Chapter 34(Vertebrates)

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Chapter 34
Vertebrates
PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations for
Biology
Eighth Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Overview: Half a Billion Years of Backbones
• Early in the Cambrian period, about 530 million
years ago, an astonishing variety of animals
inhabited Earth’s oceans
• One type of animal gave rise to vertebrates,
one of the most successful groups of animals
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• The animals called vertebrates get their name
from vertebrae, the series of bones that make
up the backbone
• There are about 52,000 species of vertebrates,
including the largest organisms ever to live on
the Earth
• Vertebrates have great disparity, a wide range
of differences within the group
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Concept 34.1: Chordates have a notochord and a
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
• Vertebrates are a subphylum within the phylum
Chordata
• Chordates are bilaterian animals that belong
to the clade of animals known as
Deuterostomia
• Two groups of invertebrate deuterostomes, the
urochordates and cephalochordates, are more
closely related to vertebrates than to other
invertebrates
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Fig. 34-2
Echinodermata
(sister group to chordates)
Cephalochordata
(lancelets)
ANCESTRAL
DEUTEROSTOME
Urochordata
(tunicates)
Notochord
Myxini
(hagfishes)
Common
ancestor of
chordates
Petromyzontida
(lampreys)
Head
Chondrichthyes
(sharks, rays, chimaeras)
Vertebral column
Actinopterygii
(ray-finned fishes)
Jaws, mineralized skeleton
Actinistia
(coelacanths)
Lungs or lung derivatives
Dipnoi
(lungfishes)
Lobed fins
Amphibia (frogs,
salamanders)
Legs
Amniotic egg
Reptilia
(turtles, snakes,
crocodiles, birds)
Mammalia
Milk (mammals)
Derived Characters of Chordates
• All chordates share a set of derived characters
• Some species have some of these traits only
during embryonic development
• Four key characters of chordates:
– Notochord
– Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
– Pharyngeal slits or clefts
– Muscular, post-anal tail
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Dorsal,
hollow
nerve cord
Muscle
segments
Notochord
Mouth
Anus
Muscular,
post-anal tail
Pharyngeal
slits or clefts
Notochord
• The notochord is a longitudinal, flexible rod
between the digestive tube and nerve cord
• It provides skeletal support throughout most of
the length of a chordate
• In most vertebrates, a more complex, jointed
skeleton develops, and the adult retains only
remnants of the embryonic notochord
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Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord
• The nerve cord of a chordate embryo develops
from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube
dorsal to the notochord
• The nerve cord develops into the central
nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord
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Pharyngeal Slits or Clefts
• In most chordates, grooves in the pharynx
called pharyngeal clefts develop into slits that
open to the outside of the body
• Functions of pharyngeal slits:
– Suspension-feeding structures in many
invertebrate chordates
– Gas exchange in vertebrates (except
vertebrates with limbs, the tetrapods)
– Develop into parts of the ear, head, and neck
in tetrapods
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Muscular, Post-Anal Tail
• Chordates have a tail posterior to the anus
• In many species, the tail is greatly reduced
during embryonic development
• The tail contains skeletal elements and
muscles
• It provides propelling force in many aquatic
species
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Lancelets
• Lancelets (Cephalochordata) are named for
their bladelike shape
• They are marine suspension feeders that retain
characteristics of the chordate body plan as
adults
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Cirri
2 cm
Mouth
Pharyngeal slits
Atrium
Notochord
Digestive tract
Atriopore
Dorsal, hollow
nerve cord
Segmental
muscles
Anus
Tail
Tunicates
• Tunicates (Urochordata) are more closely
related to other chordates than are lancelets
• They are marine suspension feeders
commonly called sea squirts
• As an adult, a tunicate draws in water through
an incurrent siphon, filtering food particles
• Tunicates most resemble chordates during
their larval stage
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Incurrent
siphon
to mouth
Water flow
Notochord
Dorsal, hollow
nerve cord
Excurrent
siphon
Atrium
Pharynx
with
slits
Tunic
Excurrent
siphon
Tail
Muscle
segments
Incurrent
siphon
Intestine
Anus
Intestine
Esophagus
Stomach
An adult tunicate
Excurrent
siphon
Stomach
Atrium
Pharynx with slits
A tunicate larva
Early Chordate Evolution
• Ancestral chordates may have resembled
lancelets
• Genome sequencing of tunicates has identified
genes shared by tunicates and vertebrates
• Gene expression in lancelets holds clues to the
evolution of the vertebrate form
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BF1
Otx
Hox3
Nerve cord of lancelet
embryo
BF1
Otx
Hox3
Brain of vertebrate embryo
(shown straightened)
Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain
Concept 34.2: Craniates are chordates that have a
head
• The origin of a head opened up a completely
new way of feeding for chordates: active
predation
• Craniates share some characteristics: a skull,
brain, eyes, and other sensory organs
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Derived Characters of Craniates
• Craniates have two clusters of Hox genes;
lancelets and tunicates have only one cluster
• One feature unique to craniates is the neural
crest, a collection of cells near the dorsal
margins of the closing neural tube in an
embryo
• Neural crest cells give rise to a variety of
structures, including some of the bones and
cartilage of the skull
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Dorsal edges
of neural plate
Neural
crest
Notochord
Neural
tube
Migrating neural
crest cells
• In aquatic craniates the pharyngeal clefts
evolved into gill slits
• Craniates have a higher metabolism and are
more muscular than tunicates and lancelets
• Craniates have a heart with at least two
chambers, red blood cells with hemoglobin,
and kidneys
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The Origin of Craniates
• Fossils from the Cambrian explosion 530
million years ago document the transition to
craniates
• The most primitive of the fossils are those of
the 3-cm-long Haikouella
• Haikouella had a well-formed brain, eyes, and
muscular segments, but not a skull
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5 mm
Segmented muscles
Pharyngeal
slits
Hagfishes
• The least derived surviving craniate lineage is
Myxini, the hagfishes
• Hagfishes have a cartilaginous skull and axial
rod of cartilage derived from the notochord, but
lack jaws and vertebrae
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Slime glands
Derived Characters of Vertebrates
• Vertebrates underwent a second gene
duplication involving the Dlx family of
transcription factors
• Vertebrates have the following derived
characters:
– Vertebrae enclosing a spinal cord
– An elaborate skull
– Fin rays, in the aquatic forms
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Lampreys
• Lampreys (Petromyzontida) represent the
oldest living lineage of vertebrates
• They are jawless vertebrates inhabiting various
marine and freshwater habitats
• They have cartilaginous segments surrounding
the notochord and arching partly over the nerve
cord
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Fossils of Early Vertebrates
• Conodonts were the first vertebrates with
mineralized skeletal elements in their mouth
and pharynx
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- Today, jawed vertebrates, or gnathostomes,
outnumber jawless vertebrates
Gill slits
Cranium
Mouth
Skeletal rods
• Other characters common to gnathostomes:
– An additional duplication of Hox genes
– An enlarged forebrain associated with
enhanced smell and vision
– In aquatic gnathostomes, the lateral line
system, which is sensitive to vibrations
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Fossil Gnathostomes
• The earliest gnathostomes in the fossil record
are an extinct lineage of armored vertebrates
called placoderms
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Chondrichthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their
Relatives)
• Chondrichthyans (Chondrichthyes) have a
skeleton composed primarily of cartilage
• The cartilaginous skeleton evolved secondarily
from an ancestral mineralized skeleton
• The largest and most diverse group of
chondrichthyans includes the sharks, rays, and
skates
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Pectoral fins
Pelvic fins
(a) Blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus
melanopterus)
(b) Southern stingray (Dasyatis americana)
(c) Spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei)
• Most sharks
– Have a streamlined body and are swift
swimmers
– Are carnivores
– Have a short digestive tract; a ridge called the
spiral valve increases the digestive surface
area
– Have acute senses
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• Shark eggs are fertilized internally but embryos
can develop in different ways:
– Oviparous: eggs hatch outside the mother’s
body
– Ovoviviparous: the embryo develops within the
uterus and is nourished by the egg yolk
– Viviparous: the embryo develops within the
uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac
placenta from the mother’s blood
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Ray-Finned Fishes and Lobe-Fins
• Osteichthyes includes the bony fish and
tetrapods
• Nearly all living osteichthyans have a bony
endoskeleton
• Most fishes breathe by drawing water over gills
protected by an operculum
• Fishes control their buoyancy with an air sac
known as a swim bladder
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Spinal cord
Swim
bladder
Dorsal fin
Brain
Adipose fin
(characteristic
of trout)
Nostril
Anal fin
Cut edge
of operculum
Liver
Gills
Heart
Kidney
Lateral
line
Anus
Stomach
Intestine
Gonad
Pelvic
fin
Urinary
bladder
Caudal
fin
Ray-Finned Fishes
• Class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes,
includes nearly all the familiar aquatic
osteichthyans
• The fins, supported mainly by long, flexible
rays, are modified for maneuvering, defense,
and other functions
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(a) Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)
(b) Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris)
(c) Sea horse
(Hippocampus
us)
ramulos
(d) Fine-spotted moray eel
(Gymnothorax dovii)
Lobe-Fins
• The lobe-fins (Sarcopterygii) have muscular
pelvic and pectoral fins
• Three lineages survive and include
coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods
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Concept 34.5: Tetrapods are gnathostomes that
have limbs
• One of the most significant events in vertebrate
history was when the fins of some lobe-fins
evolved into the limbs and feet of tetrapods
• Tetrapods have some specific adaptations:
– Four limbs, and feet with digits
– Ears for detecting airborne sounds
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Bones
supporting
gills
Tetrapod
limb
skeleton
Ray-finned fishes
Coelacanths
Lungfishes
Eusthenopteron
Panderichthys
Tiktaalik
Elginerpeton
Metaxygnathus
Acanthostega
Ichthyostega
Hynerpeton
Greerpeton
Amphibians
Amniotes
PALEOZOIC
Silurian
430
415
Devonian
400
Permian
Carboniferous
385 370 355 340 325 310
Time (millions of years ago)
295
280
265
0
Amphibians
• Amphibians (class Amphibia) are represented
by about 6,150 species of organisms in three
orders
• Order Urodela includes salamanders, which
have tails
• Order Anura includes frogs and toads, which
lack tails
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(a) Order Urodela
(b) Order Anura
(c) Order Apoda
• Order Apoda includes caecilians, which are
legless and resemble worms
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• Amphibian means “both ways of life,” referring
to the metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a
terrestrial adult
• Most amphibians have moist skin that
complements the lungs in gas exchange
• Fertilization is external in most species, and the
eggs require a moist environment
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(a) Tadpole
(b) During
metamorphosis
(c) Mating adults
Concept 34.6: Amniotes are tetrapods that have a
terrestrially adapted egg
• Amniotes are a group of tetrapods whose
living members are the reptiles, including birds,
and mammals
• Amniotes are named for the major derived
character of the clade, the amniotic egg,
which contains membranes that protect the
embryo
• The extraembryonic membranes are the
amnion, chorion, yolk sac, and allantois
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Chorion
Amnion
Allantois
Yolk sac
Embryo
Amniotic
cavity
with
amniotic
fluid
Shell
Yolk
(nutrients)
Albumen
Reptiles
• The reptile clade includes the tuataras, lizards,
snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and the
extinct dinosaurs
• Reptiles have scales that create a waterproof
barrier
• They lay shelled eggs on land
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• Most reptiles are ectothermic, absorbing
external heat as the main source of body heat
• Birds are endothermic, capable of keeping the
body warm through metabolism
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• The diapsids consisted of two main lineages:
the lepidosaurs and the archosaurs
• The lepidosaurs include tuataras, lizards, and
snakes
• The archosaur lineage produced the
crocodilians, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs
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Lepidosaurs
• One surviving lineage of lepidosaurs is
represented by two species of lizard-like
reptiles called tuataras
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• The other major living lineage of lepidosaurs
consists of the squamates, the lizards and
snakes
• Lizards are the most numerous and diverse
reptiles, apart from birds
(b) Australian thorny devil lizard (Moloch horridus)
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• Snakes are legless lepidosaurs that evolved
from lizards
(c) Wagler’s pit viper (Tropidolaemus wagleri)
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Turtles
• All turtles have a boxlike shell made of upper
and lower shields that are fused to the
vertebrae, clavicles, and ribs
• Some turtles have adapted to deserts and
others live entirely in ponds and rivers
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Alligators and Crocodiles
• Crocodilians (alligators and crocodiles) belong
to an archosaur lineage that dates back to the
late Triassic
(e) American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)
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Birds
• Birds are archosaurs, but almost every feature
of their reptilian anatomy has undergone
modification in their adaptation to flight
• The major adaptation is wings with keratin
feathers
• Other adaptations include lack of a urinary
bladder, females with only one ovary, small
gonads, and loss of teeth
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Finger 1
(b) Bone structure
Palm
Finger 2
(a) Wing
Forearm
Shaft
Vane
Finger 3
Wrist
Shaft
Barb
Barbule
Hook
(c) Feather structure
The Origin of Birds
• Birds probably descended from small
theropods, a group of carnivorous dinosaurs
• By 150 million years ago, feathered theropods
had evolved into birds
• Archaeopteryx remains the oldest bird known
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Toothed beak
Airfoil wing
with contour
feathers
Wing claw
Long tail with
many vertebrae
Living Birds
• Living birds belong to the clade Neornithes
• Several groups of birds are flightless
– The ratites, order Struthioniformes
– Penguins, order Sphenisciformes
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Concept 34.7: Mammals are amniotes that have
hair and produce milk
• Mammals, class Mammalia, are represented
by more than 5,300 species
• Mammals have
– Mammary glands, which produce milk
– Hair
– A larger brain than other vertebrates of
equivalent size
– Differentiated teeth
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Monotremes
• Monotremes are a small group of egg-laying
mammals consisting of echidnas and the
platypus
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Marsupials
• Marsupials include opossums, kangaroos, and
koalas
• The embryo develops within a placenta in the
mother’s uterus
• A marsupial is born very early in its
development
• It completes its embryonic development while
nursing in a maternal pouch called a
marsupium
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(a) A young brushtail possum
(b) Long-nosed bandicoot
• In Australia, convergent evolution has resulted
in a diversity of marsupials that resemble the
eutherians in other parts of the world
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Marsupial
mammals
Plantigale
Eutherian
mammals
Deer mouse
Marsupial mole
Marsupial
mammals
Wombat
Woodchuck
Mole
Tasmanian devil
Sugar glider
Eutherian
mammals
Wolverine
Flying squirrel
Kangaroo
Patagonian cavy
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
• Compared with marsupials, eutherians have a
longer period of pregnancy
• Young eutherians complete their embryonic
development within a uterus, joined to the
mother by the placenta
• Molecular and morphological data give
conflicting dates on the diversification of
eutherians
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Primates
• The mammalian order Primates includes
lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and apes
• Humans are members of the ape group
• Most primates have hands and feet adapted for
grasping
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• Other derived characters of primates:
– A large brain and short jaws
– Forward-looking eyes close together on the face,
providing depth perception
– Complex social behavior and parental care
– A fully opposable thumb (in monkeys and apes)
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Living Primates
• There are three main groups of living primates:
– Lemurs, lorises, and pottos
– Tarsiers
– Anthropoids (monkeys and apes)
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• The first monkeys evolved in the Old World
(Africa and Asia)
• In the New World (South America), monkeys
first appeared roughly 25 million years ago
• New World and Old World monkeys underwent
separate adaptive radiations during their many
millions of years of separation
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(a) New World monkey
(b) Old World monkey
• The other group of anthropoids consists of
primates informally called apes
• This group includes gibbons, orangutans,
gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans
• Apes diverged from Old World monkeys about
20–25 million years ago
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(a) Gibbon
(b) Orangutan
(c) Gorilla
(d) Chimpanzees
(e) Bonobos
Concept 34.8: Humans are mammals that have a
large brain and bipedal locomotion
• The species Homo sapiens is about 200,000
years old, which is very young, considering that
life has existed on Earth for at least 3.5 billion
years
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Derived Characters of Humans
• A number of characters distinguish humans
from other apes:
– Upright posture and bipedal locomotion
– Larger brains
– Language capabilities and symbolic thought
– The manufacture and use of complex tools
– Shortened jaw
– Shorter digestive tract
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The Earliest Hominins
• The study of human origins is known as
paleoanthropology
• Hominins (formerly called hominids) are more
closely related to humans than to chimpanzees
• Paleoanthropologists have discovered fossils
of about 20 species of extinct hominins
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Paranthropus
robustus
0
Homo
ergaster
Paranthropus
boisei
0.5
Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis sapien
s
?
1.0
Australopithecus
africanus
1.5
2.0
2.5
Kenyanthropus
platyops
Australopithecus
garhi
Australo3.0 pithecus
anamensis
3.5
Homo
rudolfensis
4.0
4.5
5.0
Ardipithecus
ramidus
Australopithecus
afarensis
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
Homo
erectus
Orrorin tugenensis
Sahelanthropus
tchadensis
Homo
habilis
• Hominins originated in Africa about 6–7 million
years ago
• Early hominins had a small brain but probably
walked upright
• Two common misconceptions about early
hominins:
– Thinking of them as chimpanzees
– Imagining human evolution as a ladder leading
directly to Homo sapiens
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Australopiths
• Australopiths are a paraphyletic assemblage of
hominins living between 4 and 2 million years
ago
• Some species walked fully erect
• “Robust” australopiths had sturdy skulls and
powerful jaws
• “Gracile” australopiths were more slender and
had lighter jaws
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(a) Australopithecus
afarensis skeleton
(b) The Laetoli footprints
(c) An artist’s reconstruction of what A. afarensis may have looked like
Bipedalism
• Hominins began to walk long distances on two
legs about 1.9 million years ago
• The oldest evidence of tool use, cut marks on
animal bones, is 2.5 million years old
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Early Homo
• The earliest fossils placed in our genus Homo
are those of Homo habilis, ranging in age from
about 2.4 to 1.6 million years
• Stone tools have been found with H. habilis,
giving this species its name, which means
“handy man”
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• Homo ergaster was the first fully bipedal, largebrained hominid
• The species existed between 1.9 and 1.5
million years ago
• Homo ergaster shows a significant decrease in
sexual dimorphism (a size difference between
sexes) compared with its ancestors
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• Homo erectus originated in Africa by 1.8 million
years ago
• It was the first hominin to leave Africa
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Neanderthals
• Neanderthals, Homo neanderthalensis, lived in
Europe and the Near East from 200,000 to
28,000 years ago
• They were thick-boned with a larger brain, they
buried their dead, and they made hunting tools
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Homo Sapiens
• Homo sapiens appeared in Africa by 195,000
years ago
• All living humans are descended from these
African ancestors
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• Rapid expansion of our species may have
been preceded by changes to the brain that
made cognitive innovations possible
– For example, the FOXP2 gene is essential for
human language, and underwent intense
natural selection during the last 200,000 years
• Homo sapiens were the first group to show
evidence of symbolic and sophisticated thought
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Fig. 34-UN11
You should now be able to:
1. List the derived traits for: chordates, craniates,
vertebrates, gnathostomes, tetrapods,
amniotes, birds, mammals, primates, humans
2. Explain what Haikouella and Myllokunmingia
tell us about craniate evolution
3. Describe the trends in mineralized structures
in early vertebrates
4. Describe and distinguish between
Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, noting the
main traits of each group
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5. Define and distinguish among gnathostomes,
tetrapods, and amniotes
6. Describe an amniotic egg and explain its
significance in the evolution of reptiles and
mammals
7. Explain why the reptile clade includes birds
8. Explain the significance of Archaeopteryx
9. Distinguish among monotreme, marsupial,
and eutherian mammals
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10. Define the term hominin
11. Describe the evolution of Homo sapiens from
australopith ancestors, and clarify the order
in which distinctive human traits arose
12. Explain the significance of the FOXP2 gene
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