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A/67/87*
United Nations
General Assembly
Distr.: General
15 May 2012
Original: English
Sixty-seventh session
Item 76 (a) of the preliminary list**
Oceans and the law of the sea
Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the
Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and
Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment,
including Socioeconomic Aspects
Letter dated 10 May 2012 from the Co-Chairs of the Ad Hoc
Working Group of the Whole addressed to the President of the
General Assembly
We have the honour to transmit to you the attached report on the work of the
Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, which sets out in section II the agreed
recommendations to the sixty-seventh session of the General Assembly. Pursuant to
paragraph 208 of General Assembly resolution 66/231, the Ad Hoc Working Group
of the Whole met at United Nations Headquarters from 23 to 27 April 2012.
We kindly request that the present letter and the report be circulated as a
document of the General Assembly under the agenda item entitled “Oceans and the
law of the sea”.
(Signed) Donatus Keith St. Aimee
(Signed) Gonçalo da Motta
* Reissued for technical reasons on 14 December 2012.
** A/67/50.
12-34218* (E) 171212
*1234218*
A/67/87
Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the
Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of
the State of the Marine Environment, including
Socioeconomic Aspects
I. Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole
1.
Pursuant to paragraph 208 of General Assembly resolution 66/231, the third
meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for
Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including
Socioeconomic Aspects, was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York from
23 to 27 April 2012.
2.
The President of the General Assembly appointed Donatus Keith St. Aimee
(Saint Lucia) and Gonçalo da Motta (Portugal) as Co-Chairs of the meeting. Patricia
O’Brien, Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel, delivered
opening remarks on behalf of the Secretary-General.
3.
Representatives of 67 Member States, 11 intergovernmental organizations and
other bodies and 2 non-governmental organizations attended the meeting. 1
4.
The following members of the Group of Experts established pursuant to
paragraph 209 of General Assembly resolution 65/37 A also participated in the
meeting: Enrique Marschoff (Argentina); Peter Harris (Australia); Lorna Inniss
(Barbados); Saskia Van Gaever (Belgium); Jake Rice (Canada); Patricio Bernal
(Chile); Juying Wang (China); George Martin (Estonia); Peyman Eghtesadi-Araghi
(Islamic Republic of Iran); Sean O. Green (Jamaica); Renison Ruwa (Kenya); Chul
Park (Republic of Korea); Joshua Tuhumwire (Uganda); and Alan Simcock (United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).
5.
The following supporting documentation was available to the meeting:
(a) provisional agenda, annotated provisional agenda and format, including
proposed organization of work; (b) note from the Group of Experts and revised
possible outline for the first global integrated marine assessment of the Regular
Process, prepared by the Group of Experts; (c) draft terms of reference and working
methods for the Group of Experts; (d) report on the preliminary inventory of
capacity-building for assessments, prepared by the secretariat of the Regular
Process; and (e) revised draft timetable for the first global integrated marine
assessment of the Regular Process.
6.
On 23 April 2012, the Working Group adopted the agenda (attached as annex I
to the present report) and agreed on the organization of work as proposed by the
Co-Chairs. In its substantive discussions, the Working Group took note of the report
of the bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole 2 and of the summaries of
the workshops held under the auspices of the United Nations in support of the
__________________
1
2
2
A complete list of participants is available on the website of the Division for Ocean Affairs and
the Law of Sea of the Office of Legal Affairs of the Secretariat (www.un.org/Depts/los/global_
reporting/global_reporting.htm).
The bureau is comprised of the following Member States: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, China,
Ecuador, Estonia, Ghana, Greece, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, United
Republic of Tanzania, United States of America.
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Regular Process in Santiago, Chile, from 13 to 15 September 2011 and in Sanya,
China, from 21 to 23 February 2012.
7.
The Director of the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea reported
on the status of the trust fund established for the purpose of supporting the
operations of the first five-year cycle of the Regular Process. Delegates were
reminded that without additional funding it would not be possible to provide
financial assistance to experts to attend future meetings of the Regular Process.
8.
On 25 April 2012, the Working Group considered the process of preparing the
first global integrated marine assessment, including the need to finalize the guidance
for contributors contained in annex B to the set of options developed by the Group
of Experts; 3 coordination with other processes dealing with assessment of the state
of the marine environment; simplification of the procedure for the appointment of
individual members to the pool of experts; identification of focal points to facilitate
communications; and the revised draft timetable for the preparation of the first
global integrated marine assessment. The members of the bureau were requested to
engage States in their regional groups and encourage the nomination of individuals
to the pool of experts as soon as possible.
9.
On 26 April 2012, the Working Group considered communication requirements
and data and information management of the Regular Process. The meeting
discussed the development of the website of the Regular Process, including its legal
status, content, operation and maintenance, as well as related costs and the need for
financing. The Working Group also took note of the report on the preliminary
inventory of capacity-building for assessments.
10. On the final day of the meeting, at the request of some delegations, the
Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme, Achim Steiner,
in his capacity as the Chief of the High-level Committee on Programmes of the
United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination, gave a
presentation to the Working Group, by video link from Nairobi, on the SecretaryGeneral’s initiative for an oceans compact. The presentation was made with a view
to clarifying the scope of the initiative and how it overlaps with the Regular Process.
In the ensuing exchange, some delegations raised questions about the initiative,
including its mandate, and stressed the need for transparency.
11. Following informal consultations that were held in the course of the meeting,
on 27 April 2012, the Working Group adopted the outline for the first global
integrated marine assessment of the Regular Process (annex II to the present report)
and the terms of reference and working methods for the Group of Experts of the
Regular Process (annex III). On the same date, the Working Group took note of the
revised draft timetable for the first global integrated marine assessment of the
Regular Process (annex IV).
12. Based on the discussions, the Working Group adopted recommendations to the
General Assembly, which are presented in section II of the present report. The
Working Group recommended that its next meeting be convened in 2013.
13. On 10 May 2012, the Co-Chairs transmitted the present report to the President
of the sixty-sixth session of the General Assembly.
__________________
3
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Available at www.un.org/Depts/los/global_reporting/Set_of_Options.pdf.
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II. Recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the
Whole to the sixty-seventh session of the General Assembly
14. The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole submits the following
recommendations to the General Assembly.
(1) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly adopt:
(a) The outline for the first global integrated marine assessment of the
Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the
Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects (annex II to the
present report);
(b) The terms of reference and working methods for the Group of
Experts of the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the
State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects (annex III).
(2) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly take note of:
(a) The revised draft timetable for the first global integrated marine
assessment of the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the
State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects (annex IV);
(b) The summaries of the workshops held in Santiago, Chile, from 13
to 15 September 2011 and in Sanya, China, from 21 to 23 February 2012; 4
(c) The report on the preliminary inventory of capacity-building for
assessments (annex V).
(3) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole urges the Group of Experts to
finalize the guidance for contributors as soon as possible and, subject to the
approval of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole or its bureau, to enable
the pool of experts to start work on the preparation of the first global
integrated marine assessment as soon as possible.
(4) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly request the members of the Group of Experts, who have served in
the Group of Experts for the duration of the first phase of the first assessment
cycle pursuant to paragraph 209 of General Assembly resolution 65/37 A, to
continue serving in the Group of Experts for the second phase of the first
assessment cycle.
(5) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly invite States and agencies referred to in paragraph 213 of Assembly
resolution 66/231 to make every effort to respond promptly to communications
from the secretariat of the Regular Process and the Group of Experts.
(6) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the first draft
of the first global integrated marine assessment be sent to Member States for
comments, and that the Group of Experts revise the first global integrated
marine assessment in the light of the comments received. Once revised, the
draft of the first global integrated marine assessment would be presented to the
__________________
4
4
Available at www.un.org/Depts/los/global_reporting/global_reporting.htm.
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bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole together with the
comments received. With the approval of the bureau, the first global integrated
marine assessment would be submitted for consideration by the Ad Hoc
Working Group of the Whole, and for final approval by the General Assembly.
(7) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly take note of the need to identify capacity-building in the context of
the Regular Process. The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole would, at its
next session, further consider an approach on how to contribute to the
promotion and facilitation of capacity-building through international
cooperation making full use of existing opportunities and arrangements for
capacity-building.
(8) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly request the Secretary-General to bring the preliminary inventory of
capacity-building for assessments to the attention of Member States and heads
of the specialized agencies, funds and programmes of the United Nations and
other relevant intergovernmental organizations engaged in activities relating to
capacity-building for assessment of the state of the marine environment,
including socioeconomic aspects, as well as funding institutions, and invite
them to contribute information to the preliminary inventory on existing
opportunities and arrangements for capacity-building for assessments.
(9) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly consider any need to strengthen the capacity of the Division of
Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, as the secretariat of the Regular Process.
(10) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that the General
Assembly note with appreciation the contributions made to the voluntary trust
fund for the purpose of supporting the operations of the first five-year cycle of
the Regular Process, express its serious concern regarding the limited
resources available in the fund, and urge Member States, international
financial institutions, donor agencies, intergovernmental organizations,
non-governmental organizations and natural and juridical persons to make
financial contributions to those funds established pursuant to paragraph 183 of
General Assembly resolution 64/71 and to make other contributions to the
Regular Process.
(11) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommends that its next
meeting be convened in 2013.
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Annex I
Agenda of the third meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group
of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting
and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment,
including Socioeconomic Aspects
6
1.
Opening of the meeting.
2.
Adoption of the agenda.
3.
Organization of work.
4.
Report of the bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole.
5.
Workshops in support of the first phase of the first cycle of the Regular
Process.
6.
Consideration of the revised possible outline for the first global integrated
marine assessment of the Regular Process.
7.
Consideration of the draft terms of reference and working methods of the
Group of Experts of the Regular Process.
8.
Process of preparing the first global integrated marine assessment of the
Regular Process.
9.
Communication requirements and data and information management of the
Regular Process.
10.
Consideration of the preliminary inventory of existing opportunities and
arrangements for capacity-building for assessments.
11.
Adoption of recommendations to the sixty-seventh session of the General
Assembly.
12.
Other matters.
13.
Closure of the meeting.
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Annex II
Outline a for the First Global Integrated b Marine Assessment
of the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment
of the State of the Marine Environment, including
Socioeconomic Aspects c
Part I
Summary
This part would not follow the pattern of the main report, but highlight the most
significant conclusions. It would aim to bring out:
(a)
The way in which the assessment has been carried out;
(b) Overall assessment of the scale of human impact on the oceans and the
overall value of the oceans to humans;
(c) The main threats to the marine environment and human economic and
social well-being;
(d) The needs for capacity-building and effective approaches to meeting such
needs; and
(e)
The most serious gaps in knowledge and possible ways of filling them.
Part II
The context of the assessment
Chapter 1
Planet: oceans and life
This chapter would be a broad, introductory survey of the role played by the oceans
and seas in the life of the planet, the way in which they function, and humans’
relationships to them.
Chapter 2
Mandate, information sources and method of work
2.A. Objectives, scope and mandate of the Regular Process, as agreed by the
General Assembly.
__________________
a
b
c
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The present annex contains the outline as adopted by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole
at its third meeting (23-27 April 2012), with the chapters numbered sequentially.
In this context, “integrated” means assessing impacts from a number of individual stressors and
considering cumulative effects on marine ecosystems, i.e., the overall impact from multiple
processes and activities overlapping in time and space.
The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment will not include any analysis of policies.
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2.B. Explanation of the rationale for the Regular Process, and the need to ensure
regular assessments of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects
(including an explanation of what is new in the first global integrated marine
assessment).
2.C. General issues relating to the collection of environmental, economic and
social data relating to the oceans and seas and human uses of them, including
national, regional and global aggregation and analysis of information and data,
quality assurance of data and access to information.
2.D. Description of the procedures agreed for carrying out the First Global
Integrated Marine Assessment, and the way in which these procedures have been
implemented, including the approach to the science/policy interface, the selection of
contributors, the choices made on the establishment of baselines, the description and
categorizing of uncertainties and the quality assurance of data.
Part III
Assessment of major ecosystem services from the marine
environment (other than provisioning services) d
Several chapters in this part would draw heavily on the work of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The aim would be to use the work of
the Panel, as well as the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change, not to duplicate it or challenge it.
Chapter 3
Scientific understanding of ecosystem services
Overview of the state of scientific understanding of ecosystem services, including
data collection, information management, differences between different parts of the
world and research needs.
Chapter 4
The oceans’ role in the hydrological cycle
4.A. The interactions between the seawater and freshwater segments of the
hydrological cycle: the rate of turnover and changes in it — freshwater fluxes into
the sea and their interaction with it, including the effects on the marine environment
of changes in those fluxes as a result of changes in continental ice sheets and
glaciers, and of anthropogenic changes in those fluxes (for example, from dambuilding or increased abstraction) — reduction in ice coverage — sea-level changes.
4.B. Environmental, economic and social implications of ocean warming, sea-level
change, including the implications of rises in sea level for security and implications
for low-lying countries, and anthropogenic and other changes to freshwater fluxes
into the sea.
4.C. Chemical composition of seawater: salinity and nutrient content of the
different water bodies — changes in salinity and nutrient content.
__________________
d
8
The main provisioning service from the oceans is food, which is covered in part IV (Assessment
of cross-cutting issue: food security and food safety). Other provisioning services are covered in
part V (Assessment of other human activities and the marine environment).
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4.D Environmental, economic and social implications of changes in salinity and
nutrient content.
4.E. The oceans’ role in heat transportation: ocean warming — the overall
influence of the oceans on surface temperature and circulation patterns — oceanic
oscillations — El Niño and similar events.
4.F. Environmental, economic and social impacts of changes in ocean temperature
and of major ocean temperature events.
Chapter 5
Sea/air interaction
5.A. The role of the seas in regulating atmospheric fluxes and concentration of
oxygen and carbon dioxide (oxygen production, carbon dioxide sequestration): role
of the oceans and seas as carbon dioxide sinks — issues about maintaining or
enhancing that role.
5.B. Scale and significance of the coal industries.
5.C. Meteorological phenomena related to the oceans: hurricanes and typhoons —
monsoon rains — trade winds.
5.D. Environmental, economic and social implications of trends in meteorological
phenomena, including changes in the frequency and intensity of storms, effects on
seas covered by ice for much of the year and the communities that depend on them,
and the implications for small island developing States.
5.E. Ocean acidification: degree and extent of ocean acidification resulting from
human activities (including coral bleaching).
5.F. Environmental, economic and social implications of trends in ocean
acidification (with cross-reference to part IV on assessment of cross-cutting issue:
food security and food safety).
Chapter 6
Primary production, cycling of nutrients, surface layer and plankton
6.A. Global distribution of primary production: the reasons for the present
distribution — factors affecting cycling of nutrients and the variability and
resilience of the base of the food web — changes known and foreseen, including
changes in ultraviolet radiation from ozone-layer problems.
6.B. Surface layer and plankton: role of the surface layer — factors influencing it —
variations in plankton species.
6.C. Environmental, economic and social implications of trends in primary
production and other factors affecting the inherent variability and resilience of the
base of the food web (with cross-reference to part IV on assessment of cross-cutting
issue: food security and food safety).
Chapter 7
Ocean-sourced carbonate production
Role of ocean-sourced carbonate production in the formation of atolls and beaches —
potential impacts of ocean acidification.
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Chapter 8
Aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual ecosystem services derived from the
marine environment
Scale of human interactions with the oceans and seas on the aesthetic, cultural,
religious and spiritual levels, including burials at sea, and ways in which these
interactions may be affected by other changes. There would also be a crossreference to chapter 27 (Tourism and recreation).
Chapter 9
Conclusions on major ecosystems services other than provisioning services
Summary of the main issues, including capacity-building needs and information
gaps, as identified in chapters 3 to 8.
Part IV
Assessment of the cross-cutting issues: food security and
food safety
This part would draw substantially on assessments carried out by the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The aim would be to use the
work of FAO, not to duplicate it or challenge it.
Chapter 10
Oceans and seas as sources of food
Scale of human dependence on the oceans and seas for food and pressures of
increased demands, the variations between different parts of the world, and the
extent to which some parts of the world depend on other parts for fish and seafood
and the contribution of living marine resources to food security.
Chapter 11
Capture fisheries
11.A. Commercial fish and shellfish stocks: present status of fish and shellfish
stocks that are commercially exploited and factors affecting them, including fishing
practices — scale of economic activity (large-scale commercial, artisanal and
recreational e fishing).
11.B. Other fish and shellfish stocks: present status of fish and shellfish stocks
exploited by artisanal or subsistence fishing — significance for livelihoods —
present status of fish stocks not currently exploited.
11.C. Impacts of capture fisheries (large-scale commercial, artisanal and
subsistence fishing) on marine ecosystems, through effects on the food web, bycatch (fish, mammals, reptiles and seabirds), and different fishing gear and methods,
including the impact of discards on other wildlife, and impacts from lost or
abandoned fishing gear.
__________________
e
10
See also chapter 27 (Tourism and recreation) on recreational fishing.
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11.D. Effects of pollution on living marine resources: possible effects of chemical
and radioactive pollution on stocks of living marine resources used for food —
implications of potential threats of such pollution.
11.E. Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing f: scale, location and impacts on
fish stocks.
11.F. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspects g in relation to
capture fisheries.
11.G. Projections of the status of fish and shellfish stocks over the next decade in
the light of all relevant factors.
11.H. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in capture fisheries and to assess the
environmental, social and economic aspects of capture fisheries and the status and
trends of living marine resources.
Chapter 12
Aquaculture
12.A. Scale and distribution of aquaculture: locations of aquaculture activities —
species cultivated — economic significance and contribution to food security.
12.B. Aquaculture inputs and effects: demand for coastal space — demand for fish
meal from capture fisheries.
12.C. Pollution and contamination from aquaculture: use of chemicals —
interactions of escaped stock with wild stocks.
12.D. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
aquaculture.
12.E. Projections of the role of aquaculture over the next decade in the light of all
relevant factors.
12.F. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in aquaculture and to assess the
environmental, social and economic aspects of aquaculture.
Chapter 13
Fish stock propagation
13.A. Rebuilding depleted stocks through marine ranching and release of fish from
hatcheries.
13.B. Transplantation of living marine resources to different ecosystems.
13.C. Effects of artificial propagation on natural ecosystems.
13.D. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to fish
stock propagation.
13.E. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in fish stock propagation and to assess
the environmental, social and economic aspects of fish stock propagation.
__________________
f
g
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As defined in the FAO International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal,
Unreported and Unregulated Fishing.
The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment will not include any analysis of policies.
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Chapter 14
Seaweeds and other sea-based food
14.A. Scale, location of collection and significance of food derived from the oceans
and seas other than fish and shellfish — projected developments over the next
decade.
14.B. Potential impacts of collection of seaweed and other sea-based food.
14.C. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to the
collection of seaweeds and other sea-based food.
14.D. Identify gaps in capacity to assess the environmental, social and economic
aspects of seaweed and other sea-based food.
Chapter 15
Social and economic aspects of fisheries and sea-based food
15.A. Relationship with human health: health benefits and problems from seabased food, including the potential to supplement protein-poor diets — chemical,
toxic and bacterial contamination.
15.B. Scale and significance of employment in fisheries and aquaculture: numbers
employed — relationship of earnings to local median earnings — scale of injuries to
fishers compared to other industries.
15.C. Role of fisheries in social structure: role of fishers in local societies — extent
to which fishing is the sole source of livelihood — extent to which local societies
are dependent on fisheries and aquaculture.
15.D. Relationship between catch areas, ownership and operation of fishing vessels,
landing ports and consumption distribution: the benefits which States (and economic
operators based in them) obtain from fisheries and aquaculture.
15.E. Implementation of international fisheries agreements.
15.F. Effects of changes in markets: growth of long-distance transport of landed
fish and shellfish.
15.G. Links to other industries: scale of economic activity dependent on fisheries
and aquaculture, both in providing equipment (especially ships) and in processing
output in value chains.
15.H. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in fisheries and to assess the environmental,
social and economic aspects of fisheries.
Chapter 16
Conclusions on food security
16.A. Summary of the main issues, including capacity-building needs and
information gaps, identified in chapters 10 to 15.
16.B. Longer-term development of food from marine resources — impacts
climate change in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention
Climate Change and based on the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel
Climate Change — impacts of population changes — relation with changes
terrestrial food production.
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Part V
Assessment of other human activities and the marine environment
Chapter 17
Shipping
17.A. Significance of shipping in world trade: major shipping routes — amount of
world trade carried by sea — economic benefits to States from shipping activities,
including as flag States — projections of changes over the next decade, including
changes in shipping possibilities at high latitudes as a result of changes in ice cover.
17.B. Threats from shipping: locations, scale and trends — pollution from shipping
(covering all forms of pollution regulated by annexes I to VI to the International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, anti-fouling treatments and
noise) — the acoustic impact of shipping on marine organisms — shipping disasters,
including their longer-term effects — invasive species through ballast water and
other biosecurity risks — transport of ships for ship-breaking — risks to coastal
States from shipping compared to their trade.
17.C. Threats to the marine environment posed by the transport by sea of
hazardous and noxious substances and of radioactive substances.
17.D. Links to other industries and commerce: ship-building — ship-breaking —
bunkers — insurance, chartering and navigation services.
17.E. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
shipping.
17.F. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in shipping and to assess the
environmental, social and economic aspects of shipping, including implementation
of international conventions and other instruments.
Chapter 18
Ports
18.A. Scale and significance of port activities: locations and traffic — projected
growth, including the implications of changes in shipping routes considered under
issue 17.A — economic benefits to port States.
18.B. Impacts of the creation and maintenance of ports: scale of port development —
dredging for navigational purposes — management of ships’ waste, including effects
of charging regimes — pollution from ships in port — remobilization of pollutants
by dredging.
18.C. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to the
construction and management of ports.
18.D. Identify gaps in capacity to assess the environmental, social and economic
aspects of ports and monitoring their impact on the marine environment.
Chapter 19
Submarine cables and pipelines
19.A. Scale, location and role of cables and cable-laying: role in international
communications and the Internet — projected developments over the next decade —
employment — links to other industries — economic benefits.
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19.B. Potential pollution and physical harm from cables and pipelines — during
construction/installation — during use — after decommissioning.
19.C. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
pipelines and cables and pipeline and cable-laying.
19.D. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in cable-laying and pipeline installation
and to assess the environmental, social and economic aspects of cable-laying and
pipeline installation.
Chapter 20
Coastal, riverine and atmospheric inputs from land
20.A. Municipal wastewater, including the impact of major cities and of cruise
ships in harbours: scale and degree of treatment — nature of impact, both through
direct and riverine inputs and including impacts on microbiological quality of
coastal waters, as well as economic impacts of adverse effects on water quality,
especially on aquaculture and tourism — projected developments over the next
decade.
20.B. Industrial discharges, including point sources: hazardous substances,
including persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals — hydrocarbons —
nutrients — scale of discharges (direct and riverine inputs and atmospheric
transport) — degree of treatment — nature of impact, including impacts on human
health through food chain — projected developments over the next decade.
20.C. Agricultural run-off and emissions: scale (direct and riverine inputs and
atmospheric transport of nutrients) — nature of impact — projected developments
over the next decade.
20.D. Eutrophication: combined effects of municipal, industrial and agricultural
inputs (including algal blooms), considering also the effects of turbidity in coastal
waters and denitrification in estuaries — cross-reference to effects on fish stocks
and effects on the food web.
20.E. Inputs of radioactive substances from both nuclear and non-nuclear
industries — actual, potential and suspected impacts of inputs of radioactive
substances.
20.F. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
managing the impact of land-based inputs.
20.G. Identify gaps in capacity to assess the environmental, social and economic
aspects related to coastal, riverine and atmospheric inputs from land.
20.H. Scale of desalinization and its environmental impacts. Identify gaps in
capacity to engage in desalinization and to assess the environmental, social and
economic aspects of desalinization.
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Chapter 21
Offshore h hydrocarbon industries
21.A. Scale and significance of the offshore hydrocarbon industries and their social
and economic benefits.
21.B. Impacts from exploration, including seismic surveys and exploitation and
decommissioning.
21.C. Offshore installation disasters and their impacts, including longer-term
effects.
21.D. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
offshore hydrocarbon installations.
21.E. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in offshore hydrocarbon industries and to
assess the environmental, social and economic aspects of offshore hydrocarbon
industries.
Chapter 22
Other marine-based energy industries
22.A. Scale of wind, wave, ocean thermal and tidal power generation — current,
planned and forecast.
22.B. Environmental benefits and impacts of wind, wave, ocean thermal and tidal
power generation.
22.C. Expected economic performance of wind, wave, ocean thermal and tidal
power generation.
22.D. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
offshore wind, wave, ocean thermal and tidal power installations.
22.E. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in offshore wind, wave, ocean thermal
and tidal power generation and to assess the environmental, social and economic
aspects of offshore wind, wave, ocean thermal and tidal power generation.
Chapter 23
Offshore mining industries
23.A. Scale and significance of sand and gravel extraction: environmental impacts
of sand and gravel extraction.
23.B. Economic benefits of sand and gravel extraction.
23.C. Developments in other seabed mining: current state and potential scale.
23.D. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
offshore mining industries.
23.E. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in offshore mining and to assess the
environmental, social and economic aspects of offshore mining.
__________________
h
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“Offshore” in this chapter and the following two chapters covers all installations that are
situated in the marine environment, whether in internal waters or in maritime areas subject to
the sovereignty or jurisdiction of States.
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Chapter 24
Solid waste disposal
24.A. Types and amounts of waste dumped at sea, including explosives and
hazardous liquids and gases, and potential impacts on the marine environment —
projected levels of dumping over the next decade.
24.B. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
solid-waste dumping at sea.
24.C. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in solid-waste disposal at sea and to
assess the environmental, social and economic aspects of solid-waste disposal at sea.
Chapter 25
Marine debris
25.A. The multiple causes of marine debris, including lack of controls on landbased disposal of waste, lack of management of beach litter and ship-generated litter,
and the scale and distribution of the problem.
25.B. Approaches to combating marine debris — range of application — cases
where progress has been made.
25.C. Identify gaps in capacity to control marine debris and to assess the
environmental, social and economic aspects of marine debris.
Chapter 26
Land/sea physical interaction
26.A. Land reclamation: scale and location of land reclamation and habitat
modification and the habitats affected — significant environmental, economic
and/or social aspectsg in relation to land reclamation and habitat modification.
26.B. Erosion of land by the sea: economic and social costs of land erosion —
effects on marine and coastal habitats of coastal defences, including beaches and
fringing islands — implications for small island developing States — costs of
coastal defences — significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in
relation to erosion of land by the sea.
26.C. Sedimentation changes: sedimentation in the marine environment as a result
of land erosion by rainfall and rivers — decline in marine sedimentation as a result
of water management — effect of both types of change on marine and coastal habitats,
including estuaries, deltas, submarine canyons — significant environmental, economic
and/or social aspectsg in relation to control of the causes of sedimentation change.
26.D. Identify gaps in capacity to assess land/sea physical interaction.
Chapter 27
Tourism and recreation
27.A. Location and scale of tourism and recreation, including cruise ships:
employment — economic benefits of tourism — economic benefits resulting from
protecting marine biodiversity.
27.B. Recreational and sport fishing and its impact on marine wildlife.
27.C. Impacts of recreational and tourist vessels on sensitive sea areas.
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27.D. Contribution of tourism to problems of sewage and pollution, including from
cruise ships (see also heading 20A (Municipal wastewater).
27.E. Location and scale of other environmental impacts of tourism, including
habitat disturbance and destruction.
27.F. Relationship of tourism to protection of marine species and habitats (for
example, whale-watching and whale sanctuaries).
27.G. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
managing the environmental impacts of tourism on the marine environment.
27.H. Identify gaps in capacity to assess the interface of tourism and the marine
environment and the environmental, social and economic aspects of tourism.
Chapter 28
Desalinization
Scale of desalinization and its social and economic benefits. Identify gaps in capacity
to engage in desalinization and to assess the environmental, social and economic
aspects of desalinization.
Chapter 29
Use of marine genetic resources
29.A. Current topics, locations and scale of marine scientific research and exploitation,
including the uses being made of marine genetic resources and associated issues such
as intellectual property rights and impacts.
29.B. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg of marine scientific
research relating to, and exploitation of, marine genetic resources.
29.C. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in marine scientific research relating to,
and exploitation of, marine genetic resources and to assess the environmental, social
and economic aspects of them.
Chapter 30
Marine scientific research
30.A. Topics, scale and location of marine scientific research.
30.B. Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
marine scientific research.
30.C. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in marine scientific research and to assess
the environmental, social and economic aspects of marine scientific research,
including transfer of technology.
Chapter 31
Conclusions on other human activities
Summary of the linkages between driving forces related to human activities and the
state of the marine environment, having regard to the various types of pressure.
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Chapter 32
Capacity-building in relation to human activities affecting the marine environment
General conclusions on the identification of gaps in capacity to engage in the human
activities described above and to assess the environmental, social and economic
aspects of human activities affecting the marine environment.
Part VI
Assessment of marine biological diversity and habitats
Chapter 33
Introduction
The aim of this part is (a) to give an overview of marine biological diversity and
what is known about it; (b) to review the status and trends of, and threats to, marine
ecosystems, species and habitats that have been scientifically identified as
threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection; (c) to
review the significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to
the conservation of marine species and habitats; and (d) to identify gaps in capacity
to identify marine species and habitats that are identified as threatened, declining or
otherwise in need of special attention or protection and to assess the environmental,
social and economic aspects of the conservation of marine species and habitats.
Section A — Overview of marine biological diversity
Chapter 34
Scale of marine biological diversity
Main gradients of diversity for species, communities and habitats (coastal to abyssal,
equatorial to polar, substrate type, salinity).
Chapter 35
Extent of assessment of marine biological diversity
Proportion of major groups of species and habitats in the different marine regions
that are assessed on a systematic basis for status, trends and threats.
Chapter 36
Overall status of major groups of species and habitats
Summary, by major group and marine region, of the status, trends and threats,
including the cumulative effects of pressures, shown by those assessments.
Chapters 35 and 36 will be structured according to the following scheme:
a.
Coastal (intertidal and shallow water (<50m)) rock and biogenic habitats (for
example, kelp forests and shallow-water, tropical coral (and other biogenic) reefs)
b.
Coastal sediment habitats, including vegetated habitats (for example,
mangroves, salt marsh and other macro-vegetation areas and seagrass and eelgrass beds)
18
c.
Shelf rock (~50-200m) and biogenic reef habitats
d.
Shelf sediment habitats
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e.
Deep sea (bathyal and abyssal) habitats (for example, seamounts, deep-sea
banks and plateaus, hydrothermal vents and cold-water coral (and other biogenic)
reefs)
f.
Water column habitats
Species will be considered in relation to their related habitat (for example, pelagic
cephalopods in relation to oceanic water-column habitats).
Section B — Marine ecosystems, species and habitats scientifically identified as
threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection
This section will include marine ecosystems, processes, species and habitats
requiring special attention and will be structured in the light of the overview in
section A. The chapter headings below are indicative only.
Chapter 37
Coastal rock and biogenic habitats and related species
Chapter 38
Coastal sediment habitats and related species
Chapter 39
Shelf rock and biogenic reef habitats and related species
Chapter 40
Shelf sediment habitats and related species
Chapter 41
Deep sea habitats and related species
Chapter 42
Water column habitats and related species
These chapters will examine distribution, numbers, status and threats, including
cumulative pressures.
Section C — Environmental, economic and/or social aspects of the conservation
of marine species and habitats and capacity-building needs
Chapter 43
Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspects in relation to the
conservation of marine species and habitats
Significant environmental, economic and/or social aspectsg in relation to the
conservation of marine species and habitats.
Chapter 44
Capacity-building needs
Identification of gaps in capacity to identify marine species and habitats that are
identified as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or
protection and to assess the environmental, social and economic aspects of the
conservation of marine species and habitats.
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Section D — Summary on marine biological diversity
Chapter 45
Summary on marine biological diversity
Summary of the main issues, including capacity-building needs and information
gaps, identified in chapters 33 to 44.
Part VII
Overall assessment
Chapter 46
Overall assessment of human impact on the oceans
46.A. Consideration of the implications of cumulative pressures on the overall state
of the oceans and seas.
46.B. Evaluations under different methods of assessing overall human impact on
the oceans and seas.
Chapter 47
Overall value of the oceans to humans
Evaluations under different methods of the benefits accruing to humans from the
oceans, including assessment of the costs of environmental degradation.
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Appendix
Terminology
1.
Terminology used to describe the major features of the ocean basins and
linked seas
1.A. A short summary of the technical terms used to describe the main geological
features: enclosed and semi-enclosed seas — continental shelves and slopes —
mid-ocean ridges — seamounts — coral and other biogenic reefs — sedimentation —
major estuaries — fjord and ria areas — ocean canyons — coastal geological
structures, beaches, marine wetlands, mangroves and tidal flats.
1.B. A short summary of the technical terms used to describe the main features of
the water column: bodies of water — thermohaline circulation — the main ocean
currents — deep water formation (downwelling) and upwelling — stratification —
acidification — ice coverage.
2.
Legal concepts relating to the marine environment
This section would include quotations from the relevant parts of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea so that readers can see what is intended when
terms from that instrument are used.
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Annex III
Terms of reference and working methods for the Group of
Experts of the Regular Process for Global Reporting and
Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment,
including Socioeconomic Aspects
I.
Introduction
1.
In paragraph 180 of its resolution 64/71, the General Assembly requested the
Secretary-General to invite the Chairs of the regional groups to constitute a group of
experts, ensuring adequate expertise and geographical distribution, comprised of a
maximum of 25 experts and no more than 5 experts per regional group, for a period
up to and including the informal meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the
Whole to be held from 30 August to 3 September 2010.
2.
In its paragraph 209 of its resolution 65/37 A, the General Assembly decided
to establish a group of experts to be an integral part of the Regular Process and
requested the members of the Group of Experts, who had been appointed by
Member States pursuant to paragraph 180 of resolution 64/71, to continue serving
on the Group of Experts for the duration of the first phase of the first assessment
cycle, and encouraged regional groups that had not yet done so to appoint experts to
the Group of Experts in accordance with paragraph 180 of resolution 64/71.
3.
The present document, prepared by the secretariat of the Regular Process in
consultation with the Group of Experts, defines the terms of reference for the
experts appointed to, or to be appointed to, the Group of Experts.
II.
Terms of reference
4.
The general task of the Group of Experts shall be to carry out any assessments
within the framework of the Regular Process at the request of the General
Assembly a under the supervision of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole. In
particular, the tasks of the Group of Experts shall be:
(a) To draft an outline of questions to be considered in the main assessment
to be undertaken in each cycle of the Regular Process, for approval by the Ad Hoc
Working Group of the Whole;
(b) To provide specifications of the types of additional expertise that the
Group of Experts will need to carry out any assessment, as a basis for appointments,
through the regional groups, of members of the pool of experts;
(c) To designate from among its members a lead member and, as appropriate,
other members to take responsibility, under the overall responsibility of the Group
of Experts, for each part, section or chapter of any assessment subject to the
approval of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole or its bureau;
__________________
a
22
It is understood that to carry out any assessment the approval of the General Assembly is
required.
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(d) To propose assignments for approval by the Ad Hoc Working Group of
the Whole or its bureau of members of the pool of experts:
(i) To work with the designated lead member of the Group of Experts in
drafting working papers and/or draft chapters of any assessment;
(ii)
To review and comment on material produced for any assignment;
(e) To draft an implementation plan and timetable for every assessment, for
approval by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, and, if necessary, to propose
amendments to that plan and timetable for approval in the same way;
(f) To provide general guidance to all those involved in carrying out any
assessment based on the principles and documents approved by the General
Assembly; b
(g) To carry out the implementation plan in accordance with the timetable
and any such general guidance;
(h) To review all material produced for any assessment, to take such steps as
it considers necessary to assure the quality of data and information used in such
material, and to take any further steps necessary to bring the assessment to a
satisfactory conclusion, subject to the approval of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the
Whole if any such action would require expenditure from the trust fund for the
Regular Process;
(i) To propose arrangements for approval by the bureau for the peer review
of the draft output of any assessment;
(j) In the light of the comments from the peer review, to agree on a final text
of any assessment for submission through its bureau to the Ad Hoc Working Group
of the Whole, and to present that text to the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole;
(k) To promote networking among marine assessment processes and
individual experts;
(l) To perform any other tasks assigned to it by the Ad Hoc Working Group
of the Whole.
Composition
5.
The Group of Experts shall be composed as follows:
(a) The Group of Experts shall be composed of a maximum of 25 experts
and no more than 5 experts per regional group. Its composition shall reflect
geographic and gender balance;
(b) The composition shall ensure a mix of disciplinary expertise and involve
participants from all regions in order to take into account different regional
circumstances and experience. All of the main disciplines in the social, economic
and environmental sciences should be considered for inclusion;
(c) The experts may be drawn from any type of affiliation (e.g. Government,
non-governmental organization, intergovernmental organization, private sector,
academic and research institutions, holders of traditional knowledge);
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See resolutions 66/231, 65/37 A and 64/71.
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(d) The experts shall have experience and expertise in one or several of the
categories described in the collective profile of the Group of Experts;
(e) The experts shall have internationally recognized excellence in their field
or fields of expertise;
(f) The experts shall have demonstrated high-level participation in
international processes relevant to the marine environment;
(g) The experts shall have the ability to serve in an independent, personal
capacity.
Appointments
6.
Members of the Group of Experts shall be appointed in accordance with
resolution 65/37 A as follows:
(a) Members shall be nominated by the States Members of the United
Nations through the five regional groups (African States, Asia-Pacific States,
Eastern European States, Latin American and Caribbean States and Western
European and other States), with each regional group nominating up to five experts;
(b)
experts;
Nominations shall take account of the criteria for the appointment of
(c) Members shall be in a position to devote substantial amounts of time to
the work of the Regular Process;
(d) Membership shall be renewed at the start of each cycle of the Regular
Process. Existing members of the Group of Experts may be reappointed;
(e) An appointment to fill a vacancy occurring during a cycle may be made
at any time, but the appointment shall come to an end at the end of the cycle during
which it is made;
(f) The chair of a regional group shall inform the secretariat of the Regular
Process that the regional group has made an appointment to the Group of Experts.
The secretariat of the Regular Process shall issue a letter of confirmation of the
appointment to the expert and inform the coordinators of the Group of Experts
accordingly;
(g) If a member of the Group of Experts dies or resigns or for any other
cause can no longer perform his or her duties, another member appointed from the
same regional group shall serve for the remainder of the predecessor’s term;
(h) Members shall participate in the Group of Experts in their personal
capacity and not as a representative of a Government or of any authority external to
the United Nations.
Proprietary rights
7.
The United Nations shall be entitled to all property rights, including but not
limited to patents, copyrights and trademarks, with regard to material which bears a
direct relation to, or is made in consequence of, the services provided to the
Organization.
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Compensation
8.
Members of the Group of Experts shall not receive any honorarium, fee or
other remuneration from the United Nations for their participation in the Group of
Experts. Members from developing countries, in particular least developed countries,
small island developing States and landlocked developing States, will, subject to the
availability of resources, receive travel assistance to participate in the meetings to
be convened by the United Nations in conjunction with the work of the Group of
Experts.
Working methods
9.
The working methods of the Group of Experts shall be as follows:
(a) The Group of Experts may operate even if there are vacancies in its
composition;
(b) The Group of Experts shall designate two coordinators from among its
members, one from a developed country and one from a developing country. The
task of the coordinators shall be to take such actions as they jointly consider will
facilitate the discharge by the Group of Experts of the tasks which it has been given.
The Group of Experts may change the designation of the coordinators at any time;
(c) Communications between the Group of Experts, the secretariat of the
Regular Process and States shall be made through a secure website, as appropriate;
(d) The Group of Experts shall communicate with the Ad Hoc Working
Group of the Whole through the secretariat of the Regular Process and through
meetings convened by the secretariat of the Regular Process, within existing
resources;
(e) When needed and within existing resources, the Group of Experts may
meet to discuss areas of work which cannot be dealt with through electronic
meetings or other forms of electronic communication;
(f) The Group of Experts shall aim to work by consensus. Where consensus
cannot be achieved, the Group of Experts shall ensure that all divergent opinions are
appropriately reported in any draft, any proposal or any final text of any assessment.
Secretariat
10. The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, as part of its functions
as secretariat of the Regular Process, shall serve as the secretariat of the Group of
Experts.
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Annex IV
Revised draft timetable for the first global integrated
marine assessment of the Regular Process for Global
Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine
Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects
Date
A.
26
Action or event
Completed actions
August-September 2009
The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole considers the
“assessment of assessments”, agrees on the overall framework
for the Regular Process and the timing for the first cycle,
agrees on the need for more time and recommends the
appointment of an interim Group of Experts.
March 2010
The General Assembly endorses the overall framework and
timing of the first cycle, asks for States’ views on the
fundamental building blocks and arranges for a further
meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole and the
appointment of an interim Group of Experts.
June 2010
The interim Group of Experts provides suggestions on the
fundamental building blocks.
September 2010
The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole agrees on
modalities for implementing the Regular Process, including
capacity-building.
December 2010
The General Assembly approves the modalities for
implementing the Regular Process, establishes the Group of
Experts and asks them to provide options to achieve the
deadline of 2014.
February 2011
The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recognizes the need
for regional workshops and the appointment of a pool of
experts to support the Group of Experts and agrees on the
need for communication systems.
May 2011
The General Assembly approves the recommendations of the
Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole and requests it to meet
again in June 2011.
June 2011
The Group of Experts provides a preliminary inventory of
types of experts for workshops.
June 2011
The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole agrees on the
criteria for the appointment of experts, the guidelines for
workshops and the establishment of the bureau.
September 2011
A regional workshop for the South-East Pacific is held in
Santiago, Chile.
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Date
Action or event
December 2011
The General Assembly approves the criteria for the
appointment of experts, the guidelines for workshops and
arrangements for the bureau.
January 2012
The secretariat of the Regular Process issues call for
nomination of members of the pool of experts.
February 2012
A regional workshop for Eastern and South-Eastern Asian
Seas is held in Sanya, China.
B.
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Proposed actions
April 2012
At its third meeting, the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole
agrees on the terms of reference and methods of work for the
Group of Experts and the outline of the first global integrated
marine assessment.
April 2012
The Group of Experts meets to discuss methods of achieving
an integrated assessment and organization of drafting.
June 2012
A regional workshop for the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea,
the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea is held in Brussels.
July-August 2012
Regional workshops are held for the West Indian Ocean and
the South-West Pacific.
August-September 2012
A regional workshop is held for the wider Caribbean.
June-September 2012
Other regional workshops are held (if feasible).
February 2012-September 2012
Appointments by States of experts to the pool of experts based
on the criteria for the appointment of experts.
October 2012
Meeting of the Group of Experts (3-5 days) to (a) finalize
guidance to authors; (b) identify lead drafters for working
papers; and (c) identify teams of consultors for issues.
October or November 2012
Coordinators of the Group of Experts provide a briefing to
delegates on progress during the occasion of the informal
consultations on the draft resolution on oceans and the law of
the sea.
October-November 2012
Meeting of the bureau to consider the items proposed by the
Group of Experts.
November 2012-February 2013
Lead drafters prepare working papers.
March 2013 (and at other points,
if necessary)
The Group of Experts identifies needs for further
appointments of experts to the pool of experts.
March-April 2013
Consultors comment on working papers.
April-May 2013
Possible meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole.
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Date
Action or event
April-May 2013
Meeting of the Group of Experts (3 days) to review progress
and consider working papers in order to (a) find ways to fill
gaps and resolve contradictions; and (b) ensure an integrated
approach.
May-June 2013
Lead drafters revise working papers in the light of comments
from consultors and the Group of Experts.
June 2013
Meeting of the bureau (if necessary) to consider the outcome
of the meeting of the Group of Experts and to agree on
consequential actions.
April-August 2013 (and at other
points, if necessary)
States make further appointments to the pool of experts.
August 2013
Meeting of the Group of Experts (3 days) to (a) recommend
any necessary changes to the outline of the first global
integrated marine assessment in the light of comments on
working papers; (b) review progress (including the state of the
working papers and make any necessary adjustments);
(c) identify lead drafters for draft chapters; and (d) recommend
arrangements for peer review (all subject to approval of the
bureau).
September 2013
Meeting of the bureau to consider the outcome of the meeting
of the Group of Experts and to agree on consequential actions.
October-December 2013
Lead drafters prepare draft chapters.
October or November 2013
Coordinators of the Group of Experts to provide a briefing on
progress to delegates on the occasion of the informal
consultations on the draft resolution on oceans and the law of
the sea.
End December 2013
Completion of draft chapters by lead authors.
January-February 2014
Consultors comment on draft chapters.
February-March 2014
Lead authors revise draft chapters in the light of comments.
March-April 2014
Group of Experts prepares draft first global integrated marine
assessment.
April-May 2014
Possible meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole.
April-May 2014
Meeting of the Group of Experts (5-10 days) to complete the
draft first global integrated marine assessment.
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Date
Action or event
May 2014
The Group of Experts provides briefing on progress on the
occasion of the meeting of the Commission on Sustainable
Development (review phase) in its consideration of the oceans
and seas thematic cluster.
June-August 2014
Review of the draft first global integrated marine assessment
by States and peer reviewers.
September 2014
Meeting of the Group of Experts (5-10 days) to finalize the
first global integrated marine assessment.
October 2014
Copy-editing of the final text of the first global integrated
marine assessment.
End October 2014
Submission of the final text of the first global integrated
marine assessment by the Group of Experts to the secretariat
of the Regular Process.
October-December 2014
Translation of the summary and the first global integrated
marine assessment in all the official languages.
December 2014
Publication of the first global integrated marine assessment.
December 2014
Consideration of the summary by the bureau in preparation
for its consideration by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the
Whole.
February 2015
Consideration and adoption of the first global integrated
marine assessment by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the
Whole and related recommendations to the General Assembly.
May 2015
The Group of Experts provides a briefing on the first global
integrated marine assessment on the occasion of the meeting
of the Commission on Sustainable Development (policy
phase) in its consideration of the oceans and seas thematic
cluster.
Late autumn 2015
The General Assembly considers the first global integrated
marine assessment during its seventieth session.
Note: This draft timetable implies:
(a) Two possible meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole (2013 and 2014) before the first
global integrated marine assessment is finalized (December 2014). These meetings may not be needed if
decisions can be delegated to the bureau and delegations can take advantage of the briefings by the
Coordinators of the Group of Experts on the occasion of the informal consultations on the draft
resolution on oceans and the law of the sea;
(b) Five meetings of the Group of Experts of the Regular Process (in addition to the one planned in April
2012 in parallel to the third meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole): October 2012
(3-5 days), May 2013 (3 days), August 2013 (3 days), May 2014 (5-10 days) and September 2014
(5-10 days). Further meetings of the Group of Experts may be needed if the work cannot be completed in
the time available for these meetings.
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Annex V
Report on the preliminary inventory of capacity-building
for assessments
1.
In paragraph 204 of its resolution 66/231, the General Assembly requested the
Secretary-General to bring the preliminary inventory of existing opportunities and
arrangements for capacity-building for assessments (A/66/189, annex V, appendix I)
to the attention of Member States, heads of the specialized agencies, funds and
programmes of the United Nations and other relevant intergovernmental
organizations engaged in activities relating to capacity-building for assessment of
the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects, as well as
funding institutions, and invite their contribution to the preliminary inventory.
2.
On 3 January 2012, the secretariat of the Regular Process invited Member
States, heads of the specialized agencies, funds and programmes of the United
Nations and other relevant intergovernmental organizations, as well as funding
institutions, to contribute to the preliminary inventory. In response, contributions
were received from two Member States and 11 intergovernmental organizations and
bodies.
3.
These contributions have been reflected in the appendix to the present report,
which is to be read in conjunction with the above-mentioned preliminary inventory.
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Appendix
Contributions to the preliminary inventory of existing
opportunities and arrangements for capacity-building
for assessments
A.
States
China
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (IOC) Regional Training and Research Centre on Ocean Dynamics and
Climate
Recipient developing States
Mainly developing States of the Western Pacific region
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
Based at the First Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic
Administration of China, the Centre on Ocean Dynamics and
Climate is China’s first oceanic research and training centre
within the UNESCO framework. The objective of the Centre is to
enhance the regional research capacity and capability on ocean
dynamics, air-sea interactions, climate change and numerical
modelling through, among other means, regular training courses
in English once a year for approximately 15 to 20 junior
scientists and doctoral/master students mainly from developing
member States of the IOC Subcommission for the Western
Pacific. Further information is available at
www.fio.org.cn/english/training_center/index.htm.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Marine Sustainable Development Centre
Recipient developing States
APEC member States
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
Based at the Third Institute of Oceanography of the State
Oceanic Administration of China, the Centre aims at
strengthening exchanges and cooperation in marine policies,
economic, management, technology and other fields, including
through demonstration projects, to achieve sustainable growth in
the Asia-Pacific region.
World Meteorological Organization-IOC Regional Marine Instrument Centre for the Asia-Pacific
Region
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Recipient developing States
Developing States from the region
Form of assistance
Regional
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Area of assistance
Based at the National Centre of Ocean Standards and Metrology
of Tianjin, China, the Centre forms part of a network of regional
marine instrument centres established to provide (a) facilities for
the calibration and maintenance of marine instruments and the
monitoring of instrument performance; (b) assistance with regard
to comparisons among instruments; and (c) appropriate training
facilities. The goal of regional marine instrument centres is to
facilitate adherence of observational data and metadata and
processed observational products to higher level standards for
instruments and methods of observation. Further information is
available at http://www.ioc-cd.org/.
China regional centre for the Western Pacific region, International Ocean Institute
Recipient developing States
Developing States of the region
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
Based at the National Marine Data and Information Service
Centre of China, the centre aims at exploring effective training
modes for capacity-building in the field of integrated ocean
management.
Requests for information should be directed to
[email protected]
Coastal Sustainable Development Training Centre
Recipient developing States
Developing countries in the South-East Asian region
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
The Centre aims at meeting domestic or overseas trainees’ needs
for the enhancement of sustainable development awareness and
integrated coastal management skills, as well as training
requirements for coastal management capacity-building.
Information is available at http://icsd.xmu.edu.cn/en-ctc/.
Norway
Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries-Nansen Programme
32
Recipient developing States
All, with an early emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa
Form of assistance
Global
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Area of assistance
The objectives of the Programme are to apprise partners of
procedures and methods for assessment and monitoring of key
ecosystem properties, including the development of standardized
data collection, sampling methods and appropriate set of
scientific indicators; to increase capacity at scientific and
management level on the ecosystem approach to marine
fisheries; to provide advice on the use of national or regional
research vessels, including coordinated coverage by local or
other vessels; and to assist in project planning and dissemination
of information.
In sub-Saharan Africa the project supports the 32 States that are
parties to the four large marine ecosystem projects. States may
request the use of a research vessel to undertake specific surveys
for example of fish stocks and environmental status in connection
with offshore petroleum activities. The user contributes $10,000
per day to the vessel operating costs (approximately one third of
the total operating costs).
Further information is available at www.eaf-nansen.org/nansen/en.
Climate effects on marine biodiversity in the Benguela Current
Recipient developing States
Angola, Namibia, South Africa
Forms of assistance
Regional/national
Area of assistance
Based on data collected through the Nansen Programme together
with other relevant data, the project aims at identifying and
describing possible trends and variability in ocean climate and
corresponding changes in marine biodiversity and fisheries in the
Benguela current system. The project is supported by the
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.
Implementation of the Benguela Current Commission Science Programme
Recipient developing States
Angola, Namibia, South Africa
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
The Benguela Current Commission is mandated to implement an
ecosystem approach to the management of natural resources,
such as fish and shellfish, in the Benguela Current.
Environmental concerns form the basis of the Commission’s
work. Norway provides funding for its science programme,
which aims to provide the best available scientific advice for
regional management of the Benguela Current.
Institutional cooperation on shrimp resources management
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Recipient developing States
Mozambique
Form of assistance
National technical assistance
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A/67/87
Area of assistance
B.
Technical assistance and management advice for shrimp
assessments are carried out by the Fisheries Research Institute in
Mozambique. Information is available at www.imr.no/en.
International funding institutions and intergovernmental
organizations, programmes, funds and specialized agencies
Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
General Science Capacity Special Fund
Recipient developing States
Member States of the Commission
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
The Commission awards scholarships to assist early career
scientists to participate in the work of its Scientific Committee
and its working groups. Scholarships are normally awarded
annually; however, the frequency of awards depends upon
scientific priorities and funding. The objective of the Fund is to
contribute to building capacity within the Commission’s
scientific community to generate the scientific expertise required
to support the Commission in the long term. Scholarships of up
to 30,000 Australian dollars over a period of two years are
available to cover travel, accommodation and subsistence at
Scientific Committee workshops or working group meetings,
relevant preparatory meetings and special meetings of the
Scientific Committee. Scholarships are open to scientists from
member States of the Commission. Preference is given to early
career scientists who have not previously, or routinely,
participated in Commission working groups and are actively
seeking to participate in the scientific work of the Commission .
Although candidates are sought from all member States,
particular preference is given to early career scientists from
developing countries and those from countries having received
low numbers of scholarships in past years.
Opportunities for scholarships are advertised by member States,
particularly in their scientific institutions, and by observers to the
Commission, in early June each year. The deadline for
application is mid-September.
Information relating to the Fund is available from
[email protected]
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Strengthening fisheries associations and women’s access to productive tools (FAO regular
programme)
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Global
Area of assistance
Strengthening local and national institutions and fishers’
associations relevant to fisheries governance for improved
performance and management, through effective and gendersensitive stakeholder participation, especially for small-scale
fisheries. Specific activities involve (a) expert, civil society
organizations and fishers’ consultations (global level); (b) global
case studies on capacity-building needs and assessments;
(c) development of a capacity development programme to
promote the strengthening of associations and women’s access to
productive tools and to assist member countries to foster
appropriate policies enabling fishers’ associations to operate
effectively (subject to funding).
Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (Helsinki Commission)
Project on Reduction of the Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea Today
Recipient developing States
States of the Baltic Sea region
Form of assistance
Regional project funded by the European Union
Area of assistance
The project aims at combating eutrophication by improving
municipal wastewater treatment with technical studies and
concrete investments and by increasing human competence. In
particular, in the field of capacity-building, the project aims at
increasing the competence of operating staff of the wastewater
treatment plants, plant designers and trainers of future
wastewater engineers. This goal is being reached through a series
of courses on modern wastewater treatment and showcasing of
practical examples of reconstruction projects in their different
stages. The Technical University of Berlin is the responsible
partner for organizing the courses.
Information is available at www.prestobalticsea.eu/.
Environmental monitoring of the Black Sea with focus on nutrient pollution (Baltic2Black)
2011-2013
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Recipient developing States
States of the Baltic Sea and Black Sea regions
Form of assistance
Regional project funded by the European Union
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A/67/87
Area of assistance
This three-year project funded by the European Commission
aims to promote measures to facilitate the delivery by the Black
Sea Commission of integrated regional monitoring and
assessment products, with focus on nutrient pollution and
eutrophication, through the transfer of existing best practices
from other regions, in particular the Baltic Sea. The project is
implemented jointly by the Black Sea Commission and the
Helsinki Commission.
Information is available at www.blacksea-commission.org/_
projects_Baltic2Black.asp and www.helcom.fi/projects/on_
going/en_GB/Baltic2Black/.
Project on Control of Hazardous Substances in the Baltic Sea Region
Recipient developing States
States of the Baltic Sea region
Form of assistance
Regional project funded by the European Union
Area of assistance
One vital goal of the project is to build capacity and transfer
knowledge in some countries of the Baltic Sea region by bridging
the experiences from the experts and harmonizing the
understanding of hazard concepts into international level. Series
of training and awareness-raising sessions have been arranged for
authorities and industries. Information is available at
www.helcom.fi/projects/on_going/en_GB/cohiba/.
Balthazar project 2009-2012
Recipient developing States
Russian Federation
Form of assistance
Regional project funded by the European Union
Area of assistance
The project focuses, inter alia, on capacity-building in
monitoring and assessment, contributing to the harmonization of
the assessment methods in the whole Baltic Sea region in order to
have comparable and reliable results for assessments and
evaluation of sources for hazardous substances as well as
nutrients. Information is available at www.helcom.fi/projects/
on_going/balthazar/en_GB/BALTHAZAR/.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Environment Laboratories
IAEA analytical quality control services
36
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Global
12-34218
A/67/87
Area of assistance
The IAEA Environment Laboratories have been assisting
national and regional laboratory networks through the provision
of analytical quality control services for the analysis of
radionuclides, trace elements and organic compounds in marine
samples since the early 1970s. The Laboratories’ activities
include training in analytical techniques and quality of
measurement data, global inter-laboratory studies, regional
proficiency tests, production and provision of certified reference
materials and metrology in chemistry. One major task of the
Laboratories is to produce matrix reference and certified
reference materials of marine origin. a
IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Global
Area of assistance
The IAEA Environment Laboratories provide support to member
States’ capacity-building through national, regional and
interregional technical cooperation projects and training
programmes implemented in the framework of the IAEA
Technical Cooperation Programme. Between 2009 and 2011 the
IAEA Environment Laboratories have hosted and/or organized
regional courses for over 450 participants.
The courses involve hands-on field and laboratory work, lectures
and online learning. Training modules for courses of 15-40
participants are available for sampling and basic analytical
techniques, advanced analytical techniques and quality of
measurement data, experimental tracer applications to ecosystem
and environmental studies, pollution assessment, risk assessment.
Information relating to the programme is available at
http://tc.iaea.org/tcweb/tcprogramme/default.asp.
IAEA coordinated research programmes
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Global
Area of assistance
Coordinated research programmes are developed by IAEA in
relation to a well-defined research topic on which a certain
number of institutions are invited to collaborate with a view to
bringing together researchers from developing and industrialized
countries to address issues of common interest. Information is
available at www-crp.iaea.org/.
__________________
a
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IAEA provides reference materials to laboratories worldwide to assist them in increasing the quality
of the results they obtain by nuclear analytical techniques. For a list of reference materials
distributed by the Agency, see http://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/ReferenceProducts/About/index.htm.
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International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas b
Data fund of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
The fund was created to support training in data collection and
participation in data preparation and stock assessment sessions of
the Standing Committee on Research and Statistics for scientists
who are nationals of Contracting Parties with insufficient
capacity to meet data collection, quality assurance and reporting
obligations. The fund is open to voluntary contributions from
Contracting Parties.
Meeting participation fund of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
The special meeting participation fund was established in 2011
for the purpose of helping representatives of developing State
Contracting Parties to attend and/or contribute to the work of the
Commission and other subsidiary bodies.
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
Training programme of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Global
Area of assistance
The Council has developed a training programme in response to
the need for strengthening capacity-building for the next
generation of scientists working on human activities affecting
marine ecosystems. In the first three years, 14 courses have been
offered in a wide variety of skills, including stock assessment
(introductory and advanced), ecosystem modelling, model
building, management strategy evaluation, Bayesan inference,
fisheries advice, trawl survey design and evaluation and
integrated ecosystem assessment. Nearly 400 students from over
30 countries have attended the courses.
Information on the courses offered in 2012 and other aspects of
the programme is available at
www.ices.dk/iceswork/training/training.asp.
__________________
b
38
While the Commission’s funds are not specifically aimed at capacity-building for assessments of
the state of the marine environment, they are used, inter alia, to assist scientists through meeting
participation, training courses and workshops which enhance their ability for stock assessments
of species under the Commission’s mandate.
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International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
Capacity-building work programme
Recipient developing States
All
Forms of assistance
Global/regional
Area of assistance
Capacity-building within IHO is organized on a regional basis
through 15 regional hydrographic commissions and the
Hydrographic Commission on Antarctica. The programme
includes seminars, workshops, technical visits and any other
actions directed to development purposes. The programme does
not consider any individual proposal that is not presented through
the corresponding regional hydrographic commission.
Information on the types of training provided by IHO is available
at www.iho.int/srv1/.
IHO Special Publication C-47 (2010), Training Courses in Hydrography and Nautical Cartography
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Publication
Area of assistance
The publication provides a compilation of all training
opportunities offered by various institutions in the two
disciplines. It can be downloaded at no cost from the IHO
website at www.iho.int/iho_pubs/CB/C47E-SEPT09-UPDATEDAPRIL11.pdf.
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (IOC)
IOC programme on integrated coastal and ocean management
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
Training course for coastal/ocean management authorities on the
development of indicator frameworks (environmental,
socioeconomic, governance) for marine assessments and
ocean/coastal planning. A regional course is organized regularly
(once a year). Travel/accommodation support is provided to
participants. Contact: [email protected]
International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange — OceanTeacher Academy
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Recipient developing States
All
Forms of assistance
Global/regional
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Area of assistance
OceanTeacher Academy offers a range of training courses, all of
them freely available on www.oceanteacher.org, and includes a
digital library. Sessions of the courses are recorded and the
videos made available through Vimeo (http://vimeo.com/iode).
All courses are taught in English, except for regional courses
which may be organized in the local language (usually French or
Spanish). Eligibility for sponsorship (either full or partial)
depends on the development status of the applicant’s country and
possibility of co-sponsorship by the candidate’s home
organization. An endorsement letter from the candidate’s home
organization is mandatory in case of full sponsorship.
Contacts: [email protected] and
[email protected]
Ocean data and information networks
Recipient developing States
All
Forms of assistance
Global/regional
Area of assistance
Ocean data and information networks have been established for
Africa (www.odinafrica.org), the Caribbean and Latin America
(www.odincarsa.org), the Western Pacific region
(www.odinwestpac.org), Eastern Europe
(http://odinecet.iode.org), small island States in the Pacific
(www.pimrisportal.org), and the Black Sea region
(www.odinblacksea.org). The projects are self-driven by
participating countries. Some focus on both ocean data
management and information (library) management, whereas
others focus solely on library management. Eligibility is limited
to participating member States. Contact: [email protected]
IOC Identification Qualification in Harmful Marine Microalgae (University of Copenhagen)
Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Global
Area of assistance
Monitoring and assessment of marine phytoplankton and harmful
algal events. The four-week training course includes online
learning (OceanTeacher) and examination for professionals and
technicians.
Information is available at www.ioc-unesco.org/hab/.
Caribbean Marine Atlas
40
Recipient developing States
Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint
Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands
Form of assistance
Regional
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Area of assistance
The purpose of the project is to identify, collect and organize
available geo-spatial data sets into an atlas of environmental
themes for the Caribbean region as a support service to the
sustainable development and integrated management of marine
and coastal areas in the region. Information is available at
www.caribbeanmarineatlas.net/. Contacts:
[email protected] and [email protected]
Project entitled “People for ecosystem-based governance in assessing sustainable development of
ocean and coast”
Recipient developing States
All
Forms of assistance
Regional project funded by the European Union
Area of assistance
IOC is one of the 24 partners involved in the project, which aims,
inter alia, at refining and further developing efficient and easy-touse tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal
zone (indicators, accounting methods, models and scenarios),
which will be tested and validated at a number of pilot sites in
the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.
Information is available at www.pegasoproject.eu/. The project
coordinator is Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona. Contact:
[email protected]
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Greening Development: Enhancing Capacity for Environmental Management and Governance,
OECD Publishing, 2012
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Recipient developing States
All
Form of assistance
Publication
Area of assistance
The publication outlines steps to be considered when building
capacity for greening national development planning, national
budgetary processes and key economic sector strategies. It
identifies the key actors to be engaged in the decision-making
processes, outlines possible capacity needs and suggests how
these can be addressed. The policy guidance provided in the
publication is intended to support developing countries in their
efforts to move to a greener development path. It is also intended
to assist development cooperation and environment agencies in
their efforts to support that process. The publication can be
downloaded at no cost at www.oecd-ilibrary.org/books.
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C.
Regional organizations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
Regional project on the analysis of the impact of climate change on the coasts of Latin America
and the Caribbean
Recipient developing States
States of the region
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
The project has been jointly developed with the University of
Cantabria, Spain, and the Government of Spain. The results of
the research are revealed in six documents, the first of which is
available in Spanish at www.cepal.org/publicaciones/
xml/2/45542/W.447.pdf. The remaining documents and a
website with a database will be made available during 2012.
In 2011, a regional workshop was organized and attended by
national officers of the Iberoamerican Network of Offices of
Climate Change and international experts, who discussed the
application of methodologies of assessment and the use of
databases to identify the impacts of climate change and
adaptation on the coasts of Latin America and the Caribbean.
For 2012, another workshop will be offered on the same subject
matter. The development of a case study in one country of the
region is under consideration.
Organization of American States
ReefFix: an integrated coastal zone management coral reef and mangrove restoration, watershed
management and capacity-building demonstration project for the Caribbean
Recipient developing States
Small island developing States of the Caribbean region
Form of assistance
Regional
Area of assistance
ReefFix, supported by the Government of Chile, aims at
improving the understanding and management of the region’s
coastal and marine resources through restoration demonstration
and capacity-building activities. Its methodology has already
been applied to nine case study sites in the Caribbean, followed
by a workshop.
Information is available at www.oas.org/dsd/IABIN/
Component1/ReefFix/ReefFix.htm.
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