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Intergovernmental
Oceanographic
Training Course Reports
Commission
44
IOC-INCO-ROPME
Training Course on OceanographicData
and Information Management
Iranian National Centre for Oceanography (INCO)
Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
19-30 October 1997
UNESCO
SC-98iWSl13
IOC Training Course Report N”. 44
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY
REPORT
Page
1.
INTROIkJCTION
1
2.
PARTICIPANTS
1
3.
TRAINING
1
3.1
3.2
COURSE
1
2
OPENING
OUTLINE OF THE COURSE PROGRAMME
4.
EVALUATION
OF THE COURSE AND CONCLUSIONS
5.
DESIGN AND OPERATION
6.
RECOMMENDATIONS
3
7.
CLOSURE
4
8.
SUMMARY
OF A DATA AND INFORMATION
OF THE LECTURES
PROGRAMME
II.
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
III.
COURSE EVALUATION
IV.
MARINE
AND TIMETABLE
V.
COURSE CERTIFICATES
VI.
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AND COASTAL DATA DIRECTORY
CENTRE
3
5
ANNEXES
I.
3
OF AUSTRALIA
IOC Training Course Report N”. 44
1.
INTRODUCTION
The IOC Committee on International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE)
at its Fifteenth Session (Athens, Greece, 23-31 January 1996) adopted Recommendation IODE-XV.9,
by which, inter alia, it was recommended to organize training course(s) on data management in the
ROPME and PERSGA region. Following this Recommendation, the IOC Executive Council at its
Twenty-ninth Session (Paris, 1996) approved that a Training Course will be held in the Islamic Republic
of Iran in 1997, based on the kind offer of the Iranian Delegation.
In response to this decision, the IOC-INCO-ROPME Training Course on Oceanographic Data
and Information Management was held in Tehran, I.R. Iran, 19-30 October 1997, with the support of IOC,
ROPME and the Iranian National Centre for Oceanography (INCO).
The objectives of the Training Course were to train the participants from the ROPME region, as
well as of the Caspian riparian countries, in modem methods and technologies on marine data collection,
formatting, processing, methodology and principles for creation of databases and data information
exchange at national, regional and international levels.
Dr. I. Oliounine, Deputy Executive Secretary of IOC, contributed to the formulation of the
Course programme, its successful implementation, and also delivered lectures during the Course.
Prof. H. Zomorrodian, President of INCO, gave a lecture and prepared the provisional Course
programme. He also facilitated the arrangements necessary for the successful implementation of the
Training Course, and prepared the final report.
Special thanks are due to Mr. Khoshnevis, Mr. Jalali, Mrs. Ghiasi, Mrs. Jahanbakhsh and Mrs.
Modanlou from INCO, who contributed to the success of the Course and whose efforts in arranging the
Course and making local arrangements convenient for the participants were highly appreciated.
2.
PARTICIPANTS
Originally 12 participants, one from each country of the ROPME region (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar,
United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, I.R. Iran) one from each of the 3 littoral countries of the
Caspian Sea (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan) one from Georgia, and one from Pakistan were
invited to participate in the Training Course. Unfortunately, due to different reasons, only the participants
from Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Azerbaijan and Georgia were present at the Course. Five participants from
I.R. of Iran (4 from INCO and one from the Department of Environment) also took part in the Course.
Eight lecturers fi-om Australia, India, Ukraine, I.R. Iran and IOC gave 38 lectures, including
practical sessions and demonstrations, which were delivered during 12 working days (Lectures: 19,
Demonstration/Practical sessions: 19).
The List of Participants is given in Annex II.
3.
TRAINING
3.1
OPENING
COURSE
The Training Course was officially opened on 19 October 1997 by H.E. Dr. (Mrs.) Massumeh
Ebtekar, Vice-President and Director of the Department of the Environment. In her opening speech, she
highlighted:
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
page 2
“The seas and the oceans are thefinal recipient of all changes and developments on the earth,
while playing the main role on day to day environmental processes. Today, the developing countries
should regard the environment as one of the infrastructure dimension of their plans and policies.
Although comprehensive knowledge of environmental conditions and acquiring oceanic data and
information couldpartially satisJL the need at national levels, the collective regional and international
co-operation to set up the contact and to exchange the information is quite necessary”.
Finally, she concluded and wished the participants every successfor the regional Training Course
on Oceanographic Data and Information Management.
Prof. H. Zomorrodian, President of INCO, in his opening address, welcomed the participants and
especially Her Excellency Dr. Ebtekar, Honourable Vice-President and Director of the Department of the
Environment and Dr. Motamedi, Deputy Minister of Culture and Higher Education for Technology. He
also welcomed Dr. I. Oliounine, Deputy Executive Secretary of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission (IOC) as well as the lecturers and the participants of the Training Course.
He mentioned that during the 12-day course, participants will become familiar with the various
oceanographic data types, methods for collecting, processing, transforming and formatting of the
oceanographic data and information, methods on the establishment of national, regional and global
centres for oceanographic data, remote-sensing applications, and with the experience of the developed
countries in these areas. He further emphasized that oceanographic data and information management
plays today an essential and vital role in exploration and exploitation of marine resources, protection of
marine environment, coastal management, fishery, and marine activities at the national, regional and
global levels.
He reiterated that oceans and seas have a key role to play in the promotion of regional cooperation in all political, economic, and scientific aspects. Training courses on oceanographic data
management in all parts of the world are aimed at helping in capacity building of different countries at
the regional level. He reminded that 1998 is the International Year of the Ocean and stressed that it is
expected that all countries of the region, particularly the I.R. of Iran will introduce special programmes
for the year 1998, and make great efforts for the development of scientific co-operation and the
implementation of joint projects at the regional and trans-regional levels.
In conclusion, he expressed his thanks to the distinguished guests for their participation in the
Course and to IOC for its support, and emphasized that mankind should try seriously to protect oceans
and seas as a priceless God-given resource from over-exploitation and environmental pollution for our
future generations.
Dr. IvIotamedi, Deputy Minister of Culture and Higher Education, stressed in his speech the
importance of the information networks and presented plans of different development phases of a national
information exchange network.
3.2
OUTLINE OF THE COURSE PROGRAMME
The Programme covered various subjects such as NOD0 functions and responsibilities, the
establishment of an NODC, quality control of data, data exchange formats, GIS, and a study visit to the
Iranian Remote Sensing Centre (see Annex I). Practical ‘vork was foresighted for half of the programme
time. During these sessions, the trainees got acquainted with the software for oceanographic data
management and were able to take copies of the software to their respective countries. It is expected that
these software would be utilized by the trainees to manage their own data at their data centres.
At the end of the Course, round table discussions were arranged to give the participants an
opportunity to discuss their problems, concerning the establishment of NODCs in their own countries.
IOC Training Course Report N“. 44
page 3
These discussions also helped to evaluate how deep the trainees perceived the lectures, and to what extent
they would be able to design an NODC, independently.
4.
EVALUATION
OF THE COURSE AND CONCLUSIONS
The Training Course is considered to be a successful action, which to a great extent has achieved
its goal. The Course provided the participants with the opportunity to understand the mechanism and
functions of the IODE system, the management of NODCs and become familiar with data acquisition and
its quality control.
The results of the questionnaire survey, confirmed also the above-mentioned conclusion. The
participants considered the programme of the Training Course well prepared and carried it out
successfully (see Annex III).
5.
DESIGN AND OPERATION
OF A DATA AND INFORMATION
CENTRE
The following steps are to be followed for the establishment of a National Oceanographic Data
and Information Centre (NODC) in the ROPME region:
6)
To constitute a national oceanographic committee consisting of representatives from all national
marine institutes/agencies who are directly or indirectly responsible for oceanographic-data and
information collection programmes;
(ii)
To prepare a directory of the oceanographic data and information holdings within the country
including institutes, agencies, government departments, universities, research organizations using
the proforma presented in Annex IV;
(iii)
To analyse the metadata directory information and other necessary requirements for establishing
an NODC with the help of experts from RNODC/NODCs which exist in the region or with the
help of a consultant;
(iv>
To identify an institute/agency which will be responsible for operating NODC or establish a new
institute for NODC with the approval of the national oceanographic committee and the
Government;
(v>
To prepare a proposal with the help of the national committee for establishing an NODC;
(4
To inform the IOC/IODE Committee on the establishment of an NODC and request the IOC
Executive Secretary to inform about it all Member States in accordance with the existing
procedures.
More detailed information on the procedures for the data centre is presented in the IOC Manuals
and Guides No. 5, revised version which was published by IOC in 1997.
1.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the suggestions which were made during
recommendations were finally adopted:
round table discussions, the following
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
page 4
(9
The report on the Regional Training Course in Marine Data and Information Management should
be widely circulated both within the IODE system and. to all ROPME Member States and
Caspian Sea littoral countries;
(ii)
The communication facilities within the Indian Ocean region and marginal seas should be
improved. Efforts should be made to establish a regional Internet node for the Indian Ocean
region. A regular newsletter service could be initiated within the region to discuss national and
regional ocean research, monitoring and data management activities;
(iii)
Representatives from RNODC/NODC/DNAs should be included in the IOC regional committees,
such as IOC-IOCINDIO, for providing advice, expertise and establishing an effective flow of
information within the Indian Ocean region;
A regional symposium on ocean research and data management should be arranged every 4
years. This will provide a forum for the oceanographic research community and ocean data
managers to present results of their research and activities within the region;
(3
Regular national and regional training courses should be conducted with the assistance of IOC
and ROPME. Regional training courses should include at least one participant from each country
in the region. Participants for such training courses should be working in the field of marine data
management and should be encouraged to take an active role in the development of future
national data management plans and in arranging national trainers;
(4
Training course material for future courses should be developed by RNODC for the Indian Ocean
with the assistance of existing NODCs in the region and with the support of IOC and ROPME
to reflect the current research and technological trends in ocean data management. The course
content should be adapted to the regional situation.
7.
CLOSURE
The Training Course was closed on 29 October 1997. Prof. Zomorrodian, President of INCO,
addressed his congratulations to the participants for their successful completion of the Course. He
apologized for any shortcomings, and expressed his wish, that the participants would utilize the
knowledge and experience obtained through the Course. He pointed out that this Training Course has
paved the way to the future co-operation between the Member States of the ROPME region, as well as,
Caspian Sea littoral countries.
Dr. Sarupria, one of the lecturers, thanked the organizers of the Course and pointed out that
everything was implemented according to the programme. He expressed his wish that the effort will be
made to strengthen the IODE activities in the region through active participation in the IOCINDIO
Regional Committee and in the activities of IODE. He stressed the importance of the exchange of
data/information within the Indian Ocean region through mutual co-operation and support of the Member
States, in order to achieve the IOC/IODE objectives. On behalf of the participants, Mr. S.M. Tabrez
thanked INCO for organizing the Course and IOC for providing the opportunity for the participants to
take part in it.
Each lecturer and participant was awarded a certificate signed by the Executive Secretary IOC
and the President of INCO, indicating that they have taken part as a lecturer or as a trainee in the Course
(Annex V).
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
page 5
8.
SUMMARY
OF THE LECTURE3
Lecture 1 -Importance
of Marine Data for Capacity Building and Sustainable Development
The environment is one of the fundamental resources which sustain the human life and economic
development.
It is a reality that any movement towards sustainable development is not merely environmental,
but also includes economic and social sustainabilities. Wise management of natural resources for
sustainable development could not be achieved unless proper data and information are available. Then
data and information management becomes the first priority for resource management which leads to
sustainable development. Considering the important role of the ocean in the cycle of human life, ocean
data and information will become more and more important not only at a national level, but also in
regional and global aspects.
Oceans are the common heritage of mankind. So regional and international co-operation for
protecting the marine environment and sustained use of their ocean resources are inevitable. Co-operation
at regional and international level is not an easy task, mainly because of the vast gap which exists
between the developed and developing countries. Therefore, the capacity building at national level for
many countries is one of the main issues, which will enable them to achieve their objectives towards the
development processes. To ftnd effective ways for benefiting from the marine resources, to identify
methods of the sea protection will depend mainly on data and information. As the ocean data and
information management is concerned, following major issues have to be considered:
.
Collecting and disseminating oceanographic data and information;
.
Processing, archiving and distributing data to the scientific community and other users;
.
Preparing to respond to specific requests of different users;
.
Supporting basic aspects of training in different fields of oceanography;
.
Contributing to the national resources development by providing required information, e.g., on
ocean living and non-living resources;
.
Updating oceanographic data and information;
.
Exchanging data with other centres.
The effort for establishing data and information centres should constitute a keystone in the
management activities and will be a prerequisite towards capacity building.
Lecture 2 -
IODE and its Relation to the World Data Centres System and other International
Marine Data Systems
The IODE system was established in the beginning of the 1960’s as a follow-up to the
International Geophysical Year. Until today it continues to be the most developed, specialized system
for data processing, management and exchange. Today the system is comprised of more than 60
NODC/DNAs spread around the world. The description of the system and the rules under which the
system is operating were provide,d based on the IODE Manual.
The relationship of the IODE centres to the World Data Centres of ICSU was given and the data
flow diagrams presented.
IOC Training Course Report No, 44
page 6
Other international marine data systems were described and the role of the IODE, and these
systems in the GOOS structure and activities were highlighted.
Lecture 3 - Databases in General and Specifically Oceanic Ones
Different kinds of the DBMS (Data Base Management Systems) are now in use in various areas
of science and technology. They are especially useful in case one needs to manage big amounts of data,
or data that have complicated structure, or have to be changed permanently. Ocean datasets usually
contain a lot of parameters from various sources and with different structures (surface spatial distributed
measurements, depth distributed vertical profiles, time or towed series, spectral optical measurements,
etc.). Moreover, the amount of data collected by different instruments can vary in a wide range. For
example, the CTD probe with one meter depth-resolution will produce the output data tiles consisting
of several thousand records. It is a very complicated task to combine the interdisciplinary datasets, to
verify them and to provide the possibility to analyse them jointly. That is why, only using the powerful
DBMS, as industry standard or as systems developed in the oceanographic institutions, gives the
possibility to perform this task. The brief description of some DBMS which are being used in
oceanography, was provided.
Lecture 4 - NODCs and RNODCs Functions and Responsibilities
The presentation summarized the IOC publication No. 5, Guide for Establishing a National
Oceanographic Data Centre and was divided into two parts - national functions and international
functions. The national functions of an NODC were outlined together with the steps in establishing an
NODC, establishing a metadata system, developing a client base, selection of computer technologies and
data management planning. The section on international services described the IOC system of
oceanographic data centres and the international responsibilities of an NODC. This was followed by a
detailed description of the functions of a RNODC (the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre).
The IODE data centre’s infrastructure in the Indian Ocean region was described which is
relatively well developed. Twenty-seven riparian countries bordering Indian Ocean have one RNODC,
6 NODCs and 2 DNAs. The RNODC for the Indian Ocean was established in 1996. The ways for
effective oceanographic data/information exchange within the Member States were highlighted.
Lecture 5 -
Creation of the Regional Interdisciplinary
Methodology, Experience and Results
Historical
Database of the Black Sea:
One of the main objectives of the T&BLACK SEA project (funded by the Science for Stability
Programme, NATO) is to establish a database management system (DBMS) in all Black Sea countries
for environmental and oceanographic data pertinent to the goals of this programme. The main features
of the T&Black Sea Data Base are as follows:
.
Database includes all main physical, chemical and biological (including plankton) variables for
the entire Black Sea basin;
.
It covers the time period from 1963 (in some cases earlier datasets are also presented) with
extensive datasets for 1973- 1994 and includes data obtained at 26,000 oceanographic stations;
.
Database covers the most crucial period in the history of the Black Sea ecosystem starting from
the “background” situation in 1960’s till the drastic changes occurred in recent years;
.
It includes data from all main regional and international sources;
.
All data included into the database were quality checked by the groups of regional experts well
acquainted with the Black Sea data;
IOC Training Course Report N”, 44
page 7
.
It also includes the initial set of the ASCII files delivered by participants, that provides a
possibility for interested users to select a subset, to perform quality control according to other
principles and to create an alternative database.
This database is the first successful attempt to create a regional historical inter-disciplinary multipurpose database accomplished with the special powerful DBMS. The development of TU-Black Sea
Data Base is a unique event in modem regional oceanography. The database of the TU-Black Sea project
can be used as a basis for the databases of any new oceanographic and environmental projects in the
Black Sea region. Although the main objective of the database is to serve the development and
implementation of the ecosystem models, due to its structure and contents it can be used for many other
oceanographic and environmental purposes.
The developed methodology and experience gained during the implementation of this work can
be used in other regions of the World Ocean for the same purposes.
Lecture 6 - Establishment
of an NODC - Procedures and Case Study
A revised version of the IOC Manuals and Guides No. 5 for Establishing a hational
Oceanographic Data Centre, published in 1997, was brought to the attention of the participants. A brief
description of an NODC functions, responsibilities was given. The place and role of the NODCs in
national sustainable.development was identified. Special attention was devoted to the benefits Member
States gain with the establishment of data centres and participation in an international oceanographic data
and information management infrastructure.
The experience of one of the European countries in the NODC establishment was presented as
a case study. Steps to be taken were identified, procedures described and results shown.
Lecture 7 -
IODE Data Monitoring
GODAR
Procedures and Operational
Projects: NOP, CSR, MEDI,
To implement effective monitoring of the data flow within the IODE system, a number of
reporting procedures was developed upon which the international exchange system is based. Procedures
for the announcement of planned research cruises known as “National Oceanographic Programmes”
(NOP) and for completing and submitting Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) were presented. Participants
were invited to actively monitor research programmes in their countries and submit CSRs rapidly to the
WDCs, Oceanography.
Description of the Marine Environmental Data and Information Referral System (MEDI) was
given. MEDI provides a multi-disciplinary source guide to the availability and location of marine
environmental data. Material compiled from the submitted MEDI entries is available in hard copy and
electronic form and on the on-line system of WDC-A, Oceanography.
In order to find data in national data holdings which have not been transferred to the centres of
the IODE system and make these data accessible and available for the international community, the
GODAR project was launched in 1993. The description of the project was given and demonstration of
the GODAR products was arranged.
Lecture 8 - Database Management Systems in Modern Client/Server
Environment
Client/server computing refers to a computing model where two or more computers interact in
such a way that one provides data and services to the other. This model allows users to access data
located anywhere within the information network. Client/server computing has two basic components,
a client and a server. The client requests a service to be performed and the server is the resource that
handles the client’s request. A client/server environment for a database management system is the
IOC Training Course Report N”. 44
page 8
combination of 3 major technologies: the relational DBMS, networks, and client interface (usually
GUI/PC-based). Each element contributes to the overall platform with very specific roles but is
independent of the others in performing its functions. New database trends include client/server
databases,complex object databases, high-volume databases and mobile databases. All leading DBMS
systems provide support for operation in client/server environments. Client/server systems have the
potential to dramatically reduce the cost and improve the functionality of database applications.
Lecture 9 - Quality Control Procedures for Data Management
Data quality control (QC) is one of the most important topics nowadays in management of
oceanographic data. The most complete guide on this topic is prepared jointly by the CEC: DG-XII,
MAST and IOC/IODE (Manual of Quality Control Procedures for Validation of Oceanographic Data,
Manuals and Guides No. 26, UNESCO, 1993). This manual was used as a basis for the lecture.
Data quality control (QC), or data validation, is a stage in data management which is essential
whenever data are used by any individual or group other than the originators of the data.
Data quality control information tells users of data in a brief way: how it was gathered, how it
was checked, processed, what algorithms have been used, what errors were found, and how the errors
have been corrected or flagged.
Some stages of the QC can be done automatically and some of them can be performed only by
a qualified expert. Graphical presentation of data is used very often now to simplify and speed up the
expert QC of data. Usually, main QC steps are performed now using powerful possibilities of the Data
Base Management Systems after the loading data into the database. Some oceanographic DBMS have
special modules to provide the extensive data QC.
It is not possible to provide rigid standards of QC for all data types which are applicable in all
oceanographic and climatic conditions, and for all purposes. Some checks depend upon presumed average
climatic conditions, upon presumed accuracy of instruments, or acceptable levels of noise, or desired
accuracy of the final output.
Lecture 10 - The Importance
of Metadata
Metadata is “data about data” and can include characteristics about the data such as the content,
accuracy, reliability and the source. Metadata provides the mechanism to describe data in a consistent
form which will allow users to gain a uniform understanding of the content and fitness for use of datasets.
The effective management of marine data involves knowing what data are available, its quality and its
physical location. This can be achieved through a metadata directory. The key aim of a metadata directory
is to enable users to determine the relevance and quality of a dataset for a specific purpose without
requiring the dataset itself to be acquired and examined.
Lecture 11 - Data Centre Functions and New Technology for Data and Information
Management
The basic functions of NODC such as data acquisition, processing, quality control and
dissemination were discussed in detail. An overview of the new technology for ocean data collection and
management was discussed. The advancement in oceanographic instrumentation and computer systems
such as sensor technology, RDBMS, DSS, DDMS and KBES was presented. Technological trends such
as parallel processing, data warehousing, distributed databases, object technology and data mining were
discussed.
Many scientists often feel an urgent need to work with oceanographic metadata, not with the data
itself. Inventory systems are very useful and convenient for administrative purposes, data presentation
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
page 9
and advertisement, for getting information on data availability. They can serve as auxiliary information
tools for large oceanographic databases.
The special inventory systems were developed at the Marine Hydrophysical Institute in
Sevastopol, Ukraine to provide very easy and effective work with oceanographic metadata. A great
attention was paid to a friendly interface, user convenience, high speed performance and compactness.
The main parts of the inventory system include a special databasemanagement system and a map
tool. Database management system navigates through cruises and stations, generates various reports on
data availability and selects datasets and stations on various complex conditions. The map tool can be
easily customized and provides the next possibilities:
.
.
.
l
.
.
display all selected cruises and stations with current ones marked out;
display current cruise track and isobathes;
search stations;
zoom/unzoom any region;
display data coverage statistics for any parameters;
export map in a standard graphical format.
The Oceanographic Data Inventory System is used intensively in the Marine Hydrophysical
Institute and Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (Ukraine), Institute of Marine Science (Turkey)
in the framework of NATO-TU Black Sea Project and in Plymouth Marine Laboratory (UK) in the
framework of some ONR and NASA grants. Such systems can also be widely used in many national and
international projects.
Lecture 12 - Composition of Marine Data : Chemical and Biological Oceanography
Marine data and information has a limited usage until processed and managed into higher level
form and merged with other information to understand the dynamics of the marine ecosystem. The Indian
NODC has developed a Marine Biological Data and Information Management System (BIODIMS). This
system contains information on zooplankton biomass in the water column, zoobenthic biomass and
densities at the bottom of the sea, chlorophyll-a and primary productivity in the euphotic zone of sea
water column and marine microbiological information on micro organisms in the sea water and sediment
at the bottom. The BIODIMS storage retrieval and presentation functions were discussed. The
management systems for chemical oceanographic parameters such as oxygen, nutrients in the sea water
column were presented. These systems consist of 3 modules, namely, inventory, documentation and data
level information.
Lecture 13 - Management of Coastal and Estuaries Oceanographic Data/Information
Coastal zones problems such as environmental stresses, pollution, eutrophication and erosion
were discussed. To overcome these problems an integrated coastal zone management approach is
required. This approach will also help in monitoring coastal zones, adjacent river/estuaries regions and
the atmosphere. The tools to be used for handling coastal zone data/information are mathematical and
numerical models, decision support systems and geographic information systems. The basic elements of
coastal zone management data collection, data synthesis and sharing of data/information were discussed.
Data and information required for the IOC environmental programmes such as LOIS, GOOS, Health of
Ocean and Living Marine Resources, were highlighted.
Lecture 14 - Data Exchange Formats
Different formats used for oceanographic data/information exchange were briefly presented.
These formats are IOC/GF3, ICES Punch card, Blue print86, CR-ROM NODC-02 and NODC-03. Data
exchange using blank or comma delimited free format was also considered.
IOC Training Course Report N”, 44
page 10
Lecture 15 - OceanPC: Basic Concept and System Architecture
The processing of oceanographic data using OceanPC software was presented and discussed. The
system hardware and software required for installation, system architecture, concept and overview of
different components were highlighted. Data entry formats, conversion utilities, display and research
models were presented. The different data file types available in the system were also discussed.
Lecture 16 - Electronic Mail and Internet for Oceanographic Information
and Data Exchange
The Internet is a vast global network of many networks spanning over 170 countries. It links
computers of many different types, sizes and operating systems all communicating using TCP/IP
protocol. The Internet offers accessto data and software through a variety of services and tools including
electronic mail (e-mail), remote login (Telnet), file transfer (ftp), news and World Wide Web (WWW).
Each of these services was discussed in detail. A comprehensive glossary of Internet terminology was
also provided.
Lecture 17 - Marine Information
Management Systems
An overview of IOUIODE Marine Information Management (MIM) activities was presented.
Information databases for bibliographic, marine directories and marine libraries holdings were
introduced. Iqformation products such as ASFISIYASFA (CDS/ISIS), CD-ROM of GTSPP, IODE-MIM
publications were introduced. The present and future information dissemination media such as CDROMs, virtual Internet node and virtual libraries were discussed.
Lecture 18 - GIS Systems: Introduction
and Application
for Marine Data
The field of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is relatively new and rapidly developing.
The term GIS is frequently applied to geographically oriented computer technology, integrated systems
use in substantive applications and more recently to a new discipline which is generating massive interest
world wide.
Many organizations now spend large amounts of time and energy on geographic information
systems and on geographic databases.Predictions suggest billions of dollars will be spent on these items
over the next decade. Why should this be true now when only a few years ago GIS was a rarity? There
are two answers: firstly, the costs of computer hardware needed for the task are dropping rapidly and,
thus it becomes affordable to an increasingly wider audience; secondly, geography (and the data
describing it) is part of our everyday world, almost every decision we make is constrained, influenced
or dictated by some facts of geography.
The topics which were addressed in the Course were:
.
.
.
.
.
what is a GIS;
questions a GIS can answer;
components of a GIS;
basic types of map information;
how map information is stored in the computer.
Major steps in the implementation of a typical GIS project were considered:
.
.
.
determination the objectlves;
building the database;
performing the analysis and presenting the results
IOC Training Course Report N”. 44
page 11
Lecture 19 -
Introduction
to Remote Sensing Activities; Usage of Remote Sensing for
Oceanographic Data Collection and Management
Gathering of required information is an essential step, which should be taken for optimum
understanding of existing features, phenomena and parameters governing the oceanic environments and
their resources due to their vital role and impact on man’s life.
In this regard, remote-sensing technology in general and space remote-sensing techniques in
particular, is one of the most effective technologies used for data collection purposes with the help of
different sensors mounted on space platforms.
With this background in mind, a brief description of sensors normally used for oceanic data
gathering purposes (i.e., CZCS, AVHRR, MSS, TM, Radar, Scanners, Spectrometers, Scatterometers,
Altimeters etc.), of space platforms (i.e., Nimbus-7, Landsat, NOAA, Radarsat, ERS, Seastat, MOS,
TOPEXPOSEIDON, etc.) was given and their missions were presented.
As the next step, general characteristics of space taken remotely sensed data including their
coverage, repetitive nature, illumination condition, formats (imaging and digital) and modes were also
discussed and methodologies used in their information extracting process (both conventual and digital
image processing techniques) were briefly explained.
The final topic discussed under the title of this Course, was a series of very compressed and short
presentations about different applications of space acquired remotely-sensed data in oceanographic and
marine resources projects, carried out over different regions of Iranian and its neighbouring countries
coastal and marine environments.
IOC Training Course Report No, 44
Annex I
ANNEX I
PROGRAMME
AND TIMETABLE
Day 1, Saturday, 18 October I997
14:00-16:00
Registration.
Day 2, Sunday, 19 October
10:30-l 1:30
Official Opening (Shahid Azodi Saal, Ministry of Culture & Higher Education).
14:00-15:15
Lecture I: Importance of Marine Data for Capacity Building
Development (H. Zomorrodian).
& Sustainable
Lecture 2: IODE & its Relation to World Data Centres Systems & other International
Marine Data System (I. Oliounine).
15:15-15:45
Break.
15:45-17:15
Lecture 3: Databases in General & specifically Oceanic ones (V. Vladimirov).
Demumtration I: Practical Work Session, Demonstration of the CD-ROMs with
Oceanographic Data (G. Reed).
Day 3, Monday, 20 October
8:30-10:00
Lecture 4: NODC’s & RNODC’s Functions & Responsibilities (G. Reed, J. Sarupria).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
10:30-12:00
Lecture 5: Creation of the Inter-regional Interdisciplinary Historical Database of the
Black Sea: Methodology, Experience & Results (V. Vladimirov).
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-15:oo
Lecture 6: Establishment of an NODC - Procedures & a Case Study (I. Oliounine).
15:00-15:30
Break.
15:00-17:oo
Demonstration 2: Practical Work Session on the Effective
Oceanographic Data Management (V. Vladimirov).
Use of PC’s for
Day 4, Tuesday, 21 October
8:30-10:00
Lecture 7: IODE Data Monitoring Procedures & Operational Projects: NOP, CSR,
MEDI, GODAR Project (I. Oliounine).
Lecture 8: Database Management System in Modem Client/Server Environment
(G. Reed).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
Annex I - page 2
10:30-12:OO
Lecture 9: Quality Control Procedures for Data Management (V. Vladimirov).
Lecture 10: Importance of Metadata (G. Reed).
12:00- 2:30
Lunch.
13:00- 5:oo
Demonstration 3: Usage of the CSR Form, Practical Work (J. Sarupria).
15:00-15;30
Break.
15:30-17:oo
Demonstration 4: Demonstration of DBMS & QC Software Application
Procedures (V. Vladimirov).
of QC
Day 5, Wednesday, 22 October
8:30-IO:00
Lecture II: Data Centre Functions & New Technology for Data & Information
Management (J. Sarupria).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
10:30-12:00
Lecture 12: Composition of Marine Data: Chemical & Biological
(J. Sarupria, V. Vladimirov).
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-15:oo
Demonstration 5: Demonstration of the NIO CD-ROM Software (J. Sarupria).
15:00-15:30
Break.
15:30-16:00
Demonstration 6: Practical Work Session on a Database Development (V. Vladimirov).
16:00-17:00
Demonstration 7: Group Discussion on Design, Operation & Creation of a Data &
Information Centre (J. Sarupria, G. Reed, V. Vladimirov).
Oceanography
Day 6, Thursday, 23 October
8:30-lo:oo
Lecture 13: Management of Coastal & Estuaries Oceanographic Data/Information
(J. Sarupria).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
10:30-l 1:30
Lecture 14: Data Exchange Formats (3. Sarupria, V. Vladimirov).
11:30-12:00
Demonstration 7: Introduction of Fortran Sub-routines for the Computations of Physical
Properties of Sea Water (J. Sarupria).
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-14:oo
Lecture 15: OceanPC, Basic Concept & System Architecture (J. Sarupria).
14:00-15:oo
Demonstration 9: Practical Work Session on OceanPC.
15:00-15:30
Break.
IOC Training Course Report p 44
Annex I - page 3
15:30-17:oo
Demonstration 10: Practical Work Session on OceanPC.
Day 7, Friday, 24 October
Day off
Day 8, Saturday, 25 October
8:30-lo:oo
Lecture 16: Electronic Mail & Internet for Oceanographic Information & Data Exchange
(G. Reed).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
10:30-12:00
Demonstration II: Practical Session on OceanPC & Window Grapher (J. Sarupria,
G. Reed, V. Vladimirov).
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-14:oo
Demonstration 12: Demonstration of Database Management System (V. Vladimirov).
14:00-15:oo
Demonstration 13: Practical Session on Design & Operation of a Data & Information
Centre (J. Sarupria, G. Reed, V. Vladimirov).
Day 9, Sunday, 26 October
8:30-lo:oo
Lecture 17: Marine Information Management Systems (J. Sarupria).
lO:OO-12:oo
Demonstration 14: Practical Session on OceanPC Data Entry System (J. Sarupria,
G. Reed, V. Vladimirov).
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-15:oo
Demonstration
(G. Reed).
15: Practical Session on Data Retrieval Form GTSPP CD-ROM
Day 10, Monday, 27 October
8:30-10:00
Demonstration 16: Practical Session on On-line Access of One of the World Marine
Data Banks (G. Reed).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
10:30-12:OO
Lecture 18: GIS System: Introduction & Application for Marine Data (M. Pourkashani).
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-15:oo
Demonstration 17: Practical Work, GIS Case Studies (M. Pourkashani).
15:00-15:30
Break.
15:30-16:00
Demonstration 18: GEN Co-CD-ROM Demonstration as an Example of Marine Data
Electronic Presentation (G. Reed).
IOC Training Course Report No, 44
Annex I - page 4
16:00-17:00
Demonstration 19: Training & Educational Module for Marine Science (TREDMAR)
(G. Reed).
Day 11, Tuesday, 28 October
8:30-10:00
Lecture 19: Introduction to Remote-sensing Activities: Usage of Remote-sensing for
Oceanographic Data Collection & Management (F. Barzegar, Sh. Farrokhi).
lO:OO-10:30
Break.
10:30-12:OO
Formulation of Recommendations & Conclusions.
12:00-12:30
Lunch.
13:00-16:00
Formulation of Recommendations & Conclusion (cont.).
Course Evaluation.
Day 12, Wednesday, 29 October
8:30-10:00
Training Course Draft Report.
10:30- 2:oo
Official Closure.
12:00- 2:30
Lunch.
13:00- 5:oo
Visit to Iranian Remote-sensing Centre.
Day 13, Thursday, 30 October
Departure
IOC Training Course Report No, 44.
Annex II
ANNEX II
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
LECTURERS
Prof. H. Zomorrodian
President, Iranian National Centre for
Oceanography (INCO)
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 641 65 56/98 91
Fax: <98> (21) 641 99 78
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. I. Oliounine
Deputy Executive Secretary
10c/UNEsc0
Paris
France
Tel: <33> (1) 45 68 39 63
Fax: <33> (1) 45 68 58 12
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. V. Vladimirov
*
Head, Data Base Laboratory
Marine Hydrophysical Institute
Sevastopol
Ukraine
Tel: <380> (692) 52 52 76
Fax: <380> (692) 44 42 53
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. G.L. Reed
Australian Oceanographic Data Centre
Maritime Headquarters
Australia
Tel: <61> (2) 93 59 31 41
Fax: <61> (2) 93 59 3120
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. J.S. Sarupria
Head, Indian NODC
Data & Information Division
National Institute pf Oceanography
Dona Paula, Goa
India
Tel: <91>‘(832) 22 12 53
Fax: <91> (832) 22 33 40113 60191 02
E-mail: sarujsc+snio.ren.nic.in
Mr. F. Barzegar
Advisor to Chairman, Remote Sensing Centre
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 296 44 71-3
Fax: <98> (21) 206 44 74
Mr. Sh. Farrokhi
Doumegar Co.
P.O. Box: 1875-199
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 207 84 70-71
Mrs. M. Pourkashani
Standing Consultant
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel/Fax: <98> (21) 874 13 13
TRAINEES
Mr. E. Babayev
Deputy-Director
GIS Centre of the State Committee on Ecology of
Azerbaijan
Baku
Azerbaijan
Tel: <994> (12) 92 67 55/59 07
Fax: <994> (12) 92 67 55
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. M.Gh.M. Ali
Kuwait-Environment Public Authority
Marine Pollution Control Unit
Safat
Kuwait
Tel: <965> 482 05 97
Fax: <965> 482 05 88
Mr. M.M. Al-Jabri
Ministry of Regional Municipalities
Environment
Marine Pollution Section
Muscat
Oman
Tel: <968> 69 64 44, Ext: 307
Fax: <968> 69 64 60
&
,
IOC Training Course Report N”, 44
Annex II - page 2
Mr. S.M. Tabrez
National Oceauographic Data Centre
Karachi
Pakistan
Tel: <92> (21) 586 00 28129
Fax: <92> (21) 586 01 29
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. K. Bilashvili
Tbilisi State University
Dept. of Meteorology & Oceanography
Tbilisi
Georgia
Tel/Fax: <995> (32) 23 22 93
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. B. Behroozi Rad
Marine Environment Bureau
Dept. of the Environment
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 86 72 23
Fax: <98> (21) 89 72 23
Mrs. F. Ghiasi
Expert, Iranian National Centre for Oceanography
WCO)
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 641 65 56/98 91
Fax: <98> (21) 641 99 78
E-mail: [email protected]
Mrs. Sh. Safaei
Expert, Iranian National Centre for Oceanography
(WCO)
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: ~98~ (21) 641 65 56/98 91
Fax: <98> (21) 641 99 78
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. H. Fazeli
Senior Expert,
Iranian National Centre for Oceanography (INCO)
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 641 65 56/98 91
Fax: <98> (21) 641 99 78
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. P. Abdollahi
Senior Expert,
Iranian National Centre for Oceanography (INCO)
Tehran
I.R. Iran
Tel: <98> (21) 641 65 56/98 91
Fax: <98> (21) 641 99 78
E-mail: [email protected]
IOC Training Course Report w 44
Annex III
ANNEX III
COURSE EVALUATION
Questionnaire
for assessment by trainees
Note: The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information for overall assessment of the Training
Course and to improve future training and related activities. Please check as appropriate and write your
comments and suggestions.
1.
Poor
Are the objectives of Course specified?
Have they been successfully met?
Excellent
[ r2;3j4/51
Comments:
2.
Were the lectures delivered by resource persons
and practical exercises adequate to meet the
objectives?
Poor
Excellent
/1/2(3qy
Comments:
3.
Do you think the Course programme was:
Too advanced 0
4.
informative
to the expectation 0
q
Was the Course useful to your work? Did you
learn anything that is new and useful for you?
Poor
too poor 0
Excellent
F1j21314T31
Comments:
5.
Was the duration of the Course adequate?
Too long 0
Adequate
q
Too short
Comments:
6.
Do you feel each topic of ocean management
was covered well? If not, what do you suggest
to be included?
Poor
;g-q-F~
Comments:
7.
Do you feel a need, for modification of the Course programme?
Yes
q
Comments:
Noq
Excellent
q
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
Annex III - page 2
8.
In what way do you plan to apply the knowledge and experience gained during the Training
Course when you go back home?
Comments:
9.
How were the local arrangements, like
accommodation, transport, other facilities, etc.
Poor
Excellent
112345
Comments:
10.
Any other comments and suggestions regarding the Course?
Comments:
11.
(9
Were all the subjects of specific interest to you covered?
(ii)
What do you think IOCLJNESCO should do as a follow-up in this region?
(iii)
Do you think other regions could benefit by Training Course such as these?
(iv>
Other comments?
What general suggestions would you make to improve the Course?
Comments:
12.
How do you rate this Course?
Unacceptable 0
Name:
Poor
q
Adequate 0
Good 0
Outstanding •1
(Signature of Trainee)
IOC Training Course Report No- 44
Annex III - page 3
Results of Questionnaire
for Assessment by Trainees
more
practical
sessions
2uestion 6
4
>uestion 7
2
4
3
3
3
5
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
for time
include
new
material
@estion 8
apply
knowledge
no specific
idea
establish
new
databases,
metadata
directory
FJuestion 9
4
3
4
5
Question
10
(0 yes
(ii) yes
(iii) yes
(iv)nothing
(0 yes
(ii)interacti
on in
region
(iii) yes
(iv) -
0) yes
(ii)establish
data centre
(iii) yes
(iv) nil
(0 PaW
(ii) yes
(iii) yes
(iv) no
comment
Question
11
use new
software
on job
training
needed
no
suggestions
intensificat
ion of
Course
outstanding
adequate
good
Question
12
good
good
database
manageme
nt systems
establish
NODC
2
2
0) yes
(ii) IOC to
assist to
establish
NODC
(iii)yes
(iv) nil
adequate
3
5
(0 yes
(ii) yes
(iii) yes
(iv)
nothing
4
(9 (ii) more
feedback
(iii) yes
(iv) -
more
practical
work
metadata
directory
good
good
IOC Training Course Report p 44
Annex IV
ANNEX IV
MARINE
AND COASTAL
DATA DIRECTORY
“Blue Pages”
OF AUSTRALIA
Level 1 Form
Custodian-Organization:
Contact-Title:
Contact -Name:
Contact-Surname:
Contact-Position:
Contact-Department:
Contact-Organization:
Number/Street/City
State:
Post-Code:
Phone:
Fax:
Email:
WWW-Address:
Data-Set-Name
Data-Type
Country-Keyword
Area-Keyword
Theme-Keywc. .l
North-Bounding
South-Bounding
East-Bounding
West-Bounding
Date-Beginning
Date-Ending
Data-Currency
Parameters
Access-Restriction
Abstract
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
Annex IV - page 2
Programme-Name
?rincipal-Investigator
?I Organization
?latform - Name
?roject-Comment
Media-Description
data-Form
Lledia-Comment
Format-Available
3ocumentation
:-______________________________________--------------------------~-----------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:_______________________________________--------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Equipment-Sample
Equipment-Analysis
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------:------------------------------------------------------------------------------
:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.---____-______-____--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------:_______________________________________--------------------------------------quality-Method
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Positional-Accuracy
:_______________________________________--------------------------------------4ttribute-Accuracy
:________________________________________-------------------------------------Logical-Consistency
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Zompleteness
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Progress
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Update Frequency
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------In-line-Link
:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Link-Desrciption
_----_-_---___----______________________-------------------------------------Lineage
This is’ to certify that
participated ,as a lecturer in the
diitm%O!AL
i!J&wm?E D??TA AND d!ivFvWA TroNmNAGmm
18:30 Oct. 1997
Iranian
National
Center for Oceanography
Tehran - I.R.Iran
(INCO)
This is to certify that
participated
as a trainee in the
18-30
Iranian
National
Oct.
1997
Center for Oceanography
Tehran - I.R.Iran
(INCO)
IOC Training Course Report No. 44
Annex VI
ANNElXVI
LIST OF ACRONYMS
ASFA
Aquatic Sciences & Fisheries Abstract
ASFISIS
Aquatic Sciences & Fisheries Integrated Set of Information Systems
BIODIMS
Marine Biological Data & Information Management System
CDS
Computerized Documentation System
CEC
Commission of the European Communities
CSR
Cruise Summary Report
CTD
Conductivity-Temperature-Depth
DBMS
Data Base Management System
DNA
Designated National Agency
ERS
European Remote Sensing
GF3
General Format N. 3 (A General Oceanographic Data Exchange Format)
GIS
Geographic Information System
GODAR
Global Oceanographic Data Archeology & Rescue Project
GOOS
Global Ocean Observing System
GTSPP
Global Temperature-Salinity Pilot Project
ICSU
International Council of Scientific Unions
INCO
Iranian National Centre for Oceanography
IOC
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IOCINDIO
IOC Regional Committee for the Central Indian Ocean
IODE
International Oceanographic Data & Information Exchange
MEDI
Marine Environmental Data Information & Referral System
MIM
Marine Information Management
NIO
National Institute of Oceanography
NOAA
National Ocean & Atmospheric Administration (USA)
NODC
National Oceanographic Data Centre
NOP
National Oceanographic Programme
OCEANPC
Ocean Personal Computer Project
ONR
Office of Naval Research (USA)
PC
Personal Computer
PERSGA
Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Environment Programme
QC
Quality Control
RNODC
Responsible National Oceanographic Data Centre
ROPME
Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment
Probe
IOC Training Course Report No, 44
Annex VI - page 2
TREDMAR
Marine Science Training & Education Programme
UNESCO
United Nations Education, Scientific & Cultural Organization
WDC
World Data Centre
www
World Wide Web
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