Ingredients for Home Care Applications

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Ingredients for
Home Care Applications
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
TABLE OF CONTENTS
5 Formulation
1 Introduction
6 Environmental data
DEQUEST® PB Inulin derivatives find their use as:
1 Introduction
• Co-builder
• Synergetic boosters for stain removal in combination
The Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A. DEQUEST® products
offer a unique set of ingredients for household care
2 Nomenclature
6.1. Environmental profile of DEQUEST® phosphonates
products. DEQUEST® range includes phosphonates
and carboxymetyl inulin derivatives.
3 Chemical and physical properties of
DEQUEST® phosphonates and
DEQUEST® PB products
6.2. Environmental profile of DEQUEST® PB
6.2.1. Eco-toxicity of DEQUEST® PB
More than 40 years ago, DEQUEST® pioneered the
6.2.2. Biodegradability of DEQUEST® PB
development of phosphonate based antiscalants.
6.2.3. Other environmental aspects
DEQUEST® phosphonates have been the product of
3.1 Summary tables
stabilization,
7 Handling
3.2.2 Peroxide and bleach stabilization
3.2.3 Enzyme compatibility
3.3 Scale inhibition
3.4 Dispersion / Deflocculation
3.5 Solubility
3.6 Hydrolitic and thermal stability
4 DEQUEST® in Home Care
applications
4.1 Laundry
4.1.1. Powder detergent
chelation
and
metal
corrosion
inhibition in various applications for many years.
3.2 Sequestration
3.2.1 Stability constant
choice for scale prevention, dispersion, bleach
8 Quality of DEQUEST products
®
Recently, carboxymethyl inulin has been added to
the DEQUEST® line up in order to offer a
biodegradable scale inhibitor/dispersant derived
from natural source (chicory root).
The application fields of DEQUEST
®
phosphonates are
derived from the following physical and chemical
properties:
• Strong sequestration of heavy transition metal ions
• Strong scale inhibition of phosphate, carbonate and
sulphate scales
• Dispersion and deflocculation of solids and lipids soils
DEQUEST® PB Inulin derivatives demonstrate their
benefits owing to:
cost
effectiveness
When
the
formulation
must
comply
with
some
environmental standard typically not met by regular
detergents raw materials.
DEQUEST® products can be easily formulated in liquid,
powder, granulated and tablet types of detergents. They
can be incorporated by spray-drying, spray-mixing, dryblending or straight mixing of liquids.
Their solubility in water is high and they show excellent
compatibility with other detergent ingredients.
The high purity of the DEQUEST® phosphonates means
that customers obtain maximum performance. Performance
is shown to be directly related to purity.
Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A.’s DEQUEST® range has been
the world’s leader in phosphonates for more than 40 years
and it is recognized as setting the quality standard in the
market. Our long manufacturing experience and stringent
process controls ensure our customers receive a consistent
quality product that does not vary from shipment to
and assistance to customers on formulation and processing
of
DEQUEST®
phosphonates with these properties has led to their
4.2. Dishwashing
• dispersant (anti-redeposition)
Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A. can provide technical service
• Attractive environmental profile
excellent
• glass corrosion inhibitor
As a major supplier of material to the detergent industry,
• Scale inhibition and dispersion properties
The
• Anti-incrustation additives
shipment.
• Excellent calcium tolerance
4.1.2. Liquid detergent
4.1.3. Laundry additives
with DEQUEST® phosphonates
of phosphonates and Inulin derivatives in detergents and
cleaners.
widespread use in detergents or cleaners, DEQUEST®
phosphonates can be formulated to promote:
4.3. Hard surface cleaning
• Scale inhibition of insoluble salts (Anti-incrustation)
• Stabilization of bleaching agents, in particular peracids
and activators
• Deflocculation
• Specific stain removal
2
3
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
3 Chemical and physical properties of DEQUEST® phosphonates and
carboxymethyl Inulin based products
2 Nomenclature
2.1 – Phosphonates
2.2 – Carboxymethyl Inulin
3.1 - Summary tables
DEQUEST
DEQUEST PB are derived from Inulin, a natural substance
DEQUEST® 2010/2016/2016D/2016DG phosphonates
®
phosphonates are divided into amino-
phosphonates and non-amino phosphonates.
®
extracted from chicory. Each fructose and the terminal
glucose unit carry 3 reactive groups, which can be
Chemical name:
Table 1 shows the various grades of amino phosphonates;
substituted into carboxymethyl groups; practically, 3
1-Hydroxymethylene (1.1 diphosphonic acid) (HEDP)
table 2 shows the various grades of non-amino
degrees of substitution are produced: 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5
Chemical structure:
phosphonates. They are sold as liquid or free-flowing
powders and/or granules. These liquids or solid grades can
be obtained as acids or salts, which offer application in
liquid and powder detergents and cleaners.
TABLE 1: DEQUEST® AMINO-PHOSPHONATES
Amino backbone
DEQUEST® series
TABLE 3: DEQUEST CARBOXYMETHYL INULIN
®
Average substitution
degree per fructose unit (DS)
DEQUEST® PB series
1.5
DEQUEST® PB 11615
2
DEQUEST PB 11620
2.5
DEQUEST® PB 11625
HO
OH
OH
P
C
P
O
CH3
O
DEQUEST® 2000
Ethylenediamine
DEQUEST® 2040
Hexamethylenediamine
DEQUEST® 2050
Product
Diethylenediamine
DEQUEST 2060
Product form
Acid solution
Appearance
DEQUEST series
DEQUEST® 2010
2-Phosphono
1,2,4-butanetricarboxylic acid
DEQUEST® 7000
Chemical properties
1-Hydroxyethylene
(1,1-diphosphonic acid)
Physical properties
Chemical type
TABLE 4: DEQUEST® 2010 SERIES
®
®
OH
®
Ammonia
TABLE 2: DEQUEST® NON-AMINO PHOSPHONATES
4
OH
DEQUEST® 2010
DEQUEST® 2016
DEQUEST® 2016D
DEQUEST® 2016 DG
HEDP
Na4HEDP
Na4HEDP
Na4HEDP
Clear to pale yellow
aqueous solution
Tetrasodium salt solution
Clear to pale yellow
aqueous solution
Tetrasodium salt
powder
White free flowing
powder
Tetrasodium salt
granule
White free flowing
granule
Molecular weight
206
294
294
294
Mean particle size [µ]
N.A.
N.A.
100 min
400-800
Specific gravity @
20ºC
1.45
1.31
0.65-0.95 g/cm³ (bulk
density)
0.65-1.0 g/cm³
(bulk density)
Freezing point [ºC]
-25
Active content
60 % as acid
pH (1% @ 25ºC)
DEQUEST® 2016 should
be maintained above
+5ºC at all time
21% as acid
30% as salt
N.A.
N.A.
59% as acid
84% as salt
59% as acid
2.0 max
10-12
11-12
11-12
Chloride [%]
<0.1
-
-
-
Iron [ppm Fe]
<20
<20
<20
<35
Moisture [%]
N.A.
N.A.
6-10
13 max
5
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
DEQUEST® 2046 / 2047 phosphonates
DEQUEST® 2060S / 2066 / 2066A / 2066C2
/ 4066 phosphonates
Chemical name:
ethylenediaminetetra (methylphosphonic acid)
Chemical name:
(EDTMPA)
Diethylenediaminepenta
(methyl­phosphonic
acid)
(DTPMPA)
Chemical structure:
Chemical structure:
O
O
HO
HO
OH
CH2P
PCH2
HO
N(CH2) 2N
HO
CH2P
HO
DEQUEST® 2047
Na5EDTMPA
Na3Ca2,5EDTMPA
Product form
Pentasodium salt solution
Sodium/Calcium salt
powder
Appearance
Clear to pale yellow aqueous solution
Off-white free flowing powder
Molecular weight
546
597
Mean particle size [µ]
N.A.
100 min
Specific gravity @ 20ºC
1.32
475-900 kg/m³
(bulk density)
Freezing point [ºC]
-14
NA
Active content
25% as acid
31% as salt
32-36% as acid
pH (1% @ 25ºC)
6-8
11-13
Chloride [%]
<5
17-20
Iron [ppm Fe]
<20
<20
Moisture [%]
N.A.
14-17.5
Physical properties
Chemical properties
DEQUEST 2047 can also be supplied as granule
®
6
O
OH
OH
TABLE 6: DEQUEST® 2060 SERIES
DEQUEST®
2060S
DEQUEST®
2066A
DEQUEST®
2066
DEQUEST® 2066C2
DEQUEST®
4066
DTPMPA
DTPMPA.PN
Na7DTPMPA
Na7DTPMPA
Na7DTPMPA
Product form
Acid solution
Partly neutralized
sodium salt solution
Heptasodium salt
solution
Appearance
Clear, brown
aqueous
solution
Clear, dark amber
aqueous solution
Clear amber
aqueous
solution
Concentrated
heptasodium
salt solution
Clear amber
aqueous
solution
Molecular weight
573
~617
727
727
727
Mean particle size
[µ]
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
150 min
Specific gravity @
20ºC
1.42
1.41
1.29
1.40
600-800 kg/m³
(bulk density)
Freezing point [ºC]
-25
-20
-14
<-15
N.A.
Active content
50% as acid
47% as acid
25% as acid
32% as salt
32% as acid
22% as acid
pH (1% @ 25ºC)
<2
2-3
6-8
6-8
6-8
Chloride [%]
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
Iron [ppm Fe]
<20
<20
<20
<20
<20
Moisture [%]
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
4-6
Product
Physical properties
DEQUEST® 2046
Chemical properties
TABLE 5: DEQUEST® 2040 SERIES
Product
OH
P
HO
OH
O
CH2
PCH2
CH2P
HO
NCH2CH2NCH2CH2N
HO
OH
PCH2
OH
O
O
HO
OH
CH2P
PCH2
OH
O
O
O
Heptasodium salt
proprietary granule
Off-white granule
7
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
DEQUEST® PB Carboxymethyl Inulin
3.2 – Sequestration
Three DEQUEST® PB grades are commercially available as
3.2.1 – Stability constants
carboxymethyl inulin solutions with carboxymethylation
They are presented as indicative, since these data come
degree ranging from 1.5 to 2.5. Additional grades are
from different sources and are not obtained under the
available upon request.
same experimental conditions.
Chemical name: sodium carboxymethyl inulin (NaCMI)
In practical situations, these values can possibly be helpful
to rationalize observations, but are of limited use when it
Chemical structure:
comes to quantitative prediction of actual effects.
CH2OH
O
TABLE 8: STABILITY CONSTANT LOGARITHM OF SELECTED DEQUEST® PHOSPHONATES, DEQUEST® PB AND OTHER
OH
CHELANTS.
HO
Ca++
Mg++
Fe++
Cu++
Zn++
7.1
4.8
16.21
12.6
10.6
EDTMPA (DEQUEST® 2040)
10.2
9.3
21.7
18.3
DTPMPA (DEQUEST® 2060)
10.7
10.8
25.3
20.1
12.7
10.4
9.8
9.7
HO
HOCH2
O
O
HEDP (DEQUEST® 2010)
OH
OCH2CO2Na +
CH2OCH2CO2Na +
CH2
O
n
O
CMI (DEQUEST® PB)
5.0 – 6.0
OH
OH
CH2OH
TABLE 7: DEQUEST® PB SERIES
DEQUEST® PB 11615
DEQUEST® PB 11620
DEQUEST® PB 11625
NaCMI
NaCMI
NaCMI
Product form
Sodium salt solution
Sodium salt solution
Sodium salt solution
Appearance
Brown liquid
Brown liquid
Brown liquid
Molecular weight
~2000
~2000
~2000
Specific gravity @ 20ºC
1.2-1.3
1.2-1.3
1.2-1.3
Dynamic viscosity (mP.s @ 20°C)
~25
~10
~7
Active content
25 % min as sodium salt
20 % min as sodium salt
15 % min as sodium salt
Carboxymethylation degree
1.5
2
2.5
pH @ 25ºC
7-10
7-10
7-10
Chloride [%]
8 max
8 max
10 max
Chemical properties
Physical properties
Product
8
Three “light colour” grades of DEQUEST® PB are also available for formulations where dark colour is not suited.
These are DEQUEST® PB 11615D, 11620D and 11625D.
NTA
6.4
5.5
STPP
5.2
5.5
Citric Acid
3.5
2.8
11.8
6.1
4.5
EDTA
10.7
8.8
25.0
18.8
16.5
15.8
DEQUEST® phosphonates show on average high chelation
power for transition metals and higher values than STPP,
NTA or citric acid when it comes to Alkaline Earth ion
chelation.
The high chelation constants for transition metals make
DEQUEST® phosphonates ideal for peroxide bleach
stabilization. Moreover, phosphonates are stable in
oxygenated
bleach
environment,
unlike
the
aminocarboxylates, EDTA and NTA which loose their
chelation power under these conditions (see the section
peroxide and bleach stabilization).
9
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
3.2.2 – Peroxide and bleach stabilization
3.2.3 – Enzyme compatibility
On the other hand, DEQUEST® PB exhibits good
3.5.2 - Sodium salts
Heavy metal compounds of elements such as iron,
Although chelant might have a detrimental effect on the
effectiveness at molar ratio between 0.005 and 0.015
In general, solubility constants of DEQUEST® 2046 and
manganese and copper catalyze the decomposition of
efficiency of enzyme contained in detergent, the DEQUEST®
depending on the degree of substitution.
2066 sodium salts diminish with increasing pH and
hydrogen peroxide and bleach system. To prevent this
2060 and DEQUEST
decomposition, the control of heavy metals is required.
efficiency. Furthermore, none of the standard DEQUEST®
DEQUEST
grades have shown a negative influence on the new generation
®
phosphonates are excellent chelants which
offer excellent stabilization of bleach systems during the
of amylase (Stainzyme 121).
FIGURE 1: SHELF LIFE STABILIZATION OF PERBORATE/TAED
SYSTEM -ACTIVATED P.FREE DETERGENT RT – STABILIZER
FIGURE 3: ENZYME STABILITY - INFLUENCE OF THE
CHELANT
THE
ENZYMATIC
STAIN
REMOVAL
PERFORMANCE AFTER 22 WEEKS OF STORAGE AT RT
DEQUEST® 2066 AT 0.5% AS ACTIVE ACID.
Stain Removal
90
80
with other anti-redeposition agents contribute to the antigreying effect, or the build-up of dingy soil.
No Enzyme
sedimentation of kaolin clay (a major soil ingredient) in a
No chelant
PB 12625D
graduated Imhoff cone. In the experiments, 1 g/l of kaolin
40
30
DQ 2016
20
DQ 2066C2
10
60
0
was dispersed in tap water with a calcium hardness of 150
ppm adjusted at pH 10 with NaOH and in the presence of
0.15 % of the dispersant “as is”.
Initials
30
DEQUEST® 2066
40
50
Days
Blank
DISPERSION AT pH 10.
3.3 – Scale inhibition
DEQUEST® phosphonates and DEQUEST® PB are effective
scale inhibitors. Unlike other chelants, DEQUEST® products
FIGURE 2: PERBORATE/TAED STABILISATION 700 ppm
have
the
ability
to
inhibit
scale
formation
at
PERBORATE, 300 ppm TAED, 35 ppm STABILISER, 2 ppm
sub-stoechiometric level (Figure 4). Accordingly, they are
FE, pH 10, 40 C
cost effective scale inhibitor. The scale inhibition at substoechiometric level, known as threshold scale inhibition,
100
80
Blank
EDTA
D. 2066
D. 2010
60
40
20
FIGURE 4: CaCO3 SCALE INHIBITION AT pH 10 38° FH 60° C
60
Time [min]
Figure 2 demonstrates the relative peracetate stabilization
effect under alkaline conditions for various sequestrants at
two temperatures. The peracetate species formed by
reaction of sodium perborate or sodium percarbonate and
TAED in water are very sensitive to the presence of low
Scale inhibition (%)
40
3.6 – Hydrolytic and Thermal stability
DEQUEST® phosphonates have excellent hydrolytic
stability compared with inorganic polyphosphates. This
bond. Phosphonates can be used in hot or cold water at
very high or very low pH for many hours without any trace
not undergo hydrolysis in pH ranging from slightly acidic
to strongly alkaline. DEQUEST® PB is not suitable for acidic
formulation.
NaOH
D. 2016
D. 2066
D. PB 11620 D. PB 11625
AA/MA
Copolymer
3.5 - Solubility
DEQUEST® phosphonic acids and their salts are usually
0
20
2016DG are readily dissolved in water.
crystal growth by adsorbing on crystal under formation.”
100
0
3.5.3 - Dry grades
DEQUEST® PB grades exhibit good thermal stability and do
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
is due to the capability of the threshold agent to hinder
phosphates, chlorides, etc.
of decomposition.
Kaolin dispersion - 1 % Kaolin
Dispersed with 0.15 % dispersant "as is" at pH 10
Suspended material [%]
20
reduced in the presence of anions such as sulphates,
property is linked to the extraordinary stability of the C-P
After 22 weeks
FIGURE 5: EFFECT OF DEQUEST® PRODUCTS ON KAOLIN
10
limit. The solubility of these salts can be significantly
Dry DEQUEST® grades such as DEQUEST® 2016D and
50
70
0
Remaining Peroxide [%]
stabilize particulate soil in the wash liquor and combined
60
50
80
Citric acid
soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents. Dry
Gluconic acid
DEQUEST® grades such as DEQUEST® 2016D and the
60
NTA
DQ PB 11620
DEQUEST® 4000 series are quickly dissolved in water.
40
DQ PB 11625
They can also form oversaturated solutions which can be
DQ 2060S
DQ 2010
20
0
0.001
stable for years. For this reason, it can be difficult to
establish thermodynamic solubility.
0.01
0.1
Log (Chelant/Ca++) molar ratio)
1
levels of transition or heavy metals. DEQUEST® 2066 is
10
DEQUEST® Products are excellent deflocculation agents of
Figure 5 illustrates this effect by measuring the rate of
70
100
Shelf life (%)
ON
active acid – at pH 7 come very close to this solubility
3.4 – Deflocculation / Dispersion
colloidal suspensions. In detergent applications, they
bleaching process itself in the wash liquid as well as in the
packaging, during the shelf life of the product itself.
neutralization degree. The commercial 25% solutions – as
PB series do not affect enzymatic
®
clearly superior to the other sequestrants, it keeps its
With DEQUEST® phosphonates, the scale inhibition
sequestration power at both temperatures 40°C and 60°C.
obtained at very low molar ratio (0.005 and less) is
Aminocarboxylates such as EDTA and DTPA are more
excellent. Between the threshold and stoechiometric area
susceptible to N-oxydation than are aminophosphonates,
lies an area of lower solubility of calcium phosphonates
which is the probable reason of their poor performance.
known as the turbidity region (see DEQUEST® 2010 curve).
3.5.1 - Acids
The
solubility
of
the
acid
form
of
HEDP
(DEQUEST 2010) in water or acids is very high. The active
®
acid of DEQUEST® 2060S is soluble at 50% concentration
in very strong acids only, e.g. 15% HCl. More dilute
solutions can be formed in aqueous systems.
11
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
FIGURE 6: COTTON FIBRES AFTER 25 WASHES WITHOUT
FIGURE 8: BLEACH STABILIZATION WITH
DEQUEST® (a) AND WITH DEQUEST® (b).
PHOSPHONATES - STANDARD P FREE DETERGENT 40°C,
20°GH - STABILIZER DEQUEST® 2066 AT 0.5 % AS ACTIVE
DEQUEST® properties make them ingredients of choice for
ACID
Home Care products. Indeed, they prevent scale formation,
disperse dirt, participate to the soil removal, and hinder
Stain removal (%)
bleach decomposition as well as metal corrosion. It
translates in multiple benefits in the primary and
secondary cleaning of Home Care formulations.
4.1 Laundry
Because of their ability to inhibit scale formation arising
from water hardness, DEQUEST
®
products prevent
incrustation of the linen and protect washing machine
DEQUEST®
colours or liquid detergents. This effect is less
pronounced with DEQUEST® PB although stain removal
improvement is also observed (Figure 10).
40
FIgURE 10: DEQUEST® IN HDL DETERGENT. REMOVAL OF
35
TEA AND WINE STAINS ON COTTON SWATCHES.”
30
60
25
50
20
Stain removal (%)
4 DEQUEST® in home care
applications
15
10
a
5
tea
30
wine
20
10
0
heating elements. The combined dispersing and anti-
40
Blank
scaling actions of DEQUEST prevent inorganic salts and
®
WFK Tea
0
DEQUEST® 2066
BASE
EMPA Wine
DQ 2066
DQ 2016
PB 11625
PB 11620
PB 11615
particulate soil deposition that would otherwise result in
greying of the linen (Figure 6). Of special interest is the
FIGURE 9: DEQUEST® PB ADDDED TO THE WASH LIQUOR
combined action of DEQUEST 2010 and DEQUEST PB
®
(ppm ACTIVE) SOIL REMOVAL - BASE POWDER 6 G/L - 40°C
that results in very low fibre incrustation (Figure 7). On the
50 ppm DEQUEST® 2010 IN THE WASH LIQUOR -
other hand, the DEQUEST® PB series exhibit very good
FIGURE 7: FIBRE INCRUSTATION PROTECTION WITH
PRODUCTS (AA/MA: POLYACRYLIC/MALEIC
b
COPOLYMER)
Phosphate-free Powder detergent - 7.75 g/l - 25 washes at 60 °C
Ash residue [%]
4.1.1. Powder detergent
4
DEQUEST® products deliver enhanced cleaning and fibre
3,5
protection to powder laundry detergents. In bleach
3
containing detergents, the stabilization of oxygen bleach
2,5
2
by DEQUEST® phosphonates results in both enhanced
1,5
bleachable stain removal (Figure 8) and fibre protection.
1
Laundry powder detergents in general benefit from an
0,5
enhanced stain removal when formulated with DEQUEST®
0
Base
Detergent
+ 2%
+ 4%
+ 0.1%
AA/MA
AA/MA
HEDP
+ 2% PB
11620
+ 4% PB
+ 2% PB
11620 11620 + 0.1%
HEDP
products. Indeed, DEQUEST® products contribute to the
cleaning by loosening and dispersing the dirt through
chelation of metals and adsorption on particulate soil
(1)
Laundry powder formulation
LABS
Ethoxylated fatty alcohol
Zeolite 4A
Na2CO3
Sodium silicate
Na2SO4
Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate
TAED
Fibre incrustation stabilizer
: 10
:5
: 36
: 13
: 3.5
: 8.5
: 20
:4
: 0.1 – 4 %
DEQUEST® PB 11615
DEQUEST® PB 11620
31
respectively. Particulate soil removal can be improved by
the use of a an adequate combination of DEQUEST®
phosphonate and DEQUEST® PB (Figure 8).
Stain removal (%)
DEQUEST
30
29
28
27
WASH LIQUOR – INCREASING AMOUNT OF DEQUEST® PB.
25
DEQUEST® PB 11615
DEQUEST® PB 11620
23
21
19
17
15
26
0
20
40
60
80
100
DEQUEST® PB addded to the wash liquor (ppm active)
25
0
50
100
150
200
DEQUEST® PB addded to the wash liquor (ppm active)
Soil removal - Base powder 6 g/l - 40°C
(3)
ppm DEQUEST® 2010 in the wash liquor
Heavy Duty50
Powder:
- Increasing amount of DEQUEST® PB
Sodium LABS
9.7
Ethoxylated fatty Alcohol
4.8
Zeolite 4A
34.4
Na2CO312.1
Sodium Silicate
3.2
Na2SO47.9
Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate 24.3
TAED3.6
4.1.3. Laundry additives
DEQUEST® products are ingredients of choice in laundry
additives. On one hand, chlorine and oxygen bleach are
effectively stabilized by DEQUEST® 2060 and DEQUEST®
6004. On the other hand, fabric conditioner benefits from
the fragrances stabilization and preservative efficiency
enhancement brought by the DEQUEST® phosphonate.
4.1.2 – Bleachable stains removal in
absence of bleach (HDL)
4.2. Dishwashing
The high stability constants of metal-phosphonate
DEQUEST® products provide anti-filming, glass corrosion
complexes are the basis for removing colour stains such
inhibition, heating elements protection, stain removal and
as wine, tea, coffee, etc… This well known property of
bleach stabilization in automatic dishwashing detergents
DEQUEST
(ADD).
®
12
40°C40ºC – 30 MIN. 50 ppm DEQUEST® 2010 IN THE
INCREASING AMOUNT OF DEQUEST® PB
performance as anti-redeposition agent.
®
FIGURE 11: TEA STAIN REMOVAL - BASE HDL 10 G/L -
Stain removal (%)
®
Phosphonates is particularly useful in
peroxygen-free formulations such as powders for
13
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
Stain removal enhancement resulting from the use of
5 Formulations
4.3. - Hard surface cleaning
DEQUEST® phosphonates originates from their dispersing
The combined dispersion and chelating properties of
action on particulate soil, bleach stabilization and
loosening of dirt by metal chelation (Figure 12 and 13).
DEQUEST® phosphonates make them valuable grease
5.1 - Liquids
cleaning booster. The DEQUEST
When
®
phosphonates and
DEQUEST®
phosphonates
or
DEQUEST®
PB
DEQUEST® PB ability to prevent spotting and filming is of
carboxymethyl Inulin are used in liquid detergent
FIGURE 12: VISUAL GRADING OF CLEANING EFFICIENCY
special interest for glass and metal cleaning. For the latter,
formulations, they are most easily formulated by mixing a
OF NORMAL WASH PROGRAM (55°C, 8-10° DH, FRESENIUS
DEQUEST
FEBRUARY 2006)
and magnesium salts which would otherwise be
6,9
8,0
7,0
6,9
8,6
(See Figure 14 for DEQUEST® PB).
8,4
9,0
8,7
8,5
8,8
9,0
9,0
responsible for filming and spotting on glass and china.
10,0
6,0
Standard ADD product :
5,0
1. With 40 % STPP
4,0
2. With 40 % Citrate
2,7
Cleaning Score (10 = max.)
useful to prevent the formation of large crystals of calcium
3,0
2000 and DEQUEST
2010 provides mild
liquid grade DEQUEST® or DEQUEST® PB into the detergent.
stainless corrosion inhibition. Bleach containing cleaners
The pH can be adjusted with caustic or triethanolamine
benefit from the presence of DEQUEST® 2060 or
after
DEQUEST® 6004 for oxygen and chlorine bleach
concentrated DEQUEST® grades, DEQUEST® 2060S (50%
stabilization respectively. Bleach free cleaners take
active) and DEQUEST® 2010 (60% active), which provide a
advantage of DEQUEST® phosphonates that bring
better flexibility in liquid applications than do the
additional cleaning power especially on coloured stains
conventional phosphonate salt solutions.
®
®
mixing.
Italmatch
Chemicals
S.p.A.
supply
such as tea, coffee, wine…
2,0
3. With 40% DEQUEST® PB 11620
5.2 - Powders, granules and tablets
1,0
4. With 50% DEQUEST PB 11620
DEQUEST®
5. With 25% Citrate + 25% DEQUEST® PB 11620
carboxymethyl Inulin can be applied in granulated or
0,0
®
Oat Flakes
Minced
Minced
Meat 120°C Meat 200°C
P-free with DEQUEST® PB
Milk
Tea
phosphonates
and
DEQUEST®
PB
powder detergents by direct mixing of a solution in the
Reference (IEC - B)
During the dishwashing process, the glass tends to be
crutcher or by spray-drying the neutral or alkaline solution
progressively “dissolved” in water based media. This
on a granular detergent base. Some precautions should be
FIGURE 13: GRAVIMETRIC EVALUATION OF CLEANING
phenomenon is much more pronounced in soft water and
taken in these processes. When phosphonates or
EFFICIENCY OF NORMAL WASH PROGRAM (55°C, 8-10°
is catalyzed by pH above 9. This results in scuffed glass.
carboxymethyl Inulin are sprayed on a granulate detergent
base, the perborate or percarbonate should be added
DH, FRESENIUS FEBRUARY) 2006
Lab experiments demonstrate that DEQUEST PB has a
after the spraying of DEQUEST® or DEQUEST® PB. The
protective effect against glass corrosion occurring in the
thermal stability of DEQUEST® and DEQUEST® PB are high
course of the dishwashing process (Figure 15)
enough to allow spray-drying in any type of equipment
98
99
82
90
80
without adverse effects.
70
60
50
40
FIGURE 15: GLASS WEIGHT LOSS AFTER 7 HOURS
DEQUEST® phosphonates can also be incorporated by
IMMERSION IN WATER
post-addition of powders or granules. In this case, no
special precautions other than the standard product safety
30
Egg/Milk
Egg Yolk
10
0
0.008
Starch - mix
PF-free with DEQUEST® BP Reference (IEC-B)
Carbonates and silicates present in automatic dishwashing
product (ADD) stimulate the precipitation of water
hardness forming insoluble silicates and carbonates with
calcium
and
magnesium.
Although
handling procedures have to be taken. Italmatch Chemicals
0.007
Weight loss (%)
11
20
8
% Cleaning (100% = max.)
100
99
®
0.006
11°FH
S.p.A. can supply DEQUEST® phosphonate powders or
0.005
22°FH
granules with a granulometry typical for detergent
0.004
33°FH
powders.
0.003
The following solid grades of DEQUEST® phosphonates
0.002
are available for detergent applications:
0.001
0
Brand Leader from Market
Base + DQ PB12625
Sodium
DEQUEST® 2016D:
powder form of DEQUEST® 2016
DEQUEST® 2016DG: granular form of DEQUEST® 2016
Tripolyphosphate (STPP) is still the most widely used
Glass immersion during 7 hours with products dosed
builder in these formulations, there is more and more R&D
@ 4.5 g/l in water @ 60°C Chelants are added as
effort devoted to the development of “P-Free” or “Low-P”
6.5 %w of the Base
builder systems.
DEQUEST® phosphonates and DEQUEST® PB, owing to
14
their threshold scale inhibition properties, are particularly
15
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
Phosphonates are not readily biodegradable in laboratory
semi-continuous activated sludge tests, but in more realistic
die away rivers tests they are rapidly degraded in sunlight
FIG 16: DAPHNIA IMMOBILISATION TEST (OECD 202).
proved to be completely mineralised in sewage water
Table 9 provides an overview of the aquatic toxicity of
EFFECT CONCENTRATION (EC) AFTER 48 H.
treatment systems (1).
8000
tests were conducted in accordance with OECD standard
7000
during
6000
intermediaries released up to a concentration of 1 g/l had
5000
no toxic effects on Daphnia. Given the similarity of the
4000
structures, it can be reasonably anticipated that DEQUEST®
3000
PB degradation products exhibit a similar low toxicity
guidelines.
TABLE 9: ECO-TOXICITY OF DEQUEST® PB 11620 FOR
AQUATIC ORGANISMS
in the presence of ferric ions.
Organism
Bacteria
EC10
> 10000
DIN 38412
Daphnia
EC0 (t 48h)
2000
OECD 202
EC50 (t 24h)
5500
OECD 202
EC50 (t 48h)
2900
OECD 202
LC0 (t 96h)
> 10000
OECD 203
rapidly eliminated by fish.
treatment with aluminium sulphate or lime; treatment of
drinking water by chlorine or ozone also destroys
phosphonates.
Test
mg.l-1
They do not bio-accumulate in aquatic species and are
They can be eliminated from waters by classical water
Toxicity
Effect
They are also degraded in soil, species of Pseudomonas
have been shown to be able to feed on phosphonates.
Fish
low and phosphonates partition rapidly to sediments from
water.
No toxicity was found for either bacteria (Pseudomonas
Putida) or for the zebra fish, using the maximum applied
Given that daphnia is the most sensitive organism, the
influence of the derivation level (DS) on the toxicity for
this organism was studied. The results are shown in fig. 9.
It can be concluded that the toxicity (indicated by the
6.2. Environmental profile of DEQUEST® PB
immobilisation) increases with an increase in the
The good environmental profile of DEQUEST PB makes
derivation level. However, the aquatic toxicity of the highly
carboxymethyl Inulin an excellent formulation ingredient
substituted DEQUEST® PB 11620 is extremely low (factor
for detergents designed to meet the requirements of the
10-20) compared to that of polyacrylates.
®
European Eco-label or other special industry or national
environmental standards.
2000
the
degrading
of
carboxymethyl
cellulose,
profile.
1000
0
concentration of 10 g/l.
Mobilization of heavy metals from sediments is extremely
A study conducted by Sieger and others (2) showed that
DEQUEST PB products for bacteria, daphnia and fish. The
®
Concentration (mg/l)
6.1 - Environmental profile of DEQUEST®
phosphonates
6.2.1. Eco-toxicity of DEQUEST® PB
EC 0
EC 50
AKZO NOBEL – Environmental fate of CMC Sieger, C.H.N., Kroon,
A.G.M., Batelaan, J.G. & van Ginkel, C.G. in Biodegradation of
carboxymethyl cellulose by Agrobacterium CM-1. Carbohydrate
Polymers, 27, 137-143, (1995)
EC 100
PB 11620
PB 11615
PB 11610
6.2.2.Biodegradability of DEQUEST® PB
Substances that qualify as inherently biodegradable are
assumed to be degradable in the natural environment. The
Semi-Continuous Activated Sludge (SCAS) test (OECD
302A) is used to determine inherent biodegradability.
All DEQUEST® PB products satisfy the criteria (daily
degrading
>20%)
for
inherently
biodegradable
substances.
FIG.17 DAILY DEGRADATION
IN OECD 302 SCAS TEST
30
25
% Biodegradation
6 Environmental Data
20
15
10
5
0
PB 11610
PB 11615
PB 11620
The inherent biodegradability gives the product a certain
amount of microbiological stability. This is especially
important in systems in which the product stays in the
system over a period of time because it is recirculated. Far
fewer
preservatives
are
used
then
with
readily
biodegradable products, and lower doses are sufficient.
The results in the simulation test correspond with the
findings for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), which has
16
17
Ingredients for Home Care Applications
7 Handling
6.2.3 - Other environmental aspects
In a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), products with comparable
functions are evaluated “from cradle to grave” for a broad
range of possible environmental effects (including the
greenhouse effect, acidification, etc.). In addition to
extremely
low
(eco)
toxicity
and
the
(inherent)
biodegradability, the agricultural origin of the raw material
(biopolymer) has more advantages for the environment
than petrochemical-based products such as fewer CO2
emissions and less contribution to the depletion of fossil
fuels. Furthermore, the DEQUEST® PB products contain no
nitrogen or phosphorous, which means that when released
in the environment, they do not contribute to acidification,
fertilisation (enrichment of soil and water with mineral
nutrients that increase productivity) or eutrophication.
DEQUEST®
phosphonates
8 Quality of DEQUEST® products
and
DEQUEST®
PB
carboxymethyl Inulin appear to possess no acute
DEQUEST® products are covered by certification to quality
standard ISO 9002.
toxicological properties which could require special
handling other than good hygienic practices used with any
In addition, the Newport (UK) Dequest manufac-turing site
industrial chemical. Special attention should be paid to
is certified to the Environment Management System
avoid eye and skin contacts.
Standard ISO 14001. It also participates in the European
Community EMAS regulation (Eco Management Audit
DEQUEST® 2060S contains free HCl in solution and should
Scheme) which requires independent verification of
be handled accordingly, in well ventilated areas.
environmental performance.
In case of skin contact with DEQUEST® phosphonates or
DEQUEST® PB, wash thoroughly with soap and water. In case
of eye contact, flush immediately with large volumes of
water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation persists, consult a
physician. Over and above the points already mentioned,
particular care should be taken when handling members of
the DEQUEST® 2040 series: wear gloves, eye protection and
avoid breathing dust from solid products. Provide local
exhaust ventilation. If dust is a problem, wear suitable
respiratory protection. Wash thoroughly after handling.
More detailed information on safety and environmental
aspects of phosphonates can be provided by Italmatch
Chemicals S.p.A. upon request.
Before using DEQUEST® phosphonates or DEQUEST® PB
carboxymethyl Inulin, please also consult the relevant
Material Safety Data Sheets and carefully observe the
statements concerning toxicity, safe handling and first aid
procedures.
18
19
Ingredients for
Home Care Applications
More information
If you would like to obtain more detailed information about DEQUEST® products or are interested in obtaining a
sample for evaluation in your system, please contact your nearest Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A. representative or visit
our website: http://www.dequest.com
Italmatch USA
JAPAN OFFICE
North American Headquarters
ITALMATCH JAPAN LTD
21 East Front Street
Burex Kojimachi 5F,
Red Bank, NJ 07701
3-5-2 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku
USA
Tokyo 102-0083
Tel: (732) 383-8500
Japan
Fax: (732) 383-8407
Tel: +81 3 5210 3811
[email protected]
Fax: +81 3 5210 3830
[email protected]
CHINA OFFICE
ITALMATCH INTERNATIONAL TRADING
SINGAPORE OFFICE
(SHANGHAI) CO., LTD
ITALMATCH SINGAPORE PTE LTD
Room 703, Pine City,
No. 1 Kim Seng Promenade
8 Dong`an Road, Xuhui District,
#17-02 Great World City East Tower
Shanghai 200032
Singapore 237994
P.R. China
Tel: +65 6235 6483
Tel: +86 21 3469 1871 Fax: +65 6836 4534
Fax: +86 21 3469 1872
[email protected]
Belgium (Marketing and Innovation Center)
Italy (Europe/Africa/Middle East Customer
ITALMATCH BELGIUM SPRL
Service Center)
Parc Scientifique Fleming
Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A.
Rue Laid Burniat 3
Via Vismara 114
1348 Louvain-La-Neuve
20020 Arese
Belgium
Italy
Tel: +32 (0) 10 48 12 11
Tel: +39 02 93525237
Fax: +32 (0) 10 48 14 95
Fax: +39 02 93525496
[email protected]
[email protected]
The information in this bulletin is to the best of our knowledge true and accurate but all instructions, recommendations or suggestions are made without guarantee. Since the
conditions of use are beyond their control, Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A. and its subsidiaries disclaim any liability for loss or damage suffered from use of these data and suggestions.
Furthermore, no liability is accepted if use of any product in accordance with these data or suggestions infringes any patent.
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