
Order SIPHONOPHORA
Family PHYSALIIDAE
Physalia physalia (Linnaeus, 1758)
1967 Powers, 1971 (as P. utriculus)
Order CHONDROPHORA
Family VELELLIDAE
Velella velella Linnaeus, 1758
1971 BPBM-D 453 (as Velella sp.)
207
Introduced
Class ANTHOZOA
Subclass OCTOCORALLIA
Order CLAVULACEA
Family CLAVULARIIDAE
Carijoa riisei (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
2000 Present study
Order ALCYONACEA
Family ALCYONIIDAE
Sinularia abrupta Tixier-Durivault, 1970
2000 Present study
Family XENIIDAE
Anthelia edmondsoni (Verrill, 1928)
2000 Present study
Sarcothelia n. sp.
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Subclass HEXACORALLIA
Order ACTINIARIA
Family ACTINIIDAE
Anthopleura nigrescens (Verrill, 1928)
1929 Edmondson, 1930 (as Tealiopsis nigrescens)
1967 Powers, 1971
Anthopleura sp.
none BPBM-D 796
1960 BPBM-D 797
Gyractis excavata Boveri, 1893
1973 Dunn, 1974 (as Actiniogeton sesere)
Family AIPTASIIDAE
Aiptasia pulchella Carlgren, 1943
1967 Murdock and Lenhoff, 1968
1967 Powers, 1971 (as Aiptasia sp.)
1967 Gosline, 1971
1967 Reed, 1971 (as Aiptasia sp.)
1967 Mariscal, 1971b
1967 Cook, 1971
1967 Murdock, 1971
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969
1967 Gosline and Lenhoff, 1968
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Aiptasia sp.)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Aiptasia sp.)
1977 Lewis, 1980
1982 AECOS, 1982
1985 Steen, 1987
1997 Muscatine et. al., 1998
2000 Present study
Family BOLOCEROIDIDAE
Boloceroides mcmurrichi (Kwietniewski, 1898)
1965 Josephson and March, 1966 (as Boloceroides sp.)
1967 Lindstedt, 1971 (as Boloceroides lilae)
1967 Lindstedt et al., 1971 (as Boloceroides sp.)
1967 Mariscal, 1971b (as Boloceroides lilae)
1967 Powers, 1971 (as Boloceroides lilae)
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969 (as Boloceroides lilae)
1968 Guinther, 1970 (as Boloceroides lilae)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Boloceroides sp.)
1981 Lawn and Ross, 1982
1997 Muscatine et. al., 1998
Bunodeopsis medusoides (Fowler, 1888)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Family DIADUMENIDAE
Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869)
208
Introduced
Introduced
1999 Zabin, pers. comm.
Family ISOPHELLIIDAE
Telmatactis decora (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834)
1964 Bowers, 1965 (as Sagartia longa)
Family PHYMANTHIDAE
Heteranthus verruculatus Klunzinger, 1877
1970 Cuttress, 1977
Family STICHODACTYLIDAE
Antheopsis papillosa (Kwietniewski, 1898)
1961 Stevenson, 1963 (as Marcanthia cookei)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Radianthus cookei)
Heteractis malu (Haddon & Shachleton, 1893)
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969 (as Maracanthea cookei)
1967 Powers, 1971 (as Macranthea cookei)
1967 Mariscal, 1971b (as Maracanthea cookei)
1968 Guinther, 1970 (as Maracanthea cookei)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Radianthus cookei)
1974 Foster, 1975 (as Radianthus papillosa)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Radianthus cookei)
Order SCLERACTINIA
Family ACROPORIDAE
Montipora capitata (Dana, 1846)
2000 Present study
Montipora dilatata Studer, 1901
none BPBM-SC 2788
1963 BPBM-SC 470
1968 BPBM-SC 1377
1970 Maragos, 1972
1983 Heyward and Stoddart, 1985
1983 Hodgson, 1986
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
1985 Heyward, 1986
Montipora flabellata Studer, 1902
none BPBM-SC 2642
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1968 BPBM-SC 1378
1970 Maragos, 1972
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1985 Heyward, 1986
2000 Present study
Montipora patula Verrill, 1864
none BPBM-SC 2848
1932 BPBM-SC 2333
1968 BPBM-SC 1382
1968 BPBM-SC 1380
1968 BPBM-SC 1383
1970 Maragos, 1972
1971 Holthus et al., 1986
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Bowers, 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Montipora sp.
none BPBM-SC 2739
1932 BPBM-SC 2338
1932 BPBM-SC 2337
1932 BPBM-SC 2336
1932 BPBM-SC 2353
1932 BPBM-SC 2335
1932 BPBM-SC 2339
Montipora studeri Vaughan, 1907
1985 Heyward, 1986
209
Montipora verrilli Vaughan, 1907
none BPBM-SC 2819
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1967 Young, 1971b
1967 Young, 1971a
1970 Maragos, 1972
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1985 Heyward, 1986
Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck,1816)
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1904 BPBM-SC 182
1904 BPBM-SC 183
1904 BPBM-SC 186
1904 BPBM-SC 184
1904 BPBM-SC 185
1904 BPBM-SC 187
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1963 BPBM-SC 467
1963 BPBM-SC 471
1965 Banner, 1968
1968 BPBM-SC 1381
1968 Franzisket, 1969
1969 Franzisket, 1970
1969 Johannes et al., 1972
1970 Maragos, 1972
1970 Cox, 1971
1971 Holthus et al.1986
1971 Coles and Jokiel, 1977
1971 Coles, 1992
1971 Coles and Jokiel, 1978
1971 Coles, 1973
1972 Banner, 1974
1972 Maragos, 1974
1972 Lamberts, 1973
1972 Franzisket, 1973
1972 Maragos, 1973
1973 Franzisket, 1974
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1973 Jokiel and Townsley, 1974
1975 Henderson et al., 1976 (as M. verrocosa)
1975 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1975
1975 Houck et al., 1977
1975 Jokiel and Coles, 1977
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Smith et al., 1979
1977 Polacheck, 1978
1977 Bowers, 1977
1977 Jokiel, 1978
1978 Weil, 1979
1979 AECOS, 1982
1979 Johnston et al., 1981
1979 Weil, 1981
1981 Cox, 1982
1982 Kinzie and Hunter, 1987
1982 Jokiel et al., 1983
1982 Alino, 1983
1983 Hodgson, 1986
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1986
1983 Cox, 1986
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
210
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1988
1983 Heyward and Stoddart, 1985
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1993
1983 Cox, 1983
1985 Heyward, 1986
1985 Howard et al., 1986
1985 Hunter and Kehoe, 1986
1985 Kitalong, 1986a
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
1985 Scelfo, 1986
1985 Scelfo, 1986
1986 Trench and Blank, 1987
1987 Tyler and Fitzhardinge, 1989
1989 Cox, 1992
1989 Grottoli, 1999
1990 Stanton, 1992
1991 Stanton, 1992
1991 Coles and Ruddy, 1995
1992 Kinzie, 1993
1994 Shashar et al., 1996
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
1994 Shashar et al., 1996
1997 Field, 1998
1997 Bassim, 1998b
1997 Kolinski, 1998
1997 Cox and Ward, 1998
1997 Mate et al, 1998
1997 Bassim, 1998a
1997 Tarrant, 1998
1998 Kuffner, 1999
Family AGARICIIDAE
Leptoseris incrustans (Quelch, 1886)
1968 BPBM-SC 1376
1970 Maragos, 1972
Leptoseris papyracea (Dana, 1846)
1970 Maragos, 1972 (as L. digitata)
Leptoseris sp.
none BPBM-SC 2617
Pavona duerdeni Vaughan, 1907
none BPBM-SC 2878
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1968 BPBM-SC 1385
1970 Maragos, 1972 (as P. explanulata)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976 (as P. explanulata)
1997 Mate, 1998 (as P. explanulata)
Pavona sp.
none BPBM-SC 2790
Pavona varians Verrill, 1864
none BPBM-SC 2663
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1967 Young, 1971b
1968 BPBM-SC 1392
1968 BPBM-SC 1387
1968 BPBM-SC 1388
1968 BPBM-SC 1386
1970 Maragos, 1972
1972 Lamberts, 1973
1972 Banner, 1974
1975 Houck et al., 1977 (as P. clavus)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1982 AECOS, 1982
211
1997 Muscatine et. al., 1998
1997 Mate, 1998
2000 Present study
Family DENDROPHYLLIIDAE
Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829
none BPBM-SC 2691
1963 BPBM-SC 468 (as Tubastrea aurea)
2000 Present study
Tubastraea sp.
1932 BPBM-SC 2346
1932 BPBM-SC 2347
Family FAVIIDAE
Cyphastrea ocellina (Dana, 1846)
none BPBM-SC 662
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1932 BPBM-SC 2340
1932 BPBM-SC 2354
1932 Edmondson, 1933c
1944 Edmondson, 1946
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969
1967 Mariscal, 1971b
1967 Mariscal, 1971a
1967 Young, 1971a
1967 Young, 1971b
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1968
1968 BPBM-SC 1369
1968 BPBM-SC 1370
1970 Maragos, 1972
1971 Holthus et al., 1986
1971 Maragos et al, 1985
1972 Lamberts, 1973
1972 Stimson, 1978
1972 Banner, 1974
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Houck, 1977
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Redalje, 1976
1977 Bowers, 1977
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1993
1983 Hodgson, 1986
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1986
1985 Wright, 1986
1985 Alino, 1986
1986 Romano, 1988
2000 Present study
Leptastrea bottae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849
none BPBM-SC 2675
1902 Vaughan, 1907 (as Leptastrea agassiz)
1914 MacKaye, 1915 (as Leptastrea agassiz)
1967 Mariscal, 1971a
1968 BPBM-SC 1374
1970 Maragos, 1972
1972 Banner, 1974
Leptastrea purpurea Dana, 1846
none BPBM-SC 2798
1914 MacKaye, 1915 (as Favia hawaiiensis)
1932 Edmondson, 1933c (as Favia hawaiiensis)
1970 Maragos, 1972 (as Favia hawaiiensis)
2000 Present study
Family FUNGIIDAE
Cycloseris sp.
212
none BPBM-SC 2608
Cycloseris vaughani (Boschma, 1923)
1970 Maragos, 1972
Fungia scutaria Lamarck, 1801
none BPBM-SC 2695
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1904 BPBM-SC 409 (as Fungia scutaria var. dentigera)
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1959 Stephens, 1960
1961 Stephens, 1962
1963 BPBM-SC 473
1963 Bosch, 1967
1963 Bosch, 1965
1965 Banner, 1968
1965 Yamazato, 1966
1967 Powers, 1971
1967 Reed, 1971
1967 Mariscal, 1971a
1967 Mariscal, 1971b
1967 Pearse, 1971
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1968
1968 BPBM-SC 1372
1968 BPBM-SC 1371
1968 Guinther, 1986
1968 Franzisket, 1969
1969 Coles and Strathmann, 1973
1969 Franzisket, 1970
1969 Johannes et al., 1972
1970 Maragos, 1972
1970 Young, 1971a
1970 Young, 1971b
1971 Coles, 1973
1971 Coles and Jokiel, 1977
1972 Maragos, 1973
1972 Franzisket, 1973
1972 Lamberts, 1973
1972 Banner, 1974
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1973 Franzisket, 1974
1974 Franzisket, 1975
1975 Jokiel and Cowden, 1976
1975 Jokiel and Coles, 1977
1975 Henderson et al., 1976 (as F. scuteria)
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 D'Elia, 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Bowers, 1977
1981 Krupp, 1983
1981 Krupp, 1984
1981 Krupp, 1981
1983 Hodgson, 1986
1983 Chadwick, 1988
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
1983 Chadwick, 1986
1984 Krupp, 1985
1985 Alino, 1986
1986 Romano, 1988
1992 BPBM-SC 3940
1997 Muscatine et. al., 1998
1997 Schwarz, 1998
1997 Wilson and Schwarz, 1998
213
1997 Bassim, 1998b
1997 Palaki, 1998
2000 Present study
Fungia sp.
1932 BPBM-SC 2351
1932 BPBM-SC 2350
1932 BPBM-SC 2349
1932 BPBM-SC 2352
1932 BPBM-SC 2348
Family POCILLOPORIDAE
Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)
none BPBM-SC 2705
1914 MacKaye, 1915 (as Pocillopora cespitosa)
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1944 Edmondson, 1946
1955 BPBM-SC 557 (as Pocillopora damicornis laysanensis)
1960 Wainwright, 1963
1963 BPBM-SC 469
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 Castro, 1966 (as Pocillopora cespitosa)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Pocillopora cespitosa)
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1968
1967 Clausen, 1971
1967 Clausen, 1972
1967 Young, 1971b
1967 Reed, 1971b
1967 Reed, 1971a
1967 Mariscal, 1971b
1967 Disalvo, 1971a
1967 Clausen and Roth, 1975
1967 Young et al., 1971
1967 Powers, 1971
1967 Young, 1971a
1967 Mariscal, 1971a
1968 Muscatine and Cernichiari, 1969
1969 Harrigan, 1972
1970 Young, 1973
1970 Maragos, 1972
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1971 Holthus et al., 1986
1971 Vandermeulen et al., 1972
1971 Maragos et al, 1985
1971 Coles, 1973
1971 Coles, 1992
1971 Coles and Jokiel, 1977
1972 Maragos, 1973
1972 Vandermeulen and Watanabe, 1973
1972 Banner, 1974
1972 Lamberts, 1974
1972 Franzisket, 1973
1972 Lamberts, 1973
1973 Vandermeulen, 1974
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1974 Vandermeulen, 1975
1975 Houck et al, 1977
1976 Jokiel and Coles, 1977
1976 D'Elia, 1977
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Bowers, 1977
1977 Stimson, 1978
1977 Jokiel and Guinther, 1978
1977 Smith et al., 1979
1977 Polacheck, 1978
214
1977 Muscatine and D'Elia, 1978
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 Weil, 1979
1979 Kinzie et al., 1984
1979 AECOS, 1982
1979 Weil et al, 1981
1980 Jokiel, 1985a
1980 Richmond and Jokiel, 1984
1980 Richmond, 1983
1980 Hidaka, 1981
1981 Roth et al., 1982
1981 Stoddart, 1983
1981 Jokiel, 1985b
1981 Jokiel and Morrisey, 1986
1982 Richmond, 1987
1982 AECOS, 1982
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1986
1983 Glynn and Krupp, 1986
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
1983 Stimson, 1997
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1988
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1993
1984 Jokiel et al., 1985
1984 Hodgson, 1985a
1984 Richmond, 1985b
1984 Richmond, 1985
1984 Richmond, 1985a
1985 Stoddart, 1986
1985 Richmond, 1986
1985 Richmond, 1987
1985 Chavez, 1986
1985 Alino, 1986
1985 Holloran, 1986b
1985 Holloran, 1986a
1985 Hidaka, 1986
1985 Kitalong, 1986a
1985 Hunter and Kehoe, 1986
1985 Esquivel, 1986a
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
1986 Snidvongs, 1988
1986 Romano, 1988
1987 Stoddart, 1988
1988 Stimson, 1990
1989 Te, 1991
1989 Stambler et al, 1991
1989 Stambler et al., 1991
1989 Goh, 1991
1991 Coles and Ruddy, 1995
1992 Snidvongs and Kinzie, 1994
1993 Lesser et al., 1994
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
1995 Lesser and Lewis, 1996
1995 Jokiel et al., 1997
1997 Cox and Ward, 1998
1997 Wilson, 1998
1997 Levy, 1998
1997 Jokiel, 1998
1997 Kuffner, 1998
1997 Kosaki, 1999
1997 Kuffner, 1998
1997 Palaki, 1998
1997 Zakai, 1998
2000 Present study
Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849
215
none BPBM-SC 2672
1955 BPBM-SC 558 (as Pocillopora modumanensis)
1970 Maragos, 1972
2000 Present study
Pocillopora lingulata Dana, 1846
none BPBM-SC 2704
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 Banner, 1968
1965 Castro, 1966
1968 BPBM-SC 1393
1970 Maragos, 1972
1972 Banner, 1974
Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1928 Edmondson, 1929 (as P. meandrina var. nobilis)
1964 Barry, 1965 (as P. meandrina var. nobilis)
1965 Castro, 1966 (as P. meandrina var. nobilis)
1965 Banner, 1968
1965 Castro, 1966
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969 (as P. elegans)
1967 Reed, 1971
1967 Mariscal, 1971b
1967 Mariscal, 1971a
1968 BPBM-SC 1394 (as Pocillopora meandrina var. nobilis)
1968 Young, 1969
1968 Franzisket, 1969 (as P. elegans)
1969 Franzisket, 1970 (as P. elegans)
1970 Maragos, 1972
1970 Young, 1971a
1972 Banner, 1974
1972 Maragos, 1973
1972 Lamberts, 1973
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Bowers, 1977
1977 Polacheck, 1978
1979 AECOS, 1982
1983 Glynn and Krupp, 1986
1989 Gochfeld, 1991
1989 Acevedo, 1991
1990 Cox, 1991
1992 Danilowicz, 1997
2000 Present study
Pocillopora molokensis Vaughan, 1907
none BPBM-SC 3926
1970 Maragos, 1972
Family PORITIDAE
Porites (Synaraea) irregularis Verrill, 1864
none BPBM-SC 2858
Porites brighami Vaughan, 1907
none BPBM-SC 2620
1970 Maragos, 1972
Porites compressa Dana, 1846
none BPBM-SC 2710
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1932 BPBM-SC 2329
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1960 Wainwright, 1963
1963 BPBM-SC 472
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 Banner, 1968
216
1965
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1968
1968
1968
1968
1968
1969
1969
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1971
1971
1971
1971
1971
1972
1972
1972
1972
1975
1976
1976
1977
1977
1977
1977
1977
1979
1979
1982
1982
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1983
1984
1985
1985
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1989
1990
1990
1991
1994
1994
Yamazato, 1966
Reed, 1971
Young, 1971a
Young, 1971b
Mariscal, 1971a
Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969
Clausen, 1972
BPBM-SC 1396
BPBM-SC 1397
BPBM-SC 1395
Tomlinson, 1969
Franzisket, 1969
Franzisket, 1970
Johannes et al., 1972
Johannes and Tepley, 1974
Henderson et al., 1976
Young, 1971b
Maragos, 1972
Young, 1971a
Coles, 1973
Coles and Jokiel, 1977
Holthus et al., 1986
Coles, 1992
Maragos et al, 1985
Maragos, 1973
Banner, 1974
Maragos, 1974
Lamberts, 1973
Environmental Consultants Inc., 1975
Brock, 1976
D'Elia, 1977
Bowers, 1977
Polacheck, 1978
Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
Smith et al., 1979
Lewis, 1980
AECOS, 1982
AECOS, 1982
AECOS, 1982
AECOS, 1982
Cox, 1983
Hodgson, 1986
Jokiel, 1986
Kitalong, 1986b
Kitalong, 1986a
Fitzhardinge, 1986
Fitzhardinge, 1988
Glynn and Krupp, 1986
Fitzhardinge, 1993
Cox, 1986
Hunter, 1985
Esquivel, 1986b
Alino, 1986
Hunter and Kehoe, 1986
Romano, 1988
Hunter, 1988
Fitzhardinge and Bailey-Brock, 1989
Aeby, 1991
Grottoli, 1999
Cox, 1991
Haramaty, 1991
Coles and Ruddy, 1995
Shashar et al., 1996
Shashar et al., 1996
217
1994 Shashar et al., 1997
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
1997 Muscatine et. al., 1998
1997 Neves, 2000
1997 Neves, 1998
1998 Kufner, 1999
2000 Present study
Porites duerdeni Vaughan, 1907
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1965 Banner, 1968
Porites evermanni Vaughan, 1907
none BPBM-SC 2740
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1965 Banner, 1968
1967 Neves, 1998
1970 Maragos, 1972
1997 Neves, 2000
Porites lobata Dana, 1846
1902 Vaughan, 1907
1914 MacKaye, 1915
1932 Galtsoff, 1933
1964 Barry, 1965
1967 DiSalvo, 1971b
1967 Reed, 1971
1968 BPBM-SC 1398
1970 Johannes and Tepley, 1974
1970 Maragos, 1972
1971 Holthus et al., 1986 (as P. lichen)
1972 Banner, 1974
1972 Maragos, 1973
1975 Houck et al., 1977
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Smith et al., 1979
1988 Jokiel et al., 1993
1989 Grottoli, 1999
1997 Neves, 1998
1997 Neves, 2000
1997 Field, 1998
2000 Present study
Porites pukoensis Vaughan, 1907
1970 Maragos, 1972
Porites sp.
1932 BPBM-SC 2563
1932 BPBM-SC 2328
1932 BPBM-SC 2327
Family SIDASTREIDAE
Coscinaraea wellsi Veron & Pichon, 1979
1970 Maragos, 1972 (as Coscinaraea ostreaeformis)
Psammocora sp.
none BPBM-SC 2694
1968 BPBM-SC 1401
Psammocora stellata Verrill, 1864
none BPBM-SC 2897
none BPBM-SC 2877
none BPBM-SC 3301
1914 MacKaye, 1915 (as Stephanaria brighami)
1968 BPBM-SC 1403
1968 BPBM-SC 1400
1970 Young, 1971a (as P. brighami)
1970 Maragos, 1972 (as P. brighami)
1972 Lamberts, 1973 (as Stephanaria brighami)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
218
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Stephanaria brighami)
1979 AECOS, 1982 (as Stephanaria brighami)
1982 AECOS, 1982 (as Stephanaria brighami)
Psammocora verrilli Vaughan, 1907
1968 Tomlinson, 1969
1970 Maragos, 1972
Order ZOANTHIDEA
Family ZOANTHIDAE
Palythoa psammophilia Walsh & Bowers, 1971
1965 BPBM-D 437
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1982 AECOS, 1982
Palythoa tuberculosa (Esper, 1791)
none BPBM-D 737
1964 Helfrich and Townsley, 1964-68
1965 BPBM-D 679
1966 BPBM-D 680
2000 Present study
Palythoa vestitus (Verrill, 1928)
none BPBM-D 733
1964 Helfrich and Townsley, 1964-68
1973 Cooke, 1976
1983 Hodgson, 1986
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
Palythoa sp.
1965 BPBM-D 727
Zoanthus pacificus Walsh & Bowers, 1971
1964 Helfrich and Townsley, 1964-68
1965 BPBM-D 444
1965 BPBM-D 779 (as Zoanthus confertus)
1965 BPBM-D 439
1967 Mariscal and Lenhoff, 1969 (as Z. sandwichensis)
1967 Reimer, 1971 (as Z. sandwichensis)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1973 Cooke, 1976
1975 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1975
1977 Bowers, 1977 (as Z. sandwichensis)
1983 Hodgson, 1986
1983 Hodgson, 1985b
1984 Scelfo, 1985
1997 Muscatine et. al., 1998 (as Z. sandwichensis)
Zoanthus sp.
none BPBM-D 724
1963 BPBM-D 350
1965 BPBM-D 743
Subclass CERIANTIPATHARIA
Order ANTIPATHARIA
Family ANTIPATHIDAE
Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928
1963 Grigg, 1964
Order CERIANTHARIA
Family ACONTIFERIDAE
Isarachnanthus bandanensis Carlgren, 1924
1932 Edmondson, 1933a (as Cerianthus sp.)
Family CERIANTHIDAE
Cerianthus sp.
1938 BPBM-D 228
1939 BPBM-D 238
Class SCYPHOZOA
Order STAUROMEDUSAE
Family ELEUTHEROCARPIDAE
Kishinouyea hawaiiensis Edmondson, 1930
1929 Edmondson, 1930
Order SEMAEOSTOMAE
219
Family ULMARIDAE
Aurelia sp.
1963 BPBM-D 352
Order RHIZOSTOMEAE
Family CASSIOPEIDAE
Cassiopea andromeda Light, 1914
1964 BPBM-D 353 (as Cassiopea mertensi)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Cassiopea mertensi)
1978 Uchida, 1979 (as Cassiopea mertensi)
Family MAGISTIIDAE
Anomalorhiza shawi Light, 1921
1983 Cooke, 1984
Mastigias papua (Lesson, 1830)
1963 BPBM-D 354
1965 Banner, 1968
Phyllorhiza punctata van Ledenfeld, 1884
1960 Cuttress , in Doty, 1961
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Mastigias ocellata)
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965 (as Rhizostoma ocellata)
1976 Devaney and Eldredge, 1977
Phylum CTENOPHORA
Class TENTACULATA
Order PLATYCTENIDA
Family PLATYCTENIDAE
Coeloplana duboscqui Dawydoff, 1930
1962 Matthews and Townsley, 1964
Coeloplana echinicola Tanaka
1962 Matthews and Townsley, 1964
Coeloplana willeyi Abbott, 1902
1962 Matthews and Townsley, 1964
Vallicula multiformis Rankin, 1955
1994 Eldredge and Miller, 1995
Phylum PLATYHELMINTHES
Class TREMATODA
Order MONOPISTHOCOTYLEA
Family CAPSALIDAE
Benedenia hawaiiensis
1959 Martin, 1960
Order MONOGENEA
Family DACTYLOGYRIDAE
Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927)
Cryptogenic
1981 Keneko et al, 1968
Order TREMATODA
Family TREMATODA
Cercaria littorinalinae
1950 Chu, 1952
Coitcaecum banneri
1959 Martin, 1960
Coitcaecum norae
1959 Martin, 1960
Haplorchis taichui (Nishigori, 1924)
1957 Martin, 1958
Haplorchis yokoqawai (Katsuta, 1932)
1957 Martin, 1958
Opecoelus lanceolatus
1959 Martin, 1960
Paracardicola hawaiensis Martin, 1960
1959 Martin, 1960
Podocotyloides stenometra
1996 Aeby, 1998
Pseudopecoelus tenuoides
1959 Martin, 1960
Stellantchasmus falcatus Onji and Nishio, 1924
220
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1957 Martin, 1958
Trigoncryptus conus Martin, 1958
1957 Martin, 1958
Class TURBELLARIA
Order POLYCLADIDA
Suborder ACOTYLEA
Family EUPLANIDAE
Taenioplana teredini Hyman, 1944
Introduced
1986 Poulter, 1987
Family PROSTHIOSTOMIDAE
Prosthiostomum (Prosthiostomum) montiporae Poulter, 1975
1970 Jokiel and Townsley, 1974 (as Prosthiostomum sp.)
1971 Coles and Jokiel, 1978
Suborder COTYLEA
Family PSEUDOCEROTIDAE
Thysanozoon tentaculatum Pease, 1860
1960 BPBM-F 165
Phylum NEMATODA
Class SECERNENTEA
Order ASCARIDIDAE
Family ANISAKIDAE
Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii (Johnston and Mawson, 1951)
1986 Deardorff, 1987
Class SPIRURIDA
Family PHILOMETRIDAE
Philometra sp.
1982 Deardorff and Stanton, 1983
Phylum ENTOPROCTA
Class LOXOSOMATIDA
Family PEDICELLINIDAE
Barentsia benedeni? (Foettinger, 1887)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Barentsia gracilis)
Phylum ANNELIDA
Class POLYCHAETA
Family APHRODITIDAE
Eunoe nodulosa Day, 1967
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Lepidonatus purpureus
1976 Brock, 1976
Family POLYNOIDAE
Hololepidella nigropunctata (Horst, 1915)
1965 Devaney, 1967
Hololepidella sp.
1964 BPBM-R 284
1964 BPBM-R 283
1964 BPBM-R 282
Iphione muricata (Savigny, 1818)
1946 Hartman, 1966
2000 Present study
Paralepidonotus ampulliferus (Grube, 1878)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Thormora atrata (Treadwell, 1940)
2000 Present study
unid. Polynoidae
2000 Present study
Family CHRYSOPETALIDAE
Paleanotus sp.
2000 Present study
Family SPINTHERIDAE
Spinther japonicus Imajima and Hartman, 1964
221
Cryptogenic
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Family AMPHINOMIDAE
Chloeia flava (Pallas, 1766)
1982 BPBM-R 1612
Eurythoe complanata (Pallas, 1766)
none BPBM-R 913 (as Eurythoe pacifica)
1925 BPBM-R 250 (as Eurythoe pacifica)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Eurythoe pacifica)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Pherecardia striata (Kinberg, 1857)
1946 BPBM-R 338
1946 Hartman, 1966
1946 BPBM-R 337
Pseudeurythoe occulifera
1976 Brock, 1976
Family PHYLLODOCIDAE
Eulalia sanguinea Oersted, 1843
2000 Present study
Phyllodoce (Anaitides) parva (Hartmann-Schroder, 1965)
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as Anaitides parva)
Phyllodoce sp.
2000 Present study
Prophyllodoce Hawai`ia Hartman, 1966
2000 Present study
unid. Phyllodocidae
2000 Present study
Family HESIONIDAE
Hesione splendida Savigny, 1818
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as H. pacifica)
Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866
1971 BPBM-R 1420
Ophiodromus berrisfordi
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Podarke pugettensis Johnson, 1901
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Ophiodromus pugettensis)
Syllida armata Quatrefages, 1865
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Family SYLLIDAE
Branchiosyllis exilis (Gravier, 1900)
2000 Present study
Branchiosyllis uncinigera Hartmann-Schroder, 1960
1946 Hartman, 1966
Brania rhopalophora (Ehlers, 1897)
1977 White, 1980
Exogone verugera (Claparede, 1868)
1977 White, 1980
2000 Present study
Haplosyllis spongicola (Grube, 1855)
1946 Hartman, 1966
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Syllis (H.) spongicola)
2000 Present study
Langerhansia cornuta (Rathke, 1843)
1946 Hartman, 1966
2000 Present study
Myrianida crassicirrata Hartmann-Schroder, 1965
1946 Hartman, 1966
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Opisthosyllis brunnea Langerhans, 1879
222
Introduced
1977 White, 1980
Parasphaerosyllis indica Monro, 1937
1977 White, 1980
Sphaerosyllis capensis serrata Hartmann-Schroder, 1960
1946 Hartman, 1966
Sphaerosyllis sublaevis Ehlers, 1913
1977 White, 1980
Trypanosyllis hawaiiensis Hartmann-Schroder, 1978
2000 Present study
Trypanosyllis zebra (Grube, 1860)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Typosyllis hyalina (Grube, 1863)
1946 Hartman, 1966
2000 Present study
Typosyllis intatta
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Syllis (Typosyllis) intatta)
Typosyllis microoculata Hartmann-Schroder, 1965
1946 Hartman, 1966
Typosyllis prolifera Krohn, 1852
2000 Present study
Typosyllis sp.
2000 Present study
Typosyllis sp.1
2000 Present study
Typosyllis variegata (Grube, 1860)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Syllis (Typosyllis) variegata)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Syllis (Typosyllis) variegata)
1976 Brock, 1976
Syllidae sp.15
2000 Present study
Syllidae sp.6
2000 Present study
Syllidae sp.16
2000 Present study
Syllidae sp.17
2000 Present study
unid. Syllidae
2000 Present study
Family NEREIDIDAE
Ceratonereis tentaculata Kinberg, 1866
1934 Holly, 1935 (as Ceratonereis mirabilis)
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as Ceratonereis mirabilis)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Ceratonereis mirabilis)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Ceratonereis mirabilis)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Ceratonereis mirabilis)
2000 Present study
Neanthes arenaceodonta Moore, 1903
Introduced
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as N. caudata)
Nereis acuminata
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Perinereis cultrifera Iwajima, 1972
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Perinereis helleri Grube, 1878
1946 Hartman, 1966
1946 BPBM-R 456
Perinereis nigropunctata (Horst, 1889)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as P. nigropunctada)
1976 Brock, 1976
Platynereis abnormis Horst, 1924
Cryptogenic
223
1946 Hartman, 1966
Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin and Milne Edwards, 1833)
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as Platynereis massiliensis)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Platynereis massiliensis)
1976 Brock, 1976
1980 Brostoff, 1985
Platynereis pulchella Gravier, 1901
1934 Holly, 1935 (as P. pestai)
Platynereis sp.
2000 Present study
Nereididae sp.3
2000 Present study
unid. Nereididae
2000 Present study
Family EUNICIDAE
Eunice afra Peters, 1854
1946 BPBM-R 427
1946 BPBM-R 410
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as E. afra punctada)
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Eunice antennata (Savigny, 1820)
1946 BPBM-R 429
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
2000 Present study
Eunice australis Quatrefages, 1865
2000 Present study
Eunice cariboea (Grube, 1856)
2000 Present study
Eunice filamentosa Grube, 1856
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Eunice vittata (delle Chiaje, 1828)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Lysidice ninetta Audouin and Milne Edwards, 1833
1946 BPBM-R 392 (as Lysidice collaris)
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as Lysidice collaris)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Lysidice collaris)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Lysidice collaris)
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977 (as Lysidice collaris)
2000 Present study
Marphysa macintoshi Crossland, 1903
1938 BPBM-R 1365
Marphysa sanguinea Montagu, 1815
1946 Hartman, 1966
Nematonereis unicornis Schmarda, 1861
1946 Hartman, 1966
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 White, 1980
2000 Present study
Palola siciliensis (Grube, 1840)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Eunice (Palola) siciliensis)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Eunice (Palola) siciliensis)
2000 Present study
Family ONUPHIDAE
Diopatra leuckarti Kinberg, 1865
1976 Grovhoug, 1976
Family LUMBRINERIDAE
Lumbrineris dentata Hartmann-Schroder, 1965
1965 Hartmann-Schroder, 1966
1976 Brock, 1976
Lumbrineris sp.
224
2000 Present study
Lumbrineris sphaerocephala (Schmarda, 1861)
Cryptogenic
1976 Brock, 1976
1986 Baily-Brock and Hartman, 1987
Family ARABELLIDAE
Arabella iricolor (Montagu, 1804)
1946 Hartman, 1966
1977 White, 1980
Family DORVILLEIDAE
Dorvillea moniloceras (Moore, 1909)
1946 Hartman, 1966
1946 BPBM-R 386
1946 BPBM-R 388
Dorvillea sp.
2000 Present study
Family SPIONIDAE
Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951
1975 BPBM-R 808
Polydora Kane`ohe Ward, 1981
1976 BPBM-R 643
1976 BPBM-R 644
Polydora pilikia Ward, 1981
1977 BPBM-R 646
1977 BPBM-R 645
Polydora websteri Hartman, 1943
Introduced
1976 Brock, 1976
1986 Ward, 1987
Pseudopolydora antennata (Claparede, 1870)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Polydora antennata)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Polydora antennata)
Pseudopolydora pulchra (Carazzi, 1895
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Scolelepis squamata (Muller, 1806)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Spiophanes bombyx (Claparede, 1870)
1976 Brock, 1976
unid. Spionidae
2000 Present study
Family CIRRATULIDAE
Cirratulus sp.
1938 BPBM-R 1422
Cirratulus zebuensis McIntosh, 1885
1960 BPBM-R 262
Cirriformia capensis (Schmarda, 1861)
1976 Brock, 1976
Cirriformia crassicollis (Kinberg, 1866)
1976 Brock, 1976
Cirriformia hawaiensis (Hartman, 1956)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Cirriformia punctata (Grube, 1856)
1946 Hartman, 1966
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Cirriformia semicincta (Ehlers, 1905)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Cirratulus semicinctus)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Cirratulus semicinctus)
Cirriformia sp.
2000 Present study
Dodecaceria laddi Hartman, 1954
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 White, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
225
Family CHAETOPTERIDAE
Chaetopterus sp.
Cryptogenic
1958 Johnson, 1959 (as Chaetopterus variopedatus)
1960 BPBM-R 260
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Chaetopterus variopedatus)
1971 Hill, 1972 (as Chaetopterus variopedatus)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Chaetopterus variopedatus)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Chaetopterus variopedatus)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Chaetopterus variopedatus)
2000 Present study
Mesochaetopterus minutus Potts, 1914
1946 Hartman, 1966
Mesochaetopterus sp.
1937 BPBM-R 1140
1937 BPBM-R 1139
1937 BPBM-R 1138
1937 BPBM-R 1137
Phyllochaetopterus verrilli Treadwell, 1943
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
Phyllochaetopterus sp.
1937 BPBM-R 1421
Family ORBINIIDAE
Naineris laevigata (Grube, 1855)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Family OPHELIIDAE
Armandia bioculata
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Armandia intermedia Fauvel, 1902
Cryptogenic
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
Polyophthalmus pictus Dujardin, 1839
1982 BPBM-R 1609
Family CAPITELLIDAE
Capitella sp. (Fabricus, 1780)
Cryptogenic
1946 Baily-Brock and Hartman, 1987 (as Capitella capitata)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Capitella capitata)
2000 Present study
Notomastus (Clistomastus) anoculatus Hartmann-Schroder, 1965
1946 Hartman, 1966
Family ARENICOLIDAE
Arenicola brasiliensis (Nonato, 1958)
none BPBM-R 315
1946 Hartman, 1966
1983 Bailey-Brock, 1984
Family STERNASPIDAE
Sternaspis sp.
2000 Present study
Family TEREBELLIDAE
Loimia medusa (Savigny, 1818)
2000 Present study
Nicolea gracilibranchis (Grube, 1878)
1976 Brock, 1976
Nicolea sp.
1946 BPBM-R 547
1946 Hartman, 1966
Polycirrus sp.
1963 Johnson, 1965
Thelepus setosus (Quatrefages, 1865)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
226
1976 Brock, 1976
Family SABELLIDAE
Branchiomma nigromaculata (Baird, 1865)
Cryptogenic
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Branchiomma cingulata)
1971 Hill, 1972
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Branchiomma cingulata)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Branchiomma cingulata)
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Branchiomma cingulata)
2000 Present study
Branchiomma sp.
1963 BPBM-R 2166
Demonax leucaspis Kinberg, 1867
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Hypsicomus phaeotaenia (Schmarda, 1861)
1977 White, 1980
Megalomma intermedium (Beddard, 1888)
1938 BPBM-R 651 (as Megalomma sp.)
2000 Present study
Potamilla torelli
1976 Brock, 1976
Sabellastarte spectabilis (Grube, 1878)
Introduced
1960 Bailey-Brock, 1976 (as S. sanctijosephi)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as S. sanctijosephi)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as S. sanctijosephi)
2000 Present study
unid. Sabellidae
2000 Present study
Family SERPULIDAE
Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel, 1923)
Introduced
1976 Brock, 1976
Hydroides brachyacantha Rioja, 1941
Introduced
2000 Present study
Hydroides crucigera (Morch, 1863)
Introduced
1936 Straughan, 1969a
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
Hydroides dirampha (Morch, 1863)
Introduced
none BPBM-R 1098 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as H. lunulifera)
1936 BPBM-R 1086 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1936 BPBM-R 1232 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1936 BPBM-R 1085 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1936 BPBM-R 1084 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1936 Straughan, 1969a (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1936 BPBM-R 1096 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1937 BPBM-R 1087 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1937 BPBM-R 1088 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1937 BPBM-R 1091 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1968 BPBM-R 922 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Hydroides lunulifera)
Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883)
Introduced
none BPBM-R 1119 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1936 BPBM-R 1104 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1936 BPBM-R 1106 (as Hydroides norvegica)
227
1936 BPBM-R 1102 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1936 BPBM-R 1229 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1936 BPBM-R 1103 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1936 BPBM-R 1105 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1937 BPBM-R 1107 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1938 BPBM-R 1112 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1964 Bowers, 1965 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1968 BPBM-R 924 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1968 BPBM-R 1230 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1968 Straughan, 1969a (as Hydroides norvegica)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Hydroides norvegica)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Hydroides norvegica)
2000 Present study
Hydroides sp.
none BPBM-R 261
1936 BPBM-R 1233
1937 BPBM-R 1234
1937 BPBM-R 1236
1938 BPBM-R 1237
Pomatoleios kraussii Baird, 1865
Introduced
1960 Bailey-Brock, 1976
1967 Staughan, 1969b
1968 BPBM-R 1217
1968 BPBM-R 1192
1968 Staughan, 1969a
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Protula atypha Bush, 1904
1968 Straughan, 1969a
1976 Brock, 1976
Pseudovermilia occidentalis McIntosh, 1885
1937 Straughan, 1969a (as Vermiolopsis hawaiiensis)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Vermiolopsis hawaiiensis)
2000 Present study
Salmacina dysteri (Huxley, 1855)
Introduced
none BPBM-R 1226
none BPBM-R 1227
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1936 BPBM-R 1219
1936 BPBM-R 1220
1937 BPBM-R 1221
1937 BPBM-R 1223
1937 Straughan, 1969a
1938 BPBM-R 1225
1946 Hartman, 1966
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Filograna implexa)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Filograna implexa)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Filograna implexa)
1986 Baily-Brock and Hartman, 1987 (as Filograna implexa)
2000 Present study
Serpula sp.
Cryptogenic
1936 Straughan, 1969a (as Serpula vermicularis)
2000 Present study
Spirobranchus giganteus corniculatus (Grube, 1862)
1946 BPBM-R 509 (as Spirobranchus giganteus)
1946 Hartman, 1966 (as Spirobranchus giganteus)
1968 BPBM-R 1244 (as Spirobranchus giganteus)
228
1968 Staughan, 1969a (as Spirobranchus giganteus)
2000 Present study
Vermiliopsis sp.1
2000 Present study
Vermiliopsis torquata Treadwell, 1943
1937 BPBM-R 1312
1937 Staughan, 1969a
2000 Present study
unid. Serpulidae
2000 Present study
Family SPIRORBIDAE
Eulaeospira orientalis (Pillai, 1960)
Cryptogenic
1960 Bailey-Brock, 1976
Janua foraminosa (Moore and Bush, 1904)
1971 BPBM-R 927
1976 Brock, 1976
Janua pagenstecheri Quatrefages, 1865
Introduced
1970 Vine et al., 1972
Leodora knightjonesi (de Silva, 1965)
Cryptogenic
1970 Vine et al., 1972 (as Janua knightjonesi)
Neodexiospira foraminosa (Moore and Bush, 1904)
Cryptogenic
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Janua stueri)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Janua stueri)
Neodexiospira pseudocorrugata (Bush, 1904)
Cryptogenic
1970 Vine et al., 1972 (as Janua pseudocorrugata)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Janua pseudocorrugata)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Janua pseudocorrugata)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Janua pseudocorrugata)
Pileolaria militaris Claparede, 1868
Introduced
1970 Vine et al., 1972
1976 Brock, 1976
Pileolaria pseudoclavus Vine, 1972
Cryptogenic
1970 Vine, 1972 (as Pileolaria semimilitaris)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Pileolaria semimilitaris)
Protolaeospira ambilateralis (Pixell, 1912)
1970 Vine et al., 1972
Simplicaria pseudomilitaris (Thiriot-Quievreux, 1965)
Cryptogenic
1970 Vine et al., 1972 (as Pileolaria pseudomilitaris)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Pileolaria pseudomilitaris)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Pileolaria pseudomilitaris)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Pileolaria pseudomilitaris)
Vinearia koehleri Caullery and Mesnil, 1897
Cryptogenic
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Pileolaria koehleri)
unid. Spirorbidae
2000 Present study
Class OLIGOCHAETA
Family TUBIFICIDAE
Bathydrilus adriaticus Hrabe, 1971
Cryptogenic
1987 Erseus and Davis, 1989
Limnodriloides rubicundus Erseus, 1982
Cryptogenic
1987 Erseus and Davis, 1989
Phylum SIPUNCULA
Class SIPUNCULIDEA
Order GOLFINGIIDAE
229
Family THEMISTIDAE
Themiste (Langenopsis) langeniformis Baird, 1868
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 White, 1980
Phylum MOLLUSCA
Class GASTROPODA
Subclass PROSOBRANCHIA
Order ARCHAEOGASTROPODA
Family SCISSURELLIDAE
Sinezona insignis (Smith, 1910)
2000 Present study
Family HALIOTIDAE
Haliotis corrugata
1968 Anon., 1969
Haliotis crachrodii Leach
1959 Brock, 1960
1959 Eldredge, 1994
Haliotis ens
1968 Anon., 1969
Haliotis sp.
1927 Brock, 1952
1927 Edmondson and Wilson, 1940
Family FISSURELLIDAE (DIODORINAE)
Diodora granifera (Pease, 1861)
1957 Martin, 1958 (as Tarebria granifera)
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Diodora octagona (Reeve, 1850)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Diodora ruppelli (Sowerby, 1834)
2000 Present study
Diodora sp.
2000 Present study
Diodora cf. quadriradiata
2000 Present study
Family FISSURELLIDAE (EMARGINULINAE)
Emarginula hawaiiensis Dall, 1895
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Family PATELLIDAE
Cellana exarata (Reeve, 1854)
1966 Rogers, 1967
Family PHASIANELLIDAE
Tricolia (Hiloa) variabilis (Pease, 1861)
2000 Present study
Tricolia variabilis (Pease, 1861)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Family SKENEIDAE
Lophocochlias minutissimus (Pilsbry, 1921)
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Haplocochlias minutissimus)
2000 Present study
Lophocochlias sp.
2000 Present study
Family STOMATELLIDAE
Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Family TROCHIDAE (ENCYCLINAE)
Euchelus gemmatus (Gould, 1845)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Gibbula marmorea (Pease, 1861)
2000 Present study
230
Introduced
Introduced
Family TROCHIDAE (TROCHINAE)
Alcyna ocellata Hickman & McLean, 1995
2000 Present study
Alcyna sp.
2000 Present study
Thalotia ocellata (A. Adams, 1861)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Thalotia rubra)
Trochus histrio Reeve, 1848
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as T. histrio intextus)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Trochus intextus Kiener, 1850
1966 Papagni, 1967 (as T. sandwichensis)
2000 Present study
Trochus niloticus Linnaeus, 1758
1952 Brock, 1952 (as T. obelisus)
1968 Cross, 1968
1978 Eldredge, 1994
Trochus sp.
2000 Present study
Family TURBINIDAE (COLLONINAE)
Leptothyra candida (Pease, 1861)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Leptothyra rubricincta (Mighels, 1845)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Leptothyra verruca (Gould, 1845)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Family TURBINIDAE (TURBININAE)
Turbo argyrostoma Linnaeus
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Turbo sandwicensis Pease, 1861
1966 Papagni, 1967 (as T. intercostalis)
2000 Present study
Family NERITIDAE (NERITINAE)
Nerita picea (Recluz, 1841)
1968 Webber, 1970
1968 Reese, 1969
1970 Taylor, 1975
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Theodoxus neglectus (Pease, 1868)
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Theodoxus vespertinus (Sowerby, 1849)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Neritina tahitiensis)
Family NERITIDAE (SMARAGDIINAE)
Smaragdia bryanae Pilsbry, 1917
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Family PHENACOLEPADIDAE
Phenacolepas scobinata (Gould, 1859)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Order NEOTAENIOGLOSSA
Suborder DISCOPODA
Family CERITHIIDAE
Bittium impendens (Hedley, 1899)
2000 Present study
Bittium parcum (Gould, 1861)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
231
Introduced
Bittium zebrum (Kiener, 1841)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Cerithium atromarginatum Dautzenberg and Bouge, 1933
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithium bavayi Vignal,1902
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithium boeticum Pease, 1860
2000 Present study
Cerithium columna Sowerby, 1834
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Cerithium egenum Gould, 1849
2000 Present study
Cerithium mutatum Sowerby, 1834
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithium nesioticum Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1905
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Cerithium perparvulum Watson 1886
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithium rostratum Sowerby, 1855
2000 Present study
Cerithium zebrum
2000 Present study
Cerithium sp.
2000 Present study
Litiopa melanostoma Rang, 1828
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family DIALIDAE
Cerithidium perparvulum (Watson, 1886)
2000 Present study
Diala semistriata (Philippi, 1845)
2000 Present study
Family FOSSARIDAE
Fossarus cumingii (A. Adams, 1855)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Fossarus garrettii Pease, 1868
1970 Taylor, 1975
Fossarus multicostatus Pease, 1861
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family OBTORTIONIDAE
Finella pupoides A. Adams, 1860
2000 Present study
Finella sp.
2000 Present study
Family LITTORINIDAE (LITTORININAE)
Littoraria pintado (Wood, 1828)
1950 Chu, 1952 (as Littorina pintado)
1965 Whipple, 1966 (as Littorina pintado)
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Littorina pintado)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Littorina pintado)
2000 Present study
Littoraria scabra (Linnaeus, 1758)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as Littorina scabra)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Littorina scabra)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Littorina scabra)
1965 Whipple, 1966 (as Littorina scabra)
1968 Webber, 1970 (as Littorina scabra)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Littorina scabra)
2000 Present study
Littoraria undulata (Gray, 1839)
2000 Present study
Nodilittorina picta
232
1965 Whipple, 1966 (as Littorina picta marmorata)
1965 Whipple, 1966 (as Littorina picta)
Peasiella tantilla (Gould, 1849)
2000 Present study
Family EATONIELLIDAE
Eatoniella (Caveatoniella) janetaylorae Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Family ASSIMENEIDAE
Assiminea nitida (Pease, 1865)
2000 Present study
Family BARLEEIDAE
Barleeia calcarea Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Family CAECIDAE
Caecum arcuatum de Folin, 1867
2000 Present study
Caecum glabriformis (A. Adams, 1868)
2000 Present study
Caecum sepimentum de Folin, 1867
2000 Present study
Family RISSOIDAE (RISSOINAE)
Alvinia isolata (Laseron, 1956)
2000 Present study
Parashiela beetsi Ladd, 1966
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vitricithna marmorata (Hedley, 1907)
2000 Present study
Isselia hiloense (Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1908)
2000 Present study
Merelina granulosa (Pease, 1862)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Merelina sp.
2000 Present study
Rissoina ambigua (Gould, 1849)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Rissoina cerithiiformis Tryon, 1887
2000 Present study
Rissoina costata A. Adams, 1851
2000 Present study
Rissoina ephamilla (Watson, 1886)
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as R. sphamilla)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Rissoina miltozona Tomlin, 1915
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Rissoina triticea Pease, 1861
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Rissoina turricula Pease, 1861
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Schwartziella ephamilla Ponder, 1985
2000 Present study
Schwartziella gracilis (Pease, 1861)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Schwartziella triticea Pease, 1861
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Zebina semiplicata (Pease, 1862)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Zebina sp.
233
2000 Present study
Zebina tridentata (Michaud, 1830)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Family STROMBIDAE
Strombus maculatus Sowerby, 1842
1970 Taylor, 1975
1970 Berg, 1972
1970 Berg, 1971
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Strombus ostergaardi Pilsbry
1927 Ostergaard, 1928
Family HIPPONICIDAE
Hipponix (Antisabia) foliaceus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1835)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Hipponix (Cochlear) imbricatus Gould, 1846
1970 Taylor, 1975
Hipponix (Pilosabia) pilosus (Deshayes, 1832)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as H. pilosus imbricatus)
1970 Taylor, 1975
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Hipponix australis
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Hipponix barbatus Sowerby, 1835
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Hipponix sp.
2000 Present study
Sabia conica (Schumacher, 1817)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family VANIKORIDAE
Vanikoro acuta (Recluz, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vanikoro cancellata (Lamarck, 1822)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vanikoro recluziana Adams and Angas 1863
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family CALYPTRAEIDAE
Cheilea dillwyni Gray, 1825
1970 Taylor, 1975
1976 Brock, 1976
Cheilea equestris (Linnaeus, 1758)
2000 Present study
Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Crepidula fornicata (Gmelin, 1791)
1977 White, 1980
Crepidula patula (Ranzani)
1935 Ingram, 1937
Crepidula spinosum (Sowerby, 1824)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Crepidula sp.
2000 Present study
Crucibulum spinosum (Sowerby, 1824)
1968 Ulbrick, 1969
1968 Ulbrick, 1970
234
Introduced
Introduced
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1970 Taylor, 1975
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Family VERMETIDAE
Cephalaspidea sp.
2000 Present study
Dendropoma gregaria Hadfield and Kay, 1972
1970 Taylor, 1975
Dendropoma meroclista Hadfield and Kay, 1972
1968 Hadfield et al., 1972
1970 Taylor, 1975
1977 White, 1980
Dendropoma platypus Mörch, 1861
1968 Hadfield et al., 1972
1968 Kay, 1970
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Dendropoma psarocephala Hadfield and Kay, 1972
1968 Hadfield et al., 1972
1970 Taylor, 1975
1977 White, 1980
2000 Present study
Dendropoma rhyssoconcha Hadfield and Kay, 1972
1968 Hadfield et al., 1972
1977 White, 1980
Dendropoma sp.
2000 Present study
Eualetes tulipa (Chenu, 1843)
1968 Hadfield et al., 1972 (as Vermetus alii )
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Vermetus alii)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Vermetus alii )
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Vermetus alii )
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Vermetus alii )
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Vermetus alii )
1977 White, 1980 (as Vermetus alii )
2000 Present study
Petaloconchus keenae Hadfield and Kay, 1972
1968 Hadfield et al., 1972
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Petaloconchus tokyoensis
1977 White, 1980
Serpulorbis variabilis Hadfield and Kay, 1972
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Family CYPRAEIDAE
Cypraea caputserpentis Linnaeus, 1758
1946 Ingram, 1947
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
Cypraea chinensis Gmelin, 1791
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea fimbriata Gmelin, 1791
1970 Taylor, 1975
235
Introduced
Cypraea helvola Linnaeus, 1758
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea isabella Linnaeus, 1758
1946 Ingram, 1947
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea lynx Linnaeus, 1758
1946 Ingram, 1947
Cypraea madagascariensis Gmelin
1938 Ingram, 1939
Cypraea minoridens Melvill, 1901
2000 Present study
Cypraea moneta Linnaeus, 1758
1946 Ingram, 1947
Cypraea ostergaardi Dall, 1921
1938 Ingram, 1939
Cypraea rashleighana Melvill, 1888
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea reticulata Martyn
1946 Ingram, 1947
Cypraea sulcidentata Gray, 1824
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea talpa Linnaeus, 1758
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea teres Gmelin, 1791
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cypraea tessellata Swainson, 1822
1938 Ingram, 1939
Family ERATOIDAE
Erato sandwicensis Pease, 1860
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family TRIVIIDAE
Trivia edgari Shaw, 1909
2000 Present study
Trivia hordacea Kiener, 1845
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Trivia pellucida Reeve, 1846
2000 Present study
Trivia sp.
2000 Present study
Family NATICIDAE (NATICINAE)
Natica gualteriana Récluz, 1844
1968 Miller, 1975
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Natica sagittifera Recluz, 1852
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family NATICIDAE (POLINICINAE)
Polinices mamilla (Linn., 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family BURSIDAE
Bursa cruentata Sowerby, 1841
1970 Taylor, 1975
Bursa granularis (Röding, 1798)
1968 Houbrick and Fretter, 1969
1970 Taylor, 1975
Bursa rosa (Perry, 1811)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family CASSIDAE (PHALINAE)
Casmaria erinaceus kalosmodix (Melvill, 1883)
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Casmaria erinaceus)
Family RANELLIDAE (CYMATIINAE)
Charonia tritonis (Linnaeus, 1767)
1970 Taylor, 1975
236
Cymatium (Cymatium) nicobaricum (Röding, 1798)
1968 Houbrick and Fretter, 1969
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cymatium (Gutturnium) muricinum (Röding, 1798)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cymatium (Septa) pileare (Linnaeus, 1758)
1968 Houbrick and Fretter, 1969
Family TONNIDAE
Tonna perdix (Linnaeus, 1758)
1968 Guinther, 1970
1970 Taylor, 1975
Suborder PTENOGLOSSA
Family CERITHIOPSIDAE
Cerithiopsis filofusca Laseron, 1951
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithiopsis leucocephalum Watson, 1886
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithiopsis tricarinata (Pease, 1861)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Cerithiopsis turrigera Watson, 1886
1970 Taylor, 1975
Clathropsis turreta Laseron, 1955
1970 Taylor, 1975
Joculator sp.
2000 Present study
Joculator uveanum (Melvill and Standen, 1896)
2000 Present study
Family TRIPHORIDAE (INIFORINAE)
Iniforis aemulans (Hinds, 1843)
2000 Present study
Family TRIPHORIDAE (MASTONIINAE)
Cautor intermissa (Laseron, 1958)
2000 Present study
Litharium oceanida (Dall, 1924)
2000 Present study
Mastonia cingulifera (Pease, 1861)
2000 Present study
Viriola fallax Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Viriola flammulata (Pease, 1871)
2000 Present study
Family TRIPHORIDAE (METAXIINAE)
Metaxia albicephala Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Family TRIPHORIDAE (TRIPHORINAE)
Triforis incisus Pease
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
Triforis niloticus
1968 Anon., 1969
Triphora cancellata Hinds, 1843
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora cingulifera
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora coralina (Laseron, 1958)
2000 Present study
Triphora flammulata (Pease, 1861)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora incisa (Pease, 1861)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora maculata Pease, 1846
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora pallida (Pease, 1871)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
237
Triphora peasi (Jousseaume, 1884)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora perfecta Pease, 1870
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora sulcosa (Pease, 1870)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora triticea Pease, 1861
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Schwartziella triticea )
Triphora tubularis (Laseron, 1958)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Triphora sp.
2000 Present study
Family EPITONIIDAE
Cycloscala hyalina (Sowerby, 1844)
2000 Present study
Epitonium aculeatum (Sowerby, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium alatum (Sowerby, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium costalum Sowerby
1968 Guinther, 1970
Epitonium fucatum (Pease, 1861)
1968 Guinther, 1970
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Epitonium hyalina mokuoloense Pilsbry, 1921
1968 Guinther, 1970
Epitonium kanemoe Pilsbry, 1921
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium millecostatum (Pease, 1861)
1935 Worcester, 1969
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium O`ahuense (Pilsbry, 1921)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium paumotensis (Pease, 1868)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Epitonium perplexum (Deshayes, 1863)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium ulu Pilsbry, 1921
1963 Bosch, 1965
1968 Guinther, 1970
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium umbilicatum (Pease, 1869)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Epitonium sp.
2000 Present study
Laeviscala sp.
2000 Present study
Family JANTHINIDAE
Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
1970 Taylor, 1975
Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family EULIMIDAE
Balcis acanthyllis (Watson, 1886)
2000 Present study
Balcis aciculata (Pease, 1861)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as Melanella aciculata)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Melanella aciculata)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Balcis conoidalis (Sowerby, 1865)
2000 Present study
238
Balcis inflexa (Pease, 1868)
2000 Present study
Balcis kanaka (Pilsbry, 1917)
2000 Present study
Balcis thaanumi (Pilsbry, 1917)
2000 Present study
Balcis sp.
2000 Present study
Eulima metcalfei (A. Adams, 1853)
2000 Present study
Melanella letsonae Pilsbry, 1917
1916 Pilsbry, 1917
Melanella lunata Pilsbry, 1917
1916 Pilsbry, 1917
Melania indefinita
1961 Walsh, 1967
Mucronalia nitidula Pease, 1861
1967 Hoskins, 1968
Stenomelania newcombi Lea
1957 Martin, 1958
Stylifer linkiae Sarasin
1966 Davis, 1967
1967 Tullis, 1968
Subularia delicata Pilsbry, 1917
1916 Pilsbry, 1917
Family LITIOPIDAE
Styliferina goniochila (A. Adams, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Order NEOGASTROPODA
Family BUCCINIDAE
Caducifer decapitata (Reeve, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Monostiolum decapitatus)
2000 Present study
Cantharus farinosus (Gould, 1850)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Engina albocincta Pease, 1860
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Engina idiosa (Duclos, 1845)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Prodotia ignea (Gmelin, 1791)
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Pisiana ignea)
2000 Present study
Family COLUMBELLIDAE
Anachis miser (Sowerby, 1844)
2000 Present study
Columbella scabra Linnaeus
1935 Ingram, 1937
Euplica turturina (Lamarck, 1822)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Euplica varians (Sowerby, 1832)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Mitrella bella (Reeve, 1859)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Mitrella loyaltensis (Hervier, 1900)
2000 Present study
Mitrella margarita (Reeve, 1859)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Mitrella rorida (Reeve, 1859)
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Mitrella sp.
239
2000 Present study
Mitrella zebra (Gray, 1828)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Pisiana gracilis (Reeve, 1846)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Pisiana tritonidea (Reeve)
1964 Barry, 1965
Seminella peasei (von Martens & Langkaval 1871)
2000 Present study
Seminella smithi (Angas, 1877)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Seminella virginea (Gould, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Seminella sp.
2000 Present study
Family CORALLIOPHILIDAE
Coralliophila d’orbignyana (Petit, 1851)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Coralliophila erosa (Röding, 1798)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Coralliophila violacea (Kiener, 1836)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Quoyula madreporarum (Sowerby, 1834)
2000 Present study
Rhizochilus madreporarum (Sowerby)
1964 Barry, 1965
Family FASCIOLARIIDAE
Latirus nodatus (Gmelin, 1791)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Peristernia chlorostoma (Sowerby, 1825)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
2000 Present study
Family MURICIDAE
Muricodrupa funiculus (Wood, 1828)
2000 Present study
Family NASSARIIDAE
Nassarius dermistina (Gould, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Nassarius ravidus (A. Adams, 1851)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family THAIDIDAE
Drupa (Drupa) ricina (Linnaeus, 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Drupa (Ricinella) rubusidaeus Röding, 1798
1970 Taylor, 1975
Drupella cornus (Roding, 1798)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Drupella ochrostoma (Blainville, 1832)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Maculotriton bracteatus (Hinds, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Maculotriton sp.
2000 Present study
Morula dumosa (Conrad, 1837)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Morula echinata (Reeve, 1846)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Morula foliacea (Conrad, 1837)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Morula granulata (Duclos, 1832)
240
1970 Taylor, 1975
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Drupa granulata)
Morula parva (Reeve, 1846)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Morula uva (Röding, 1798)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Pinaxia versicolor (Gray, 1839)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vexilla fusconigra Pease, 1860
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vexilla vexillum (Gmelin, 1791)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family COSTELLARIIDAE
Vexillum (Costellaria) bellum (Pease, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vexillum (Costellaria) interruptum (Anton, 1839)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vexillum (Costellaria) interstriatum (Sowerby, 1870)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vexillum (Pusia) lautum (Reeve, 1845)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Vexillum (Pusia) piceum (Pease, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Vexillum (Pusia) tusum (Reeve, 1845)
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Family MARGINELLIDAE
Cystiscus huna Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Granula sandwicensis (Pease, 1860)
2000 Present study
Volvarina fusiformis (Hinds, 1844)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Family MITRIDAE (IMBRICARIINAE)
Cancilla (Domiporta) granatina (Lamarck, 1811)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Imbricaria olivaeformis (Swainson, 1821)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Neocancilla waikikiensis Pilsbry, 1921
1970 Taylor, 1975
Scabricola (Swainsonia) newcombii (Pease, 1869)
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Stigatella newcombii)
Subcancilla interlirata Reeve, 1844
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family MITRIDAE (MITRINAE)
Mitra (Mitra) mitra (Linnaeus, 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Mitra (Nebularia) cucumerina Lamarck, 1811
2000 Present study
Mitra (Nebularia) luctuosa A. Adams, 1853
2000 Present study
Mitra (Nebularia) tricaonica Reeve, 1844
1976 Brock, 1976
Mitra (Strigatella) litterata (Lamarck, 1811)
1965 Banner, 1968
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Mitra (Strigatella) saltata Pease, 1865
2000 Present study
Mitra (Strigatella) typha Reeve, 1845
1970 Taylor, 1975 (as Stigatella typha)
241
Mitra auiculoides Reeve, 1845
1970 Taylor, 1975
Mitra tabunala Lamarck, 1811
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family CONIDAE
Conus abbreviatus Reeve, 1843
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus leopardus (Röding, 1798)
1956 Kohn, 1961
Conus pennaceus Born, 1780
1956 Kohn, 1961
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus perthusus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus quercinus Lightfoot, 1786
1956 Kohn, 1961
1956 Kohn, 1959
1960 Doty, 1961
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
Conus rattus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Conus striatus Linnaeus, 1758
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus vexillum Gmelin, 1791
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus vitulinus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
1970 Taylor, 1975
Conus sp.
2000 Present study
Family TEREBRIDAE
Hastula matheroniana (Deshayes, 1859)
1916 Pilsbry, 1917 (as Terebra lauta)
Terebra affinis Gray, 1834
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra areolata (Link, 1807)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra cerithina Lamarck, 1822
2000 Present study
Terebra crenulata (Linnaeus, 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra gouldi Deshayes
1968 Miller, 1970
1968 Miller and Croker, 1972
1968 Miller, 1975
Terebra inconstans (Hinds, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra lanceata (Linn., 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra maculata (Linnaeus, 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra nodularis Deshayes, 1859
1916 Pilsbry, 1917
Terebra penicillata Hinds, 1844
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra plumbea Quoy and Gaimard, 1832
1970 Taylor, 1975
Terebra strigulata (Linn., 1758)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family TURRIDAE (CLAVININAE)
Carinapex minutissima (Garret, 1873)
1970 Taylor, 1975
242
2000 Present study
Clavus (Tylotiella) sp.
2000 Present study
Clavus sp.
2000 Present study
Family TURRIDAE (DAPHNELLINAE)
Daphnella interrupta Pease, 1860
1970 Taylor, 1975
2000 Present study
Daphnella ornata (Hinds, 1844)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Daphnella sandwicensis Pease, 1860
1970 Taylor, 1975
Kermia apicalis (Montrozier, 1861)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Kermia bifasciata (Pease, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Kermia brunnea (Pease, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Kermia melanoxytum (Hervier, 1895)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Kermia pumilla (Mighels, 1845)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Tritonoturris elegans (Pease, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Veprecula brunonia (Dall, 1924)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family TURRIDAE (MANGELIINAE)
Eucithara angiostoma (Pease, 1868)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Lienardia balteata (Pease, 1860)
1970 Taylor, 1975
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Lienardia crassicostata (Pease, 1860)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Family TURRIDAE (MITROLUMININAE)
Mitrolumna metula (Hinds, 1843)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Anarithna metula)
2000 Present study
Family TURRIDAE (TURRINAE)
Gemmula monilifera (Pease, 1861)
1970 Taylor, 1975
Xenuroturris kingae Powell, 1964
1970 Taylor, 1975
Order HETEROSTROPHA
Family ORBITESTELLIDAE
Orbitestella regina Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Orbitestella sp.
2000 Present study
Family ARCHITECTONICIDAE
Heliacus veriagatus Gmelin, 1791
1970 Taylor, 1975
Philippia oxytropis A. Adams, 1855
1970 Taylor, 1975
Family RISSOELLIDAE
Rissoella confusa confusa Ponder and Yoo, 1977
2000 Present study
Rissoella longispira Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Family PYRAMIDELLIDAE
Herviera gliriella (Melvill and Standen, 1896)
2000 Present study
Herviera patricia Pilsbry, 1918
243
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Odostomia patricia)
Hinemoa indica (Melvill, 1896)
Introduced
1978 Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Miralda paulbartschi Pilsbry, 1921
2000 Present study
Odostomia indica (Melvill)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Odostomia pupu Pilsberg
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Odostomia sp. Pilsbry, 1917
1916 Pilsbry, 1917
2000 Present study
Odostomia stearnsiella Pilsbry, 1918
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
2000 Present study
Pyramidella sulcata A. Adams, 1854
2000 Present study
Pyrgulina oodes (Watson, 1886)
Cryptogenic
1978 Kay, 1979
2000 Present study
Pyrgulina sp.
2000 Present study
Turbonilla lirata (A. Adams, 1855)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
2000 Present study
Subclass OPISTOBRANCHIA
Order CEPHALASPIDEA
Family BULLIDAE
Bulla adamsi (Menke, 1850)
Introduced
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Bulla vernicosa Gould, 1859
1954 Burgess, 1995
Family APLUSTRIDAE
Hydatina amplustra (Linnaeus, 1758)
1965 Banner, 1968
Family HAMINEIDAE
Atys debilis Pease, 1860
2000 Present study
Atys kuhnsi Pilsbry, 1917
2000 Present study
Atys semistriata Pease, 1860
1935 Ingram, 1937
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Atys sp.
2000 Present study
Haminoea crocata Pease, 1860
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Haminoea sp.
2000 Present study
Family AGLAJIDAE
Chelidonura hirundina (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Philine sp.
2000 Present study
Family SCAPHANDRIDAE
Acteocina hawaiensis Pilsbry, 1921
2000 Present study
Cylichna pusilla (Pease, 1860)
2000 Present study
Order ANASPIDEA
244
Family APLYSIIDAE (APLYSIINAE)
Aplysia juliana Quoy and Gaimard, 1832
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Aplysia parvula Guilding in Mörch, 1863
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Aplysia pulmonica Gould, 1852
1968 Watson, 1969
Aplysia sp.
2000 Present study
Family APLYSIIDAE (DOLABELLINAE)
Dolabella auricularia (Lightfoot, 1786)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Family APLYSIIDAE (DOLABRIFERIINAE)
Dolabrifera dolabrifera (Rang, 1828)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Family APLYSIIDAE (NOTARCHIINAE)
Stylocheilus longicaudatus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Order NOTASPIDEA
Family PLEUROBRANCHIDAE
Pleurobranchus sp.
1949 Ostergaard, 1950
Order SACOGLOSSA
Family JULIIDAE
Julia exquisita Gould, 1862
2000 Present study
Family PLAKOBRANCHIDAE
Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824
1954 Ostergaard, 1955 (as P. ianthobapus)
1968 Testerman, 1970
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Placobranchus ocellatus)
2000 Present study
Order NUDIBRANCHIA
Family GONIODORIDIDAE
Okenia pellucida Burn, 1967
1972 Gosliner, 1980
Family HEXABRANCHIDAE
Hexabranchus sp.
2000 Present study
Family AEOLIDAE
Berghia major (Elliot, 1903)
1981 Lawn and Ross, 1982
Family CUTHONIDAE
Cuthona perca (Marcus, 1958)
1972 Gosliner, 1980
Phestilla sibogae Bergh, 1905
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1990 Haramaty, 1991
1995 Gochfeld and Aeby, 1997
Family FACELINIDAE
Caloria indica (Berg, 1896)
Cryptogenic
1972 Gosliner, 1980
Subclass PULMONATA
Order BASOMMATOPHORA
Family MELAMPIDAE
Melampus parvulus Pfeiffer, 1846
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
Family SIPHONARIIDAE
Siphonaria normalis Gould, 1846
1968 Cook, 1969
1976 Brock, 1976
245
Introduced
Introduced
Class BIVALVIA
2000 Present study
Williamia radiata (Pease, 1861)
2000 Present study
Family MYTILIDAE
Adipicola crypta Dall, Bartsch and Rehder, 1938
2000 Present study
Brachidontes crebristriatus (Conrad, 1837)
1916 Pilsbry, 1917 (as Mytilus crebristriatus)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Hormomya
crebristriatus)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Brachiodontes crebristriatus)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Mytilus and Hormomya cerebristriatus)
2000 Present study
Crenella sp.
2000 Present study
Modiolaria sp.
1935 Ingram, 1937
Musculus aviarius Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
2000 Present study
Musculus oahuensis Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
Septifer bryanae (Pilsbry, 1921)
2000 Present study
Family ARCIDAE (ARCINAE)
Arca parva Sowerby
1935 Ingram, 1937
Barbatia (Acar) divaricata (Sowerby, 1833)
2000 Present study
Barbatia (Arbabatia) O`ahua Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Barbatia nuttingi (Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938)
2000 Present study
Barbatia sp.
2000 Present study
Family ISOGNOMONIDAE
Isognomon californicum (Conrad, 1837)
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Isognomon costellatum Conrad
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Isognomon incisum (Conrad, 1837)
2000 Present study
Isognomon legumen (Gmelin, 1791)
2000 Present study
Isognomon perna (Linnaeus, 1767)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Isognomon sp.
2000 Present study
Isognomon torvum Gould
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family MALLEIDAE
Malleus regula (Forskål, 1775)
2000 Present study
Family PTERIIDAE
Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)
1927 Galtsoff, 1933
1932 Edmondson, 1933a (as P. galtsoffi)
246
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as P. galtsoffi)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as P. margaratifera)
1987 Rodgers et al. 2000
1993 Sims and Sarver, 1994
2000 Present study
Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as Pteria nebulosa)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Pinctada nebulosa)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Pinctada nebulosa)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Pinctada nebulosa)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Pinctada nebulosa)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978 (as Pinctada nebulosa)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Pinctada sp.
2000 Present study
Family PINNIDAE
Pinna muricata Linnaeus, 1758
1965 Castro, 1966
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Family LIMIDAE
Lima keokea Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family OSTREIDAE
Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793)
Introduced
1939 Brock, 1952
1939 Sparks, 1963
1939 Edmondson and Wilson, 1940 (as Ostrea gigas)
1939 Kay, 1979
1944 Edmondson, 1946 (as Ostrea gigas)
1965 Banner, 1968
1966 Corn, 1967
1969 Brick, 1970
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1971)
Introduced
1923 Sparks, 1963
1933 Edmondoson, 1933a
1944 Edmondson, 1946
1952 Matthews, 1953
1952 Brock, 1952
1966 Corn, 1967
1969 Brick, 1970
1983 Hunter et al., 1985
2000 Present study
Dendostrea sandvicensis (Sowerby, 1871)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Ostrea sandvichensis)
1966 Corn, 1967 (as Ostrea sandvichensis)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Ostrea sanvicensis)
1972 Chave, 1973 (as Ostrea sanvichensis)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Ostrea sanvichensis)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Ostrea sandvichensis)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Ostrea sanvichensis)
2000 Present study
Ostrea hanleyana Sowerby, 1871
1916 Pilsbry, 1917
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Ostrea mordax
1956 Sparks, 1963 (as Crassostrea amasa)
Ostrea retusa Sowerby, 1871
1966 Corn, 1967
Ostrea thaanumi Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1940
1935 Ingram, 1937
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
247
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1966 Corn, 1967
Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778)
Introduced
1929 Sparks, 1963 (as Crassostrea commercialis)
1939 Edmondson and Wilson, 1940 (as Ostrea culculata)
1978 Kay, 1979 (as Ostrea culculata)
Family PECTINIDAE
Chlamys coruscans hawaiensis Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
2000 Present study
Chlamys irregularis (Sowerby, 1842)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Clamys cookei)
2000 Present study
Family PROPEAMUSIIDAE
Chlamydella incubata Hayami and Kase, 1993
2000 Present study
Chlamydella sp.
2000 Present study
Chlamydella tenuissima Hayami and Kase, 1993
2000 Present study
Family SPONDYLIDAE
Spondylus violacescens
2000 Present study
Family ANOMIIDAE
Anomia nobilis Reeve, 1859
Introduced
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Family CHAMIDAE
Chama macerophylla
Introduced
2000 Present study
Chama fibula Reeve, 1846
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Chama iostoma Conrad, 1837
2000 Present study
Family SPORTELLIDAE
Anisodonta lutea Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family LUCINIDAE
Ctena bella (Conrad, 1837)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
2000 Present study
Ctena transversa Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
2000 Present study
Epicodakia pygmaea Hayami and Kase, 1993
2000 Present study
Epicodakia sp.
2000 Present study
Pillucina spaldingi (Pilsbry, 1921)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family GASTROCHAENIDAE
Rocellaria hawaiensis Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1976 Brock, 1976
Rocellaria kanaka Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family HIATELLIDAE
Hiatella arctica (Linnaeus, 1767)
Introduced
248
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Hiatella hawaiensis (Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Family TEREDINIDAE
Lyrodus affinis (Deshayes, 1863)
Introduced
1943 Edmondson, 1944 (as Teredo affinis, T. milleri)
1976 Cooke et al., 1980 (as Teredo affinis)
Lyrodus medilobata (Edmondson, 1942)
1943 Edmondson, 1944
1976 Cooke et al., 1980
Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages, 1849)
Introduced
1939 Edmondson, 1940 (as Teredo diagensis)
1943 Edmondson, 1944
1976 Cooke et al., 1980
Teredo bartschi Clapp, 1923
Introduced
1939 Edmondson, 1940
1943 Edmondson, 1944
1976 Cooke et al., 1980
Teredo clappi Bartsch, 1923
Introduced
1939 Edmondson, 1940
Teredo furcifera von Martens, 1894
Introduced
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as T. parksi)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as T. parksi)
1943 Edmondson, 1944 (as T. parksi)
1976 Cooke et al., 1980
Teredo gregoryi Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1939
Introduced
1939 Edmondson, 1940
1943 Edmondson, 1944
Teredo trulliformis Miller 1970
Introduced
1939 Edmondson, 1940
Teredo sp.
Introduced
2000 Present study
Family VENERIDAE
Irus sp.
2000 Present study
Lioconcha hieroglyphica (Conrad, 1837)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1965 Banner, 1968
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Mercenaria mercenaria (Linn., 1758)
1967 Anon., 1968
Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, 1758
Introduced
1926 Brock, 1952 (as Cythera meretrix)
1932 Edmondson, 1933a (as Cythera meretrix)
1939 Edmondson and Wilson, 1940 (as Cythera meretrix)
Periglypta reticulata (Linnaeus, 1758)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Venerupis philippinarum Deshayes, 1853
Introduced
1920 Edmondson and Wilson, 1940 (as Paphia philippinarum)
1964 Anon., 1966 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Ruditapes phippinarum)
1967 Worcester, 1969 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1967 Anon., 1968 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1967 Higgins, 1969 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Yap, 1977 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1972 Yap, 1974 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1973 Yap, 1974 (as Tapes philippinarum)
1973 Yap, 1977 (as Tapes philippinarum)
249
1978 Kay, 1979 (as Tapes philippinarum)
2000 Present study
Family GALEOMMATIDAE
Scintilla hiloa Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
2000 Present study
Scintillona stigmatica (Pilsbry, 1921)
2000 Present study
Family LASAEIDAE
Kellia hawaiensis Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Lesaea hawaiensis)
2000 Present study
Kellia rosea (Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Kaneoha rosea)
Kellia sp.
2000 Present study
Lasaea hawaiensis Dall, Bartsch, & Rehder, 1938
2000 Present study
Nesobornia bartschi Chavan, 1969
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Nesobornia hawaiensis)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as N. ovata, N. hawaiiensis)
Radobornia bryani (Pilsbry, 1921)
2000 Present study
Family CARDIIDAE
Fragum (Fragum) mundum (Reeve, 1845)
2000 Present study
Trachycardium hawaiensis Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family CARDITIDAE
Cardita aviculina Lamarck, 1819
2000 Present study
Family TELLINIDAE
Macoma (Scissulina) dispar (Conrad, 1837)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Scissulina dispar)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Scissulina dispar)
2000 Present study
Macoma (Scissulina) obliquilineata (Gould, 1837)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Jactellina (Loxoglypta)
obliquilineata)
1973
Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Jactellina (Loxoglypta)
obliquilineata)
Quadrans palatum (Iredale)
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 (as Quidnipagus palatum)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
Tellina (Angulus) hawaiensis Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Tellina (Angulus) nucella (Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Pinquitellina nucella)
Tellina (Arcopagia) robusta (Hanley, 1844)
2000 Present study
Tellina (Quidnipagus) palatam Iredale, 1929
2000 Present study
Family MACTRIDAE
Mactra thaanumi Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938
1937 Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938
Family MESODESMATIDAE
Ervilia bisculpta Gould, 1861
2000 Present study
Ervilia sandwichensis (Smith, 1885)
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
2000 Present study
Family NUCULIDAE
Nucula hawaiensis Pilsbry, 1921
2000 Present study
250
Class CEPHALOPODA
Order OCTOPODA
Family OCTOPODIDAE
Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849
1965 Van Heukelem, 1966
1965 Banner, 1968
1968 Maginniss and Wells, 1969
1968 Yarnall, 1970
1968 Yarnall, 1969
1969 Van Heukelem, 1973
1995 Mather et al., 1997
Order SEPIOIDEA
Family SEPIOLIDAE
Euprymna morsei
1960 Jander, Duamer & Waterman, 1963
Euprymna scolopes Berry, 1913
1981 Moynihan, 1983
1984 Wei and Young, 1989
1992 Lee and Ruby, 1994
Order TEUTHOIDEA
Family LOLIGINIDAE
Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson, 1830
1960 Jander, Duamer & Waterman, 1963
Class POLYPLACOPHORA
Order CHITONID
Family ACANTHOCHITONIDAE
Acanthochiton sp.
2000 Present study
Acanthochiton viridis (Pease, 1872)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Family ISCHNOCHITONIDAE
Ischnochiton sp.
2000 Present study
Phylum ARTHROPODA
Class PYCNOGONIDA
Order PANTOPODA
Family AMMOTHEIDAE
Ammothella pacifica Hilton, 1942
2000 Present study
Tanystylum rehderi Child
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Family CALLIPALLENIDAE
Callipallene sp.
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Pigrogromitus timsanus Calman
2000 Present study
Family ENDEIDAE
Endeis biseriata Stock, 1968
1960 BPBM-S 7240
Endeis nodosa Hilton, 1942
1924 BPBM-S 7207
1927 BPBM-S 7220
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1941 Hilton, 1942
1944 Edmondson, 1946
1960 BPBM-S 7015
Family PHOXICHILIDIIDAE
Anoplodactylus arescus Marcus
2000 Present study
Anoplodactylus californicus Hall
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
251
Introduced
Introduced
Anoplodactylus digitatus (Bohm)
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Anoplodactylus marshallensis Child
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Anoplodactylus portus Calman, 1927
Cryptogenic
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Anoplodactylus pycnosoma (Helfer)
2000 Present study
Anoplodactylus sp.
2000 Present study
Class COLLEMBOLA
Family COLLEMBOLA
Lipura maritima
1976 Brock, 1976
Class BRANCHIOPODA
Subclass SARSOSTRACA
Order ANOSTRACA
Family BRANCHINECTIDAE
Evadne sp.
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Class MAXILLOPODA
Subclass CIRRIPEDIA
Order THORACICA
Family BALANIDAE
Balanus amphitrite (Darwin)
Introduced
none BPBM-B 574
1928 Pilsbry, 1927
1935 Ingram, 1937
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1959 Utinomi, 1960 (as B. ampitrite hawaiiensis)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Matsuda, 1973 (as B. ampitrite ampitrite)
1975 BPBM-B 617
1975 BPBM-B 583
1975 BPBM-B 582
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as B. ampitrite hawaiiensis)
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as B. ampitrite ampitrite)
1977 BPBM-B 548
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Balanus eburneus Gould
Introduced
none BPBM-B 607
none BPBM-B 605
none BPBM-B 603
none BPBM-B 601
none BPBM-B 575
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Matsuda, 1973
1975 BPBM-B 560
1975 BPBM-B 558
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 BPBM-B 591
1976 BPBM-B 614
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Balanus reticulatus Utinomi
Introduced
none BPBM-B 600
252
none BPBM-B 576
none BPBM-B 608
none BPBM-B 592
none BPBM-B 593
1972 Matsuda, 1973
1975 BPBM-B 619
1975 BPBM-B 594
1975 BPBM-B 556
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 BPBM-B 612
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Lewis, 1980
Balanus trigonus Darwin
none BPBM-B 577
none BPBM-B 599
none BPBM-B 598
none BPBM-B 609
none BPBM-B 596
none BPBM-B 604
1964 BPBM-B 456
1964 Bowers, 1965
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Matsuda, 1973
1975 BPBM-B 557
1975 BPBM-B 571
1975 BPBM-B 578
1975 BPBM-B 559
1975 BPBM-B 627
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1976 BPBM-B 613
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Balanus sp.
none BPBM-B 606
1963 BPBM-B 416
1975 BPBM-B 570
1976 BPBM-B 626
1977 BPBM-B 536
1983 BPBM-B 547
Chelonibia patula (Ranzani)
1928 Pilsbry, 1927
1935 Ingram, 1937
1964 BPBM-B 455
1964 Bowers, 1965
1972 Matsuda, 1973
Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
Megabalanus sp.
1975 BPBM-B 550
1976 BPBM-B 569
1978 BPBM-B 552
1978 BPBM-B 551
Megabalanus tanagrae (Pilsbry, 1928)
1983 BPBM-B 546 (as Balanus tintinnabulum tanagrae)
1983 BPBM-B 566 (as Megabalanus tintinnabulum tanagrae)
Stephanolepas muricata
1977 BPBM-B 555
Family CHTHAMALIDAE
Chthamalus proteus Dando & Southward, 1980
Introduced
1994 Southward et al., 1998
2000 Present study
Euraphia hembeli (Conrad)
253
1972 Matsuda, 1973 (as Chthamalus hembeli)
Nesochthamalus intertextus (Darwin)
1975 BPBM-B 618
2000 Present study
Family LEPADIDAE
Lepas anatifera
1976 BPBM-B 549
Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1758
none BPBM-B 257
1915 BPBM-B 230
1972 Matsuda, 1973
Lepas sp.
1979 BPBM-B 543
1980 BPBM-B 590
Trilasmis fissum hawaiense Pilsbry, 1928
1964 Bowers, 1965
Family POECILASMATIDAE
Octolasmis (Octolasmis) indubia Newman
1960 Newman, 1961
Octolasmis (Octolasmis) lavei (Darwin)
1964 Bowers, 1965
Order ACROTHORACIA
Family LITHOGLYPTIDAE
Weltneria hirsuta Tomlinson, 1963
1962 Tomlinson, 1963 (as Lithoglyptes hirsutus)
1964 BPBM-B 423
1964 BPBM-B 429
1968 Tomlinson, 1969
Subclass COPEPODA
Order CALANOIDA
Family CALANOIDA
Acrocalanus inermis
1976 Kimmerer, 1983
1977 Kimmerer, 1984
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
1985 Kitalong, 1986a
Arcartia sp.
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Labidocera madurae Scott
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Paracalanus parvus Claus
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Pseudocalanus sp.
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Undinula vulgaris Dana
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
1991 Park and Landry, 1993
1997 Lenz and Hartline, 1999
Order CYCLOPOIDA
Family CYCLOPOIDA
Oithona nana
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
Oithona simplex
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
Oncaea sp.
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Order CALIGOIDA
Family CALIGOIDA
Lepeophtheirus dissimulatus Wilson
1961 Ball, 1963
Class MALACOSTRACA
Subclass HOPLOCARIDA
Order STOMATOPODA
Family GONODACTYLIDAE
254
Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Forskal, 1775)
1963 BPBM-S 10017 (as Gonodactylus aloha)
1964 BPBM-S 10015 (as Gonodactylus aloha)
1964 BPBM-S 10018 (as Gonodactylus aloha)
1966 BPBM-S 10014 (as Gonodactylus aloha)
1967 BPBM-S 10016 (as Gonodactylus aloha)
2000 Present study
Gonodactylellus hendersoni (Manning, 1967)
2000 Present study
Gonodactylus glabrous Brooks
1959 Eley, 1960
Family PSEUDOSQUILLIDAE
Pseudosquilla ciliata (Fabricuis, 1787)
1925 BPBM-S 2458
1927 BPBM-S 2814
1929 BPBM-S 3729
1934 BPBM-S 3894
1938 BPBM-S 4413
1952 Kinzie, 1968
1952 Townsley, 1953
1961 Ball, 1963
1965 Banner, 1968
2000 Present study
Pseudosquillisma oculata (Brulle, 1837)
none BPBM-S 6332 (as Pseudosquilla oculata)
1920 Edmondson, 1921 (as Pseudosquilla oculata)
1925 BPBM-S 2457 (as Pseudosquilla oculata)
1938 BPBM-S 4414 (as Pseudosquilla oculata)
Family SQUILLIDAE
Busquilla quadraticauda (Fukuda, 1911)
1949 Townsley, 1950 (as Squilla boops)
Oratosquilla calumnia (Townsley, 1953)
1949 BPBM-S 10881 (as Squilla oratoria)
1961 Ball, 1963 (as Squilla oratoria)
Subclass EUMALACOSTRACA
Superorder PERACARIDA
Order MYSIDACEA
Suborder MYSIDA
Family MYSIDAE
Anisomysis incisa
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Order AMPHIPODA
Suborder GAMMARIDEA
Family AMPHILOCHIDAE
Amphilochus menehune Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Amphilochus sp.
2000 Present study
Gitana liliuokalaniae Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7247
Gitanopsis pele Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7251
Family AMPITHOIDAE
Ampithoe spp.
2000 Present study
Ampithoe waialua Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Family ANAMIXIDAE
Anamixis moana Thomas, 1997
1967 Thomas, 1997 (as Anamixis stebbingi)
2000 Present study
Family AORIDAE
Aloiloi nenue Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7257
255
Introduced
Bemlos concavus (Stout, 1913)
Cryptogenic
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Lembos concavus)
1944 Edmondson, 1946 (as Lembos concavus)
Bemlos intermedius Schellenberg, 1938
1954 Barnard, 1955 (as Lembos (Bemlos) intermedius)
1962 Johannes, 1964a (as Lembos (Bemlos) intermedius)
1962 Johannes, 1964b (as Lembos (Bemlos) intermedius)
Bemlos macromanus Shoemaker, 1925
1975 BPBM-S 11216 (as Lembos macromanus)
Bemlos waipio Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Bemlos spp.
2000 Present study
Family COLOMASTIGIDAE
Colomastix kapiolani Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Colomastix lunalilo Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7266
2000 Present study
Colomastix pusilla Grube, 1864
1954 Barnard, 1955
2000 Present study
Family COROPHIIDAE
Corophium baconi Shoemaker, 1934
Introduced
1969 Barnard, 1970
1970 Barnard, 1971
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Corophium spp.
Introduced
2000 Present study
Ericthonius brasiliensis (Dana, 1853)
Introduced
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Ericthonius disjunctus)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Family EUSIRIDAE
Eursiroides diplonyx Walker, 1904
2000 Present study
Family GAMMARIDAE
Eriopisa hamakua Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Eriopisella schellensis upolu Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7275
Family ISAEIDAE
Gammaropsis alamoana Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7279
1976 Brock, 1976
Gammaropsis haleiwa Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7280
Gammaropsis pali Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7282
Photis hawaiensis Barnard, 1955
Cryptogenic
1937 BPBM-S 6012
1937 BPBM-S 6011
1954 Barnard, 1955
2000 Present study
Family ISCHYROCERIDAE
Ischyrocerus kapu Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7286
Ischyrocerus O`ahu Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7287
Leucothoe hyhelia Barnard, 1965
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
256
2000 Present study
Leucothoe micronesiae Barnard, 1965
2000 Present study
Leucothoe sp.
2000 Present study
Leucothoe tridens Stebbing, 1888
2000 Present study
Family LEUCOTHOIDAE
Paraleucothoe flindersi Stebbing
2000 Present study
Family LILJEBORGIIDAE
Liljeborgia heeia Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Family LYSIANASSIDAE
Lysianassa ewa Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7292
2000 Present study
Family MELITIDAE
Elasmopus hawaiiensis Schellenberg, 1938
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Elasmopus piikoi Barnard, 1970
1967 BPBM-S 7272
Elasmopus rapax Costa, 1853
1936 BPBM-S 5987
1937 BPBM-S 5988
1954 Barnard, 1955
2000 Present study
Elasmopus spp.
2000 Present study
Maera insignis (Chevreux, 1901)
2000 Present study
Maera pacifica Schellenberg, 1938
2000 Present study
Maera quadrimana (Dana, 1853)
2000 Present study
Maera serrata Schellenberg, 1938
2000 Present study
Melita appendiculata (Say, 1818)
1954 Barnard, 1955 (as Melita fresneli)
Melita fresnelli
1936 BPBM-S 5928
1936 BPBM-S 5929
Family OCHELESIDAE
Ochlesis alii Barnard, 1970
2000 Present study
Family PLEUSTIDAE
Parapleustes derzhavini (Gurjanova, 1938)
1967 BPBM-S 7297 (as Parapleustes derzhavini makiki)
Family PODOCERIDAE
Podocerus brasiliensis Dana, 1853
none BPBM-S 5930
1935 BPBM-S 5955
1935 BPBM-S 5954
1935 BPBM-S 5956
1937 BPBM-S 5950
1937 BPBM-S 5953
1937 BPBM-S 5951
1937 BPBM-S 5952
1937 BPBM-S 5949
1954 Barnard, 1955
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Family STENOTHOIDAE
Stenothoe gallensis Walker, 1904
none BPBM-S 5974
257
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1935 BPBM-S 5968
1936 BPBM-S 5969
1937 BPBM-S 5971
1937 BPBM-S 5970
1954 Barnard, 1955
2000 Present study
Stenothoe valida Dana, 1853
Cryptogenic
2000 Present study
Stenothoe sp.
2000 Present study
Family TALITROIDAE
Orchestia platensis Kroyer, 1845
1966 Fee, 1967
Parhyale hawaiensis Dana, 1853
none BPBM-S 5973
1935 BPBM-S 5967
1954 Barnard, 1955 (as Parhyale inyacka)
Suborder CAPRELLIDEA
Family CAPRELLIDAE
Caprella penantis Leach, 1814
none BPBM-S 5223 (as Caprella acutifrons)
none BPBM-S 8125
none BPBM-S 5231 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1927 BPBM-S 5217 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1927 BPBM-S 5218 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1932 BPBM-S 5219 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1935 BPBM-S 5220 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1935 BPBM-S 5221 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1936 BPBM-S 5222 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1936 BPBM-S 5224 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1936 BPBM-S 5225 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1936 BPBM-S 5226 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1937 BPBM-S 5227 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1937 BPBM-S 5228 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1937 BPBM-S 5229 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1939 BPBM-S 5230 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1935 BPBM-S 7309 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1935 BPBM-S 7311 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1936 BPBM-S 7313 (as Caprella acutifrons)
1947 Edmondson and Mansfield, 1948 (as C. acutifrons)
Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Order ISOPODA
Suborder ANTHURIDEA
Family ANTHURIDAE
Apanthura inornata Miller and Menzies, 1952
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Apanthura sp.
2000 Present study
Mesanthura hieroglyphica Miller and Menzies, 1952
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Mesanthura n.sp.
2000 Present study
Pendanthura sp.
2000 Present study
Family PARANTHURIDAE
Paranthura sp.
2000 Present study
Suborder FLABELLIFERA
Family CIROLANIDAE
Cirolana parva Hansen,
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Cirolana sp. Edmondson, 1946
258
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
2000 Present study
Metacirolana sphaeromiformia
2000 Present study
Family LIMNORIIDAE
Limnoria sp.
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
2000 Present study
Limnoria tripunctata Menzies, 1951
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as L. lignorum)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as L. lignorum)
Family SPHAEROMATIDAE
Neonaesa rugosa Harrison and Holdich, 1982
2000 Present study
Paracerceis sculpta Holmes, 1904
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Paradella dianae
2000 Present study
Sphaeroma walkeri Stebbing, 1905
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
unid. Sphaeromatidae
2000 Present study
Suborder ASELLOTA
Family JANIRIDAE
Bagatus algicola Miller, 1941
1941 Miller, 1941 (as Janira algicola)
Carpias algicola
2000 Present study
Carpias sp.
2000 Present study
Family JOEROPSIDAE
Joeropsis sp.
2000 Present study
Family MUNNIDAE
Munna acarina Miller, 1941
1941 Miller, 1941
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Munna n.sp.
2000 Present study
Family PARAMUNNIDAE
Paramunna sp.
2000 Present study
Family STENETRIIDAE
Stenetrium sp.
2000 Present study
Suborder EPICARIDEA
Family BOPYRIDAE
Ionella murchisoni Danforth, 1970
1965 Danforth, 1970
Suborder ONISCIDEA
Family PHILOSCIIDAE
Littorophiloscia bifasciata
1985 BPBM-S 11219
Order TANAIDACEA
Suborder TANAIDOMORPHA
Family TANAIDAE
Anatanais insularis
2000 Present study
Apseudes sp.
1996 BPBM-S 11300
1996 BPBM-S 11302
259
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1996 BPBM-S 11301
Apseudes tropicalis Miller, 1940
1996 BPBM-S 11306
2000 Present study
Parapseudes neglectus Miller, 1940
2000 Present study
Family PSEUDOZUXIDAE
Leptochelia dubia Kroyer,
Cryptogenic
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1985 Kitalong, 1986a
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
2000 Present study
Order CUMACEA
Family NANNASTACIDAE
Nannastacus sp.
Introduced
1996 Muir, 1997
Superorder EUCARIDA
Order DECAPODA
Suborder DENDROBRANCHIATA
Family BENTHESICYMIDAE
Benthesicymus investigatoris Alcock and Anderson, 1899
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Family PENAEIDAE
Haliporus equalis Bate
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Melicertus marginatus (Randall, 1840)
1920 BPBM-S 2667 (as Penaeus marginatus)
1924 BPBM-S 1609 (as Penaeus marginatus)
Family SERGESTIDAE
Lucifer chacei Bowman, 1967
1966 Burdick, 1969
1967 Peterson, 1969
1968 Zimmerman, 1969
Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, 1915
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Suborder PLEOCYEMATA
Infraorder STENOPODIDEA
Family STENOPODIDAE
Stenopus hispidus (Olivier, 1811)
1934 BPBM-S 3774
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952
1966 Johnson, 1967
1966 Johnson, 1971
1967 Higa, 1967
1975 Johnson, 1977
1985 Jonasson, 1986
2000 Present study
Infraorder CARIDEA
Family PASIPHAEIDAE
Psathyrocaris hawaiiensis Rathbun, 1906
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Family NEMATOCARCINIDAE
Nematocarcinus ensiferus (Smith,)
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Nematocarcinus tenuirostris Bate, 1888
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Family GNATHOPHYLLIDAE
Gnathophyllum americanum Guerin-Meneville, 1856
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Gnathophyllum fasciolatum)
Family HYMENOCERIDAE
Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852
1934 BPBM-S 3895 (as Hymenocera elegans)
260
1934 Edmondson, 1935 (as Hymenocera elegans)
1934 Titgen, 1989
1944 Hiatt, 1948
1964 BPBM-S 7046
1964 Barry, 1965
Family PALAEMONIDAE (PALAEMONINAE)
Palaemon debilis (Dana, 1852)
1927 BPBM-S 2813
1930 BPBM-S 3518
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
Paleamonetes sp.
1961 Walsh, 1967
Family PALAEMONIDAE (PONTONIINAE)
Harpiliopsis beaupresi (Audouin, 1826)
1937 BPBM-S 4389
Harpiliopsis depressa (Stimpson, 1860)
1964 Barry, 1965
1976 Brock, 1976
Palaemonella tenuipes Dana, 1852
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
Periclimenaeus tridentatus (Miers, 1884)
1934 BPBM-S 3750
Periclimenes grandis (Stimpson)
1976 Brock, 1976
Periclimenes soror Nobili, 1904
1934 Edmondson, 1935 (as Periclimenes bicolor)
Vir orientalis (Dana, 1852)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Palaemon orientalis)
Family ALPHEIDAE
Alpheus brevipes Stimpson, 1860
1964 BPBM-S 9343
1964 BPBM-S 9342
1964 BPBM-S 9344
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 BPBM-S 9345
2000 Present study
Alpheus clypeatus Coutiere, 1905
1935 BPBM-S 4451
1964 Barry, 1965
1968 Bowers, 1970
2000 Present study
Alpheus collumianus Stimpson, 1860
1935 BPBM-S 4453
1964 Barry, 1965
2000 Present study
Alpheus deuteropus Hilgendorf, 1878
1934 BPBM-S 3778
1939 Banner, 1940 (as Crangon deuteropus)
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon deuteropus)
Alpheus diadema Dana, 1852
none BPBM-S 6414 (as Alpheus insignis)
1934 BPBM-S 8897
1938 BPBM-S 6413 (as Alpheus insignis)
1938 BPBM-S 6412 (as Alpheus insignis)
1939 Banner, 1940 (as Alpheus insignis)
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon diadema)
1964 Barry, 1965
2000 Present study
Alpheus gracilipes Stimpson, 1860
1925 BPBM-S 2459
1934 BPBM-S 8918
1934 BPBM-S 8919
261
2000 Present study
Alpheus gracilis Heller, 1861
1938 BPBM-S 6419 (as Alpheus gracilis var. monacantha)
1964 Barry, 1965
Alpheus heeia Banner & Banner, 1975
1964 Banner and Banner, 1974
1973 BPBM-S 8547
1973 BPBM-S 8548
1973 BPBM-S 8549
Alpheus lanceloti Coutiere, 1905
1958 Banner, 1959
1964 Banner and Banner, 1974
Alpheus leptochirus Coutiere, 1905
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
Alpheus lobidens de Haan, 1849
none BPBM-S 6443 (as Alpheus crassimanus)
1939 Banner, 1940 (as Crangon crassimanus)
1964 Banner and Banner, 1974
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Alpheus lobidens polynesica)
1973 BPBM-S 8544 (as Alpheus lobidens polynesica)
1973 BPBM-S 8545 (as Alpheus lobidens polynesica)
1973 BPBM-S 8546 (as Alpheus lobidens polynesica)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Alpheus crassimanus)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Alpheus lobidens polynesica)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Alpheus lobidens polynesica)
2000 Present study
Alpheus lottini Guerin, 1829
1964 BPBM-S 9133
1964 BPBM-S 9136
1964 BPBM-S 9137
1964 BPBM-S 9138
1964 BPBM-S 9139
1964 BPBM-S 9140
1964 BPBM-S 9141
1964 BPBM-S 9142
1964 BPBM-S 9143
1964 BPBM-S 9144
1964 BPBM-S 9145
1964 BPBM-S 9146
1964 BPBM-S 9147
1964 BPBM-S 9148
1964 BPBM-S 9149
1964 BPBM-S 9150
1964 BPBM-S 9151
1964 BPBM-S 9152
1964 BPBM-S 9153
1964 BPBM-S 9154
1964 BPBM-S 9155
1964 BPBM-S 9156
1964 BPBM-S 9157
1964 BPBM-S 9158
1964 BPBM-S 9159
1964 BPBM-S 9160
1964 BPBM-S 9161
1964 BPBM-S 9162
1964 BPBM-S 9163
1964 BPBM-S 9164
1964 BPBM-S 9165
1964 BPBM-S 9166
1964 BPBM-S 9167
1964 BPBM-S 9168
1964 BPBM-S 9169
1964 BPBM-S 9170
1964 BPBM-S 9171
262
1964 BPBM-S 9172
1964 BPBM-S 9174
1964 BPBM-S 9175
1964 BPBM-S 9176
1964 BPBM-S 9177
1964 BPBM-S 9178
1964 BPBM-S 9183
1964 BPBM-S 9185
1964 BPBM-S 9187
1964 BPBM-S 9188
1964 BPBM-S 9189
1964 BPBM-S 9190
1964 BPBM-S 9191
1964 BPBM-S 9192
1964 BPBM-S 9193
1964 BPBM-S 9194
1964 BPBM-S 9195
1964 BPBM-S 9196
1964 BPBM-S 9197
1964 BPBM-S 9198
1964 BPBM-S 9199
1964 BPBM-S 9200
1964 BPBM-S 9201
1964 BPBM-S 9202
1964 BPBM-S 9203
1964 BPBM-S 9204
1964 BPBM-S 9205
1964 BPBM-S 9206
1964 BPBM-S 9207
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 BPBM-S 9131
1965 BPBM-S 9132
1965 BPBM-S 9134
1965 BPBM-S 9135
1965 BPBM-S 9173
1965 BPBM-S 9179
1965 BPBM-S 9180
1965 BPBM-S 9181
1965 BPBM-S 9182
1965 BPBM-S 9184
1965 BPBM-S 9186
1965 BPBM-S 9208
1965 BPBM-S 9209
1965 BPBM-S 9210
1965 BPBM-S 9211
1965 BPBM-S 9212
1965 BPBM-S 9213
1965 BPBM-S 9214
1965 BPBM-S 9215
1965 BPBM-S 9216
1965 BPBM-S 9217
1965 Castro, 1966
1982 BPBM-S 10862
1982 BPBM-S 10863
1982 BPBM-S 10864
1982 BPBM-S 10865
1982 BPBM-S 10866
1982 BPBM-S 10868
Alpheus mackayi (Banner, 1959)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as A. fabricus mackayi )
1962 BPBM-S 7121 (as Alpheus malabaricus mackayi)
1962 BPBM-S 7140 (as Alpheus malabaricus mackayi)
1977 Gust and Harrison, 1981
1980 Harrison, 1981
263
2000 Present study
Alpheus pacificus Dana, 1852
1937 BPBM-S 6455
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Alpheus paracrinatus Miers, 1881
1922 BPBM-S 6472 (as Alpheus paracrinitus var. bengalensis)
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon paracrinata)
2000 Present study
Alpheus paralcyone Coutiere, 1905
1934 BPBM-S 6476
1939 BPBM-S 9107
1948 BPBM-S 9106
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon paralcyone)
1964 BPBM-S 9670
1964 BPBM-S 9669
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Alpheus platyunguiculatus (Banner, 1953)
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon platyunguiculata)
1958 Banner, 1959
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Alpheus pugnax Dana, 1852
2000 Present study
Alpheus rapacida de Man, 1909
1970 BPBM-S 9979
Alpheus rapax Fabricius, 1789
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon rapax)
1958 Banner, 1959
1965 Banner, 1968
1970 Preston, 1972
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1970 Preston, 1978
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
2000 Present study
Alpheus rapicida De Man, 1908
1964 Banner and Banner, 1974
1970 Preston, 1972
1970 Preston, 1978
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
2000 Present study
Leptalpheus pacificus Banner & Banner, 1974
1939 Banner, 1940 (as Crangon pacifica)
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon pacifica)
1964 Banner and Banner, 1974
Metalpheus paragracilis Coutiere, 1897
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Cragon paragracila)
1952 Banner, 1953 (as Crangon paragracila)
1964 Barry, 1965 (as Alpheus paragracilis)
2000 Present study
Neoalpheopsis euryone (de Man, 1910)
none BPBM-S 10600
Synalpheus bituberculatus de Man, 1910
2000 Present study
Synalpheus charon (Heller, 1861)
none BPBM-S 10849
none BPBM-S 10848
1938 BPBM-S 6485
1938 BPBM-S 6486
1964 BPBM-S 9960
1964 BPBM-S 9961
1964 BPBM-S 9962
1964 BPBM-S 9963
1964 BPBM-S 9964
1964 BPBM-S 9965
264
1964 BPBM-S 9966
1964 BPBM-S 9967
1964 BPBM-S 9968
1964 BPBM-S 9969
1964 BPBM-S 9970
1964 BPBM-S 9971
1964 BPBM-S 9972
1964 Barry, 1965
1982 BPBM-S 10850
1982 BPBM-S 10851
Synalpheus pachymeris Coutiere, 1905
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Synalpheus paraneomeris Coutiere, 1905
1965 Castro, 1966
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1997 Au and Banks, 1998
2000 Present study
Synalpheus streptodactylus Coutiere, 1905
none BPBM-S 7203 (as Synalpheus streptodactylus streptodactylus)
1964 Barry, 1965
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Family HIPPOLYTIDAE
Lebbeus profundus (Rathbun, 1906)
1905 Rathbun, 1906 (as Spirontocaris profundus)
Lysmata grabhami (Gordon, 1935)
1967 Higa, 1967
1985 Jonasson, 1986
Lysmata kukenthali (de Man,)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Saron marmoratus (Olivier, 1811)
none BPBM-S 6324
1964 Barry, 1965
1966 Kruschwitz, 1967
Saron neglectus de Man, 1902
1964 BPBM-S 7048
1964 Barry, 1965
Thor amboinensis (de Man, 1888)
1973 BPBM-S 8482
1973 Titgen, 1987
Thorina maldivensis (Borradaile, 1915)
1964 BPBM-S 10842 (as Thor maldivensis)
1964 BPBM-S 10841 (as Thor maldivensis)
Family PROCESSIDAE
Nikoides danae Paulson, 1875
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Processa hawaiensis (Dana,)
1929 Edmondson, 1930 (as Processa paucirostris)
1931 BPBM-S 3540
Processa processa (Bate, 1888)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
Family CRANGONIDAE
Pontophilus gracilis Smith, 1884
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Suborder REPTANTIA
Infraorder BRACHYURA
Family RANINIDAE
Ranina ranina (Linnaeus, 1758)
none BPBM-S 4910 (as Ranina serrata)
none BPBM-S 6306
265
Family CRYPTOCHIRIDAE
Hapalocarcinus marsupialis Stimpson, 1859
1937 BPBM-S 4388
1960 MacNamee, 1961
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 Castro, 1966
1967 Reed, 1971
2000 Present study
Pseudocryptochirus kahe
1976 BPBM-S 8520
Troglocarcinus (Favicola) minutus (Edmondson, 1933)
1932 Edmondson, 1933c (as Cryptochirus minutus)
Family GRAPSIDAE
Grapsus grapsus
2000 Present study
Grapsus tenuicrustatus (Herbst, 1783)
none BPBM-S 6313 (as Grapsus grapsus tenuicrustatus)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as G. grapsus tenicrustatus)
1965 Johnson, 1965 (as Grapsus grapsus)
Metopograpsus messor (Forskal, 1775)
1935 BPBM-S 4100
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Metagrapsus messor)
1961 Ball, 1963 (as Metagrapsus messor)
1964 Brownscombe, 1965 (as Metagrapsus messor)
Pachygrapsus plicatus (A.Milne Edwards, 1873)
1924 BPBM-S 1600
Percnon abbreviatum (Dana, 1851)
2000 Present study
Percnon planissimum (Herbst, 1904)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Plagusia tuberculata (Lamarck, 1818)
2000 Present study
Family OCYPODIDAE
Macrophthalmus telescopicus (Owen, 1839)
1939 BPBM-S 4429
1961 Edmondson, 1962
1965 Banner, 1968
Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772)
1925 BPBM-S 2463
1965 Fellows, 1966
Ocypode pallidula Jacquinot,
1965 Fellows, 1966 (as Ocypode laevis)
Family PALICIDAE
Crossotonotus spinipes (de Man, 1888)
1925 BPBM-S 2448 (as Manella spinipes)
1961 Edmondson, 1962 (as Manella spinipes)
Family PORTUNIDAE
Callinectes sapidus (Forskal, 1775)
Introduced
1985 Eldredge, 1995
Callinectes sp.
1992 BPBM-S 11231
Carupa tenuipes Dana, 1851
1923 BPBM-S 1824 (as Carupa laeviuscula)
1925 BPBM-S 2451 (as Carupa laeviuscula)
1934 BPBM-S 3775 (as Carupa laeviuscula)
Catoptrus nitidus A. Milne Edwards, 1870
none BPBM-S 10503
1934 BPBM-S 3891
1953 Edmondson, 1954
Charybdis (Charybdis) hawaiensis (Dana, 1851)
none BPBM-S 6304
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Charybdis orientalis)
Goniosupradens erythrodactyla (Lamarck, 1818)
266
1964 Barry, 1965 (as Charybdis erythrodactyla)
Libystes edwardsi Alcock, 1900
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Thalamita edwardsi)
Libystes nitidus
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Libystes villosus
1959 BPBM-S 6748
Lissocarcinus laevis Miers, 1886
1959 BPBM-S 6753
Lissocarcinus orbicularis Dana, 1852
none BPBM-S 10720
1958 Nishioka, 1959
Lupocyclus quinquedentatus Rathbun, 1906
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Podophthalmus vigil (Fabricus, 1798)
none BPBM-S 6321
1958 Nishioka, 1959
1960 Sather, 1966
1960 Sather, 1965
1961 Sather, 1967
1961 Walsh, 1967
1969 Hazlett, 1971
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
Portunus granulatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
none BPBM-S 10709
1935 BPBM-S 4097
1959 BPBM-S 6703
Portunus longispinosus (Dana, 1852)
1921 BPBM-S 750
1923 BPBM-S 1821
1961 Ball, 1963
1964 BPBM-S 10067
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Portunus orbicularis (Richers, 1880)
1923 BPBM-S 1822
1924 BPBM-S 1604
Portunus sanguinolentus hawaiiensis (Herbst, 1783)
none BPBM-S 6308 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
none BPBM-S 4911 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1924 BPBM-S 1603 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1958 Nishioka, 1959 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1962 Ryan, 1966c (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1962 Ryan, 1966d (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1964 Skolnik, 1965 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1964 Ryan, 1965 (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1965 Ryan, 1966a (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
1965 Ryan, 1966b (as Portunus sanguinolentus)
Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1775)
none BPBM-S 6311
1926 BPBM-S 2623
1926 Brock, 1952
1926 Brock, 1960
1940 Edmondson and Wilson, 1940
1969 Hazlett, 1971
1972 Brick, 1974
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
Thalamita admete (Herbst, 1803)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
267
Introduced
Thalamita alcocki de Mann
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Thalamita auauensis (Rathbun, 1906)
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Thalamita crenata (Latreille, 1829)
none BPBM-S 6323
1969 Hazlett, 1971
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
Thalamita edwardsi
1925 BPBM-S 2450
1927 BPBM-S 2812
1932 BPBM-S 3632
1934 BPBM-S 3747
2000 Present study
Thalamita integra Dana, 1852
1921 BPBM-S 749
1927 BPBM-S 2806
1932 BPBM-S 3631
1935 BPBM-S 4099
1935 Ingram, 1937
1936 BPBM-S 4471
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Thalamita picta Stimpson, 1858
none BPBM-S 6322
Thalamita spiceri Edmondson, 1954
1964 Barry, 1965
Thalamita sp.
2000 Present study
Thalamitoides quadridens A. Milne Edwards, 1869
none BPBM-S 6315
1925 BPBM-S 4894
Family CARPILIIDAE
Carpilius convexus (Forskal, 1775)
none BPBM-S 6302
1923 BPBM-S 1825
Carpilius maculatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
none BPBM-S 6301
none BPBM-S 4909
none BPBM-S 6326
1961 Ball, 1963
1976 Brock, 1976
Family EUMEDONIDAE
Echinoecus pentagonus (A. Milne Edwards, 1879)
1905 Rathbun, 1906
1968 Castro, 1969
1977 Castro, 1978
Family PILUMNIDAE
Pilumnus longicornis Hilgendorf, 1878
2000 Present study
Pilumnus oahuensis Edmondson, 1931
1935 BPBM-S 4279
1935 Ingram, 1937
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1936 BPBM-S 4275
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
268
Introduced
Pilumnus planes? Edmondson, 1931
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Family TRAPEZIIDAE
Domecia hispida Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842
1964 Barry, 1965
1970 BPBM-S 10655
2000 Present study
Jonesius triunguiculatus (Borradaile, 1902)
2000 Present study
Trapezia cymodoce (Herbst, 1799)
1964 Barry, 1965
1970 Preston, 1973
1970 Preston, 1971
Trapezia digitalis Latreille, 1825
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 Castro, 1966
1970 Preston, 1971
1970 Preston, 1973
1984 Huber and Coles, 1986
Trapezia flavopunctata Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842
1964 Barry, 1965
1970 Preston, 1971
1970 Preston, 1973
Trapezia intermedia Miers, 1886
none BPBM-S 10686 (as Trapezia cymodoce intermedia)
1964 BPBM-S 10385
1964 Barry, 1965
1965 Castro, 1966
1970 Preston, 1971
1970 Preston, 1973
1984 Huber and Coles, 1986
2000 Present study
Trapezia rufopunctata (Herbst, 1799)
none BPBM-S 10675
none BPBM-S 6329
Trapezia tigrina Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842
1964 Barry, 1965 (as T. maculata)
1965 BPBM-S 10469 (as Trapezia maculata)
1970 Preston, 1973 (as T. maculata)
1970 Preston, 1971 (as T. maculata)
Family ATELECYCLIDAE
Kraussia rugulosa (Krauss, 1843)
1924 BPBM-S 1606
Family PANOPEIDAE
Panopeus pacificus Edmondson, 1931
Introduced
1935 BPBM-S 4101
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Family XANTHIDAE
Atergatis sp.
1934 BPBM-S 3773
Chlorodiella cytherea Dana, 1852
1925 BPBM-S 2452 (as Chlorodiella niger)
1927 BPBM-S 2809 (as Chlorodiella niger)
1932 BPBM-S 3634 (as Chlorodiella niger)
1934 BPBM-S 3745 (as Chlorodiella niger)
1938 BPBM-S 4410 (as Chlorodiella niger)
2000 Present study
Chlorodiella laevissima (Dana, 1852)
none BPBM-S 6327
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
2000 Present study
Etisus electra (Herbst, 1801)
269
1934 BPBM-S 3896
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Etisus laevimanus Randall, 1839
none BPBM-S 6330
1925 BPBM-S 2447
1934 BPBM-S 3744
1964 Barry, 1965
1970 BPBM-S 10510
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 BPBM-S 8528
2000 Present study
Etisus sp.
2000 Present study
Leptodius sanguineus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
none BPBM-S 6334
1935 BPBM-S 4098
1962 Lewis, 1963
Liocarpilodes biunguis (Rathbun, 1906)
2000 Present study
Liocarpilodes integerrimus Dana, 1852
2000 Present study
Liomera bella (Dana, 1852)
none BPBM-S 10405 (as Carpilodes bellus)
none BPBM-S 6333 (as Carpilodes bellus)
1925 BPBM-S 2445 (as Carpilodes vaillantianus)
1927 BPBM-S 2811 (as Carpilodes vaillantianus)
1932 BPBM-S 3630 (as Carpilodes vaillantianus)
1934 BPBM-S 3743 (as Carpilodes vaillantianus)
1934 BPBM-S 3776 (as Carpilodes vaillantianus)
1938 BPBM-S 4411 (as Carpilodes vaillantianus)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Carpilodes bellus)
2000 Present study
Liomera rubra (A. Milne Edwards, 1865)
1925 BPBM-S 2444 (as Carpilodes ruber)
Liomera rugata (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
1961 Ball, 1963 (as Carpilodes rugatus)
1964 Barry, 1965 (as Carpilodes rugatus)
Liomera supernodosa Rathbun, 1906
none BPBM-S 6328 (as Carpilodes supernodosus)
1925 BPBM-S 2446 (as Carpilodes supernodosus)
1961 Ball, 1963 (as Carpilodes supernodosus)
Lophozozymus dodone (Herbst, 1801)
1925 BPBM-S 2454
1934 BPBM-S 3893
1938 BPBM-S 4409
1961 Ball, 1963
Lophozozymus intonsus
none BPBM-S 6314
Lophozozymus pulchellus A. Milne Edwards, 1867
2000 Present study
Lybia edmondsoni Takeda and Miyake, 1970
2000 Present study
Medaeus sp.
1938 BPBM-S 4412
Neoliomera pubescens (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
none BPBM-S 6316
1925 BPBM-S 2449
Paramedaeus simplex (A. Milne Edwards, 1873)
1925 BPBM-S 2453 (as Medaeus simplex)
1932 BPBM-S 3635 (as Medaeus simplex)
270
1934 BPBM-S 3748 (as Medaeus simplex)
1934 BPBM-S 3749 (as Medaeus simplex)
1934 BPBM-S 3892 (as Medaeus simplex)
1964 Barry, 1965 (as Medaeus simplex)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Medaeus simplex)
2000 Present study
Paraxanthias notatus (Dana, 1852)
2000 Present study
Phymodius monticulosus (Dana, 1852)
1927 BPBM-S 2807 (as Phymodius obscurus)
2000 Present study
Phymodius nitidus (Dana, 1852)
1927 BPBM-S 2808
1961 Ball, 1963
2000 Present study
Phymodius sp.
2000 Present study
Phymodius ungulatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
none BPBM-S 6317
none BPBM-S 10670
1925 BPBM-S 2455
1932 BPBM-S 3633
1934 BPBM-S 3742
1938 BPBM-S 4407
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
2000 Present study
Pilodius areolatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
none BPBM-S 6325 (as Chlorodopsis areolata)
1961 Ball, 1963 (as Chlorodopsis areolata)
2000 Present study
Pilodius flavus Rathbun, 1893
2000 Present study
Platypodia actaeoides (A. Milne Edwards, 1867)
none BPBM-S 6320
Platypodia eydouxii (A. Milne Edwards, 1865)
none BPBM-S 6318
1925 BPBM-S 2456
1927 BPBM-S 2810
1932 BPBM-S 3629
1934 BPBM-S 3746
1938 BPBM-S 4408
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Platypodia granulosa (Ruppell, 1830)
none BPBM-S 6319
Platypodia semigranosa (Heller, 1861)
2000 Present study
Platypodia sp.
2000 Present study
Polydectus cupulifer Latreille, 1825
1924 BPBM-S 1605
Pseudoliomera speciosa (Dana, 1852)
none BPBM-S 10743 (as Actaea speciosa)
none BPBM-S 10735 (as Actaea speciosa)
1964 Barry, 1965
1976 Brock, 1976
Pseudoliomera variolosa (Borradaile, 1902)
1964 Barry, 1965
2000 Present study
Tweedieia laysani (Rathbun, 1906)
2000 Present study
unid. Xanthidae
2000 Present study
Xanthias canaliculatus Rathbun, 1906
271
1964 Barry, 1965
2000 Present study
Xanthias latifrons (de Man, 1888)
2000 Present study
Family DROMIIDAE
Cryptodromiopsis tridens (Lewinsohn, 1984)
1964 BPBM-S 7085
2000 Present study
Dromia dormia (Linnaeus, 1763)
none BPBM-S 6305 (as Dromidiopsis dormia)
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952
Dromidia unidentata hawaiiensis Edmondson, 1922
1924 BPBM-S 1607 (as Dromidia unidentata)
Family DYNOMENIIDAE
Dynomene hispida Guerin-Meneville, 1832
2000 Present study
Family MAJIDAE
Huenia proteus De Haan, 1839
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Hyastenus tenuicornis (Pocock , 1895)
2000 Present study
Menaethius monoceros (Latreille, 1825)
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Micippa parca Alcock, 1895
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Perinea tumida Dana, 1852
1964 Barry, 1965
2000 Present study
Schizophorida hilensis Rathbun, 1906
2000 Present study
Simocarcinus simplex (Dana, 1852)
1923 BPBM-S 1831
1976 Brock, 1976
2000 Present study
Trigonothir sp.
2000 Present study
Family PARTHENOPIDAE
Parthenope (Aulacolambrus) hoplonotus (Adams and White,
1938 BPBM-S 10498
Parthenope (Platylambrus) nummifera Rathbun, 1906
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Family CALAPPIDAE
Calappa calappa (Linnaeus, 1758)
none BPBM-S 6303
Calappa hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758)
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952
1961 Ball, 1963
1962 Wiersma and Bush, 1963
1965 Banner, 1968
1968 Miller, 1970
1968 Miller, 1975
Calappa sp.
1968 BPBM-S 10438
Family LEUCOSIIDAE
Nucia sp.
2000 Present study
Infraorder ASTACIDEA
Family ASTACIDAE
Procambrus clarkii (Girard, 1852)
Introduced
1961 Walsh, 1967
Infraorder THALASSINIDEA
Family AXIIDAE
Axius (Paraxius) tridens
272
1905 Rathbun, 1906 (as Peraxius tridens)
Family CALLIANASSIDAE
Callianassa articularta Rathbun 1906
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Callianassa sp.
2000 Present study
Infraorder PALINURIDEA
Family ERYONIDAE
Polycheles snyderi Rathbun, 1906
1905 Rathbun, 1906
Family PALINURIDAE
Panulirus marginatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825)
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952 (as Panulirus japonicus)
1964 Bowers, 1965 (as Panulirus japonicus)
Panulirus penicillatus (Oliver, 1791)
1947 Matthews, 1951
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952
1964 Bowers, 1965
Family SCYLLARIDAE
Paribacus antarcticus (Lund, 1793)
none BPBM-S 6307
1986 Lau, 1987
Paribacus hispidus (Olivier)
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952
Scyllarides squammosus (Milne Edwards)
none BPBM-S 6312
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952
1986 Lau, 1987
Infraorder ANOMURA
Family DIOGENIDAE
Aniculus strigatus
1924 BPBM-S 1601
Calcinus elegans Milne Edwards, 1836
1968 Reese, 1969
Calcinus gaimardii Milne Edwards, 1848
1925 BPBM-S 4723 (as Calcinus terrae-reginae)
Calcinus laevimanus (Randall, 1839)
1960 Reese, 1968
1961 Reese, 1962a
1961 Reese, 1962b
1961 Reese, 1962c
1961 Ball, 1963 (as Calcinus herbstii)
1966 Papagni, 1967
1968 Reese, 1969
1969 Reese, 1970
1972 Dunham, 1981
1972 Dunham, 1978b
1972 Dunham, 1978a
1988 Hazlett, 1990
Calcinus latens (Randall, 1839)
none BPBM-S 10729
1960 Reese, 1968
1964 Barry, 1965
1966 Papagni, 1967
1968 Reese, 1969
1969 Reese, 1970
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1995 Mather et, 1997
Calcinus seurati Forest, 1951
1968 Reese, 1969
1972 Dunham, 1981
1972 Dunham, 1978b
Calcinus sp.
1969 Hazlett, 1972
273
Clibanarius zebra
1923 BPBM-S 1096
1960 Reese, 1968
1966 Papagni, 1967
1968 Reese, 1969
1969 Reese, 1970
1972 Dunham, 1978b
1972 Dunham, 1981
1988 Hazlett, 1989
Dardanus pedunculatus
1951 Wiersma and Ripley, 1952 (as Dardanus asper)
Paguristes sp.
1969 Hazlett, 1972
Family PAGURIDAE
Pagurixus festinus
1964 BPBM-S 10336
Pagurus magistos
none BPBM-S 4969
Pagurus sameulis
1961 Reese, 1962c
Pagurus sp.
1969 Hazlett, 1972
Family GALATHEIDAE
Galathea spinosorostris Dana, 1852
2000 Present study
Family PORCELLANIDAE
Pachycheles pisoides (Heller, 1865)
1964 Barry, 1965
Petrolisthes coccineus (Owen, 1839)
1932 BPBM-S 3484
Petrolisthes sp.
2000 Present study
Family ALBUNEIDAE
Albunea danai Boyko, 1999
1924 BPBM-S 7806
Albunea speciosa Dana, 1852
1923 BPBM-S 1823
1924 BPBM-S 1602
Family HIPPIDAE
Hippa pacifica (Dana, 1852)
1923 BPBM-S 1832
1981 Haley, 1982
Phylum PHORONIDA
Family PHORONIDAE
Phoronis hippocrepia Wright, 1856
1976 BPBM-L 2
1976 Brock, 1976
1998 Bailey-Brock and Emig 2000
Phoronis ovalis Wright, 1856
1976 BPBM-L 3
1977 White, 1980
1998 Bailey-Brock and Emig 2000
Phoronis psammophila Cori, 1889
1975 BPBM-L 4
1998 Bailey-Brock and Emig 2000
Phylum ECTOPROCTA
Class GYMNOLAEMATA
Order CHEILOSTOMATA
Suborder ANASCA
Family BEANIIDAE
Beania discodermiae (Ortmann, 1890)
2000 Present study
Family BUGULIDAE
Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758)
274
Introduced
none BPBM-K 349
none BPBM-K 402
1935 BPBM-K 272
1935 BPBM-K 275
1935 BPBM-K 278
1935 BPBM-K 291
1935 BPBM-K 292
1935 BPBM-K 294
1935 BPBM-K 295
1935 BPBM-K 296
1935 BPBM-K 297
1935 BPBM-K 298
1935 BPBM-K 301
1935 BPBM-K 302
1935 BPBM-K 305
1935 BPBM-K 306
1935 BPBM-K 348
1935 BPBM-K 421
1935 Ingram, 1937
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1963 BPBM-K 396
1963 BPBM-K 398
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 BPBM-K 566
1975 BPBM-K 700
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Rastetter and Cooke, 1979
1983 Dade and Honkalehto, 1986
2000 Present study
Bugula robusta MacGilivray, 1869
2000 Present study
Bugula sp.
1935 BPBM-K 299
1935 BPBM-K 300
2000 Present study
Bugula stolonifera Ryland, 1960
none BPBM-K 276
1935 BPBM-K 304
1963 BPBM-K 395
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968 (as B. california)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as B. california)
1983 Dade and Honkalehto, 1986 (as B. california)
Bugula vectifera Harmer, 1926
2000 Present study
Caulibugula dendrograpta (Waters, 1913)
2000 Present study
Celleporaria aperta (Hincks, 1882)
2000 Present study
Celleporaria fusca (Busk, 1854)
2000 Present study
Celleporaria pilaefera (Canu and Bassler, 1929)
2000 Present study
Celleporaria sp.
1975 BPBM-K 645
2000 Present study
Celleporaria vagans (Busk, 1881)
1975 BPBM-K 633
1975 BPBM-K 634
1975 BPBM-K 635
1975 BPBM-K 636
1975 BPBM-K 637
1975 BPBM-K 638
275
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1975 BPBM-K 639
1975 BPBM-K 640
1975 BPBM-K 641
1975 BPBM-K 642
1975 BPBM-K 643
1975 BPBM-K 644
2000 Present study
Holoporella aperta (Hincks, 1882)
1975 BPBM-K 668
1975 BPBM-K 669
1975 BPBM-K 670
1975 BPBM-K 671
1975 BPBM-K 672
1975 BPBM-K 673
1975 BPBM-K 674
1975 BPBM-K 675
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 White, 1980
Holoporella brunnea (Hincks, 1884)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Holoporella pilaefera Canu and Bassler, 1929
1975 BPBM-K 676
1975 BPBM-K 677
1975 BPBM-K 678
1975 BPBM-K 679
1975 BPBM-K 680
1975 BPBM-K 681
1975 BPBM-K 682
1975 BPBM-K 683
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1977 White, 1980
Schismopora sp.
1975 BPBM-K 603 (as Costazia sp.)
1975 BPBM-K 604 (as Costazia sp.)
Family CRIBRILINIDAE
Cribrilaria radiata Moll, 1803
1975 BPBM-K 717 (as Colletosia radiata)
Family CHORIZOPORIDAE
Rhamphostomella argentea (Hincks, 1881)
2000 Present study
Family SCRUPOCELLARIIDAE
Caberia boryi (Audouin, 1826)
Cryptogenic
1966 Soule and Soule, 1987
2000 Present study
Cleidochasma laterale
2000 Present study
Cleidochasma porcellanum (Busk, 1860)
1975 BPBM-K 620 (as Hippoporina porcellana)
1975 BPBM-K 619 (as Hippoporina porcellana)
1975 BPBM-K 618 (as Hippoporina porcellana)
Diaperoforma sp.
2000 Present study
Hippoporella calyciformis (Phillips, 1899)
2000 Present study
Scrupocellaria maderensis Busk, 1860
2000 Present study
Scrupocellaria scruposa
1975 BPBM-K 723
1975 BPBM-K 722
Scrupocellaria sinuosa Canu and Bassler, 1927
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 BPBM-K 736
1975 BPBM-K 737
276
Scrupocellaria sp.
1975 BPBM-K 721
Family EXECHONELLIDAE
Exechonella tuberculata (MacGillivray, 1883)
1975 BPBM-K 605
Family HIPPOPODINIDAE
Cosciniopsis fusca Canu and Bassler, 1927
2000 Present study
Cosciniopsis lonchaea
1975 BPBM-K 632
1975 BPBM-K 631
1975 BPBM-K 630
Hippopodina feegeensis (Busk, 1884)
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 BPBM-K 667
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Family HIPPOTHOIDAE
Trypostega venusta (Norman, 1864)
Cryptogenic
1966 Soule and Soule, 1987
Family MARGARETTIDAE
Margaretta gracilior Ortmann, 1892
2000 Present study
Margaretta tenuis (Harmer, 1957)
1975 BPBM-K 568
1975 BPBM-K 585
1975 BPBM-K 587
1975 BPBM-K 594
1975 BPBM-K 599
1975 BPBM-K 606
1975 BPBM-K 607
1975 BPBM-K 608
1975 BPBM-K 609
1975 BPBM-K 610
1975 BPBM-K 611
1975 BPBM-K 612
1975 BPBM-K 613
1975 BPBM-K 614
1975 BPBM-K 615
1975 BPBM-K 616
1975 BPBM-K 617
1975 BPBM-K 694
1975 BPBM-K 695
1975 BPBM-K 714
2000 Present study
Margaretta watersi Canu and Bassler, 1930
2000 Present study
Family MICROPORELLIDAE
Fenestrulina malusii
1975 BPBM-K 691
Microporella ciliata (Pallas, 1776)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Microporella sp.
1975 BPBM-K 706
1975 BPBM-K 707
1975 BPBM-K 708
Family SAVIGNYELLIDAE
Savignyella lafontii (Audouin, 1826)
Introduced
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Catenaria lafonti)
1935 Ingram, 1937 (as Catenaria lafonti)
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Catenaria lafonti)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as Catenaria lafonti)
277
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Catenaria lafonti)
2000 Present study
Family SCHIZOPORELLIDAE
Arthropoma circinatum
1975 BPBM-K 666
Schizomavella sp.
2000 Present study
Schizoporella crassomurialis Canu and Bassler, 1927
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
Schizoporella decorata Canu and Bassler, 1927
2000 Present study
Schizoporella cf. errata (Waters, 1878)
none BPBM-K 251
1935 BPBM-K 241
1935 BPBM-K 242
1935 BPBM-K 246
1936 BPBM-K 254
1936 BPBM-K 255
1936 BPBM-K 256
1935 BPBM-K 268
1975 BPBM-K 595
1975 BPBM-K 687
1976 BPBM-K 716
1977 White, 1980
2000 Present study
Schizoporella serialis (Heller, 1867)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Schizoporella unicornis Johnston, 1847
1926 Canu and Bassler, 1927
1935 Ingram, 1937
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 BPBM-K 596
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1979 Jokiel, 1980
1983 Dade and Honkelehto, 1986
Schizoporella sp.
2000 Present study
Family SERTELLIDAE
Reteporellina denticulata (Busk, 1884)
2000 Present study
Reteporellina fimbriata (Canu and Bassler, 1927)
1975 BPBM-K 692
1975 BPBM-K 693
1975 BPBM-K 628
Rhynchozoon nudum (Canu and Bassler, 1927)
1926 Canu and Bassler, 1927
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
Rhynchozoon tuberosum (Canu and Bassler, 1927)
1975 BPBM-K 712
1975 BPBM-K 710
1975 BPBM-K 709
1975 BPBM-K 713
1975 BPBM-K 711
Rhynchozoon sp.
2000 Present study
Family SMITTINIDAE
Parasmittina alanbanneri Soule and Soule, 1973
1975 BPBM-K 701
Parasmittina crosslandi
1975 BPBM-K 702
1975 BPBM-K 703
1975 BPBM-K 704
278
Introduced
Introduced
Parasmittina marsupialis (Busk, 1884)
1975 BPBM-K 705
Parasmittina sp.
2000 Present study
Family TETRAPLARIIDAE
Pollaploecium brevis Canu and Bassler, 1927
1975 BPBM-K 564
1975 BPBM-K 565
1975 BPBM-K 571
1975 BPBM-K 576
1975 BPBM-K 578
1975 BPBM-K 582
1975 BPBM-K 583
1975 BPBM-K 622
1975 BPBM-K 623
1975 BPBM-K 624
1975 BPBM-K 625
1975 BPBM-K 626
1976 BPBM-K 627
1975 BPBM-K 697
1975 BPBM-K 698
1975 BPBM-K 699
Tetraplaria ventricosa (Haswell, 1880)
2000 Present study
Family WATERSIPORIDAE
Watersipora calcullata
1958 BPBM-K 464
Watersipora edmondsoni Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 BPBM-K 563
1975 BPBM-K 569
1975 BPBM-K 573
1975 BPBM-K 577
1975 BPBM-K 579
1975 BPBM-K 580
1975 BPBM-K 590
1975 BPBM-K 591
1975 BPBM-K 597
1975 BPBM-K 598
1975 BPBM-K 696
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 BPBM-K 665
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1983 Dade and Honkelehto, 1986
2000 Present study
Family VESICULARIIDAE
Amathia distans Busk, 1886
1935 BPBM-K 274 (as Amathia sp.)
1935 BPBM-K 279
1935 BPBM-K 281 (as Amathia sp.)
1935 BPBM-K 282 (as Amathia sp.)
1935 BPBM-K 285 (as Amathia sp.)
1935 BPBM-K 287 (as Amathia sp.)
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939 (as Amathia sp.)
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 BPBM-K 629
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 BPBM-K 602
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1983 Dade and Honkelehto, 1986
2000 Present study
Amathia vidovici? (Heller, 1867)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Bowerbankia cf. gracilis Leidy, 1855
279
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Bowerbankia cf. imbricata (Adams, 1800)
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
Steginoporella lateralis MacGillivray, 1895
1975 BPBM-K 718
Steginoporella magnilabris (Busk, 1854)
1975 BPBM-K 726
1975 BPBM-K 727
Zoobotryon verticillatum (delle Chiaje, 1828)
none BPBM-K 465
1935 BPBM-K 280
1935 BPBM-K 290
1935 Soule and Soule, 1968
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1961 BPBM-K 432
1963 BPBM-K 397
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968 (as Barentsia gracilis)
Family THALAMOPORELLIDAE
Thalamoporella sp.
1975 BPBM-K 725
1975 BPBM-K 724
2000 Present study
Family AETEIDAE
Aetea sp.
2000 Present study
Aetea truncata (Landsborough, 1852)
1935 BPBM-K 284
1935 BPBM-K 286
1935 Edmondson and Ingram, 1939
1935 Ingram, 1937
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1977 Rastetter and Cooke, 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1983 Dade and Honkalehto, 1986
Family CALLOPORIDAE
Parellisina curvirostris (Hincks, 1862)
1975 BPBM-K 719
Family HINCKSINIDAE
Antropora levigata
1975 BPBM-K 733
1975 BPBM-K 734
1975 BPBM-K 735
Family SCRUPARIIDAE
Scruparia sp.
2000 Present study
Class STENOLAEMATA
Order CYCLOSTOMATA
Suborder ARTICULATA
Family CRISIIDAE
Crisia circinata Waters, 1914
2000 Present study
Crisina radians (Lamarck, 1816)
1928 BPBM-K 454
2000 Present study
Crisia sp.
2000 Present study
Diaperoecia californica (d'Orbigny, 1852)
1975 BPBM-K 562
1975 BPBM-K 567
1975 BPBM-K 570
1975 BPBM-K 572
280
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1975 BPBM-K 575
1975 BPBM-K 581
1975 BPBM-K 584
1975 BPBM-K 588
1975 BPBM-K 589
1975 BPBM-K 592
1975 BPBM-K 593
1975 BPBM-K 690
1975 BPBM-K 715
1975 BPBM-K 741
1975 BPBM-K 742
1975 BPBM-K 743
1975 BPBM-K 744
1975 BPBM-K 745
1975 BPBM-K 755
1975 BPBM-K 756
1975 BPBM-K 757
Diaperoecia floridana
1975 BPBM-K 574
Diaperoecia sp.
1975 BPBM-K 688
1975 BPBM-K 689
Family LICHENOPORIDAE
Lichenopora buski
1975 BPBM-K 729
1975 BPBM-K 728
1975 BPBM-K 730
1975 BPBM-K 731
1975 BPBM-K 732
Lichenopora sp.
2000 Present study
Lichenopora violacea
1975 BPBM-K 763
1975 BPBM-K 764
1975 BPBM-K 765
Family TUBULIPORIDAE
Idmodronea flexuosa Pourtales, 1867
1975 BPBM-K 758 (as Tubulipora flexuosa)
1975 BPBM-K 759 (as Tubulipora flexuosa)
1975 BPBM-K 760 (as Tubulipora flexuosa)
1975 BPBM-K 761 (as Tubulipora flexuosa)
Tubulipora pacifica
1975 BPBM-K 749
1975 BPBM-K 750
Tubulipora pulchea
1975 BPBM-K 752
1975 BPBM-K 753
1975 BPBM-K 754
Tubulipora sp.
1975 BPBM-K 746
1975 BPBM-K 747
1975 BPBM-K 748
Phylum BRACHIOPODA
Class INARTICULATA
Order LINGULIDA
Family LINGULIDAE
Lingula reevii Davidson, 1880
none BPBM-M 104
none BPBM-M 120
1918 BPBM-M 102
1938 BPBM-M 103
1963 Oyama, 1964
1965 Banner, 1968
1967 Higgins, 1969
281
1980 Emig, 1981
Class ARTICULATA
Order RHYNCHONELLIDA
Family LAQUEIDAE
Frenulina sanguinolenta Gmelin, 1817
none BPBM-M 121
2000 Present study
Phylum ECHINODERMATA
Class ASTEROIDEA
Order PAXILLOSIDA
Family ASTROPECTINIDAE
Astropecten polyacanthus Muller and Troschel, 1842
1907 Clark, 1908
Family LUIDIIDAE
Luidia hystrix Fisher, 1906
1905 Fisher, 1906
Order VALVATIDA
Family ACANTHASTERIDAE
Acanthaster planci Linnaeus, 1758
none BPBM-W 1251
Family ASTERINIDAE
Asterina anomala Clark, 1921
2000 Present study
Family GONIASTERIDAE
Peltaster micropeltus (Fisher, 1906)
1905 Fisher, 1906 (as Tosia micropelta)
Family MITHRODIIDAE
Mithrodia fisheri Holly, 1932
1905 Fisher, 1906 (as Mithrodia bradleyi)
Family OREASTERIDAE
Culcita novaeguineae Muller and Troschel, 1842
1983 Glynn and Krupp, 1986
Family OPHIDIASTERIDAE
Leiaster callipeplus Fisher, 1906
1905 Fisher, 1906
Linckia guildingi Gray, 1840
1905 Fisher, 1906
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1934 Edmondson, 1935-36 (as Linckia diplax)
Linckia multifora (Lamarck, 1816)
none BPBM-W 836
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1934 BPBM-W 865
1934 BPBM-W 861
1934 Edmondson, 1935
1934 Edmondson, 1935-36
1938 BPBM-W 963
1941 Ely, 1942
1941 Ely, 1942
1966 Davis, 1967
1967 Tullis, 1968
Order VELATIDA
Family MYXASTERIDAE
Asthenactis papyraceus Fisher, 1906
1905 Fisher, 1906
Order SPINULOSIDA
Family ECHINASTERIDAE
Henricia pauperrima Fisher, 1906
1966 Davis, 1967
Order FORCIPULATIDA
Family ASTERIIDAE
Coscinasterias acutispina (Stimpson, 1862)
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
282
1934
1938
Edmondson, 1935-36
BPBM-W 964
Order BRISINGIDA
Family HYMENODISCIDAE
Hymenodiscus fragilis (Fisher, 1906)
1905 Fisher, 1906 (as Brisinga fragilis)
Class OPHIUROIDEA
Order OPHIURIDA
Family OPHIOCOMIDAE
Ophiocoma dentata Muller and Troschel, 1842
1923 BPBM-W 327
Ophiocoma erinaceus Muller and Troschel, 1842
1923 BPBM-W 487
2000 Present study
Ophiocoma pica Muller and Troschel, 1842
1967 Devaney, 1968
Ophiocomella sexradia (Duncan, 1887)
2000 Present study
Family OPHIODERMATIDAE
Distichophis clarkii
2000 Present study
Family OPHIOTRICHIDAE
Ophiothrix fragilis
1976 Brock, 1976
Family AMPHIURIDAE
Amphiodia sp.1
2000 Present study
Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828)
1935 BPBM-W 894
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
2000 Present study
Amphiura immira Ely, 1942
2000 Present study
Amphiura sp.2
2000 Present study
Amphiura sp.4
2000 Present study
Amphiura sp.5
2000 Present study
Family OPHIACTIDAE
Ophiactis modesta Brock, 1888
1941 Ely, 1942
1948 Clark, 1949
1963 BPBM-W 1383
1966 Soule and Soule, 1968
2000 Present study
Ophiactis savignyi (Muller and Troschel, 1842)
none BPBM-W 2353
1924 BPBM-W 525
1925 BPBM-W 737
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1939 BPBM-W 972
1941 Ely, 1942
1944 MacKaye, 1945
1948 Clark, 1949
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1983 Caspers, 1985
2000 Present study
Ophiactis sp. (red-spotted)
2000 Present study
Class ECHINOIDEA
283
Order CIDAROIDA
Family CIDARIDAE
Eucidaris metularia Lamarck, 1816
2000 Present study
Order DIADEMATOIDA
Family DIADEMATIDAE
Diadema paucispinum Agassiz, 1863
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
2000 Present study
Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774)
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
1968 Castro, 1969
1977 Castro, 1978
Echinothrix diadema (Linnaeus, 1758)
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
1962 Matthews and Townsley, 1964
1965 Castro, 1966
1966 Gupta, 1967
1972 Chave, 1973
1979 AECOS, 1982
Order TEMNOPLEUROIDA
Family TOXOPNEUSTIDAE
Cyrtechinus verruculatus (Lutken, 1864)
1932 Edmondson, 1933a (as Lytechinus verruculatus)
Pseudoboletia indiana (Michelin, 1862)
1925 BPBM-W 557
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758)
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
1962 Alender, 1963
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
2000 Present study
Tripneustes pileolus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1963 Alender et al., 1964
1963 Hsiao, 1965
1977 Lewis, 1980
Order ECHINOIDA
Family ECHINOMETRIDAE
Colobocentrotus atratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825)
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
1969 Kelso, 1970
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Echinometra oblonga (Blainville, 1825)
1960 Hinegardner, 1961 (as E. mathaei oblonga)
1969 Kelso, 1970
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as E. mathaei oblonga)
Heterocentrotus mammillatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
1962 Matthews and Townsley, 1964
2000 Present study
Family ECHINONEIDAE
Echinoneus cyclostomus Leske, 1778
1924 BPBM-W 377
1960 Hinegardner, 1961
Order CLYPEASTEROIDA
Family CLYPEASTERIDAE
Clypeaster (Rhaphidoclypus) reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
284
1924 BPBM-W 376
Family FIBULARIIDAE
Mortonia australis (Desmoulins, 1837)
none BPBM-W 1250
Order SPATANGOIDA
Family BRISSIDAE
Brissus latecarinatus (Leske, 1778)
1924 BPBM-W 382
Class HOLOTHUROIDEA
Order ASPIDOCHIROTIDA
Family HOLOTHURIIDAE
Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833)
1953 Van Weel, 1955
2000 Present study
Actinopyga obesa (Selenka, 1867)
2000 Present study
Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jaeger, 1833
1924 Clark, 1925
1953 Van Weel, 1955
1967 Hoskins, 1968
1972 Chave, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1979 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis Lesson, 1830
1924 Clark, 1925
1932 BPBM-W 835
1953 Van Weel, 1955
2000 Present study
Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) fuscorubra Theel, 1886
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
Holothuria (Platyperona) difficilis Semper, 1868
1932 Edmondson, 1933a
2000 Present study
Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens (Brandt, 1835)
1965 Banner, 1968
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola Semper, 1868
1924 Clark, 1925
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) hilla Lesson, 1830
1953 Van Weel, 1955 (as Holothuria monocaria)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Holothuria monocaria)
1972 BPBM-W 2102
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Holothuria monocaria)
2000 Present study
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) impatiens (Forskal, 1775)
2000 Present study
Holothuria sp.
1960 BPBM-W 1730
Family STICHOPODIDAE
Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1979 AECOS, 1982
Order ELASIPODIDA
Family ELPIDIIDAE
Scotodeima vitreum Fisher, 1907
1906 Fisher, 1907
1924 Clark, 1925
Order APODIDA
Family SYNAPTIDAE
285
Chiridota hawaiiensis Fisher, 1907
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
Opheodesoma grisea Semper, 1868
1972 BPBM-W 2101
Opheodesoma spectabilis Fisher, 1907
1906 Fisher, 1907
1914 Bryan, 1915
1917 MacCaughey, 1918
1929 BPBM-W 860
1941 BPBM-W 975
1945 BPBM-W 1041
1953 Van Weel, 1955
1964 Berrill, 1965
1964 Berrill, 1966
1965 Freeman, 1966
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Banner, 1974
1972 Chave, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Yamamoto and Yoshida, 1978
2000 Present study
Phylum CHAETOGNATHA
Class SAGITTOIDEA
Order APHRAGMOPHORA
Family SAGITTIDAE
Sagitta enflata Grassi, 1881
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
1967 Peterson, 1969
1974 Szyper, 1976
1977 Szyper, 1978
1977 Kimmerer, 1984
1980 Szyper, 1981
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
1985 Kitalong, 1986a
Sagitta serratodentata Krohn, 1853
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
Phylum HEMICHORDATA
Class ENTEROPNEUSTA
Family PTYCHODERIDAE
Ptychodera flava laysanica Spengel
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Ptychodera flava)
1968 Miller, 1970 (as Ptychodera flava)
1968 Miller, 1975 (as Ptychodera flava)
1968 Miller and Croker, 1972 (as Ptychodera flava)
Phylum CHORDATA
Class ASCIDIACEA
Order ENTEROGONA
Suborder APLOUSOBRANCHIA
Family DIDEMNIDAE
Didemnum candidum Savigny, 1816
1961 Eldredge, 1965
1961 Eldredge, 1966
1967 Straughan, 1969
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 BPBM-Y 262
1976 Brock, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1979 Jokiel, 1980
Didemnum chilense
none BPBM-Y 219
Didemnum edmondsoni Eldredge, 1967
1961 Eldredge, 1966
1961 Eldredge, 1965
286
Introduced
1963 BPBM-Y 197
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Didemnum elikapekae Eldredge, 1967
1962 BPBM-Y 198
1962 Eldredge, 1965
1962 Eldredge, 1966
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Didemnum moseleyi (Herdman, 1886)
1961 Eldredge, 1965
1961 Eldredge, 1965
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1980 BPBM-Y 259
Didemnum perlucidum Monniot, 1983
2000 Present study
Didemnum vanderhorsti
none BPBM-Y 220
Diplosoma listerianum (Milne Edwards, 1841)
1961 Eldredge, 1966 (as D. macdonaldi)
1961 Eldredge, 1965 (as D. macdonaldi)
1962 BPBM-Y 193 (as Diplosoma macdonaldi)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as D. macdonaldi)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as D. macdonaldi)
1977 Rastetter and Cooke, 1979 (as D. macdonaldi)
2000 Present study
Diplosoma similis (Sluiter, 1909)
1961 Eldredge, 1965 (as Diplosoma virens)
1961 Eldredge, 1966 (as Diplosoma virens)
1961 Stoner, 1994
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as Diplosoma virens)
1976 Brock, 1976
1985 Stoner, 1989
1985 Stoner, 1986
1990 Stoner, 1992
Diplosoma sp.
none BPBM-Y 222
Leptoclinides madara Tokioka, 1953
1962 Eldredge, 1966 (as Leptoclinides rufus)
Lissoclinum fragile (Van Name, 1902)
1962 Eldredge, 1966
1962 Eldredge, 1965
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
Trididemnum profundum (Sluiter, 1909)
1963 Eldredge, 1966
1963 Eldredge, 1965
Trididemnum savignii (Herdman, 1886)
1963 Eldredge, 1965
1963 Eldredge, 1966
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Family POLYCLINIDAE
Aplidium sp.
2000 Present study
Polyclinum constellatum Savigny, 1816
none BPBM-Y 226
1960 BPBM-Y 191
1963 BPBM-Y 181
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Henderson and Smith, 1978
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Polyclinum sp.
1938 BPBM-Y 137
1960 BPBM-Y 190
287
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1963 BPBM-Y 234
Suborder PHLEBOBRANCHIA
Family ASCIDIIDAE
Ascidia archaia Sluiter, 1890
2000 Present study
Ascidia corelloides Abbott, 1941
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
Ascidia interrupta Heller, 1878
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1975 Grovhoug, 1976
1976 BPBM-Y 255
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1979 Jokiel, 1980
1980 BPBM-Y 240
Ascidia melanostoma Sluiter, 1885
2000 Present study
Ascidia sp.A
2000 Present study
Ascidia sp.B
2000 Present study
Ascidia sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1979 Jokiel, 1980
1980 BPBM-Y 246
2000 Present study
Ascidia sp.
1963 BPBM-Y 185
1963 BPBM-Y 183
1980 BPBM-Y 242
Phallusia nigra Savigny, 1816
1975 BPBM-Y 241 (as Ascidia nigra)
2000 Present study
Family CIONIDAE
Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
1979 Jokiel, 1980
Family CORELLIDAE
Corella minuta Traustedt, 1882
2000 Present study
Family PEROPHORIDAE
Ecteinascidia imperfecta Tokioka, 1950
1979 BPBM-Y 235
Order PLEUROGONA
Suborder STOLIDOBRANCHIA
Family STYELIDAE
Botrylloides simodensis Saito & Watanabe, 1981
Introduced
1967 Straughan, 1969
Botrylloides sp.
1963 BPBM-Y 184
Botryllus sp.
2000 Present study
Cnemidocarpa areolata (Heller, 1878)
2000 Present study
Eusynstyela hartmeyeri Monniot (= E. aliena)
2000 Present study
Polyandrocarpa sagamiensis Tokioka, 1953
2000 Present study
Polyandrocarpa zooritensis Van Name, 1931
2000 Present study
288
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Polycarpa aurita (Sluiter, 1890)
2000 Present study
Polycarpa sp.
2000 Present study
Styela canopus Savigny, 1816
1963 BPBM-Y 187 (as Styela partita)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as S. partita)
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980 (as S. partita)
2000 Present study
Symplegma brakenhielmi (Michaelsen, 1904)
1975 Grovhoug, 1976 (as S. connectans)
1975 Straughan, 1969 (as Symplegma oceania)
Symplegma connectans Yokioka, 1949
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
Family PYURIDAE
Herdmania pallida (Savigny, 1816)
1963 BPBM-Y 186 (as Herdmania momus)
1963 BPBM-Y 182 (as Herdmania momus)
1975 BPBM-Y 243 (as Herdmania momus)
2000 Present study
Herdmania sp.
2000 Present study
Microcosmus exasperatus Heller, 1878
1976 Grovhoug and Rastetter, 1980
2000 Present study
Microcosmus sp.
1962 BPBM-Y 192
Class APPENDICULARIA
Order LARVACEA
Suborder COPELATA
Family OIKOPLEURIDAE
Oikopleura diocia Fol, 1872
1985 Kitalong, 1986a
1985 Kitalong, 1986b
Oikopleura longicauda (Vogt, 1854)
1967 Peterson, 1969
1970 Rowe, 1971
1977 Taguchi, 1982
Class CHONDRICHTHYES
Subclass ELASMOBRANCHII
Order CARCHARHINIFORMES
Family CARCHARHINIDAE
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker, 1856)
1962 Hobson, 1963 (as C. menisorrah)
Galeocerdo cuvier (Peron and Lesueur, 1822)
1962 Tester, 1963
Family SPHYRNIDAE
Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834)
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
1961 Olla, 1962
1962 Tester and Hobson, 1963
1962 Tester, 1963
1965 Tester and Nelson, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 15439
1968 Clarke, 1971
1970 Clarke, 1971
1991 Holland et al., 1993
Order SQUALIFORMES
Family DALATIIDAE
Centroscyllium nigrum Garman, 1899
1970 BPBM-I 20779
Order RAJIFORMES
Family DASYATIDAE
Dasyatis latus (Garman, 1880)
289
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
2000 Present study
Class OSTEICHTHYES
Subclass ACTINOPTERYGII
Order ELOPIFORMES
Family ELOPIDAE
Elops hawaiensis Regan, 1909
1966 BPBM-I 5574
Order ANGUILLIFORMES
Family OPHICHTHIDAE
Callechelys lutea Snyder, 1904
1948 BPBM-I 12381
1948 BPBM-I 12491
Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay and Bennett, 1839)
1969 BPBM-I 7916
Ophichthus erabo (Jordan and Snyder, 1901)
1985 BPBM-I 33450
Ophichthidae sp.
1996 BPBM-I 37866
Family MURAENIDAE
Anarchias cantonensis (Schultz, 1943)
1966 Wass, 1967
Anarchias leucurus (Snyder, 1904)
1970 Clarke
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Echidna nebulosa (Ahl, 1789)
1937 Mainland, 1939 (as Amejurus nebulosus)
Echidna polyzona (Richardson, 1844)
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck and Schlegel, 1846)
1970 BPBM-I 9797
Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw, 1797)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Echidna zebra)
1968 BPBM-I 7358
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Echidna zebra)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Echidna zebra)
2000 Present study
Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker, 1857)
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker, 1865
1975 BPBM-I 19660
Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott, 1860)
1922 Fowler, 1928 (as Gymnothorax laysanus)
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell, 1830)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
2000 Present study
Gymnothorax gracilicauda Jenkins, 1903
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Gymnothorax hilonis Jordan and Evermann, 1903
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
1966 Wass, 1967
Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker, 1859)
290
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Gymnothorax kidako
1969 BPBM-I 8511
1970 BPBM-I 10179
1971 BPBM-I 12729
Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw and Nodder, 1795)
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
2000 Present study
Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland, 1845)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976 (as Gymnothorax petelli)
Gymnothorax steindachneri Jordan and Evermann, 1903
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède, 1803)
1966 Wass, 1967
1966 BPBM-I 5576
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
Uropterygius fuscoguttatus Schultz, 1953
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Uropterygius inornatus Gosline, 1958
1966 Wass, 1967
Uropterygius supraforatus (Regan, 1909)
1966 Wass, 1967
Uropterygius tigrinus (Lesson, )
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Family CONGRIDAE
Conger cinereus Rüppell, 1830
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as C. cinereus marginatus)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as C. cinereus marginatus)
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
Conger oligoporus Kanazawa, 1958
1966 Wass, 1967 (as C. wilsoni)
1966 Brock et al., 1979
Order CLUPEIFORMES
Family CLUPEIDAE
Etrumeus teres (De Kay, 1842)
1972 Cooney, 1973 (as Etrumeus micropus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Etrumeus micropa)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Etrumeus micropa)
Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Rüppell, 1837)
1975 Williams and Clarke, 1982
1975 Baldwin, 1984
Sardinella marquesensis Berry and Whitehead, 1968
1959 Murphy, 1960 (as Harengula vittata)
1977 Lewis, 1980
Family ENGRAULIDAE
Encrasicholina purpurea (Fowler, 1900)
1944 Tester and Hiatt, 1952 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
291
Introduced
1948 Bachman, 1963 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1949 Tester, 1951 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1950 Tester, 1955 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1950 Hiatt, 1951 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1950 Yamasita, 1951 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1950 Morgan, 1951 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1954 Pritchard, 1955 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1959 Murphy, 1960 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1966 Burdick, 1969 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1967 Leary et al., 1975 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1969 Maginniss, 1970 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1969 Nakamura, 1970 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1969 BPBM-I 31321
1971 Murphy and Clutter, 1972 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1971 BPBM-I 22684
1973 Leary and Murphy, 1975 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1977 Wetheral, 1977 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1980 Johnson, 1982 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1984 Clarke, 1992
1985 Clarke, 1987
1987 Kobayashi, 1987 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1987 Kobayashi, 1989 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1988 Clarke, 1989 (as Stolephorus purpureus)
1995 Chiappa et al., 1996
1995 BPBM-I 36797
2000 Present study
Order CYPRINIFORMES
Family CYPRINIDAE
Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1937 Mainland, 1939
Family COBITIDIDAE
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842)
1937 Mainland, 1939
Order SILURIFORMES
Family CLARIIDAE
Clarias fuscus (Lacepède, 1803)
1937 Mainland, 1939
Order AULOPIFORMES
Family SYNODONTIDAE
Saurida gracilis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1968 BPBM-I 6358
1969 BPBM-I 31316
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
Saurida sp.
2000 Present study
Synodus dermatogenys Fowler, 1912
1966 Wass, 1967
Synodus falcatus Waples and Randall, 1988
1997 BPBM-I 37857
Synodus ulae Schultz, 1953
1957 BPBM-I 15429
Synodus variegatus (Lacepède, 1803)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Order OPHIDIIFORMES
Family OPHIDIIDAE
Brotula multibarbata Temminck and Schlegel, 1846
292
1966 Wass, 1967
1966 Lewis, 1980
1966 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1991 BPBM-I 35429
1991 BPBM-I 37259
Family BYTHITIDAE
Microbrotula rubra Gosline, 1953
1948 BPBM-I 13760
1948 BPBM-I 13759
1952 Gosline, 1953
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
1966 Wass, 1967
Order LOPHIIFORMES
Family ANTENNARIIDAE
Antennarius drombus Jordan and Evermann, 1903
1969 BPBM-I 7927
1969 BPBM-I 7381
1975 BPBM-I 19655
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Antennarius moluccensis Bleeker, 1855
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
Antennarius nummifer (Cuvier, 1817)
1928 BPBM-I 5143
Antennarius pictus (Shaw and Nodder, 1794)
none BPBM-I 22602
Antennarius sp.
1969 BPBM-I 7914
Histrio histrio (Linneaus, 1758)
1991 BPBM-I 37269
Order ATHERINIFORMES
Family ATHERINIDAE
Atherinomorus insularum (Jordan and Evermann, 1903)
1922 Fowler, 1928 (as Hepsetia insularum)
1950 Yamasita, 1951 (as Pranesus insularum)
1954 Pritchard, 1955 (as Pranesus insularum)
1965 Banner, 1968 (as Pranesus insularum)
1968 Chase, 1969 (as Pranesus insularum)
1968 BPBM-I 22650
1970 Miller, 1972 (as Pranesus insularum)
1972 Major, 1977 (as Pranesus insularum)
1972 Key, 1973 (as Pranesus insularum)
1973 McMahon, 1975 (as Pranesus insularum)
2000 Present study
Order CYPRINODONTIFORMES
Family POECILIIDAE
Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur, 1821)
1937 Mainland, 1939 (as Mollienesia latipinna )
Poecilia mexicana Steindachner, 1863
1979 Akiyama, 1982
Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1860
1937 Mainland, 1939 (as Lebistes reticulatus)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Lebistes reticulatus)
Poecilia vittata Guichenot, 1853
1970 Baldwin, 1978
Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther, 1866)
1937 Mainland, 1939 (as Platypoecilius maculatus)
Order BELONIFORMES
Family BELONIDAE
Strongylura gigantea
293
Introduced
Introduced
Introduced
1966 Wass, 1967
Order BERYCIFORMES
Family HOLOCENTRIDAE
Myripristis amaena (Castelnau, 1873)
1966 Brock et al., 1979 (as Myripristis amaenus amaenus)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Myripristis argyromus)
1967 BPBM-I 5582
1971 Popper et al.1973 (as Myripristis argyromus)
Myripristis berndti Jordan and Evermann, 1903
1971 Popper et al.1973
Myripristis sp.
2000 Present study
Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål, 1775)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Holocentrus sammara)
2000 Present study
Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes, 1831)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Holotrachus lima)
Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède, 1802)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Holocentrus diadema)
1967 BPBM-I 5804
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Adioryx diadema)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Adioryx diadema)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Adioryx diadema)
Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier, 1829)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Holocentrus lacteoguttatus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Adioryx lacteoguttatus)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Adioryx lacteoguttatus)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Adioryx lacteoguttatus)
Order SYNGNATHIFORMES
Family AULOSTOMIDAE
Aulostomus chinensis (Linnaeus, 1766)
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
Family SYNGNATHIDAE
Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup, 1856
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Doryrhamphus melanopleura)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Doryrhamphus melanopleura)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Doryrhamphus melanopleura)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Doryrhamphus melanopleura)
Dunckerocampus baldwini Herald and Randall, 1972
1969 BPBM-I 7783
Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1836
1966 Wass, 1967 (as F. petimba)
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977 (as F. petimba)
1982 AECOS, 1982 (as F. petimba)
Hippocampus fisheri Jordan and Evermann, 1903
none BPBM-I 15398
1968 BPBM-I 15390
1968 BPBM-I 15438
1971 BPBM-I 12058
Order SCORPAENIFORMES
Family SCORPAENIDAE
Dendrochirus barberi (Steindachner, 1900)
1937 Pietschman, 1938 (as Dendrochirus chloreus)
1967 BPBM-I 5849
1969 BPBM-I 7821
Dendrochirus brachypterus
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Pterois sphex Jordan and Evermann, 1903
294
1968 BPBM-I 7883
2000 Present study
Scorpaenodes kelloggi (Jenkins, 1903)
1937 Pietschman, 1938 (as Scorpaena kellogi)
Scorpaenopsis brevifrons Eschmeyer and Randall, 1975
1970 BPBM-I 10182
1971 BPBM-I 10958
1991 BPBM-I 35431
Scorpaenopsis cacopsis Jenkins, 1901
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Scorpaenopsis diabolus Cuvier, 1829
1982 AECOS, 1982
Scorpaenopsis gibbosa
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
Sebastapistes ballieui (Sauvage, 1875)
1964 BPBM-I 28139
Sebastapistes coniorta Jenkins, 1903
1964 BPBM-I 28137
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Scorpaena corniota)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Scorpaena corniota)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Scorpaena corniota)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Scorpaena corniota)
Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann, 1934)
1964 BPBM-I 28138
1965 BPBM-I 28141
Taenianotus triacanthus Lacepède, 1802
1966 Wass, 1967
1991 BPBM-I 35432
2000 Present study
Scorpaenidae sp.
1968 BPBM-I 22652
Family CARACANTHIDAE
Caracanthus maculatus
1964 BPBM-I 28140
Order PERCIFORMES
Family LABRIDAE
Anampses chrysocephalus Randall, 1958
1968 BPBM-I 7359
Anampses cuvier Quoy and Gaimard, 1824
1969 BPBM-I 7388
2000 Present study
Bodianus bilunulatus (Lacepède, 1802)
1966 Wass, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 6015
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Cheilio inermis (Forsskål, 1775)
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1978 AECOS, 1982
1993 BPBM-I 37077
2000 Present study
Coris flavovittata (Bennett, 1829)
2000 Present study
Coris venusta Vaillant and Sauvage, 1875
1969 BPBM-I 31322
Enneapterygius atriceps (Jenkins, 1904)
1969 BPBM-I 8514
1975 BPBM-I 19658
295
1991 BPBM-I 37266
Gomphosus varius Lacepède, 1801
1966 Wass, 1967
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1978 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Halichoeres ornatissimus (Garrett, 1863)
2000 Present study
Labroides phthirophagus Randall, 1958
1957 Randall, 1958
1965 Youngbluth, 1968
1966 Wass, 1967
1969 Losey, 1971
1970 Losey, 1972
1972 Losey and Margules, 1974
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Gorlick, 1984
1976 Gorlick, 1978
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Losey, 1977
1978 Gorlick, 1980
1978 Losey, 1979
1994 Barry and Hawtshyn, 1999
2000 Present study
Macropharyngodon geoffroyi (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
Moolgarda engeli (Bleeker, 1858)
1966 BPBM-I 6206
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758
1937 Mainland, 1939
1959 Helfrich and Banner, 1960
1959 Martin, 1960
1959 Nandi and Bern, 1960
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1990 Leber et al., 1996
1990 Leber and Lee, 1997
1990 Leber, 1995
1990 Leber and Arce, 1996
1990 Leber, 1995
1990 Leber et al., 1997
1990 Leber et al., 1997
1990 Leber et al., 1996b
1990 Leber et al., 1996a
1993 Leber et al., 1995
2000 Present study
Neomyxus leuciscus (Günther, 1871)
1959 Helfrich and Banner, 1960 (as Neomyxus chaptali)
Ophicephalus striatus Bloch, 1797
1937 Mainland, 1939
Oxycheilinus bimaculatus (Valenciennes, in Cuvier and
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Cheilinus bimaculatus)
1971 BPBM-I 10957
Oxycheilinus unifasciatus (Streets, 1877)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Cheilinus rhodochrous)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Cheilinus rhodochrous)
296
Introduced
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Cheilinus rhodochrous)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Cheilinus rhodochrous)
Polydactylus sexfilis (Valenciennes, 1831)
1974 May, 1976
1975 Santerre, 1976
1976 Santerre and May, 1977
1990 Leber and Lee, 1997
Pseudocheilinus evanidus Jordan and Evermann, 1903
1966 Wass, 1967
Pseudocheilinus octotaenia Jenkins, 1901
1966 Wass, 1967
1991 BPBM-I 35428
Stethojulis balteata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Stethojulis axilaris)
1966 Wass, 1967
1969 BPBM-I 7377
1972 Key, 1973 (as Stethojulis axilaris)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Stethojulis axilaris)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Thalassoma balteata)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Thalassoma balteata)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1978 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Synchiropus rosulentus Randall, 1998
1991 BPBM-I 37260
1995 BPBM-I 38398
1996 BPBM-I 38399
Thalassoma ballieui (Vaillant and Sauvage, 1875)
1959 Martin, 1960
1966 Wass, 1967
1969 BPBM-I 7386
1971 BPBM-I 10956
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1992 Losey et al., 1994
Thalassoma duperrey (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1966 Wass, 1967
1967 Nishimoto, 1967
1969 BPBM-I 7380
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Nakamura et al, 1989
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 Gorlick, 1980
1978 Ross, 1984b
1978 Ross, 1984a
1978 Ross et al., 1983
1978 Ross, 1983
1978 AECOS, 1982
1979 Ross, 1987
1980 Ross, 1982
1980 Ross, 1981
1982 AECOS, 1982
1984 Ross, 1986
1984 Hoffman, 1987
1992 Losey et al., 1994
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
1995 Mather et al, 1997
297
1996 Morrey et al, 1998
2000 Present study
Thalassoma purpureum (Forsskål, 1775)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Thalassoma umbrostigma)
1972 Key, 1973 (as Thalassoma umbrostigma)
Thalassoma quinquevittatum (Lay and Bennett, 1839)
2000 Present study
Thalassoma trilobatum (Lacepède, 1801)
1984 Hoffman and Grau, 1989 (as Thalassoma fuscus)
Wetmorella albofasciata Schultz and Marshall, 1954
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
Family KUHLIIDAE
Kuhlia sandvicensis (Steindachner, 1876)
1950 Morgan, 1951
1951 Tester, 1952
1952 Morgan, 1953
1953 Tester and Trefz, 1954
1955 Boroughs et al., 1956
1961 Byrne, 1962
1961 Walsh, 1967
1965 Niimi, 1966
1966 Bridges, 1967
1967 Nakamota, 1968
1970 Muir, 1972
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
Kuhlia xenura Jordan and Gilbert,
1968 BPBM-I 22639
1971 BPBM-I 11533
Family ELEOTRIDAE
Eleotris fusca
1937 Mainland, 1939
Eleotris sandwicensis Vaillant and Sauvage, 1875
1961 Walsh, 1967
Family PRIACANTHIDAE
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède, 1801)
1959 Martin, 1960 (as Priacanthus cruentatus)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Priacanthus cruentatus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Priacanthus cruentatus)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Priacanthus cruentatus)
Family APOGONIDAE
Apogon deetsie Randall, 1997
1969 BPBM-I 37400
1971 BPBM-I 13983
1991 BPBM-I 37255
Apogon erythrinus Snyder, 1904
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1979 AECOS, 1982
Apogon kallopterus Bleeker, 1856
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Apogon snyderi)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Apogon snyderi)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Apogon snyderi)
Apogon maculiferus Garrett, 1863
1966 Wass, 1967
1968 BPBM-I 7312
1969 BPBM-I 7408
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Apogon menesemus Jenkins, 1903
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Apogonichthys perdix Bleeker, 1854
298
1975 BPBM-I 19656
1996 BPBM-I 37305
Foa brachygramma (Jenkins, 1904)
1948 BPBM-I 15128
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Apogon brachygrammus)
1968 BPBM-I 6360
1968 BPBM-I 22651
1971 BPBM-I 10955
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1979 AECOS, 1982
1987 Kobayashi, 1987
1987 Kobayashi, 1989
1991 BPBM-I 37227
Foa fo
1937 Pietschman, 1938
Pseudamiops diaphanes Randall, 1997
1991 BPBM-I 37256
1993 BPBM-I 37413
Family GOBIIDAE
Asterropteryx semipunctatus Rüppell, 1830
1937 Mainland, 1939
1938 BPBM-I 5471
1966 Wass, 1967
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
Bathygobius coalitus
1939 BPBM-I 5490
Bathygobius cocosensis (Bleeker, 1854)
1938 BPBM-I 5480
1938 BPBM-I 5484
1987 BPBM-I 33480
Bathygobius cotticeps (Steindachner, 1879)
1966 Wass, 1967
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Bathygobius fuscus
1937 Mainland, 1939
1937 Pietschman, 1938
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Cabillus sp.
1991 BPBM-I 37261
Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes, 1839)
1967 BPBM-I 5589
1969 BPBM-I 7385
1977 Brock, 1982 (as C. sandvicensis)
1993 BPBM-I 37073
Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål, 1775)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Scarus sordidus)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Scarus sordidus)
1976 Brock, 1976 (as Scarus sordidus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Scarus sordidus)
299
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Scarus sordidus)
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977 (as Scarus sordidus)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Scarus sordidus)
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 AECOS, 1982 (as Scarus sordidus)
2000 Present study
Coryphopterus neophytus (Günther, 1877)
1975 BPBM-I 19657
Coryphopterus sp.
1991 BPBM-I 37258
1991 BPBM-I 35423
1991 BPBM-I 37262
Eviota epiphanes Jenkins, 1903
1937 Pietschman, 1938 (as Eleotris epiphanes)
1937 Mainland, 1939 (as Eleotris epiphanes)
1938 BPBM-I 5472
1993 BPBM-I 38391
1996 BPBM-I 37307
1997 Greenfield and Randall, 1999
Eviota rubra Greenfield and Randall, 1999
1991 BPBM-I 35424
1991 BPBM-I 35422
1991 BPBM-I 37257
1991 BPBM-I 38387
1991 BPBM-I 38388
1993 BPBM-I 38390
1997 Greenfield and Randall, 1999
1997 BPBM-I 38385
1997 BPBM-I 38386
Eviota sp.
1971 BPBM-I 10954
Eviota susanae Greenfield and Randall, 1999
1991 BPBM-I 38381
1991 BPBM-I 38382
1991 BPBM-I 38384
1996 BPBM-I 38383
1997 Greenfield and Randall, 1999
1997 BPBM-I 38379
1997 BPBM-I 38380
Gnatholepis anjerensis (Bleeker, 1850)
1937 Mainland, 1939
1939 BPBM-I 5495
1949 BPBM-I 15042
1952 BPBM-I 15046
1967 BPBM-I 31319
1968 BPBM-I 7306
1968 BPBM-I 22642
1968 BPBM-I 31320
1968 BPBM-I 22649
Lentipes concolor (Gill, 1860)
1967 BPBM-I 38475
Mugilogobius cavifrons (Weber, 1909)
Introduced
1988 BPBM-I 32749
1990 BPBM-I 33931
Opua nephodes (E.K. Jordan, 1925)
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
1967 BPBM-I 17820
1968 BPBM-I 15383
Oxyurichthys lonchotus (Jenkins, 1903)
1961 Walsh, 1967
Priolepis aureoviridis (Gosline, 1959)
1991 BPBM-I 35425
1991 BPBM-I 37267
Priolepis eugenius (Jordan and Evermann, 1903)
300
1991 BPBM-I 37263
Priolepis farcimen (Jordan and Evermann, 1903)
1991 BPBM-I 35426
1996 BPBM-I 38477
Priolepis limbatosquamis (Gosline, 1959)
1991 BPBM-I 35427
1991 BPBM-I 37264
Psilogobius mainlandi Baldwin, 1972
none BPBM-I 5523
1939 BPBM-I 5525
1939 BPBM-I 5524
1939 BPBM-I 5522
1968 BPBM-I 22644
1970 Moehring, 1972
1970 Preston, 1978
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1976 BPBM-I 31323
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1987 Kobayashi, 1989
1987 Kobayashi, 1987
2000 Present study
Scarus dubius Bennett, 1828
1961 Byrne, 1962
1966 Wass, 1967
1968 Byrne, 1970
2000 Present study
Scarus perspicillatus Steindachner, 1879
1961 Byrne, 1962
1966 Wass, 1967
1968 Byrne, 1970
1969 BPBM-I 7387
1970 BPBM-I 10218
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
2000 Present study
Scarus psittacus Forsskål, 1775
1976 Brock, 1979 (as S. taeniurus)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as S. taeniurus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as S. taeniurus)
Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1849
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Scarops rubroviolaceous)
Scarus sordidus Forsskål, 1775
1968 BPBM-I 22646
Scarus sp.
2000 Present study
Sicyopterus stimpsoni (Gill, 1860)
1922 Fowler, 1928
1922 Fowler, 1928 (as Sicydium stimpsoni)
1967 BPBM-I 22636
Stenogobius hawaiiensis Watson, 1991
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Chonophorus genivittatus)
Trimma unisquamis (Gosline, 1959)
1991 BPBM-I 37265
Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Z. canescens)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Z. canescens)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Z. canescens)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Z. canescens)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Z. canescens)
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
301
Family CARANGIDAE
Alectis ciliaris (Bloch, 1788)
1955 Burroughs et al., 1956 (as Caranx ajax)
Atule mate (Cuvier, 1833)
1970 Watarai, 1973 (as Caranx mate)
1971 Lee, 1973 (as Caranx mate)
1971 Miller and Sumida, 1974 (as Caranx mate)
1972 Cooney, 1973 (as Caranx mate)
1973 Santerre, 1974 (as Caranx mate)
1984 Clarke, 1986 (as Caranx mate)
1991 Holland et al., 1992 (as Caranx mate)
Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål, 1775)
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Caranx melampygus Cuvier, 1833
1956 Tester and Nakamura, 1957 (as C. stellatus)
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1991 Holland et al., 1992
1995 Holland et al., 1996
Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810)
1998 BPBM-I 38449
Family ACANTHURIDAE
Acanthurus achilles Shaw, 1803
2000 Present study
Acanthurus blochii Valenciennes, 1835
1978 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes, 1835
1966 Wass, 1967
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
2000 Present study
Acanthurus leucopareius (Jenkins, 1903)
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus, 1758)
2000 Present study
Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål, 1775)
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Acanthurus nigroris Valenciennes, 1835
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1978 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch and Schneider, 1801
2000 Present study
Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
1951 Miyake, 1952 (as A. sandvicensis)
1960 Randall, 1961 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis )
1961 Byrne, 1962 (as A. sandvicensis)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as A. sandvicensis)
1967 Sale, 1969 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis )
1972 Key, 1973 (as A. sandvicensis)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1974 Medvick and Miller, 1976 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis)
1974 Medvick, 1976 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis)
302
1976
1977
1977
1977
sandvicensis )
Brock, 1976 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis )
Brock et al., 1979 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis)
Brock, 1982 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis)
Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977 (as A. triostegus
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as A. triostegus sandvicensis)
1978 Gorlick, 1980
1978 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982 (as A. sandwicensis)
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994 (as A. sandvicensis)
2000 Present study
Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes, 1835
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Ctenochaetus hawaiiensis Randall, 1955
2000 Present study
Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett, 1828)
1959 Martin, 1960
1967 Wass, 1967
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
2000 Present study
Naso brevirostris (Valenciennes, 1835)
1966 Wass, 1967
1966 Jones, 1968
1966 Jones, 1967
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Naso lituratus (Forster and Schneider, 1801)
2000 Present study
Naso unicornis (Forsskål, 1775)
1966 Jones, 1967
1966 Jones, 1968
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
2000 Present study
Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett, 1828)
1966 Wass, 1967
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1978 Gorlick, 1980
1978 Losey, 1979
1985 Jonasson, 1986
2000 Present study
Zebrasoma veliferum (Bloch, 1797)
1954 Randall, 1955
1966 Lewis, 1980
1966 Brock, 1982
1966 Wass, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 5588
1969 BPBM-I 7824
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
303
1977 Brock et al., 1979
2000 Present study
Family LUTJANIDAE
Lutjanus fulvus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801)
Introduced
1960 Kami, 1961 (as Lutianus vaigiensis)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Lutianus vaigiensis)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Lutianus vaigiensis)
2000 Present study
Lutjanus gibbus (Forsskål, 1775)
Introduced
1961 Kami, 1962
1962 Hobson, 1963
Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskål, 1775)
Introduced
1977 Brock et al., 1979
2000 Present study
Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830)
1994 Demartini et al., 1996
1994 Moffit and Parrish, 1996
Family LOBOTIDAE
Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch, 1790)
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960
Family MULLIDAE
Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède, 1801)
1959 Martin, 1960 (as M. samoensis)
1959 Helfrich and Banner, 1960 (as M. samoensis)
1961 Byrne, 1962 (as M. samoensis)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as M. samoensis)
1972 Key, 1973 (as M. samoensis)
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1979 AECOS, 1982
1991 Holland et al., 1993 (as M. samoensis)
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes, 1831)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepède, 1802)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
2000 Present study
Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède, 1801)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Parupeneus chryserydros)
2000 Present study
Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825)
1961 Byrne, 1962
1966 Wass, 1967
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1979 AECOS, 1982
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Parupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett, 1831)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Parupeneus porphyreus (Jenkins, 1902)
1961 Byrne, 1962
1968 Mahi, 1969
1972 Key, 1973
1977 Lewis, 1980
304
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Upeneus arge Jordan and Evermann, 1903
1959 Helfrich and Banner, 1960
1966 BPBM-I 5590
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994 (as U. taeniopterus)
Family SCOMBRIDAE
Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier, 1831)
1954 Tester et al., 1955
1956 Tester and Nakamura, 1957
Blenniidae sp.
1968 BPBM-I 22648
1968 BPBM-I 22647
1968 BPBM-I 22645
Cirripectes obscurus (Borodin, 1927)
1966 Wass, 1967
Cirripectes quagga (Fowler and Ball, 1924)
1993 BPBM-I 37078
Cirripectes vanderbilti (Fowler, 1938)
1975 BPBM-I 19659
Cirripectes variolosus
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Enchelyurus ater
1937 Pietschman, 1938
Enchelyurus brunneolus (Jenkins, 1903)
1937 Mainland, 1939 (as Paraoxyurichthys edmondsoni)
1945 Edmondson, 1946 (as Paraoxyurichthys edmondsoni)
1969 BPBM-I 7866
1996 BPBM-I 37306
Entomacrodus marmoratus (Bennett, 1828)
1970 Henderson et al., 1976
1993 BPBM-I 37079
Entomacrodus strasburgi Springer, 1967
1993 BPBM-I 37080
Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849)
1951 van Weel, 1952 (as Euthynnus yaito)
1951 Hsiao, 1952 (as Euthynnus yaito)
1951 Hsiao and Tester, 1955 (as Euthynnus yaito)
1951 Miyake, 1952 (as Euthynnus yaito)
1953 Tester et al., 1954
1954 Tester et al., 1955
1955 Boroughs et al., 1956 (as Euthynnus yaito)
1956 Tester and Nakamura, 1957 (as Euthynnus yaito)
Istiblennius gibbifrons (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1993 BPBM-I 37081
Istiblennius zebra (Vaillant and Sauvage, 1875)
1975 Henderson et al., 1976
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758)
1954 Tester et al., 1955
1956 Tester and Nakamura, 1957
Omobranchus elongatus (Peters, 1855)
1955 Strasburg, 1956
Omobranchus rotundiceps obliquus (Garman, 1903)
Introduced
1965 BPBM-I 6205
1991 BPBM-I 37228
305
Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788)
1951 van Weel, 1952
1951 Miyake, 1952
1951 Hsiao, 1952
1954 Tester et al., 1955
1956 Tester and Nakamura, 1957
1972 Miller, 1979
Family KYPHOSIDAE
Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède, 1801
1997 BPBM-I 38443
2000 Present study
Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775)
1997 BPBM-I 38444
Sectator ocyurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1903)
1904 Jordan and Everman, 1905 (as Sectator azureus)
Family SCORPIDIDAE
Microcanthus strigatus (Cuvier, 1831)
1966 Wass, 1967
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
Family CHAETODONTIDAE
Chaetodon auriga Forsskål, 1775
1966 Wass, 1967
1972 Losey and Margules, 1974
1972 Losey, 1977
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 Gorlick, 1980
1978 Losey, 1979
1982 AECOS, 1982
1985 Jonasson, 1986
2000 Present study
Chaetodon fremblii Bennett, 1828
1966 Wass, 1967
2000 Present study
Chaetodon lineolatus Cuvier, 1831
1966 Wass, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 6013
2000 Present study
Chaetodon lunula (Lacepède, 1803)
1966 Wass, 1967
1966 Brock, 1982
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
2000 Present study
Chaetodon lunulatus Quoy and Gaimard, 1825
1959 Gosline and Brock, 1960 (as Chaetodon trifasciatus)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Chaetodon trifasciatus)
1968 BPBM-I 6991
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977 (as Chaetodon
trifasciatus)
1997 Kosaki, 1999 (as Chaetodon trifasciatus)
2000 Present study
Chaetodon miliaris Quoy and Gaimard, 1824
1961 Byrne, 1962
1966 Wass, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 5803
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1974 Ralston, 1975
1975 Ralston, 1976
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
306
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Chaetodon multicinctus Garrett, 1863
1990 Cox, 1991
1996 Aeby, 1998
2000 Present study
Chaetodon ornatissimus Solander in Cuvier, 1831
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1988 Fiedler, 1990
1990 Cox, 1991
1990 Cox, 1991
2000 Present study
Chaetodon quadrimaculatus Gray, 1831
2000 Present study
Chaetodon trifasciatus Park, 1797
1966 BPBM-I 7895
Chaetodon unimaculatus Bloch, 1787
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1983 Cox, 1986
1983 Cox, 1983
1985 Jonasson, 1986
1990 Cox, 1991
2000 Present study
Forcipiger flavissimus Jordan and McGregor, 1898
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as F. longirostris)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
2000 Present study
Heniochus diphreutes Jordan, 1903
1977 Brock, 1982 (as H. acuminatus)
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as H. acuminatus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as H. acuminatus)
2000 Present study
Family POMACANTHIDAE
Centropyge flavissimus
2000 Present study
Centropyge loriculus (Günther, 1860)
2000 Present study
Centropyge potteri Jordan and Metz, 1912
1967 Lutnesky, 1989
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
2000 Present study
Desmoholacanthus arcuatus (Gray, 1831)
1968 BPBM-I 7360
Family CICHLIDAE
Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852)
Introduced
1955 Boroughs et al., 1956a (as Tilapia mossambicus)
1955 Boroughs et al., 1956b (as Tilapia mossambicus)
1956 Boroughs et al., 1957 (as Tilapia mossambicus)
1957 Boroughs and Reid, 1958 (as Tilapia mossambicus)
1961 Bern and Takasugi, 1962 (as Tilapia mossambicus)
1961 Walsh, 1967 (as Tilapia mossambicus)
1986 Keneko et al., 1988 (as Tilapia mossambicus)
2000 Present study
Sarotherodon melanotheron Rüppell, 1852
Introduced
1983 BPBM-I 33444
Family POMACENTRIDAE
Abudefduf abdominalis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824)
1957 Helfrich, 1958
307
1963 Piyakarnchana, 1965
1965 Walters, 1967
1966 May, 1967
1966 Wass, 1967
1969 BPBM-I 7384
1972 Key, 1973
1972 Cooney, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1974 Medvick, 1976
1974 Medvick, 1979
1974 Medvick and Miller, 1979
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1979 AECOS, 1982
1982 Stanton, 1988
1982 AECOS, 1982
1983 Radtke, 1985
1985 Tyler, 1995
1986 Tyler, 1988
1986 Tyler and Stanton, 1995
1986 Tyler, 1989
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Abudefduf sordidus (Forsskål, 1775)
1982 Stanton, 1985
1994 Marine Research Consultants, 1994
2000 Present study
Abudefduf vaigiensis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825)
2000 Present study
Chromis hanui Randall and Swerdloff, 1973
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Brock, 1982
2000 Present study
Chromis ovalis (Steindachner, 1900)
1966 Swerdloff, 1970
1966 Wass, 1967
1972 Key, 1973
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
Chromis verater Jordan and Metz, 1912
1966 Swerdloff, 1970
2000 Present study
Dascyllus albisella Gill, 1862
1964 Stevenson, 1965
1967 Wass, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 5577
1972 Key, 1973
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1974 Foster, 1975
1976 Brock, 1976
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1978 Gorlick, 1980
1979 AECOS, 1982
1986 Booth, 1995
1992 Danilowicz-Bret, 1997
308
1992 Danilowicz, 1997
1992 Danilowicz, 1995
1996 Mann and Lobel, 1998
2000 Present study
Plectroglyphidodon imparipennis (Vaillant and Sauvage, 1875)
2000 Present study
Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus Fowler and Ball, 1924
1966 Wass, 1967
1974 Macdonald, 1976
1974 Macdonald, 1981
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1989 Gochfeld, 1991
2000 Present study
Plectroglyphidodon sindonis (Jordan and Evermann, 1903)
2000 Present study
Stegastes fasciolatus (Ogilby, 1889)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Pomacentrus jenkinsi)
1967 Rosa, 1969 (as Pomacentrus jenkinsi)
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973 (as Pomacentrus
jenkensi)
1974
1976
1977
jenkensi)
Macdonald, 1981
Brock, 1976 (as Pomacentrus jenkensi)
Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977 (as Pomacentrus
1977 Lewis, 1980 (as Eupomacentrus fasciolatus)
1977 Brock, 1982 (as Eupomacentrus fasciolatus)
1977 Brock et al., 1979 (as Eupomacentrus fasciolatus)
1981 Losey, 1982
1983 Fitzhardinge, 1986 (as Pomacentrus jenkensi)
1983 Shaklee, 1984
1985 Harrington and Losey, 1990
2000 Present study
Family CHEILODACTYLIDAE
Cheilodactylus vittatus Garrett, 1864
1967 BPBM-I 5584
2000 Present study
Family SERRANIDAE
Cephalopholis argus Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Introduced
2000 Present study
Epinephelus quernus Seale, 1901
1968 BPBM-I 6476
Epinephelus sp.
1961 Kami, 1962 (as E. merra)
Plectranthias nanus Randall, 1980
1991 BPBM-I 35433
Pseudogramma polyacanthum hawaiiensis Randall and Baldwin,
1991 BPBM-I 35430
Pseudogramma polyacanthum polyacanthum (Bleeker, 1856)
1966 Wass, 1967
Suttonia sp.
1991 BPBM-I 37254
Order PLEURONECTIFORMES
Family BOTHIDAE
Bothus mancus (Brousonet, 1782)
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell, 1830)
1968 BPBM-I 22643
1969 BPBM-I 31315
1993 BPBM-I 37072
309
2000 Present study
Family PLEURONECTIDAE
Samariscus sp.
1971 BPBM-I 10953
Samariscus triocellatus Woods, 1966
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
Family SOLEIDAE
Aseraggodes borehami Randall, 1996
1969 BPBM-I 7834
1997 BPBM-I 37856
Aseraggodes sp.
2000 BPBM-I 38745
Aseraggodes therese Randall, 1996
1963 BPBM-I 31314
1991 BPBM-I 36794
Order TETRAODONTIFORMES
Family TETRAODONTIDAE
Arothron hispidus (Linneaus, 1758)
1957 Martin, 1958 (as Tetradon hispidus)
1959 Martin, 1960 (as Tetradon hispidus)
1962 Helfrich, 1963
1962 Eger, 1963
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock et al., 1979
2000 Present study
Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker, 1865)
1969 BPBM-I 7376
Canthigaster jactator (Jenkins, 1901)
1966 Wass, 1967
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1982 Deardorff and Stanton, 1983
2000 Present study
Canthigaster rivulata (Schlegel, 1850)
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1978 AECOS, 1982
Family DIODONTIDAE
Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus, 1758
1967 BPBM-I 6014
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Brock et al., 1979
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758
1966 Brock, 1982
1966 Wass, 1967
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1978 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Sufflamen bursa (Bloch and Schneider, 1801)
2000 Present study
Sufflamen fraenatus (Latrielle, 1804)
2000 Present study
Family MONACANTHIDAE
Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard, 1854)
1966 Brock et al., 1979
Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell, 1837)
310
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Amanses pardalis)
1966 Wass, 1967 (as Amanses sandwichiensis)
Pervagor melanocephalus
1967 BPBM-I 5599
Pervagor spilosoma (Lay and Bennett, 1839)
1966 Wass, 1967
1967 BPBM-I 5580
1973 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1973
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
1977 Environmental Consultants Inc., 1977
1978 AECOS, 1982
2000 Present study
Family OSTRACIIDAE
Lactoria fornasini (Bianconi, 1846)
1962 Thomson, 1963
1966 Wass, 1967
Ostracion lentiginosus Bloch and Schneider, 1801
1962 Thomson, 1963
1965 Boylan, 1966
1966 Wass, 1967
Ostracion meleagris
1966 Wass, 1967
1977 Brock, 1982
1977 Brock et al., 1979
1977 Lewis, 1980
2000 Present study
311
APPENDIX C
Station Records for Invertebrates and Fishes Collected or Observed
in Kane`ohe Bay during 1999-2000
312
Taxa
Cyanophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Rhodophyta
Family
Oscillatoriaceae
Cladophoraceae
Cladophoraceae
Species
Lyngbya majuscula
Cladophora sericea
Cladophora
vagabunda
Dictyosphaeria
Valoniaceae
cavernosa
Dictyosphaeria
Valoniaceae
versluysii
Valonia ventricosa?
Valoniaceae
Codium edule
Codiaceae
Halimeda sp.
Codiaceae
Siphonocladacea Boodlea composita
e
Siphonocladacea Cladophoropsis
membranacea
e
Siphonocladacea Cladophoropsis sp
e
Rhipidosiphon
Udoteaceae
javensis
Siphonocladacea Ventricaria
ventricosa
e
Caulerpa racemosa
Caulerpaceae
Caulerpa
Caulerpaceae
sertularioides
Caulerpa taxifolia
Caulerpaceae
Caulerpa
Caulerpaceae
verticillata
Caulerpella
Caulerpaceae
ambigua
Halimeda discoidea
Halimedaceae
Halimeda opuntia
Halimedaceae
Bornetella
Dasycladaceae
sphaerica
Anadyomenaceae Microdictyon
setchellianum
Pseudobryopsis
Bryopsidaceae
oahuensis
Dictyota acutiloba
Dictyotaceae
Dictyota ceylanica
Dictyotaceae
Dictyota friabilis
Dictyotaceae
Dictyota
Dictyotaceae
sandvicensis
Padina australis
Dictyotaceae
Padina japonica
Dictyotaceae
1
2
3
4
5
x
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Station
13 14
x
15
16
17
x
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
313
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
25
Taxa
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Phaeophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Family
Dictyotaceae
Scytosiphonacea
e
Sargassaceae
Species
Padina sp.
Hydroclathrus
clathratus
Sargassum
echinocarpum
Sargassum
Sargassaceae
obtusifolium
Sargassum
Sargassaceae
polyphyllum
Scytosiphonacea Rosenvingea
intricate
e
Turbinaria ornata
Sargassaceae
Sphacelariaceae Sphacelaria novaehollandiae
Falkenbergia
Ceramiaceae
hillebrandii
Aglaothamnion sp
Ceramiaceae
Anotrichium tenue
Ceramiaceae
Antithamnion
Ceramiaceae
antillanum
Centroceras
Ceramiaceae
clavulatum
Ceramium
Ceramiaceae
clarionensis
Ceramium
Ceramiaceae
flaccidum
Ceramium sp.
Ceramiaceae
Diplothamnion jolyi
Ceramiaceae
Griffithsia
Ceramiaceae
heteromorpha
Griffithsia sp.
Ceramiaceae
Herposiphonia
Ceramiaceae
crassa
Herposiphonia
Ceramiaceae
nuda
Herposiphonia
Ceramiaceae
parca
Herposiphonia sp.
Ceramiaceae
Polysiphonia sp.
Ceramiaceae
Spyridia
Ceramiaceae
filamentosa
Wrangelia
Ceramiaceae
elegantissima
Champia parvula
Champiaceae
1
x
2
3
4
5
6
7
x
8
9
10
11
12
Station
13 14
x
x
x
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
314
x
x
x
x
x
x
25
Taxa
Rhodophyta
Family
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodomelaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodomelaceae
Solieriaceae
Rhodophyta
Solieriaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Solieriaceae
Solieriaceae
Rhodophyta
Dasyaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Corallinaceae
Corallinaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Corallinaceae
Corallinaceae
Corallinaceae
Corallinaceae
Corallinaceae
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Delesseriaceae
Delesseriaceae
Rhodophyta
Delesseriaceae
Rhodophyta
Galaxauraceae
Rhodophyta
Gelidiellaceae
Rhodophyta
Gracilariaceae
Rhodophyta
Gracilariaceae
Species
Acanthophora
spicifera
Chondracanthus
acicularis
Chondria
simpliciuscula
Laurencia sp.
Laurencia
yamadana
Neosiphonia sp
Tolypiocladia
glomerulata
Ululania stellata
Eucheuma
demticulatum
Kappaphycus
alvarezii
Kappaphycus sp.
Kappaphycus
striatum
Heterosiphonia
crispella
Amphiroa sp.
Hydrolithon
reinboldii
Jania micarthrodia
Lithophyllum sp.
Porolithon gardineri
Porolithon onkodes
Sporolithon
erythraeum
Martensia fragilis
Neomartensia
flabelliformis
Taenioma
perpusillum
Galaxaura
subverticillata
Gelidiella
machrisiana
Gracilaria
salicornia
Gracilaria
coronopifolia
1
2
x
3
4
5
6
x
7
8
9
10
11
x
12
x
x
x
Station
13 14
x
x
15
x
16
17
x
18
19
x
20
21
22
23
24
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
315
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
25
Taxa
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Rhodophyta
Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
Calcarea
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Family
Gracilariaceae
Species
1
Gracilaria
parvispora
Hypnea chordacea x
Hypneaceae
Hypnea
Hypneaceae
musciformis
Hypnea pannosa
Hypneaceae
Hypnea sp.
Hypneaceae
Hypnea spinella
Hypneaceae
Hypneocolax
Hypneaceae
stellaris
Lomentariaceae Lomentaria
hakodatensis
Rhizophyllidacea Desmia portieria
x
e
x
Rhizophyllidacea Portieria
hornemannii
e
Rhodymeniaceae Botryocladia
skottsbergi
Rhodymeniaceae Chrysymenia
okamurae
Kallymeniaceae Kallymenia sessilis
Total Algae
10
Hydrocharitaceae Halophila hawaiana
Hydrocharitaceae Halophila australis
Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora
mangle
Spermatophyta
0
Heteropia
Heteropiidae
glomerosa
Plakortis sp.
Plakinidae
x
Chondrosia sp.
Chondrillidae
Spheciospongia
Spirastrellidae
vagabunda
Suberites zeteki
Suberitidae
Tethya sp.
Tethyidae
Clathria sp.
Microcionidae
(orange)
Clathria sp. (red)
Microcionidae
x
Coelosphaeridae Lissodendoryx
Hawaiiana
Naniupi ula
Crellidae
x
Phoriospongiidae Strongylacidon
Kane`ohe
2
x
3
4
x
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
x
11
12
x
x
Station
13 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
24
x
10
4
12
14
x
9
6
6
1
20
x
x
x
17
32
x
11
x
x
5
11
7
0
9
2
8
0
11
20
0
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
316
Taxa
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Family
Tedaniidae
Desmacellidae
Desmacididae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Mycalidae
Demospongiae Axinellidae
Demospongiae Halichondriidae
Demospongiae Halichondriidae
Demospongiae Halichondriidae
Demospongiae Callyspongiidae
Demospongiae Callyspongiidae
Demospongiae Chalinidae
Demospongiae Chalinidae
Demospongiae Chalinidae
Demospongiae Chalinidae
Demospongiae Chalinidae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
Chalinidae
Chalinidae
Chalinidae
Chalinidae
Niphatidae
Niphatidae
Niphatidae
Niphatidae
Dysideidae
Dysideidae
Dysideidae
Dysideidae
Dysideidae
Dysideidae
Species
Tedania sp.
Biemna sp.
Iotrochota sp.
Mycale armata
Mycale cecilia
Mycale sp.
Mycale sp.3
Mycale sp.4
Mycale sp.5
Stylinos sp.
Zygomycale
parishii
Hymerhabdia sp.
Axinyssa sp.
Halichondria
melanadocia
Halichondria sp.
Callyspongia
diffusa
Callyspongia sp.
Adocia sp. (orange)
Chalinidae n.sp.
(purple)
Haliclona permollis
Haliclona sp.
Sigmadocia
caerulea
Toxadocia sp.
Toxiclona sp.
Toxochalina sp.1
Toxochalina sp.2
Gelliodes fibrosa
Gelliodes sp.
Gellius sp.1
Gellius sp.2
Dysidea arenaria
Dysidea avara
Dysidea sp.
Dysidea sp.1
Dysidea sp.2
Dysidea sp.3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
x
8
9
10
x
x
11
12
x
x
Station
13 14
x
x
x
x
x
15
x
16
x
x
x
17
x
18
19
x
x
x
x
x
20
x
21
22
23
24
25
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
317
x
x
x
x
x
Taxa
Family
Species
Aplysilla sp.
Demospongiae Darwinellidae
Demospongiae Dictyodendrillidae Dictyodendrilla sp.
Total Porifera
Lytocarpia niger
Hydrozoa
Agalopheniidae
Hydrozoa
Campanulariidae Campanularia sp.
Hydrozoa
Campanulariidae Clytia latitheca
Hydrozoa
Campanulariidae Obelia bidentata
Hydrozoa
Campanulariidae Obelia dichotoma
Turritopsis nutricula
Hydrozoa
Clavidae
Halecium sp.
Hydrozoa
Haleciidae
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
x
10
11
9
0
1
0
3
2
3
4
4
4
0
Hydrozoa
x
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Hydrozoa
Anthozoa
Anthozoa
Anthozoa
Anthozoa
Anthozoa
Anthozoa
Halopterididae
Antennella
secundaria
Pennaria disticha
Halocordylidae
Kirchenpaueriidae Ventromma
halecioides
Anthohebella
Lafoeidae
parasitica
Halopteris
Plumulariidae
polymorpha
Halopteris sp.
Plumulariidae
Plumularia
Plumulariidae
floridana
Plumularia
Plumulariidae
strictocarpa
Dynamena
Sertulariidae
crisioides
Sertularella areyi
Sertulariidae
Sertularella
Sertulariidae
tongensis
Sertularia ligulata
Sertulariidae
Sertularia sp.
Sertulariidae
Tridentata humpferi
Sertulariidae
Synthecium
Syntheciidae
megathecum
Total Hydrozoa
Carijoa riisei
Clavulariidae
Sinularia abrupta
Alcyoniidae
Anthelia
Xeniidae
edmondsoni
Sarcothelia n. sp.
Xeniidae
Aiptasia pulchella
Aiptasiidae
Montipora capitata
Acroporidae
Station
13 14
x
x
5
6
12
12
15
16
17