Portuguese sailing for Spain

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Francis Galton
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Transcript

•PreColumbian
time period.
•First
Americans
came from
Asia
•Supposedly
crossed the
Bering Strait
during the Ice
Age
•Following a
food source
•Gradual
migration
Early Human Migrations
1st Migration, 38,000-1800 BCE
2nd Migration, c. 10,000-4,000 BCE
3rd Migration, c. 8,000-3,000 BCE
European
movement
Motives for European
Exploration
1. Crusades = by-pass intermediaries to
get to Asia.
2. Renaissance = curiosity about other
lands and peoples.
3. Reformation = refugees &
missionaries.
4. Monarchs seeking new sources of
revenue.
5. Technological advances.
6. Fame and fortune.
A time of rebirth in Western
Civilization “intellectual
enlightenment”
New Maritime Technologies
Better Maps
[Portulan]
Hartman Astrolabe
(1532)
Mariner’s Compass
Sextant
New Weapons Technology
Ferdinand Magellan & the First
Circumnavigation of the World:
Early 16c
Direct Causes = 3 G’s
• Political: Become a world power through gaining
wealth and land. (GLORY)
• Economic: Search for new trade routes with
direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would
enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD)
• Religious: spread Christianity and weaken
Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD)
The 3 motives reinforce each other
NEW
WORLD
OLD
WORLD
European
explore
EFFECTS
•Europeans reach and settle Americas
•Expanded knowledge of world geography
•Growth of trade, mercantilism and
capitalism
•Indian conflicts over land and impact of
disease on Indian populations
•Introduction of the institution of slavery
•Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange or the transfer of goods
involved 3 continents, Americas, Europe and Africa
* Squash
* Turkey
* Cocoa
* Peanut
* Avocado
* Pumpkin
* Pineapple
* Tomato
* Peppers
* Tobacco
* Cassava
* Vanilla
* Olive
* Coffee Beans * Banana
* Onion
* Turnip
* Honeybee
* Grape
* Peach
* Sugar Cane
* Citrus Fruits * Pear
* Wheat
* Cattle
* Sheep
* Pig
* Flu
* Typhus
* Measles
* Diptheria
* Whooping Cough
* Sweet Potatoes
* Quinine
* POTATO
* MAIZE
* Syphillis
* Rice
* Barley
* Oats
* HORSE
* Smallpox
* Malaria
European
Colonization
European Colonization
• When the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four
European countries start to compete for control of
North America and the world:
Spain
Dutch
France
Portugal
European Colonization
• The Portuguese were the first to
begin searching for an all water
route to Asia…..
– Prince Henry the Navigator – 1450’s
• Colonized the South America in the
area of what would become Brazil
Explorers Sailing For Portugal
• Prince Henry the Navigator Portugal - Funded Exploration down
coast of Africa - 1419-1460
• Vasco da Gama - Portugal - Opened
trade with India - Placed Portugal in
position to dominate trade with India
- 1498
• Pedro Cabral - Portugal - Claimed
present day Brazil for Portugal –
1500
European trade routes
The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434
& The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493
• Started in Caribbean, then Central and South
America—most important was conquest of Aztecs
by Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531)
• First permanent colonies in what will become
United States are founded by Spain
– St. Augustine (Florida) is founded (1565) to
protect Spanish treasure fleets
Explorers Sailing For Spain
• Columbus - Italian sailing for Spain Landed in the “West Indies” - 1492
• Magellan - Portuguese sailing for Spain
- 1st to circumnavigate the world - 1522
Columbus’ Four Voyages
Ferdinand Magellan & the
First Circumnavigation of the
World
Other Spanish Explorers
• Ponce De Leon - Established colony at Puerto
Rico - Sailed north looking for Fountain of Youth
- Discovered Florida - 1508
• Vasco de Balboa - Established settlement in
Panama - 1st European to see Pacific Ocean 1513
• Francisco de Coronado - Explored north from
Mexico; up Colorado River; saw Grand Canyon 1540
• Hernando de Soto - Explored Florida into
Carolina’s and west to the Mississippi River 1541
Explorers Sailing For Spain &
Portugal
• Amerigo Vespucci - Italian sailing for both
Spain and Portugal - Sailed to the America’s
- Amerigo is his first name (where we get
“America”) - 1501
Spanish
Exploration

Columbus

Balboa



Pizzaro
De Leon


Cortes
De Soto
Coronado

Vespucci
Spanish empire by
the 1600’s
consisted of



Southern part of
North America
Central America
Caribbean Islands
Most of outer
South America

First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs
Cortes conquered Aztec Empire in 1519
and took control of modern day Mexico.
vs.
Hernando Cortés
Montezuma II
The Death of Montezuma II
Mexico Surrenders to Cortés
First Spanish Conquests: The Incas
Pizarro conquered Incan Empire in
modern day Peru in 1532
vs.
Francisco Pizarro
Atahualpa
Cycle of Conquest &
Colonization
Explorers
European
Colonial
Empire
Permanent
Settlers
Treasures
from the Americas!
The Colonial Class System
Peninsulares
Spanish
ancestory
Mestizos
Spanish
and Indian
mixture
Native Indians
Creoles
Spanish and
Black
mixture.
Mulattos
White
American
and Black
mixture
Black Slaves
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
The Slave Trade
1. Existed in Africa before the coming
of the Europeans.
2. Portuguese replaced European slaves
with Africans.
Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
First boatload of African slaves
brought by the Spanish in 1518.
275,000 enslaved Africans exported
to other countries.
3. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million
Africans shipped to the Americas.
Slave Ship
“Middle Passage”
“Coffin” Position Below Deck
African Captives
Thrown Overboard
Sharks followed the slave ships!
The Influence of the Colonial
Catholic Church today in Latin
America
Guadalajara Cathedral
Spanish Mission
Our Lady of Guadalupe
This is the Spanish practice of securing an
adequate and cheap labor supply
• Very similar to European feudalism
2. Conquistador controlled Indian populations
•Required Indians to pay tribute from their lands
•Indians often rendered personal services as well.
3. In return the conquistador was obligated to
•protect his wards
•instruct them in the Christian faith
•defend their right to use the to live off the land
4. Encomienda system eventually decimated Indian
population.
5. The King prevented the encomienda with the New
Laws (1542) supported by de Las Casas, the system
gradually died out.
Father Bartolomé de Las Casas
•Believed Native
Americans had been
treated harshly by the
Spanish.
•Indians could be
educated and
converted to
Christianized.
•Believed Indian
culture was advanced
as European but in
different ways.
► New Laws --> 1542
• French settle Quebec (1608)
& Montreal (1642) and what
would become Canada
– Control St. Lawrence
River & access to interior
of North America
– Develop a fur trade
Explorers Sailing For France
• Jacques Cartier - France Reached St. Lawrence River Claimed Eastern Canada for
France – 1535
• Samuel de Champlain - France
- “Father of New France” Established Quebec (the 1st
permanent French colony in
N. America) - Established
settlements and explored
Maine, Montreal & Nova Scotia
- 1608
European Colonization
• Like the French, the Dutch
focused on the fur trade
• Sent only a few men to
settlements
– Found Albany (New York,
1614) on Hudson River
– New Netherland (becomes
New York) is an extension
of the Dutch global trade
system
• Dutch & French form alliances
with Native Americans—
increase warfare & Iroquois
(Dutch ally) defeat Hurons
Explorers Sailing For The
Netherlands
• Henry Hudson - English
sailing for the Dutch Searching for Northwest
Passage - Claimed
Hudson River - Settlers
established New
Netherlands (New York) 1609
New Colonial Rivals
Impact of European Expansion
1. Native populations ravaged by
disease.
2. Influx of gold, and especially
silver, into Europe created an
inflationary economic climate.
[“Price Revolution”]
3. New products introduced across
the continents [“Columbian
Exchange”].
4. Deepened colonial rivalries.
5. New Patterns of World Trade
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