1.2.5.A Analog and Digital Signals

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Jireh Alberto
Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals
Introduction
Even though this is a course in digital electronics, it is important to understand that the world
around us is analog. Virtually everything that can be designed with digital electronics is used
to either control or monitor something in the world around us, and this world is analog. Thus,
to be an effective designer of digital electronics, it is important for you to understand the
characteristics of both analog and digital signals.
In this activity you will examine several analog and digital signals to determine their
amplitude, period, and frequency. Additionally, you will gain experience using the
oscilloscope within the Circuit Design Software (CDS).
Equipment



Paper & pencil
Circuit Design Software (CDS)
Calculator
Procedure
1. For each of the two analog signals shown below, determine their amplitude (peak),
© 2009 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
DE Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals – Page 1
amplitude (peak-peak), period (T), and frequency (F). Be sure to put your answer in
proper engineering notation and use the correct units.
Amp(peak):7.5v
Amp (peak-peak):15v
Period:500ms
Frequency:2 Hz
Amp(peak):2v
Amp (peak-peak):4v
Period:1000 ms
Frequency:1 Hz
Note: Why isn’t the above signal considered a digital signal?
© 2009 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
DE Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals – Page 2
2. For each of the two digital signals shown below, determine the amplitude, period (T),
frequency (F), time high (tH), time low (tL), and duty cycle (DC). Be sure to put your
answer in proper engineering notation and use the correct units.
Amplitude:5v
Period:400 ms
Frequency:2.5 ms
Time High:3s
Time Low:3s
Duty Cycle:60%
Amplitude:5v
Period:1250ms
Frequency:2.5ms
Time High:5s
Time Low:18s
Duty Cycle:10%
© 2009 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
DE Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals – Page 3
3. Using the Circuit Design Software (CDS), enter the test circuit shown below. This
circuit consists of a CLOCK_VOLTAGE, a DC_POWER (battery) and two 5v LAMPS.
This circuit doesn’t really do much of anything useful other than make the two lamps
flash, but we will be using it to gain experience using the oscilloscope to measure
signals.
a) Open the CLOCK_VOLTAGE component by double clicking on it and set the
frequency, duty cycle, and voltage to 20 Hz, 10%, and 5 volts.
b) Likewise, open the DC_POWER and set the voltage to 5 volts.
c) Finally, connect the OSCILLOSCOPE to the positive side of the
CLOCK_VOLTAGE component.
d) Start the simulation. Are the lamps flashing? Does the flashing rate make sense for
the frequency and duty cycle of the CLOCK_VOLTAGE? If not, review your setup
and make any necessary corrections.
e) Now that the circuit is working, use the oscilloscope to measure the signal being
generated by the CLOCK_VOLTAGE. Use the markers to measure the period, time
high, and time low. Use this data to calculate the frequency and duty cycle of the
signal.
f) Do the measured (and calculated) values match those set up in the
CLOCK_VOLTAGE device? If not, review your measurements and make any
necessary corrections.
© 2009 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
DE Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals – Page 4
Conclusion
1. List the characteristic that makes a digital signal different from an analog signal.
Digital signals are much easier to store than analog signals and are much less
prone to degradation.
2. In the diagram shown below, label the parts of the analog signal.
A. Amplitude(Peak to peak)
B. Amplitude(peak)
C. Period
3. In the diagram shown below, label the parts of the digital signal.
A. Amplitude
B. Time high
C. Period
D. Time low
E. Rising edge
F. Falling edge
© 2009 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
DE Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals – Page 5
4. What are the two standard voltage levels that are acceptable for a digital signal?
Logic High and logic low
© 2009 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
DE Activity 1.2.5 Analog and Digital Signals – Page 6
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