EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition in Modules) David Myers

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Classical Conditioning
Module 18
1
2
What is Learning???
Learning is defined as a
relatively permanent change in
behavior or knowledge that
occurs as a result of experience.
3
One type of learning is:
Classical Conditioning
aka
Associative Learning
Conditioning = Learning
5
Classical Conditioning
Sovfoto
It was the Russian physiologist
Ivan Pavlov who elucidated
classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
6
Classical Conditioning is
learning that takes place when
an originally neutral stimulus
comes to produce a conditioned
response because of its
association with an
unconditioned stimulus.
7
Apparatus for Measuring
Conditioned Responses
8
Pavlov’s Experiments
Before conditioning, food
(Unconditioned Stimulus, US)
produces salivation (Unconditioned
Response, UR).
However, the tone (neutral stimulus)
does not.
9
Pavlov’s Experiments
During conditioning, the neutral stimulus
(tone) and the US (food) are paired,
resulting in salivation (UR). After
conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now
Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation
(now Conditioned Response, CR)
10
11
12
13
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
• Any stimulus that creates an
autonomic/automatic/reflexive
response in an organism
• Bright light (pupil contraction)
• Food (salivation)
• Puff of air (eye blink)
14
Unconditioned Response (UR)
• A UR can be any unlearned response that can
be elicited from an organism.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Heart rate increasing
Sweat
Vomit/nausea
Tears
Salivating
Blinking
15
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
• An originally irrelevant stimulus that
after association with unconditioned
stimuli triggers a conditioned
response.
• Bell
• Light
• Odor
16
Conditioned Response (CR)
• The learned response to a
previously neutral (but now
conditioned) stimulus.
• The UCR/UR is ALWAYS the same
as the CR
17
Diagram of Classical Conditioning
Unlearned S-R
UCS
UCR
+ (association formed/pairing made)
CS
CR
Learned S-R
18
Following are a number of
examples you need to understand
how CR, CS, UCR and UCS
interact but you do not have to
write every example!
19
Pavlov’s Dog Example of CC
Unlearned S-R
UCS
UCR
Food presented
dog salivating
+ (association formed/pairing made)
Tone
CS
dog salivating
CR
Learned S-R
20
Example of Classical Conditioning
Unlearned S-R
UCS
Flu Bug
+ (association formed/pairing made)
UCR
vomiting
Food
CS
vomiting
CR
Learned S-R
21
Example of Classical Conditioning
Unlearned S-R
UCS
Sadness over breakup
+ (association formed/pairing made)
UCR
crying
Song that meant a lot to relationship
CS
Learned S-R
crying
CR
22
Example of Classical Conditioning
Unlearned S-R
UCS
UCR
No food/low blood sugar
hunger pains
+ (association formed/pairing made)
Clock/particular time
CS
Learned S-R
hunger pains
CR
23
24
25
Acquisition
The initial learning stage in classical
conditioning in which an association
between a neutral stimulus and an
unconditioned stimulus takes place.
1. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the
neutral stimulus needs to come before the
unconditioned stimulus.
2. The time in between the two stimuli should
be about half a second. One must reliably
predict the other.
26
Acquisition
27
Extinction
When the US (food) does not follow the
CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to
decrease and eventually causes extinction.
A disappeared
CR is called
extinguished,
not extinct.
28
Spontaneous Recovery
After a rest period, an extinguished CR
(salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if
the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR
becomes extinct again.
29
Stimulus Generalization
Tendency to respond
to stimuli similar to
the CS is called
generalization.
30
Another example of Stimulus
Generalization
31
Stimulus Discrimination
Discrimination is the ability to
distinguish between a conditioned
stimulus and other stimuli that do not
signal an unconditioned stimulus.
32
Cognitive Processes
Early behaviorists believed that learned
behaviors of various animals could be
reduced to mindless mechanisms.
However, later behaviorists suggested that
animals learn the predictability of a stimulus,
meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a
stimulus (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972).
The more predictable the association the
stronger the CR
33
Biological Predispositions
Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of
learning were similar for all animals.
Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ
in their learning.
However, behaviorists later suggested that
learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.
Animals are predisposed to learn
things that enhance survival.
34
Biological Predispositions
• John Garcia
Conditioned taste aversions
• Not all neutral stimuli can become
conditioned stimuli.
• Internal stimuli—associate better with taste
• External stimuli—associate better with pain
• Biological preparedness
35
Pavlov’s Legacy
Because of Pavlov
learning is studied
objectively
Classical
conditioning is a
way that all
organisms learn to
adapt
Ivan Pavlov
(1849-1936)
38
Example Applications of Classical
Conditioning
1. Former crack cocaine users should avoid
cues (people, places) associated with
previous drug use.
2. Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus
its taste) that affects the immune response
may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the
immune response. (Ader 1985)
39
Following are a number of
examples, you need to understand
how conditioning can be applied
but you do not have to write every
example! (pay close attention to
little Albert though)
40
Behaviorism: The Founder
 John B. Watson
 viewed psychology as
objective science
 recommended study of
behavior without
reference to
unobservable mental
processes
41
Conditional Training:
Albert and Peter
Conditioned fear
experiments such as
Albert’s experience
would never occur
today because due
to ethical standards.
42
Watson & Raynor with Little Albert
43
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner:
Hypothesis, Methodology, Results
• Conditioned fear into
an infant
• Presented a rat
immediately followed
by a loud noise,
startling the baby
• After a few tries,
Albert was afraid of
the rat
• Albert generalized his
fears to other furry
objects
+
=
44
Remember that Little Albert
generalized his fear of rats into
fear of anything with white fur,
including a Santa Claus mask, a
rabbit, etc.
45
46
Little Albert Example of CC
Unlearned S-R
UCS
UCR
Loud Noise
fear/crying
+ (association formed/pairing made)
Rat or Rabbit
CS
fear/crying
CR
Learned S-R
47
Little Albert – John Watson
48
Mary Cover Jones
Mary Cover Jones used an
early form of desensitization
to prove that fears (phobias)
could be unlearned.
Peter, a young boy, had an extreme
fear of rabbits. Jones gave Peter his
favorite food while slowly bringing the
rabbit closer and closer. Eventually
Peter no longer panicked around
rabbits.
49
Mary Cover Jones
• Colleague of Watson
• Deconditioned 3-year-old Peter from his
fears by gradually moving a rabbit (and
other things) closer to him while he was
eating…SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATON
DAY 1
DAY 2
DAY 3
50
Advertising
• Many beer ads prominently feature
attractive young women wearing bikinis.
The young women (Unconditioned
Stimulus) naturally elicit a favorable, mildly
aroused feeling (Unconditioned Response)
in most men. The beer is associated with
this effect.
51
Crime reaction
• When a prof. was in college he was robbed at gun
point by a young man who gave him the Choice ("Your
money or your life.") It was an unexpected and
frightening experience. This event occurred just about
dusk and for a long time thereafter, he often
experienced moments of dread in the late afternoons
particularly when he was just walking around the city.
Even though he was quite safe, the lengthening
shadows of the day were so strongly associated with
the fear he experienced in the robbery, that he could
not but help feel the emotion again.
52
An Auntie
• I liked my aunt, she always made me feel
warm and wanted. She always wore a
particular perfume. When I smell the
perfume now, I immediately feel warm and
wanted.
53
A cat example
• In order to be able to punish my cat even when
I'm not near enough to reach him, I have paired
the sound of a clicker with getting squirted with
water. Now the sound of the clicker causes him
to startle.
• The click is developing the same aversive
properties as the water through Classical
Conditioning. The Unconditioned stimulus is the
water; the Unconditioned response is the "jump"
as in startle. The click starts our as a neutral
stimulus, but becomes the Conditioned stimulus
capable of producing the Conditioned "jump"
response.
54
The smell of fresh bread baking
makes my mouth water.
• In the past the smell of the fresh bread
immediately preceded putting a piece in
my mouth, which causes salivation.
Through the mechanism of Classical
conditioning the smell itself comes to elicit
salivation.
55
After the bad car accident we had last
year, I cringe and break into a sweat at
the sound of squealing brakes.
• This is Classical conditioning. The
cringing, which is an unconditioned
response to pain or fear, was produced by
the accident and its accompanying pain.
That accident was probably preceded by
the sound of squealing brakes, which
became a conditioned stimulus for the
conditioned response of cringing.
56
Alcoholics
• Another way to treat alcoholics is to have
them take a drug called anabuse. If they
ingest any alcohol at all, the will have
serious vomiting issues. The desire is to
pair the vomiting with the alcoholic drink.
57
• Anna learns to blink when she sees her
father hold the camera to his eye.
• US
• UR
• CS
• CR
58
• Mark has to get a shot once a week at the
doctor's office. The shots are somewhat painful,
and are administered by a nurse. Mark cringes
every time the nurse inserts the needle into his
arm. After a couple of weeks, Mark finds that he
is tense the minute the nurse walks in the room
to give him the shot
•
•
•
•
US
UR
CS
CR
59
• Rita was in a car accident on the interstate. She
did not get seriously injured but the accident
terrified her. Now she avoids the interstate,
because driving on it makes her too tense and
nervous.
•
•
•
•
US
UR
CS
CR
60
"fear of bridges"
-Fear of bridges might develop from a
variety of sources. For example, while a
child rides in a car over a dilapidated bridge,
his father makes jokes about the bridge
collapsing and all of them falling into the
river below. The father finds this funny and
so decides to do it whenever they cross the
bridge. Years later, the child has grown up
and now is afraid to drive over any bridge. In
this case, the fear of one bridge generalized
to all bridges which now evoke fear.
61
Advertising - modern advertising strategies
evolved from John Watson's use of
conditioning. The approach is to link an
attractive US with a CS (the product being
sold) so the consumer will feel positively
toward the product just like they do with the
US.
62
EXPLORING
PSYCHOLOGY
(7th Edition in Modules)
David Myers
PowerPoint Slides
Aneeq Ahmad, Amy Jones and
Schallhorn with Garber edits
Henderson State University
63
Worth Publishers, © 2008
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